人类世

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模板:Human history

The Anthropocene (模板:IPAc-en 模板:Respell)[1][2][3]模板:Failed verification is a proposed geological epoch dating from the commencement of significant human impact on Earth's geology and ecosystems, including, but not limited to, anthropogenic climate change.[4][5][6][7][8]

The Anthropocene ( ) is a proposed geological epoch dating from the commencement of significant human impact on Earth's geology and ecosystems, including, but not limited to, anthropogenic climate change.

人类世 Anthropocene[1][2][3]是最新被提议建立的一个地质学年代 ,其开端可以追溯到人类对地球的地质和生态系统产生重大影响伊始,所谓的重大影响包括但不限于人类活动造成的气候变化。[4][5][6][7][8]

模板:As of, neither the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) nor the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) has officially approved the term as a recognised subdivision of geologic time,[9][10] although the Anthropocene Working Group (AWG) of the Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (SQS) of the ICS voted in April 2016 to proceed towards a formal golden spike (GSSP) proposal to define the Anthropocene epoch in the geologic time scale (GTS) and presented the recommendation to the International Geological Congress in August 2016.[11] In May 2019, the AWG voted in favour of submitting a formal proposal to the ICS by 2021,[12] locating potential stratigraphic markers to the mid-twentieth century of the common era.[13][12][14] This time period coincides with the start of the Great Acceleration, a post-WWII time period during which socioeconomic and Earth system trends increase at a dramatic rate,[15] and the Atomic Age.

As of December 2021, neither the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) nor the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) has officially approved the term as a recognised subdivision of geologic time, although the Anthropocene Working Group (AWG) of the Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (SQS) of the ICS voted in April 2016 to proceed towards a formal golden spike (GSSP) proposal to define the Anthropocene epoch in the geologic time scale (GTS) and presented the recommendation to the International Geological Congress in August 2016. In May 2019, the AWG voted in favour of submitting a formal proposal to the ICS by 2021, locating potential stratigraphic markers to the mid-twentieth century of the common era. This time period coincides with the start of the Great Acceleration, a post-WWII time period during which socioeconomic and Earth system trends increase at a dramatic rate, and the Atomic Age.

尽管早在2016年4月,国际地层委员会 International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS)第四纪地层学分会 Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (SQS)人类世工作组Anthropocene Working Group (AWG) 就投票通过推进正式的“金钉子 Golden Spike (GSSP)”提案将人类世加入到地质年代表 Geologic Time Scale (GTS)中,并且在同年8月将这一提议递交国际地质大会 International Geological Congress[11]但截止2021年12月,无论是国际地层委员会还是国际地质科学联合会 International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS)都没有正式批准人类世成为新的地质年代。[9][10]2019年5月,人类世工作组投票通过在2021年之前向国际地层委员会提交一份正式提案,希望可以将潜在的地层学标志定位于20世纪中叶。[13][12][14]这一时期恰逢原子能时代 Atomic Age降临与二战后大加速 Great Acceleration开启,此间社会经济和地球系统的趋势以惊人的速率增长。[15]

Various start dates for the Anthropocene have been proposed, ranging from the beginning of the Agricultural Revolution 12,000–15,000 years ago, to as recently as the 1960s. The ratification process is still ongoing, and thus a date remains to be decided definitively, but the peak in radionuclides fallout consequential to atomic bomb testing during the 1950s has been more favoured than others, locating a possible beginning of the Anthropocene to the detonation of the first atomic bomb in 1945, or the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963.[12]

Various start dates for the Anthropocene have been proposed, ranging from the beginning of the Agricultural Revolution 12,000–15,000 years ago, to as recently as the 1960s. The ratification process is still ongoing, and thus a date remains to be decided definitively, but the peak in radionuclides fallout consequential to atomic bomb testing during the 1950s has been more favoured than others, locating a possible beginning of the Anthropocene to the detonation of the first atomic bomb in 1945, or the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963.

人类世的开始时间众说纷纭,范围覆盖12,000-15,000年前的农业革命 Agricultural Revolution伊始,到20世纪60年代。尽管相关批准审核工作仍在进行之中,具体日期有待确定,但20世纪50年代原子弹试验所导致的放射性核素沉降物的峰值使得该时段作为人类世的起始比其他年份更受认可,人类世可能会始于1945年第一颗原子弹爆炸,或1963年《部分禁止核试验条约》(Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty)[12]

General 概述

An early concept for the Anthropocene was the Noosphere by Vladimir Vernadsky, who in 1938 wrote of "scientific thought as a geological force".[16] Scientists in the Soviet Union appear to have used the term "anthropocene" as early as the 1960s to refer to the Quaternary, the most recent geological period.[17] Ecologist Eugene F. Stoermer subsequently used "anthropocene" with a different sense in the 1980s[18] and the term was widely popularised in 2000 by atmospheric chemist Paul J. Crutzen,[19] who regards the influence of human behavior on Earth's atmosphere in recent centuries as so significant as to constitute a new geological epoch.

An early concept for the Anthropocene was the Noosphere by Vladimir Vernadsky, who in 1938 wrote of "scientific thought as a geological force". Scientists in the Soviet Union appear to have used the term "anthropocene" as early as the 1960s to refer to the Quaternary, the most recent geological period. Ecologist Eugene F. Stoermer subsequently used "anthropocene" with a different sense in the 1980s and the term was widely popularised in 2000 by atmospheric chemist Paul J. Crutzen, who regards the influence of human behavior on Earth's atmosphere in recent centuries as so significant as to constitute a new geological epoch.

早期人类世的概念来自由前苏联生物地球化学家弗拉基米尔·沃尔纳德斯基 Vladimir Vernadsky提出的人类圈 Noosphere,他在1938年写道“科学思想是一种地质力量”。[16]前苏联的科学家早在20世纪60年代就使用了“人类世”一词来指代第四纪,即最近的一段地质时期。[17]随后在20世纪80年代,生态学家尤金·F·斯特尔默 Eugene F. Stoermer赋予“人类世”一词不同的含义,[18]并且在2000年由大气化学家保罗·J·克鲁岑 Paul J. Crutzen[19]推广开来,后者认为近几个世纪人类行为对地球大气层的影响是如此重要,以至于形成了一个新的地质时期。

In 2008, the Stratigraphy Commission of the Geological Society of London considered a proposal to make the Anthropocene a formal unit of geological epoch divisions.[6][20] A majority of the commission decided the proposal had merit and should be examined further. Independent working groups of scientists from various geological societies have begun to determine whether the Anthropocene will be formally accepted into the Geological Time Scale.[21]

In 2008, the Stratigraphy Commission of the Geological Society of London considered a proposal to make the Anthropocene a formal unit of geological epoch divisions. A majority of the commission decided the proposal had merit and should be examined further. Independent working groups of scientists from various geological societies have begun to determine whether the Anthropocene will be formally accepted into the Geological Time Scale.

2008年,伦敦地质学会 Geological Society of London地层委员会考虑了一项提案,将人类世作为地质年代中一个正式单元。[6][20]委员会大多数成员认为这项提案有可取之处,并应当进一步考察。之后来自不同地质学会的科学家组成了独立工作小组开始商定人类世是否可以被正式纳入地质年代表。[21]

模板:Quote box

The term "anthropocene" is informally used in scientific contexts.[22] The Geological Society of America entitled its 2011 annual meeting: Archean to Anthropocene: The past is the key to the future.[23] The new epoch has no agreed start-date, but one proposal, based on atmospheric evidence, is to fix the start with the Industrial Revolution c. 1780, with the invention of the steam engine.[20][24] Other scientists link the new term to earlier events, such as the rise of agriculture and the Neolithic Revolution (around 12,000 years BP). Evidence of relative human impact – such as the growing human influence on land use, ecosystems, biodiversity, and species extinction – is substantial; scientists think that human impact has significantly changed (or halted) the growth of biodiversity.[25][26][27][28][29] Those arguing for earlier dates posit that the proposed Anthropocene may have begun as early as 14,000–15,000 years BP, based on geologic evidence; this has led other scientists to suggest that "the onset of the Anthropocene should be extended back many thousand years";[30]:1 this would make the Anthropocene essentially synonymous with the current term, Holocene.

The term "anthropocene" is informally used in scientific contexts. The Geological Society of America entitled its 2011 annual meeting: Archean to Anthropocene: The past is the key to the future. The new epoch has no agreed start-date, but one proposal, based on atmospheric evidence, is to fix the start with the Industrial Revolution c. 1780, with the invention of the steam engine. Other scientists link the new term to earlier events, such as the rise of agriculture and the Neolithic Revolution (around 12,000 years BP). Evidence of relative human impact – such as the growing human influence on land use, ecosystems, biodiversity, and species extinction – is substantial; scientists think that human impact has significantly changed (or halted) the growth of biodiversity. Those arguing for earlier dates posit that the proposed Anthropocene may have begun as early as 14,000–15,000 years BP, based on geologic evidence; this has led other scientists to suggest that "the onset of the Anthropocene should be extended back many thousand years"; this would make the Anthropocene essentially synonymous with the current term, Holocene.

“人类世”一词虽然未被正式承认,但在科学语境中已然使用开来。[22]美国地质学会 The Geological Society of America将其2011年年会主题设为: 从太古代 Archean到人类世: 过去是通向未来的钥匙。[23]人们对这一新纪元的开端莫衷一是,但基于大气的证据支持以1780年蒸汽机发明驱动的工业革命为人类世的发轫。[20][24]也有科学家将人类世的出现与更早期的地质事件联系起来,比如公元前约12000年农业和新石器革命 Neolithic Revolution的兴起。人类对土地利用、生态系统、生物多样性和物种灭绝的影响越来越大,比比皆是;科学家们认为人类对生物多样性的影响已经显著地改变(或中断)了生物多样性的增长。[25][26][27][28][29]主张人类世更早开启的人们认为,根据地质学证据,人类世可能早在公元前14000年至15000年就已经开始了,这使得其他科学家提出,“人类世的开端应该可以追溯到几千年前”; [30]这将使人类世基本上与现在的全新世 Holocene同义。

文件:Trinity Test Fireball 16ms.jpg
The Trinity test in July 1945 has been proposed as the start of the Anthropocene.

In January 2015, 26 of the 38 members of the International Anthropocene Working Group published a paper suggesting the Trinity test on 16 July 1945 as the starting point of the proposed new epoch.[31] However, a significant minority supports one of several alternative dates.[31] A March 2015 report suggested either 1610 or 1964 as the beginning of the Anthropocene.[32] Other scholars point to the diachronous character of the physical strata of the Anthropocene, arguing that onset and impact are spread out over time, not reducible to a single instant or date of start.[33]

In January 2015, 26 of the 38 members of the International Anthropocene Working Group published a paper suggesting the Trinity test on 16 July 1945 as the starting point of the proposed new epoch. However, a significant minority supports one of several alternative dates. A March 2015 report suggested either 1610 or 1964 as the beginning of the Anthropocene. Other scholars point to the diachronous character of the physical strata of the Anthropocene, arguing that onset and impact are spread out over time, not reducible to a single instant or date of start.

2015年1月,国际人类世工作组38名成员中的26人联名发表了一篇论文,建议将1945年7月16日——代号“三位一体”的人类首次核试验的时间作为拟议中新纪元起点。[31]然而,相当一部分人支持其余几个不同的日期方案。[31]2015年3月的一份报告指出,人类世的开始要在1610年或者1964年中二选一。[32]另外有学者指出人类世的地层分布具有的穿时性 Diachronism,因此他们认为人类世的发端和影响随着时间的推移而扩展,不能简单归结到某一个具体开始时间。[33]

A January 2016 report on the climatic, biological, and geochemical signatures of human activity in sediments and ice cores suggested the era since the mid-20th century should be recognised as a geological epoch distinct from the Holocene.[34]

A January 2016 report on the climatic, biological, and geochemical signatures of human activity in sediments and ice cores suggested the era since the mid-20th century should be recognised as a geological epoch distinct from the Holocene.

2016年1月,一份关于人类活动记录在沉积物和冰芯中的气候、生物和地球化学特征报告指出,20世纪中期以来的时代应该被认为是有别于全新世的地质时期。[34]

The Anthropocene Working Group met in Oslo in April 2016 to consolidate evidence supporting the argument for the Anthropocene as a true geologic epoch.[35] Evidence was evaluated and the group voted to recommend "Anthropocene" as the new geological epoch in August 2016.[11] Should the International Commission on Stratigraphy approve the recommendation, the proposal to adopt the term will have to be ratified by the IUGS before its formal adoption as part of the geologic time scale.[36]

The Anthropocene Working Group met in Oslo in April 2016 to consolidate evidence supporting the argument for the Anthropocene as a true geologic epoch. Evidence was evaluated and the group voted to recommend "Anthropocene" as the new geological epoch in August 2016. Should the International Commission on Stratigraphy approve the recommendation, the proposal to adopt the term will have to be ratified by the IUGS before its formal adoption as part of the geologic time scale.

人类世工作组于2016年4月在奥斯陆举行会议,夯实相关证据,以支持将人类世作为一个真正的地质时代。[35]通过对已有证据进行评估,该工作组于2016年8月投票推荐“人类世”作为新的地质年代。[11]即使国际地层委员会批准了这项建议,人类世还必须得到国际地质科学联合会的批准才能正式成为地质年代大家族的成员。[36]

In April 2019, the Anthropocene Working Group announced that they would vote on a formal proposal to the International Commission on Stratigraphy, to continue the process started at the 2016 meeting.[14] In May 2019, 29 members of the 34 person AWG panel voted in favour of an official proposal to be made by 2021. The AWG also voted with 29 votes in favour of a starting date in the mid 20th century. Ten candidate sites for a Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point have been identified, one of which will be chosen to be included in the final proposal.[12][13] Possible markers include microplastics, heavy metals, or the radioactive nuclei left by tests from thermonuclear weapons.[37]

In April 2019, the Anthropocene Working Group announced that they would vote on a formal proposal to the International Commission on Stratigraphy, to continue the process started at the 2016 meeting. In May 2019, 29 members of the 34 person AWG panel voted in favour of an official proposal to be made by 2021. The AWG also voted with 29 votes in favour of a starting date in the mid 20th century. Ten candidate sites for a Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point have been identified, one of which will be chosen to be included in the final proposal. Possible markers include microplastics, heavy metals, or the radioactive nuclei left by tests from thermonuclear weapons.

2019年4月,人类世工作组宣布,他们将对一项向国际地层委员会提交的正式提案进行投票,以推进在2016年会议上启动的进程。[14]2019年5月,人类世工作组34人小组的29名成员投票赞成在2021年之前提出正式提案。工作组也以29票赞成20世纪中期作为人类世开始日期。工作组已经拟定了10个地点,作为国际界线层型剖面和点位 Global boundary Stratotype Section and Point候选(即金钉子剖面),其中之一将入选最终的提案。[12][13]地层中可能的标志物包括塑料微粒、重金属或热核武器试验留下的放射性核子。

Etymology 词源

The name Anthropocene is a combination of anthropo- from the Ancient Greek 脚本错误:没有“lang”这个模块。 (模板:Transl) meaning 'human' and -cene from 脚本错误:没有“lang”这个模块。 (模板:Transl) meaning 'new' or 'recent'.[38][39]

The name Anthropocene is a combination of anthropo- from the Ancient Greek ἄνθρωπος (anthropos) meaning 'human' and -cene from καινός (kainos) meaning 'new' or 'recent'., .

人类世一词由anthropo-与-cene组合而来,这两部分来源于古希腊语 ἄνθρωπος (anthropos) ,意即“人类”,καινός (kainos)意思是“新的”或“最近的”。

As early as 1873, the Italian geologist Antonio Stoppani acknowledged the increasing power and effect of humanity on the Earth's systems and referred to an 'anthropozoic era'.[40]

As early as 1873, the Italian geologist Antonio Stoppani acknowledged the increasing power and effect of humanity on the Earth's systems and referred to an 'anthropozoic era'.

早在1873年,意大利地质学家安东尼奥 · 斯托帕尼 Antonio Stoppani就认识到了人类对地球系统日益增长的力量和影响,并开始使用“人类时代”表述相应的地质历史时期。[40]

Although the biologist Eugene F. Stoermer is often credited with coining the term anthropocene, it was in informal use in the mid-1970s[citation needed]. Paul J. Crutzen is credited with independently re-inventing and popularising it. Stoermer wrote, "I began using the term 'anthropocene' in the 1980s, but never formalised it until Paul contacted me."[41] Crutzen has explained, "I was at a conference where someone said something about the Holocene. I suddenly thought this was wrong. The world has changed too much. So I said: 'No, we are in the Anthropocene.' I just made up the word on the spur of the moment. Everyone was shocked. But it seems to have stuck."[42]:21[43] In 2008, Zalasiewicz suggested in GSA Today that an anthropocene epoch is now appropriate.[20]

Although the biologist Eugene F. Stoermer is often credited with coining the term anthropocene, it was in informal use in the mid-1970s. Paul J. Crutzen is credited with independently re-inventing and popularising it. Stoermer wrote, "I began using the term 'anthropocene' in the 1980s, but never formalised it until Paul contacted me." Crutzen has explained, "I was at a conference where someone said something about the Holocene. I suddenly thought this was wrong. The world has changed too much. So I said: 'No, we are in the Anthropocene.' I just made up the word on the spur of the moment. Everyone was shocked. But it seems to have stuck." In 2008, Zalasiewicz suggested in GSA Today that an anthropocene epoch is now appropriate.

虽然生物学家尤金 · F · 斯托默经常被认为是“人类世”一词的创造者,但在20世纪70年代中期,“人类世”这个词就已经在非正式语境中使用。保罗 · 克鲁岑被认为是独立地重新发明并普及了它。斯托默写道,“我从20世纪80年代开始使用‘人类世’一词,但直到保罗联系我之前,我从未正式确定这个词。”[41]克鲁岑解释说: “在一次会议上,有人谈到了全新世。我突然觉得这样不对。世界变化太大了。所以我说: ‘不,我们身处人类世。当时我只是一时冲动编出这个词。在场每个人都很震惊。但这似乎已经成为现实。”[42][43]2008年,扎拉斯维奇 Zalasiewicz《今日美国地质学会》GSA Today 中写道,现在提出人类世时代是合适的。[20]

Nature of human effects 人类影响的本质

Homogenocene 均新世

Homogenocene (from old Greek: homo-, same; geno-, kind; kainos-, new;) is a more specific term used to define our current epoch, in which biodiversity is diminishing and biogeography and ecosystems around the globe seem more and more similar to one another mainly due to invasive species that have been introduced around the globe either on purpose (crops, livestock) or inadvertently. This is due to the newfound globalism that humans participate in, as species traveling across the world to another region was not as easily possible in any point of time in history as it is today.[44]

Homogenocene (from old Greek: homo-, same; geno-, kind; kainos-, new;) is a more specific term used to define our current epoch, in which biodiversity is diminishing and biogeography and ecosystems around the globe seem more and more similar to one another mainly due to invasive species that have been introduced around the globe either on purpose (crops, livestock) or inadvertently. This is due to the newfound globalism that humans participate in, as species traveling across the world to another region was not as easily possible in any point of time in history as it is today.Crawley MJ. 1989. Chance and timing in biological invasions. In: Drake JA, Mooney HJ, DiCastri F, et al. (Eds). Biological invasions: a global perspective. Chichester, UK: John Wiley.

均新世一词来自古希腊语: homo意为“一样的,均一的”; geno意为“类别,种类”; kainos意为“新的,最近的”;这是一个更加具体地用来定义我们当下时代的术语。在这个时代里,主要由于有意(作物,牲畜)或无意地在全球范围内形成相互的物种入侵,全球生物多样性正在减少,生物地理和生态系统似乎越来越相似。得益于人类大力推动全球化过程,物种跨越全球传播变得史无前例的易如反掌。[44]

The term Homogenocene was first used by Michael Samways in his editorial article in the Journal of Insect Conservation from 1999 titled "Translocating fauna to foreign lands: Here comes the Homogenocene."[45]

The term Homogenocene was first used by Michael Samways in his editorial article in the Journal of Insect Conservation from 1999 titled "Translocating fauna to foreign lands: Here comes the Homogenocene."

1999年,迈克尔 · 桑姆维斯 Michael Samways《昆虫保护杂志》Journal of Insect Conservation上发表了一篇名为《动物开启奇幻漂流: 均新世来临》的社论文章,首次使用了“均新世”一词。[45]

The term was used again by John L. Curnutt in the year 2000 in Ecology, in a short list titled "A Guide to the Homogenocene",[46] which reviewed Alien species in North America and Hawaii: impacts on natural ecosystems by George Cox. Charles C. Mann, in his acclaimed book 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created, gives a bird's-eye view of the mechanisms and ongoing implications of the homogenocene.[47]

The term was used again by John L. Curnutt in the year 2000 in Ecology, in a short list titled "A Guide to the Homogenocene", which reviewed Alien species in North America and Hawaii: impacts on natural ecosystems by George Cox. Charles C. Mann, in his acclaimed book 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created, gives a bird's-eye view of the mechanisms and ongoing implications of the homogenocene.

2000年,约翰 · L · 科纳特 John L. Curnutt《生态学》Ecology 杂志上又一次使用了该词。他在一份名为《均新世指南》的小册子中概括了乔治 · 考克斯 George Cox的论述:北美和夏威夷的外来物种: 对自然生态系统的影响。查尔斯 · C · 曼恩 Charles C. Mann在他广受赞誉的著作《1493: 揭秘哥伦布创造的新世界》中,鸟瞰了均新世的机制和持续的影响。[47]

Biodiversity 生物多样性

文件:Flii globe.png
Forest Landscape Integrity Index showing anthropogenic modification of remaining forest.[48]

The human impact on biodiversity forms one of the primary attributes of the Anthropocene.[49] Humankind has entered what is sometimes called the Earth's sixth major extinction.[50][51][52][53][54] Most experts agree that human activities have accelerated the rate of species extinction.[27][55] The exact rate remains controversial – perhaps 100 to 1000 times the normal background rate of extinction.[56][57] A 2010 study found that

marine phytoplankton – the vast range of tiny algae species accounting for roughly half of Earth's total photosynthetic biomass – has declined substantially in the world's oceans over the past century. From 1950 alone, algal biomass decreased by around 40%, probably in response to ocean warming[58]

– and that the decline had gathered pace in recent years.[58] Some authors have postulated that without human impacts the biodiversity of the planet would continue to grow at an exponential rate.[25]

The human impact on biodiversity forms one of the primary attributes of the Anthropocene. Humankind has entered what is sometimes called the Earth's sixth major extinction. Most experts agree that human activities have accelerated the rate of species extinction. The exact rate remains controversial – perhaps 100 to 1000 times the normal background rate of extinction. A 2010 study found that marine phytoplankton – the vast range of tiny algae species accounting for roughly half of Earth's total photosynthetic biomass – has declined substantially in the world's oceans over the past century. From 1950 alone, algal biomass decreased by around 40%, probably in response to ocean warming – and that the decline had gathered pace in recent years. Some authors have postulated that without human impacts the biodiversity of the planet would continue to grow at an exponential rate.

人类对生物多样性的影响是人类世的主要特征之一。[49]人类已经进入了有时被称为地球上第六次大灭绝的时期。[50][51][52][53][54]大多数专家认为人类活动加快了物种灭绝的速度。[27][55]准确的灭绝速率仍然存在争议——可能是正常情况下灭绝速率的100到1000倍。[56][57]2010年的一项研究发现,海洋浮游植物——占地球总光合作用生物量大约一半的各种微小藻类——在过去的一个世纪里大幅减少。仅从1950年开始,藻类生物量就减少了约40% ,这可能是由于海洋变暖,[58]而且减少的步伐在近年来已经加快。部分学者认为,本来如果没有人类的影响,地球上的生物多样性将继续以指数级速度增长。

Increases in global rates of extinction have been elevated above background rates since at least 1500, and appear to have accelerated in the 19th century and further since.[5] A New York Times op-ed on 13 July 2012 by ecologist Roger Bradbury predicted the end of biodiversity for the oceans, labelling coral reefs doomed: "Coral reefs will be the first, but certainly not the last, major ecosystem to succumb to the Anthropocene."[59] This op-ed quickly generated much discussion among conservationists; The Nature Conservancy rebutted Bradbury on its website, defending its position of protecting coral reefs despite continued human impacts causing reef declines.[60]

Increases in global rates of extinction have been elevated above background rates since at least 1500, and appear to have accelerated in the 19th century and further since. A New York Times op-ed on 13 July 2012 by ecologist Roger Bradbury predicted the end of biodiversity for the oceans, labelling coral reefs doomed: "Coral reefs will be the first, but certainly not the last, major ecosystem to succumb to the Anthropocene." This op-ed quickly generated much discussion among conservationists; The Nature Conservancy rebutted Bradbury on its website, defending its position of protecting coral reefs despite continued human impacts causing reef declines.

至少从1500年以来,全球灭绝率已经上升超过了背景速率,并且似乎在步入19世纪之后不断加速。[5]2012年7月13日,生态学家罗杰 · 布拉德伯里 Roger Bradbury在《纽约时报》的一篇专栏文章中预测,以珊瑚礁的灭亡为标志的海洋生物多样性终结已经注定: “珊瑚礁将是第一个,但肯定不是最后一个屈服于人类世的主要生态系统。”[59]这篇专栏文章很快在自然资源保护者中引起了广泛的讨论; 美国自然保育协会 The Nature Conservancy在其网站上驳斥了布拉德伯里的观点:尽管人类的持续影响导致了珊瑚礁的减少,但他们仍然坚持保护珊瑚礁的立场。

In a pair of studies published in 2015, extrapolation from observed extinction of Hawaiian snails of the family Amastridae, led to the conclusion that "the biodiversity crisis is real", and that 7% of all species on Earth may have disappeared already.[61][62] Human predation was noted as being unique in the history of life on Earth as being a globally distributed 'superpredator', with predation of the adults of other apex predators and with widespread impact on food webs worldwide.[63] A study published in May 2017 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences noted that a "biological annihilation" akin to a sixth mass extinction event is underway as a result of anthropogenic causes. The study suggested that as much as 50% of animal individuals that once lived on Earth are already extinct.[64][65] A different study published in PNAS in May 2018 says that since the dawn of human civilization, 83% of wild mammals have disappeared. Today, livestock makes up 60% of the biomass of all mammals on earth, followed by humans (36%) and wild mammals (4%).[66][67] According to the 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by IPBES, 25% of plant and animal species are threatened with extinction.[68][69][70] According to the World Wildlife Fund's 2020 Living Planet Report, 68% of wildlife populations have declined between 1970 and 2016 as a result of overconsumption, population growth and intensive farming, and the report asserts that "the findings are clear. Our relationship with nature is broken."[71][72] However, a 2020 study, by Leung et. al. including Maria Dornelas, disputed the findings of the Living Planet Report, finding that the 68% decline number was being influenced down by a very small amount extreme outliers and when these were not included, the decline was less steep, or even stable if other outliers were not included.[73] A 2021 paper published in Frontiers in Conservation Science, which cites both of the aforementioned studies, says "population sizes of vertebrate species that have been monitored across years have declined by an average of 68% over the last five decades, with certain population clusters in extreme decline, thus presaging the imminent extinction of their species."[74] According to the 2021 Economics of Biodiversity review, written by Partha Dasgupta and published by the UK government, "biodiversity is declining faster than at any time in human history."[75][76] A 2022 scientific review published in Biological Reviews confirms that an anthropogenic sixth mass extinction event is currently underway.[77][78]

In a pair of studies published in 2015, extrapolation from observed extinction of Hawaiian snails of the family Amastridae, led to the conclusion that "the biodiversity crisis is real", and that 7% of all species on Earth may have disappeared already. Human predation was noted as being unique in the history of life on Earth as being a globally distributed 'superpredator', with predation of the adults of other apex predators and with widespread impact on food webs worldwide. A study published in May 2017 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences noted that a "biological annihilation" akin to a sixth mass extinction event is underway as a result of anthropogenic causes. The study suggested that as much as 50% of animal individuals that once lived on Earth are already extinct. A different study published in PNAS in May 2018 says that since the dawn of human civilization, 83% of wild mammals have disappeared. Today, livestock makes up 60% of the biomass of all mammals on earth, followed by humans (36%) and wild mammals (4%). According to the 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by IPBES, 25% of plant and animal species are threatened with extinction. According to the World Wildlife Fund's 2020 Living Planet Report, 68% of wildlife populations have declined between 1970 and 2016 as a result of overconsumption, population growth and intensive farming, and the report asserts that "the findings are clear. Our relationship with nature is broken." However, a 2020 study, by Leung et. al. including Maria Dornelas, disputed the findings of the Living Planet Report, finding that the 68% decline number was being influenced down by a very small amount extreme outliers and when these were not included, the decline was less steep, or even stable if other outliers were not included. A 2021 paper published in Frontiers in Conservation Science, which cites both of the aforementioned studies, says "population sizes of vertebrate species that have been monitored across years have declined by an average of 68% over the last five decades, with certain population clusters in extreme decline, thus presaging the imminent extinction of their species." According to the 2021 Economics of Biodiversity review, written by Partha Dasgupta and published by the UK government, "biodiversity is declining faster than at any time in human history." A 2022 scientific review published in Biological Reviews confirms that an anthropogenic sixth mass extinction event is currently underway.

在2015年发表的两项研究中,从观察到的同纹螺科 Amastridae夏威夷蜗牛的灭绝情况推断出结论:“生物多样性危机是真实存在的”,地球上所有物种的7%或可能已经消失。[61][62]人类的捕食行为在地球生命史上是独一无二的,我们是广布全球的“超级捕食者”,猎杀着其他顶级捕食者的成年群体,对全世界的食物网产生广泛的影响。[63]2017年5月发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS)上的一项研究指出,由于人类活动,一场类似于第六次大规模灭绝事件的“生物毁灭”正在发生。这项研究表明,多达50%的曾经生活在地球上的动物个体已经灭绝。.[64][65]2018年5月发表在PNAS上的另一项研究表明,自人类文明开始以来,83%的野生哺乳动物已经消失。如今,牲畜占地球上所有哺乳动物生物量的60% ,其次是人类(36%)和野生哺乳动物(4%)。[66][67]根据生物多样性和生态系统服务政府间科学政策平台(IPBES)—2019年全球生物多样性和生态系统服务评估报告,25%的动植物物种面临灭绝的威胁。[68][69][70]根据世界野生动物基金会2020年地球生命报告 Living Planet Report,在1970年到2016年间,由于过度消费、人口增长和集约化农业,68%的野生动物数量已经下降。报告称“研究结果很明确:我们与自然的关系已经破裂。”[71][72]然而,包括梁 Leung玛利亚·多内拉斯 Maria Dornelas在内的研究人员人在2020年进行的一项研究表明:地球生命报告中68%的下降数字受到了极少数极端异常值的影响,当这些异常值不包括在内时,下降幅度就不会那么大,甚至在不包括其他异常值的情况下,整体数值会比较稳定。[73]2021年发表在《保护科学前沿》Frontiers in Conservation Science上的一篇论文引用了上述两项研究,称“在过去50年里,监测发现脊椎动物物种的种群规模平均下降了68% ,某些种群数量急剧下降,因此预示着这些物种即将灭绝。”[79]2021年,根据由帕尔塔 · 达斯古普塔 Partha Dasgupta撰写,并由英国政府发表在《生物多样性经济学》Economics of Biodiversity 的评论:“目前生物多样性下降的速度比人类历史上任何时候都要快。”[75][76]2022年发表在《生物学评论》Biological Reviews上的一篇科学综述确认:“人为的”第六次大规模灭绝事件目前正在发生。[77][78]

Biogeography and nocturnality 生物地理与夜间活动变迁

Permanent changes in the distribution of organisms from human influence will become identifiable in the geologic record. Researchers have documented the movement of many species into regions formerly too cold for them, often at rates faster than initially expected.[80] This has occurred in part as a result of changing climate, but also in response to farming and fishing, and to the accidental introduction of non-native species to new areas through global travel.[5] The ecosystem of the entire Black Sea may have changed during the last 2000 years as a result of nutrient and silica input from eroding deforested lands along the Danube River.[81][82]


Permanent changes in the distribution of organisms from human influence will become identifiable in the geologic record. Researchers have documented the movement of many species into regions formerly too cold for them, often at rates faster than initially expected. This has occurred in part as a result of changing climate, but also in response to farming and fishing, and to the accidental introduction of non-native species to new areas through global travel. The ecosystem of the entire Black Sea may have changed during the last 2000 years as a result of nutrient and silica input from eroding deforested lands along the Danube River.

在地质记录中,由于人类的影响而产生的生物分布永久性变化清晰可见。研究人员记录的情况表明:许多物种迁移到以前对它们来说过于寒冷的地区,而其速度往往比最初预期的要快。[80]出现这种情况的部分原因是气候变化,但也有农业和渔业活动的因素,以及通过全球旅行将外来物种意外引入本地区。[5]整个黑海的生态系统在过去2000年中可能已经发生了变化,这是多瑙河 Danube River沿岸被侵蚀的森林地带向其持续输入营养物质和二氧化硅的结果。[81][82]

Researchers have found that the growth of the human population and expansion of human activity has resulted in many species of animals that are normally active during the day, such as elephants, tigers and boars, becoming nocturnal to avoid contact with humans.[83][82]

Researchers have found that the growth of the human population and expansion of human activity has resulted in many species of animals that are normally active during the day, such as elephants, tigers and boars, becoming nocturnal to avoid contact with humans.

研究人员发现,人口的增长和人类活动的扩大导致许多本来常在白天活动的动物,比如大象、老虎和野猪,为了避免与人类接触转而越来越倾向夜间活动。[83][82]

Climate 气候

One geological symptom resulting from human activity is increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (模板:CO2) content. During the glacial–interglacial cycles of the past million years, natural processes have varied 模板:CO2 by approximately 100 ppm (from 180 ppm to 280 ppm)[84] 模板:As of, anthropogenic net emissions of 模板:CO2 have increased atmospheric concentration by a comparable amount: From 280 ppm (Holocene or pre-industrial "equilibrium") to approximately 400 ppm,[85] with 2015–2016 monthly monitoring data of 模板:CO2 displaying a rising trend above 400 ppm.[84] This signal in the Earth's climate system is especially significant because it is occurring much faster,[86] and to a greater extent, than previous, similar changes. Most of this increase is due to the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, although smaller fractions result from cement production and from land-use changes (such as deforestation).

One geological symptom resulting from human activity is increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide () content. During the glacial–interglacial cycles of the past million years, natural processes have varied by approximately 100 ppm (from 180 ppm to 280 ppm) , anthropogenic net emissions of have increased atmospheric concentration by a comparable amount: From 280 ppm (Holocene or pre-industrial "equilibrium") to approximately 400 ppm, with 2015–2016 monthly monitoring data of displaying a rising trend above 400 ppm. This signal in the Earth's climate system is especially significant because it is occurring much faster, and to a greater extent, than previous, similar changes. Most of this increase is due to the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, although smaller fractions result from cement production and from land-use changes (such as deforestation).

人类活动导致的一个地质现象是大气中二氧化碳(CO2)含量增加。在过去100万年的冰期-间冰期循环中,自然过程的CO2变化约为百万分之100(从百万分之180到百万分之280) ,[84]人为CO2净排放量使大气CO2浓度增加相当多:从百万分之280(全新世或工业化前的”平衡”)增加到大约百万分之400,[85]甚至2015-2016年的月度监测数据显示,上升趋势超过百万分之400。地球气候系统中的CO2浓度信号尤其重要,因为它发生的速度比以前类似的变化更快,[86]程度也更深。这种增长大部分是由于煤、石油和天然气等化石燃料的燃烧,另外水泥生产和土地使用的变化(如森林砍伐)也有少部分贡献。

Geomorphology 地形与地貌

Changes in drainage patterns traceable to human activity will persist over geologic time in large parts of the continents where the geologic regime is erosional. This involves, for example, the paths of roads and highways defined by their grading and drainage control. Direct changes to the form of the Earth's surface by human activities (quarrying and landscaping, for example) also record human impacts.

Changes in drainage patterns traceable to human activity will persist over geologic time in large parts of the continents where the geologic regime is erosional. This involves, for example, the paths of roads and highways defined by their grading and drainage control. Direct changes to the form of the Earth's surface by human activities (quarrying and landscaping, for example) also record human impacts.

在大陆上大部分地质状况可接受侵蚀的地区,与人类活动相关的排水模式变化将在地质时间上持续下去。例如,这涉及到道路和公路的路径,这些路径是由它们的等级和排水控制所确定的。人类活动对地球表面形态的直接改变(例如采石和景观美化)也记录了人类的影响。

It has been suggested模板:By whom that the deposition of calthemite formations exemplify a natural process which has not previously occurred prior to the human modification of the Earth's surface, and which therefore represents a unique process of the Anthropocene.[87] Calthemite is a secondary deposit, derived from concrete, lime, mortar or other calcareous material outside the cave environment.[88] Calthemites grow on or under man-made structures (including mines and tunnels) and mimic the shapes and forms of cave speleothems, such as stalactites, stalagmites, flowstone etc.

It has been suggested that the deposition of calthemite formations exemplify a natural process which has not previously occurred prior to the human modification of the Earth's surface, and which therefore represents a unique process of the Anthropocene. Calthemite is a secondary deposit, derived from concrete, lime, mortar or other calcareous material outside the cave environment. Calthemites grow on or under man-made structures (including mines and tunnels) and mimic the shapes and forms of cave speleothems, such as stalactites, stalagmites, flowstone etc.

有人认为,人工洞穴钙质沉积物 Calthemite的形成展示了一种在人类改变地球表面之前从未发生过的自然过程,因此也可以成为代表人类世的一种独特过程。[87]人工洞穴钙质沉积物是一种次生沉积物,物源来自于洞穴环境以外的混凝土、石灰、砂浆或其他钙质材料。[88]这种沉积物生长在人工建筑物(包括矿山和隧道)的内部表面,形似自然洞穴沉积物 Cave Speleothem,如钟乳石 Stalactite石笋 Stalagmite流石 Flowstone等。

Stratigraphy 地层学

Sedimentological record 沉积记录

Human activities like deforestation and road construction are believed to have elevated average total sediment fluxes across the Earth's surface.[5] However, construction of dams on many rivers around the world means the rates of sediment deposition in any given place do not always appear to increase in the Anthropocene. For instance, many river deltas around the world are actually currently starved of sediment by such dams, and are subsiding and failing to keep up with sea level rise, rather than growing.[5][89]

Human activities like deforestation and road construction are believed to have elevated average total sediment fluxes across the Earth's surface. However, construction of dams on many rivers around the world means the rates of sediment deposition in any given place do not always appear to increase in the Anthropocene. For instance, many river deltas around the world are actually currently starved of sediment by such dams, and are subsiding and failing to keep up with sea level rise, rather than growing.

有研究表明部分人类活动(如砍伐森林和修建公路等)提高了地球表面平均总沉积物通量。[5]然而,世界各地的人们在许多河流上建造诸多水坝意味着,在人类世中,任何特定地点的沉积速率似乎并不总是增加的。例如,实际上世界各地的许多河流三角洲目前正因为这些大坝而缺乏沉积物输入,导致它们跟不上海平面上升,而不断下沉。[5][89]

Fossil record 化石记录

Increases in erosion due to farming and other operations will be reflected by changes in sediment composition and increases in deposition rates elsewhere. In land areas with a depositional regime, engineered structures will tend to be buried and preserved, along with litter and debris. Litter and debris thrown from boats or carried by rivers and creeks will accumulate in the marine environment, particularly in coastal areas. Such man-made artifacts preserved in stratigraphy are known as "technofossils".[5][90]

Changes in biodiversity will also be reflected in the fossil record, as will species introductions. An example cited is the domestic chicken, originally the red junglefowl Gallus gallus, native to south-east Asia but has since become the world's most common bird through human breeding and consumption, with over 60 billion consumed annually and whose bones would become fossilised in landfill sites.[91] Hence, landfills are important resources to find "technofossils".[92]

Increases in erosion due to farming and other operations will be reflected by changes in sediment composition and increases in deposition rates elsewhere. In land areas with a depositional regime, engineered structures will tend to be buried and preserved, along with litter and debris. Litter and debris thrown from boats or carried by rivers and creeks will accumulate in the marine environment, particularly in coastal areas. Such man-made artifacts preserved in stratigraphy are known as "technofossils". thumb|Technofossils

Changes in biodiversity will also be reflected in the fossil record, as will species introductions. An example cited is the domestic chicken, originally the red junglefowl Gallus gallus, native to south-east Asia but has since become the world's most common bird through human breeding and consumption, with over 60 billion consumed annually and whose bones would become fossilised in landfill sites. Hence, landfills are important resources to find "technofossils".

由于耕作和其他人工作业造成的侵蚀增加将反映在沉积物组成的变化和其他地方沉积速率的增加上。在有沉积体系的陆地区域,工程结构将倾向于被掩埋和保存,同时还有垃圾和碎屑。来自于船只丢弃或由江河水流运载的垃圾和碎片,最终都会积聚在海洋环境中,特别是在沿海地区。这种保存在地层中的人工制品被称为“科技化石”。[5][90]

生物多样性的变化也会反映在化石记录中,物种的引入将是如此。例如家养鸡,原是产于东南亚的红色原鸡 Red Junglefowl Gallus Gallus,但经人类培育繁殖后,已成为全球最常见的肉用禽类,每年消费量超过600亿只,其骨骼将有机会在垃圾填埋区变成化石。因此,垃圾填埋场是寻找“科技化石”的重要场所。

Trace elements 微量元素记录

In terms of trace elements, there are distinct signatures left by modern societies. For example, in the Upper Fremont Glacier in Wyoming, there is a layer of chlorine present in ice cores from 1960's atomic weapon testing programs, as well as a layer of mercury associated with coal plants in the 1980s.[citation needed] From 1945 to 1951, nuclear fallout is found locally around atomic device test sites, whereas from 1952 to 1980, tests of thermonuclear devices have left a clear, global signal of excess 模板:SimpleNuclide, 模板:SimpleNuclide, and other artificial radionuclides.[citation needed] The highest global concentration of radionuclides was in 1965, one of the dates which has been proposed as a possible benchmark for the start of the formally defined Anthropocene.[93]

In terms of trace elements, there are distinct signatures left by modern societies. For example, in the Upper Fremont Glacier in Wyoming, there is a layer of chlorine present in ice cores from 1960's atomic weapon testing programs, as well as a layer of mercury associated with coal plants in the 1980s. From 1945 to 1951, nuclear fallout is found locally around atomic device test sites, whereas from 1952 to 1980, tests of thermonuclear devices have left a clear, global signal of excess , , and other artificial radionuclides. The highest global concentration of radionuclides was in 1965, one of the dates which has been proposed as a possible benchmark for the start of the formally defined Anthropocene.

就微量元素而言,现代社会也留下了明显的痕迹。例如,怀俄明州上弗里蒙特冰川 Upper Fremont Glacier冰芯记录了由20世纪60年代的原子武器测试项目产生“氯层”,以及20世纪80年代与煤电厂有关的“汞层”。从1945年到1951年,人们在原子设备试验场附近发现了辐射落尘 Nuclear Fallout,而从1952年到1980年,热核反应试验也留下了清晰信号—显示全球范围内存在过量的14C,239Pu和其他人工放射性核素。全球放射性核素浓度最高的年份是1965年,这也是被提议作为正式定义的“人类世”开始的可能基准日期之一。[93]

Human burning of fossil fuels has also left distinctly elevated concentrations of black carbon, inorganic ash, and spherical carbonaceous particles in recent sediments across the world. Concentrations of these components increases markedly and almost simultaneously around the world beginning around 1950.[5]

Human burning of fossil fuels has also left distinctly elevated concentrations of black carbon, inorganic ash, and spherical carbonaceous particles in recent sediments across the world. Concentrations of these components increases markedly and almost simultaneously around the world beginning around 1950.

人类燃烧化石燃料也在世界各地近期的沉积物中留下了明显升高的黑碳、无机灰和球形碳颗粒浓度。大约从1950年开始,全球范围内这些成分的浓度几乎同时显著增加。[5]

Temporal limit 时间限

"Early anthropocene" model “早期人类世”模型

William Ruddiman has argued that the Anthropocene began approximately 8,000 years ago with the development of farming and sedentary cultures.[94] At that point, humans were dispersed across all continents except Antarctica, and the Neolithic Revolution was ongoing. During this period, humans developed agriculture and animal husbandry to supplement or replace hunter-gatherer subsistence.[95] Such innovations were followed by a wave of extinctions, beginning with large mammals and terrestrial birds. This wave was driven by both the direct activity of humans (e.g. hunting) and the indirect consequences of land-use change for agriculture. Landscape-scale burning by prehistoric hunter-gathers may have been an additional early source of anthropogenic atmospheric carbon.[96]

William Ruddiman has argued that the Anthropocene began approximately 8,000 years ago with the development of farming and sedentary cultures. At that point, humans were dispersed across all continents except Antarctica, and the Neolithic Revolution was ongoing. During this period, humans developed agriculture and animal husbandry to supplement or replace hunter-gatherer subsistence. Such innovations were followed by a wave of extinctions, beginning with large mammals and terrestrial birds. This wave was driven by both the direct activity of humans (e.g. hunting) and the indirect consequences of land-use change for agriculture. Landscape-scale burning by prehistoric hunter-gathers may have been an additional early source of anthropogenic atmospheric carbon.

威廉 · 鲁迪曼 William Ruddiman认为,人类世大约始于8000年前,伴随着农耕和定居文化的发展。[94]那时人类散布在除了南极洲以外的所有大陆上,新石器革命如火如荼,人类发展农业和畜牧业,以补充或取代只能勉强维持生计的狩猎采集活动。[95]而在这些创新之后,随之而来的是一波物种灭绝浪潮,首当其冲的是大型哺乳动物和陆地鸟类。这一浪潮是由人类的直接活动(如狩猎)和土地利用变化对农业的间接影响所驱动的。史前狩猎者和采集者的大规模燃烧可能是另一个人为大气碳的早期来源。[96]

Ruddiman also claims that the greenhouse gas emissions in-part responsible for the Anthropocene began 8,000 years ago when ancient farmers cleared forests to grow crops.[97][98][99] Ruddiman's work has, in turn, been challenged with data from an earlier interglaciation ("Stage 11", approximately 400,000 years ago) which suggests that 16,000 more years must elapse before the current Holocene interglaciation comes to an end, and thus the early anthropogenic hypothesis is invalid.[100] Furthermore, the argument that "something" is needed to explain the differences in the Holocene is challenged by more recent research showing that all interglacials are different.[101]

Ruddiman also claims that the greenhouse gas emissions in-part responsible for the Anthropocene began 8,000 years ago when ancient farmers cleared forests to grow crops. Ruddiman's work has, in turn, been challenged with data from an earlier interglaciation ("Stage 11", approximately 400,000 years ago) which suggests that 16,000 more years must elapse before the current Holocene interglaciation comes to an end, and thus the early anthropogenic hypothesis is invalid. Furthermore, the argument that "something" is needed to explain the differences in the Holocene is challenged by more recent research showing that all interglacials are different.

鲁迪曼也认为,8000年前古代农民刀耕火种产生的温室气体排放是人类世开始于那时的部分依据。[97][98][99]然而鲁迪曼的研究受到了更早间冰期(大约40万年前的“第11阶段”)数据的挑战,这些数据表明,当前的全新世间冰期还要再过16000年才结束,因此早期的人类活动假说是无效的。[100]此外,最近的研究表明,所有间冰期都是不同的,这就挑战了认为需要“某种理论”来解释全新世差异的观点。[101]

Moreover, scholars have claimed that the land change and greenhouse gas emissions caused by Neolithic farming practices do not account for a large enough systems change to denote new epochal designation.[102] This claim is the basis for an assertion that an early date for the proposed Anthropocene term does account for a substantial human footprint on Earth.[103][104] Others have argued that the Early Anthropocene Hypothesis only provides a cursory view of Native American farming practices prior to European colonization, which did not result in the same land change or greenhouse gas emissions as European and Asian agriculture of the same period. Thus, if precolonial Native American farming was studied in relation to the hypothesis, the European colonization of the Americas would be seen as the epoch's starting point.[105][106]

Moreover, scholars have claimed that the land change and greenhouse gas emissions caused by Neolithic farming practices do not account for a large enough systems change to denote new epochal designation. This claim is the basis for an assertion that an early date for the proposed Anthropocene term does account for a substantial human footprint on Earth. Others have argued that the Early Anthropocene Hypothesis only provides a cursory view of Native American farming practices prior to European colonization, which did not result in the same land change or greenhouse gas emissions as European and Asian agriculture of the same period. Thus, if precolonial Native American farming was studied in relation to the hypothesis, the European colonization of the Americas would be seen as the epoch's starting point.

此外,有些学者认为,新石器时代耕作方式所造成的土地变化和温室气体排放,并不能解释为什么会有如此大的地球系统变化,以至于产生了划分新的地质时代的标志。[102]该主张支撑了一种断言,即所提出“人类世”一词的早期日期确实说明了当时地球上的大量人类足迹。[103][104]另一些人则认为,早期人类世假说 Early Anthropocene Hypothesis 仅提供了美洲原住民在欧洲殖民之前的农耕实践的粗略观点,而欧洲和亚洲在同一时期的农业活动并没有导致同样的土地变化或温室气体排放。因此,如果将殖民前的美洲原住民农业与上述假设联系起来进行研究,那么欧洲对美洲的殖民就会被视为这个时代的起点。[105][106]

Antiquity 古代

One plausible starting point of the Anthropocene could be at c. 2,000 years ago, which roughly coincides with the start of the final phase of Holocene, the Sub Atlantic.[107]

One plausible starting point of the Anthropocene could be at c. 2,000 years ago, which roughly coincides with the start of the final phase of Holocene, the Sub Atlantic.

人类世的一个可信的起点可能在距今2000年前,大致上与全新世最后阶段——亚大西洋气候期的开始相吻合。[107]

At this time, the Roman Empire encompassed large portions of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. In China the classical dynasties were flowering. The Middle kingdoms of India had already the largest economy of the ancient and medieval world. The Napata/Meroitic kingdom extended over the current Sudan and Ethiopia. The Olmecs controlled central Mexico and Guatemala, and the pre-Incan Chavín people managed areas of northern Peru.[108] Although often apart from each other and intermixed with buffering ecosystems, the areas directly impacted by these civilisations and others were large. Additionally, some activities, such as mining, implied much more widespread perturbation of natural conditions.[109][110] Over the last 11,500 years or so humans have spread around Earth, increased in number, and profoundly altered the material world. They have taken advantage of global environmental conditions not of their own making. The end of the last glacial period – when as much as 30% of Earth's surface was ice-bound – led to a warmer world with more water (模板:H2O). Although humans existed in the previous Pleistocene epoch, it is only in the recent Holocene period that they have flourished. Today there are more humans alive than at any previous point in Earth's history.[7]

At this time, the Roman Empire encompassed large portions of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. In China the classical dynasties were flowering. The Middle kingdoms of India had already the largest economy of the ancient and medieval world. The Napata/Meroitic kingdom extended over the current Sudan and Ethiopia. The Olmecs controlled central Mexico and Guatemala, and the pre-Incan Chavín people managed areas of northern Peru. Although often apart from each other and intermixed with buffering ecosystems, the areas directly impacted by these civilisations and others were large. Additionally, some activities, such as mining, implied much more widespread perturbation of natural conditions. Over the last 11,500 years or so humans have spread around Earth, increased in number, and profoundly altered the material world. They have taken advantage of global environmental conditions not of their own making. The end of the last glacial period – when as much as 30% of Earth's surface was ice-bound – led to a warmer world with more water (). Although humans existed in the previous Pleistocene epoch, it is only in the recent Holocene period that they have flourished. Today there are more humans alive than at any previous point in Earth's history.

当时,罗马帝国的疆域覆盖了欧洲、中东和北非的大部分地区。在中国,古典王朝正在兴盛。印度中部王国们已经是古代和中世纪世界最大的经济体。纳帕塔/麦罗埃王国延伸至目前的苏丹和埃塞俄比亚。奥尔梅克人占据着墨西哥中部和危地马拉,前印加人查文人控制着秘鲁北部地区。[108]虽然这些地区经常彼此分离,并且与缓冲生态系统混杂在一起,但是这些文明和其他文明直接影响的地区面积很大。此外,一些活动的进行,如采矿,意味着自然条件受到更广泛的干扰。[109][110]在过去11,500年左右的时间里,数量繁盛的人类已经遍布地球,并且深刻地改变了物质世界。我们理所当然的享受了亿万年来地球演化的馈赠。在末次冰期时,地球表面30%的面积都处于冰封中,孕育了冰期的结束之后一个更加温暖湿润的世界。虽然人类早在更新世就已经存在了,但直到最近的全新世才开始繁荣起来。今天地球上活跃的人类比地史上任何时候都要多。[7]

European colonization of the Americas 美洲的欧洲殖民活动

Maslin and Lewis argue that the start of the Anthropocene should be dated to the Orbis Spike, a trough in carbon dioxide levels associated with the arrival of Europeans in the Americas. Reaching a minimum around 1610, global carbon dioxide levels were depressed below 285 parts per million, largely as a result of sequestration due to forest regrowth in the Americas. This was likely caused by indigenous peoples abandoning farmland following a sharp population decline due to initial contact with European diseases – around 50 million people or 90% of the indigenous population may have succumbed. For Maslin and Lewis, the Orbis Spike represents a GSSP, a kind of marker used to define the start of a new geological period. They also go on to say that associating the Anthropocene to European arrival in the Americas makes sense given that the continent's colonization was instrumental in the development of global trade networks and the capitalist economy, which played a significant role in initiating the Industrial Revolution and the Great Acceleration.[111][112]

Maslin and Lewis argue that the start of the Anthropocene should be dated to the Orbis Spike, a trough in carbon dioxide levels associated with the arrival of Europeans in the Americas. Reaching a minimum around 1610, global carbon dioxide levels were depressed below 285 parts per million, largely as a result of sequestration due to forest regrowth in the Americas. This was likely caused by indigenous peoples abandoning farmland following a sharp population decline due to initial contact with European diseases – around 50 million people or 90% of the indigenous population may have succumbed. For Maslin and Lewis, the Orbis Spike represents a GSSP, a kind of marker used to define the start of a new geological period. They also go on to say that associating the Anthropocene to European arrival in the Americas makes sense given that the continent's colonization was instrumental in the development of global trade networks and the capitalist economy, which played a significant role in initiating the Industrial Revolution and the Great Acceleration.

马斯林 Maslin刘易斯 Lewis认为,人类世的开始应该追溯到奥比斯峰 Orbis Spike——一个与欧洲人到达美洲有关的二氧化碳水平低谷。全球二氧化碳水平在1610年左右达到最低值,降至百万分之285以下,这主要是由于美洲森林再生造成的固碳过程。这可能是由于土著人在最初接触欧洲疾病导致人口急剧下降后放弃了农田——可能大约5000万人或90%的土著人口死亡。对于马斯林和刘易斯来说,奥比斯峰代表了可以用来定义地质新纪元开始的“金钉子”。同时他们还认为,将人类世与欧洲人抵达美洲联系起来是合理的,因为美洲大陆的殖民化对全球贸易网络和资本主义经济的发展起到了推动作用,而资本主义经济在触发工业革命和大加速方面发挥了重要作用。[111][112]

A number of other anthropologists, geographers, and postcolonial, settler colonial, and Indigenous theorists have linked the Anthropocene to the rise of European colonialism.[113][106][114][112][115][116][117] Because of these arguments, it has been suggested that the epoch should instead be called "The Kleptocene" in order to call "attention to colonialism’s ongoing theft of land, lives (both human and nonhuman), and materials" that are "in large part responsible for contemporary ecological crisis."[118]

A number of other anthropologists, geographers, and postcolonial, settler colonial, and Indigenous theorists have linked the Anthropocene to the rise of European colonialism. Because of these arguments, it has been suggested that the epoch should instead be called "The Kleptocene" in order to call "attention to colonialism’s ongoing theft of land, lives (both human and nonhuman), and materials" that are "in large part responsible for contemporary ecological crisis."

许多人类学家、地理学家、后殖民时代、定居殖民和土著理论家将人类世与欧洲殖民主义的兴起联系在一起。由这些论点出发,有人建议,这个时代应该被称为“盗贼世”,以呼吁“关注殖民主义对土地、生命(包括人类和非人类)和其他资源持续不断的盗窃”,这也“在很大程度上造成了当代的生态危机”

Industrial Revolution 工业革命

Crutzen proposed the Industrial Revolution as the start of Anthropocene.[40] Lovelock proposes that the Anthropocene began with the first application of the Newcomen atmospheric engine in 1712.[119] The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change takes the pre-industrial era (chosen as the year 1750) as the baseline related to changes in long-lived, well mixed greenhouse gases.[120] Although it is apparent that the Industrial Revolution ushered in an unprecedented global human impact on the planet,[121] much of Earth's landscape already had been profoundly modified by human activities.[122] The human impact on Earth has grown progressively, with few substantial slowdowns.

Crutzen proposed the Industrial Revolution as the start of Anthropocene. Lovelock proposes that the Anthropocene began with the first application of the Newcomen atmospheric engine in 1712. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change takes the pre-industrial era (chosen as the year 1750) as the baseline related to changes in long-lived, well mixed greenhouse gases. Although it is apparent that the Industrial Revolution ushered in an unprecedented global human impact on the planet, much of Earth's landscape already had been profoundly modified by human activities. The human impact on Earth has grown progressively, with few substantial slowdowns.

克鲁岑提出过将工业革命作为人类世的开端。[40]洛夫洛克 Lovelock则认为,人类世始于1712年纽科门大气发动机 Newcomen Atmospheric Engine首次应用。[119]政府间气候变化专门委员会 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change以前工业时代(选定为1750年)作为长期存在、混合良好的温室气体变化的基准。[120]尽管工业革命显然给地球带来了前所未有的全球性人类影响,[121]但地球的大部分景观已经被人类活动深刻地改变了。人类活动对地球的影响逐渐增大,几乎没有明显的减缓。[122]

Great Acceleration 大加速

In May 2019 the twenty-nine members of the Anthropocene Working Group (AWG) proposed a start date for the Epoch in the mid-twentieth century, as that period saw "a rapidly rising human population accelerated the pace of industrial production, the use of agricultural chemicals and other human activities. At the same time, the first atomic-bomb blasts littered the globe with radioactive debris that became embedded in sediments and glacial ice, becoming part of the geologic record." The official start-dates, according to the panel, would coincide with either the radionuclides released into the atmosphere from bomb detonations in 1945, or with the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963.[123]

In May 2019 the twenty-nine members of the Anthropocene Working Group (AWG) proposed a start date for the Epoch in the mid-twentieth century, as that period saw "a rapidly rising human population accelerated the pace of industrial production, the use of agricultural chemicals and other human activities. At the same time, the first atomic-bomb blasts littered the globe with radioactive debris that became embedded in sediments and glacial ice, becoming part of the geologic record." The official start-dates, according to the panel, would coincide with either the radionuclides released into the atmosphere from bomb detonations in 1945, or with the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963.

2019年5月,人类世工作组(AWG)的29名成员提出,人类世的开始日期为20世纪中期,因为在这一时期,“迅速增长的人口加快了工业生产、农用化学品的使用和其他人类活动的步伐。与此同时,第一颗原子弹爆炸产生的物质散落在地球各处,这些放射性碎片嵌入在沉积物和冰川中,成为地质记录的一部分。”根据专家小组的说法,正式的开始日期将是1945年——核爆释放放射性核素到大气中,或1963年——《有限核禁试条约》。[123]

Anthropocene markers 人类世标志

A marker that accounts for a substantial global impact of humans on the total environment, comparable in scale to those associated with significant perturbations of the geological past, is needed in place of minor changes in atmosphere composition.[124][125]

A marker that accounts for a substantial global impact of humans on the total environment, comparable in scale to those associated with significant perturbations of the geological past, is needed in place of minor changes in atmosphere composition.

我们需要一种标志来说明人类对整个环境的重大全球影响,其规模可与过去地质上的重大扰动相媲美,而不是大气成分的微小变化。[124][125]

A useful candidate for this purpose is the pedosphere, which can retain information of its climatic and geochemical history with features lasting for centuries or millennia.[126] Human activity is now firmly established as the sixth factor of soil formation.[127] It affects pedogenesis directly by, for example, land levelling, trenching and embankment building, organic matter enrichment from additions of manure or other waste, organic matter impoverishment due to continued cultivation and compaction from overgrazing. Human activity also affects pedogenesis indirectly by drift of eroded materials or pollutants. Anthropogenic soils are those markedly affected by human activities, such as repeated ploughing, the addition of fertilisers, contamination, sealing, or enrichment with artefacts (in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources they are classified as Anthrosols and Technosols). They are recalcitrant repositories of artefacts and properties that testify to the dominance of the human impact, and hence appear to be reliable markers for the Anthropocene. Some anthropogenic soils may be viewed as the 'golden spikes' of geologists (Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point), which are locations where there are strata successions with clear evidences of a worldwide event, including the appearance of distinctive fossils.[107] Drilling for fossil fuels has also created holes and tubes which are expected to be detectable for millions of years.[128] The astrobiologist David Grinspoon has proposed that the site of the Apollo 11 Lunar landing, with the disturbances and artifacts that are so uniquely characteristic of our species' technological activity and which will survive over geological time spans could be considered as the 'golden spike' of the Anthropocene.[129]

A useful candidate for this purpose is the pedosphere, which can retain information of its climatic and geochemical history with features lasting for centuries or millennia. Human activity is now firmly established as the sixth factor of soil formation. It affects pedogenesis directly by, for example, land levelling, trenching and embankment building, organic matter enrichment from additions of manure or other waste, organic matter impoverishment due to continued cultivation and compaction from overgrazing. Human activity also affects pedogenesis indirectly by drift of eroded materials or pollutants. Anthropogenic soils are those markedly affected by human activities, such as repeated ploughing, the addition of fertilisers, contamination, sealing, or enrichment with artefacts (in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources they are classified as Anthrosols and Technosols). They are recalcitrant repositories of artefacts and properties that testify to the dominance of the human impact, and hence appear to be reliable markers for the Anthropocene. Some anthropogenic soils may be viewed as the 'golden spikes' of geologists (Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point), which are locations where there are strata successions with clear evidences of a worldwide event, including the appearance of distinctive fossils. Drilling for fossil fuels has also created holes and tubes which are expected to be detectable for millions of years. The astrobiologist David Grinspoon has proposed that the site of the Apollo 11 Lunar landing, with the disturbances and artifacts that are so uniquely characteristic of our species' technological activity and which will survive over geological time spans could be considered as the 'golden spike' of the Anthropocene.

在这方面,土壤圈 Pedosphere是有效的候选者,它可以保存自身气候和地球化学历史的信息,其特征可以持续几个世纪或几千年。[126]人类活动现在已经确定为土壤形成的第六因素。[127]它可以通过多种方式直接影响土壤发生过程,例如土地平整、挖沟筑堤、添加粪肥或其他废物使得土壤有机物质富集、持续耕作引发土壤有机物质贫化以及过度放牧造成土壤压实。人类活动也通过侵蚀物质或污染物漂移间接地影响土壤形成。人工土壤是指那些受人类活动影响显著的土壤,如反复耕作、添加肥料、污染、封闭或人工富集(在世界土壤资源参考基准 World Reference Base for Soil Resources中,它们被归类为人工土壤 Anthrosols技术土壤 Technosols)。它们是顽固的人工产物储存库,宣示着人类影响的主导地位,似乎可以作为人类世的可靠标志。一些人工土壤被地质学家视为的“金钉子”,这些位置的地层序列具有明显的全球性事件发生的证据,包括独特化石的出现。[107]钻探开发化石能源也产生了预计在数百万年内都能被探测到洞穴和管道。[128]天体生物学家大卫 · 格林斯彭 David Grinspoon提出,阿波罗11号登月的地点所具有的人工干扰和痕迹代表着人类科技活动的独特特征,并将在地质时间跨度中保留下来,可以作为是人类世的金钉子。[129]

An October 2020 study coordinated by University of Colorado at Boulder found that distinct physical, chemical and biological changes to Earth's rock layers began around the year 1950. The research revealed that since about 1950, humans have doubled the amount of fixed nitrogen on the planet through industrial production for agriculture, created a hole in the ozone layer through the industrial scale release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), released enough greenhouse gasses from fossil fuels to cause planetary level climate change, created tens of thousands of synthetic mineral-like compounds that do not naturally occur on Earth, and caused almost one-fifth of river sediment worldwide to no longer reach the ocean due to dams, reservoirs and diversions. Humans have produced so many millions of tons of plastic each year since the early 1950s that microplastics are "forming a near-ubiquitous and unambiguous marker of Anthropocene".[130][131] The study highlights a strong correlation between global human population size and growth, global productivity and global energy use and that the "extraordinary outburst of consumption and productivity demonstrates how the Earth System has departed from its Holocene state since ~1950 CE, forcing abrupt physical, chemical and biological changes to the Earth’s stratigraphic record that can be used to justify the proposal for naming a new epoch—the Anthropocene."[131]

An October 2020 study coordinated by University of Colorado at Boulder found that distinct physical, chemical and biological changes to Earth's rock layers began around the year 1950. The research revealed that since about 1950, humans have doubled the amount of fixed nitrogen on the planet through industrial production for agriculture, created a hole in the ozone layer through the industrial scale release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), released enough greenhouse gasses from fossil fuels to cause planetary level climate change, created tens of thousands of synthetic mineral-like compounds that do not naturally occur on Earth, and caused almost one-fifth of river sediment worldwide to no longer reach the ocean due to dams, reservoirs and diversions. Humans have produced so many millions of tons of plastic each year since the early 1950s that microplastics are "forming a near-ubiquitous and unambiguous marker of Anthropocene". The study highlights a strong correlation between global human population size and growth, global productivity and global energy use and that the "extraordinary outburst of consumption and productivity demonstrates how the Earth System has departed from its Holocene state since ~1950 CE, forcing abrupt physical, chemical and biological changes to the Earth’s stratigraphic record that can be used to justify the proposal for naming a new epoch—the Anthropocene."

2020年10月,由科罗拉多大学博尔德分校 University of Colorado at Boulder协调开展的一项研究发现,地球岩层明显的物理、化学和生物变化始于1950年左右。研究表明,大约自1950年以来,人类工农业生产使地球上的固定氮含量增加了一倍,工业活动释放的氯氟烃 Chlorofluorocarbon(CFCs)造成了臭氧层空洞,化石燃料燃烧释放的温室气体足以引起全球气候变化,同时人们创造了数以万计地球上本没有的人工合成化合物,并且由于人类的水库大坝建设、河流改道,导致全世界近五分之一的河流沉积物不再进入海洋。自20世纪50年代初以来,人类每年生产数百万吨塑料,以至于塑料微粒“正形成一个几乎无处不在、清晰可见的人类世标志”。[130][131]这项研究强调了全球人口规模和增长、全球生产力和全球能源使用之间的强烈相关性,并指出“消费和生产力的异常激增表明,自1950年以来,地球系统已经偏离了全新世状态,全球地层记录中物理、化学和生物突然变化可以作为命名新纪元——人类世的证据。”[131]

A December 2020 study published in Nature found that the total anthropogenic mass, or human-made materials, outweighs all the biomass on earth, and highlighted that "this quantification of the human enterprise gives a mass-based quantitative and symbolic characterization of the human-induced epoch of the Anthropocene."[132][133]

A December 2020 study published in Nature found that the total anthropogenic mass, or human-made materials, outweighs all the biomass on earth, and highlighted that "this quantification of the human enterprise gives a mass-based quantitative and symbolic characterization of the human-induced epoch of the Anthropocene."

2020年12月发表在《自然》Nature 杂志上的一项研究发现,人类活动或人造材料的总量超过了地球上所有的生物量,并强调“这种对人类活动的量化,为人类引发主导的人类世提供了一个大规模的定量和符号表征。”[132][133]

Recently, a group of geologists, archaeologists, environmental scientists and geographers, including current ICS Secretary General Phil Gibbard, have proposed to recognize the Anthropocene as an ongoing geological event analogous to the Great Oxidation Event, rather than as an epoch in the GTS.[134]

Recently, a group of geologists, archaeologists, environmental scientists and geographers, including current ICS Secretary General Phil Gibbard, have proposed to recognize the Anthropocene as an ongoing geological event analogous to the Great Oxidation Event, rather than as an epoch in the GTS.

最近,一批地质学家、考古学家、环境科学家和地理学家,包括现任国际地层委员会秘书长菲尔 · 吉巴德 Phil Gibbard,已经提议将人类世确认为一个类似于大氧化事件 Great Oxidation Event,正在进行的地质事件,而不是地质年代表中的一个时代。[134]

In culture 文化领域

Humanities 人文学科

The concept of the Anthropocene has also been approached via humanities such as philosophy, literature and art. In the scholarly world, it has been the subject of increasing attention through special journals,[135] and conferences,[136][137] and disciplinary reports.[138] The Anthropocene, its attendant timescale, and ecological implications prompt questions about death and the end of civilisation,[139] memory and archives,[140] the scope and methods of humanistic inquiry,[141] and emotional responses to the "end of nature".[142]

The concept of the Anthropocene has also been approached via humanities such as philosophy, literature and art. In the scholarly world, it has been the subject of increasing attention through special journals, and conferences, and disciplinary reports. The Anthropocene, its attendant timescale, and ecological implications prompt questions about death and the end of civilisation, memory and archives, the scope and methods of humanistic inquiry, and emotional responses to the "end of nature".

人类世的概念也在哲学、文学和艺术等人文学科中不断被探讨。在学术界,这一概念通过相关学术期刊、[135]会议[136][137] 和学科报告的推广而受到越来越多的关注。[138]“人类世”及其伴随的时间尺度和生态意义引发了关于死亡和文明终结,[139]记忆和档案,[140]人文主义探究的范围和方法,[141]以及对“自然终结”的情感回应等问题。[142]

Historians have actively engaged the Anthropocene. In 2000, the same year that Paul Crutzen coined the term, world historian John McNeill published Something New Under the Sun,[143] tracing the rise of human societies' unprecedented impact on the planet in the twentieth century.[143] In 2001, historian of science Naomi Oreskes revealed the systematic efforts to undermine trust in climate change science and went on to detail the corporate interests delaying action on the environmental challenge.[144][145] Both McNeill and Oreskes became members of the Anthropocene Working Group because of their work correlating human activities and planetary transformation.

Historians have actively engaged the Anthropocene. In 2000, the same year that Paul Crutzen coined the term, world historian John McNeill published Something New Under the Sun, tracing the rise of human societies' unprecedented impact on the planet in the twentieth century. In 2001, historian of science Naomi Oreskes revealed the systematic efforts to undermine trust in climate change science and went on to detail the corporate interests delaying action on the environmental challenge. Both McNeill and Oreskes became members of the Anthropocene Working Group because of their work correlating human activities and planetary transformation.

历史学家积极参与人类世的讨论。2000年,即保罗 · 克鲁岑创造该词的同一年,世界历史学家约翰 · 麦克尼尔 John McNeill出版了《阳光下的新事物》Something New Under the Sun一书,回溯了20世纪人类社会的崛起对地球产生的前所未有的影响。[143]2001年,科学史学家内奥米 · 奥雷斯克斯 Naomi Oreskes揭露了破坏气候变化科学信任的系统性努力,并详细阐述了为企业利益而拖延应对环境挑战的行动。[144][145]麦克尼尔和奥雷斯克都成为了人类世工作组的成员,因为他们的工作与人类活动和行星变化相关。

In 2009, Dipesh Chakrabarty pointed to the dilemma that the Anthropocene poses for the practice of history: On the one hand, it spells "the collapse of the age-old humanist distinction between natural history and human history" yet, on the other, societies and individuals do not experience themselves as a "species".[146] In 2014, Julia Adeney Thomas highlighted problems of scale and value as the reasons for this irresolvable tension between human stories and scientific ones.[147] Since 2007, historians and scientists have been actively collaborating on multidisciplinary approaches to the Anthropocene.[148] Together with the Rachel Carson Center for Environment and Society (RCC), the Deutsches Museum (Munich, Germany) hosted a major special exhibition on the Anthropocene from December 2014 – September 2016, "Welcome to the Anthropocene: The Earth in our hands",[149] which was then digitized as a virtual exhibition on the RCC’s Environment & Society Portal.[149][150] In 2016, historians Christophe Bonneuil and Jean Baptiste-Fressoz published The Shock of the Anthropocene: The Earth, History and Us[151] in an attempt to provide "the first critical history of the Anthropocene" through engagement with the history of science, world history, and human development.[151]

In 2009, Dipesh Chakrabarty pointed to the dilemma that the Anthropocene poses for the practice of history: On the one hand, it spells "the collapse of the age-old humanist distinction between natural history and human history" yet, on the other, societies and individuals do not experience themselves as a "species". In 2014, Julia Adeney Thomas highlighted problems of scale and value as the reasons for this irresolvable tension between human stories and scientific ones. Since 2007, historians and scientists have been actively collaborating on multidisciplinary approaches to the Anthropocene. Together with the Rachel Carson Center for Environment and Society (RCC), the Deutsches Museum (Munich, Germany) hosted a major special exhibition on the Anthropocene from December 2014 – September 2016, "Welcome to the Anthropocene: The Earth in our hands", which was then digitized as a virtual exhibition on the RCC’s Environment & Society Portal. In 2016, historians Christophe Bonneuil and Jean Baptiste-Fressoz published The Shock of the Anthropocene: The Earth, History and Us in an attempt to provide "the first critical history of the Anthropocene" through engagement with the history of science, world history, and human development.

2009年,迪佩什·查卡拉巴提 Dipesh Chakrabarty指出了人类世给历史实践带来的困境: 一方面,它意味着”自然历史和人类历史之间古老的人文主义区分崩溃”,但另一方面,社会和个人并不把自己当作一个”物种”。[146]2014年,朱莉娅·阿登尼·托马斯 Julia Adeney Thomas强调,规模和价值问题是人类故事和科学故事之间的冲突无法调和的原因。[147]自2007年以来,历史学家和科学家一直在积极合作,以多学科的方法来研究人类世。[148]2014年12月至2016年9月,德国慕尼黑德意志博物馆 Deutsches Museum雷切尔·卡森环境与社会中心 Rachel Carson Center for Environment and Society共同举办了一个人类世主题的大型特别展览,名为”欢迎来到人类世: 我们手中的地球 Welcome to the Anthropocene: The Earth in our hands”,[149]这个展览随后被数字化,成为该中心门户网站上的一个虚拟展览。[149][150]2016年,历史学家克里斯托弗·博纳伊 Christophe Bonneuil让·巴普斯蒂特·弗里索 Jean baptiste-Fresso出版了《人类世的冲击: 地球、历史和我们》The Shock of the Anthropocene[151]试图通过对科学史、世界历史和人类发展史的研究,提供”人类世的第一部批判性历史”。[151]

As anthropogenic ecological crises and environmental disasters increase,[152] so too do emotional responses to these issues. The emotional responses are inherently adaptive and with appropriate support can lead to action and collective support. Evidence suggests that increase in reflective functioning and capacity for emotional processing can support the emotional responses through crisis, leading to stronger societal responses and individual resilience.[153]

As anthropogenic ecological crises and environmental disasters increase, so too do emotional responses to these issues. The emotional responses are inherently adaptive and with appropriate support can lead to action and collective support. Evidence suggests that increase in reflective functioning and capacity for emotional processing can support the emotional responses through crisis, leading to stronger societal responses and individual resilience.

随着人为生态危机和环境灾难的增加,[152]人们对这些问题的情感反应也在加剧。情绪反应具有内在的适应性,适当的支持可以引导行动和集体支持。有证据表明,反思功能和情绪处理能力的提高可以支持危机期间的情绪反应,导致更强的社会反应和个人恢复力。[153]

Debates 争论

Although the validity of "Anthropocene" as a scientific term remains disputed, its underlying premise, i.e., that humans have become a geological force, or rather, the dominant force shaping the Earth's climate, has found traction among academics and the public. The University of Cambridge, for example, offers a degree in Anthropocene Studies.[154] In the public sphere, the term "Anthropocene" has become increasingly ubiquitous in activist, pundit, and political discourses. Some who are critical of the term "Anthropocene" nevertheless concede that "For all its problems, [it] carries power."[155] The popularity and currency of the word has led scholars to label the term a "charismatic meta-category"[156] or "charismatic mega-concept."[157] The term, regardless, has been subject to a variety of criticisms from social scientists, philosophers, Indigenous scholars, and others.

Although the validity of "Anthropocene" as a scientific term remains disputed, its underlying premise, i.e., that humans have become a geological force, or rather, the dominant force shaping the Earth's climate, has found traction among academics and the public. The University of Cambridge, for example, offers a degree in Anthropocene Studies. In the public sphere, the term "Anthropocene" has become increasingly ubiquitous in activist, pundit, and political discourses. Some who are critical of the term "Anthropocene" nevertheless concede that "For all its problems, [it] carries power." The popularity and currency of the word has led scholars to label the term a "charismatic meta-category" or "charismatic mega-concept." The term, regardless, has been subject to a variety of criticisms from social scientists, philosophers, Indigenous scholars, and others.

虽然“人类世”作为一个科学术语的有效性仍然存在争议,但其基本前提,即人类已经成为一种地质力量,或者更确切地说,是塑造地球气候的主导力量,已经在学术界和公众中广受关注。例如,剑桥大学设立人类世研究的学位。[154]在公共领域,“人类世”一词在活动家、学者和政治话语中越来越普遍。即便是一些对“人类世”持批评态度的人也承认,“尽管存在种种问题,这一词汇仍然具有影响力。”[155]“人类世”的大行其道使得学者们给它贴上了“魅力超凡元范畴”[156]或“魅力超凡大概念”[157]的标签。无论如何,这个新术语一直接受着来自社会科学家、哲学家、土著学者和其他人的各种评论。

The anthropologist John Hartigan has argued that due its status as a charismatic meta-category, the term "Anthropocene" marginalizes competing, but less visible, concepts such as that of "multispecies."[158] The more salient charge is that the ready acceptance of "Anthropocene" is due to its conceptual proximity to the status quo — that is, to notions of human individuality and centrality. Whereas the concept of "multispecies" decenters these notions by viewing the "human" as a species "entangled in copious folds of nonhumans, without which we would not exist" — e.g., bacteria, viruses, and fungi — the conceptual framework embedded in the term "Anthropocene," according to Hartigan, does not challenge anthropocentric humanism nor species individualism, ideologies which he takes to have enabled the climate crisis in the first place. The scholar Mark Bould has similarly criticized "Anthropocene" as a concept. The enormous temporal scale of the Anthropocene, Bould argues, potentially yields politically detrimental outcomes. More specifically, if the climate crisis is figured into the timeframe of a geological epoch, as opposed to decades, it might impede the sense of urgency needed to build the political will to act on the climate crisis. As Bould writes: "talking about a geological epoch invites awestruck recoil at sublime magnitudes, which is not necessarily a bad thing, since hubris should be clobbered once in a while, but also risks evasion and complacency."[159]

The anthropologist John Hartigan has argued that due its status as a charismatic meta-category, the term "Anthropocene" marginalizes competing, but less visible, concepts such as that of "multispecies." The more salient charge is that the ready acceptance of "Anthropocene" is due to its conceptual proximity to the status quo — that is, to notions of human individuality and centrality. Whereas the concept of "multispecies" decenters these notions by viewing the "human" as a species "entangled in copious folds of nonhumans, without which we would not exist" — e.g., bacteria, viruses, and fungi — the conceptual framework embedded in the term "Anthropocene," according to Hartigan, does not challenge anthropocentric humanism nor species individualism, ideologies which he takes to have enabled the climate crisis in the first place. The scholar Mark Bould has similarly criticized "Anthropocene" as a concept. The enormous temporal scale of the Anthropocene, Bould argues, potentially yields politically detrimental outcomes. More specifically, if the climate crisis is figured into the timeframe of a geological epoch, as opposed to decades, it might impede the sense of urgency needed to build the political will to act on the climate crisis. As Bould writes: "talking about a geological epoch invites awestruck recoil at sublime magnitudes, which is not necessarily a bad thing, since hubris should be clobbered once in a while, but also risks evasion and complacency."

人类学家约翰·哈蒂根 John Hartigan认为,由于“人类世”作为魅力超凡元范畴的地位,它边缘化了类似“多物种”等与之相互竞争但不那么明显的概念。[158]更突出的指责是,人类世之所以能被人们所接受,是因为它在概念上接近现状,即人类个性和中心主义的观念。然而,“多种族”的概念对这些观念进行了反驳,认为“人类”是一个“纠缠在大量非人类物种中的物种,没有这些物种,我们就不会存在”ーー例如细菌、病毒和真菌ーー这些嵌入“人类世”一词中的概念框架,根据哈蒂根的说法,并没有挑战以人类为中心的人文主义和物种个人主义意识形态,他认为正是这些意识形态导致了气候危机。学者马克·博尔德 Mark Bould也同样批评了“人类世”这个概念。博尔德认为,人类世的巨大时间规模可能会产生政治上有害的后果。更具体地说,如果将气候危机纳入一个地质时代的时间框架(常常是十万年、百万年起步),而不是几十年,它可能会阻碍建立应对气候危机的政治意愿所需的紧迫感。正如博尔德所写的那样:“谈论一个地质时代,人们会对其宏伟的规模感到敬畏,这未必是件坏事,因为人类的傲慢应该不时被打击,但这也充满逃避和自满的风险。”[159]

Other scholars appreciate the way in which the term "Anthropocene" recognizes humanity as a geological force, but take issue with the indiscriminate way in which it does. Not all humans are equally responsible for the climate crisis. To that end, scholars such as the feminist theorist Donna Haraway and sociologist Jason Moore, have suggested naming the Epoch instead as the "Capitalocene."[160][161][162] Such implies capitalism as the fundamental reason for the ecological crisis, rather than just humans in general.[163] Hartigan, Bould, and Haraway all critique what "Anthropocene" does as a term; however, Hartigan and Bould differ from Haraway in that they criticize the utility or validity of a geological framing of the climate crisis, whereas Haraway embraces it.

Other scholars appreciate the way in which the term "Anthropocene" recognizes humanity as a geological force, but take issue with the indiscriminate way in which it does. Not all humans are equally responsible for the climate crisis. To that end, scholars such as the feminist theorist Donna Haraway and sociologist Jason Moore, have suggested naming the Epoch instead as the "Capitalocene." Such implies capitalism as the fundamental reason for the ecological crisis, rather than just humans in general. Hartigan, Bould, and Haraway all critique what "Anthropocene" does as a term; however, Hartigan and Bould differ from Haraway in that they criticize the utility or validity of a geological framing of the climate crisis, whereas Haraway embraces it.

其他学者赞赏”人类世”一词将人类视为是一种地质力量,但对这种不加区分的方式表示异议——并不是所有的人类都要对气候危机负同样的责任。为此,女权主义理论家唐娜 · 哈拉韦Donna Haraway和社会学家杰森 · 摩尔 Jason Moore等学者建议将这个时代改名为“资本世 Capitalocene[160][161][162]这意味着资本主义是导致生态危机的根本原因,而不仅仅是一般的人类。[163]哈蒂根、博尔德和哈拉威都批判“人类世”作为一个术语的作用;然而,他们不同之处在于,前两者批评气候危机地质框架的效用或有效性,而后者则支持它。

In addition to "Capitalocene," other terms have also been proposed by scholars to trace the roots of the Epoch to causes other than the human species broadly. Janae Davis, for example, has suggested the "Plantationocene" as a more appropriate term to call attention to the role that plantation agriculture has played in the formation of the Epoch, alongside Kathryn Yusoff's argument that racism as a whole is foundational to the Epoch. The Plantationocene concept traces "the ways that plantation logics organize modern economies, environments, bodies, and social relations."[164][165][166][167] In a similar vein, Indigenous studies scholars such as Métis geographer Zoe Todd have argued that the Epoch must be dated back to the colonization of the Americas, as this “names the problem of colonialism as responsible for contemporary environmental crisis.”[168] Potawatomi philosopher Kyle Powys Whyte has further argued that the Anthropocene has been apparent to Indigenous peoples in the Americas since the inception of colonialism because of "colonialism's role in environmental change."[169][117][170]

In addition to "Capitalocene," other terms have also been proposed by scholars to trace the roots of the Epoch to causes other than the human species broadly. Janae Davis, for example, has suggested the "Plantationocene" as a more appropriate term to call attention to the role that plantation agriculture has played in the formation of the Epoch, alongside Kathryn Yusoff's argument that racism as a whole is foundational to the Epoch. The Plantationocene concept traces "the ways that plantation logics organize modern economies, environments, bodies, and social relations." In a similar vein, Indigenous studies scholars such as Métis geographer Zoe Todd have argued that the Epoch must be dated back to the colonization of the Americas, as this “names the problem of colonialism as responsible for contemporary environmental crisis.” Potawatomi philosopher Kyle Powys Whyte has further argued that the Anthropocene has been apparent to Indigenous peoples in the Americas since the inception of colonialism because of "colonialism's role in environmental change."

除了“资本世”之外,学者们还提出了其他一些术语,以广泛追溯这一时代除人类物种以外的其他根源。例如,加内·戴维斯 Janae Davis提出“种植园世 Plantationocene”作为这一时代的定名更合适,以唤起人们对种植园农业在“新纪元”形成过程中所扮演的角色的关注,而同时凯瑟琳·尤索夫 Kathryn Yusoff则认为种族主义在“新纪元”中至关重要。“种植园世”概念追溯了“种植园规律组织现代经济、环境、实体和社会关系的方式”。[164][165][166][167] 同样,梅蒂斯地理学家佐伊 · 托德 Zoe Todd等土著研究学者认为,新纪元必须追溯到美洲殖民时期,因为这可以“将殖民主义问题列为当代环境危机的罪魁祸首”。波塔瓦托米 Potawatomi的哲学家凯尔·波伊斯·怀特 Kyle Powys Whyte进一步提出,自殖民主义开始以来,由于“殖民主义在环境变化中的角色”,美洲土著人民明显地感受到人类世的降临。[169][117][170]

Other critiques of "Anthropocene" have focused on the genealogy of the concept. Todd also provides a phenomenological account, which draws on the work of the philosopher Sara Ahmed, writing: "When discourses and responses to the Anthropocene are being generated within institutions and disciplines which are embedded in broader systems that act as de facto 'white public space,' the academy and its power dynamics must be challenged."[171] Other aspects which constitute current understandings of the concept of the "Anthropocene" such as the ontological split between nature and society, the assumption of the centrality and individuality of the human, and the framing of environmental discourse in largely scientific terms have been criticized by scholars as concepts rooted in colonialism and which reinforce systems of postcolonial domination.[172] To that end, Todd makes the case that the concept of "Anthropocene" must be indigenized and decolonized if it is to become a vehicle of justice as opposed to white thought and domination.

Other critiques of "Anthropocene" have focused on the genealogy of the concept. Todd also provides a phenomenological account, which draws on the work of the philosopher Sara Ahmed, writing: "When discourses and responses to the Anthropocene are being generated within institutions and disciplines which are embedded in broader systems that act as de facto 'white public space,' the academy and its power dynamics must be challenged." Other aspects which constitute current understandings of the concept of the "Anthropocene" such as the ontological split between nature and society, the assumption of the centrality and individuality of the human, and the framing of environmental discourse in largely scientific terms have been criticized by scholars as concepts rooted in colonialism and which reinforce systems of postcolonial domination. To that end, Todd makes the case that the concept of "Anthropocene" must be indigenized and decolonized if it is to become a vehicle of justice as opposed to white thought and domination.

其他对“人类世”的批评主要集中在这一概念的谱系上。托德还根据哲学家萨拉 · 艾哈迈德 Sara Ahmed的著作提供了一个现象学解释,他写道: “当对人类世的论述和回应产生于事实上是“白色公共空间”的更广泛系统中的机构和学科时,学院及其学术权威必须受到挑战。”[171]构成当前对”人类世”概念理解的其他方面,例如自然与社会之间的本体论分裂、人类中心性和个性的假设以及以大部分科学术语构建环境话语框架,都被学者批评为植根于殖民主义和强化后殖民统治体系的概念。为此,托德提出,”人类世”的概念必须本土化和非殖民化,才能成为正义的载体,而不是白人的思想和统治。[172]

The scholar Daniel Wildcat, a Yuchi member of the Muscogee Nation of Oklahoma, for example, has emphasized spiritual connection to the land as a crucial tenet for any ecological movement.[173] Similarly, in her study of the Ladakhi people in northern India, the anthropologist Karine Gagné, detailed their understanding of the relation between nonhuman and human agency as one that is deeply intimate and mutual. For the Ladakhi, the nonhuman alters the epistemic, ethical, and affective development of humans — it provides a way of "being in the world."[174] The Ladakhi, who live in the Himalayas, for example, have seen the retreat of the glaciers not just as a physical loss, but also as the loss of entities which generate knowledge, compel ethical reflections, and foster intimacy. Other scholars have similarly emphasized the need to return to notions of relatedness and interdependence with nature. The writer Jenny Odell has written about what Robin Wall Kimmerer calls "species loneliness,"[175] the loneliness which occurs from the separation of the human and the nonhuman, and the anthropologist Radhika Govindrajan has theorized on the ethics of care, or relatedness, which govern relations between humans and animals.[176] Scholars are divided on whether to do away with the term "Anthropocene" or co-opt it.

The scholar Daniel Wildcat, a Yuchi member of the Muscogee Nation of Oklahoma, for example, has emphasized spiritual connection to the land as a crucial tenet for any ecological movement. Similarly, in her study of the Ladakhi people in northern India, the anthropologist Karine Gagné, detailed their understanding of the relation between nonhuman and human agency as one that is deeply intimate and mutual. For the Ladakhi, the nonhuman alters the epistemic, ethical, and affective development of humans — it provides a way of "being in the world." The Ladakhi, who live in the Himalayas, for example, have seen the retreat of the glaciers not just as a physical loss, but also as the loss of entities which generate knowledge, compel ethical reflections, and foster intimacy. Other scholars have similarly emphasized the need to return to notions of relatedness and interdependence with nature. The writer Jenny Odell has written about what Robin Wall Kimmerer calls "species loneliness," the loneliness which occurs from the separation of the human and the nonhuman, and the anthropologist Radhika Govindrajan has theorized on the ethics of care, or relatedness, which govern relations between humans and animals. Scholars are divided on whether to do away with the term "Anthropocene" or co-opt it.

学者丹尼尔 · 维尔德凯特 Daniel Wildcat是俄克拉荷马州莫斯科吉民族 Muscogee Nation优奇人 Yuchi,他强调与土地的精神联系是任何生态运动的关键原则。[173]同样,人类学家卡琳·加涅 (Karine Gagné)在她对印度北部拉达克人的研究中,详细阐述了他们如何理解非人类和人类行为之间深度亲密的相互关系。对于拉达克人来说,非人类改变了人类的认知、伦理和情感发展,它提供了一种“存在于世界”的路径。[174]例如,住在喜马拉雅山脉的拉达克人认为冰川的退缩不仅是物质上的损失,而且是产生知识、强制伦理思考和促进亲密关系的实体损失。其他学者也同样强调我们的观念需要回归到与自然相互联系和依赖上。作家珍妮 · 奥德尔 Jenny Odell写过罗宾 · 沃尔 · 金默尔 Robin Wall Kimmerer所说的“物种孤独”,[175]即人类与非人类隔离而产生的孤独。人类学家拉迪卡 · 戈文德拉扬 Radhika Govindrajan建立了关怀伦理(或关系伦理),它支配着人类和动物之间的关系。[176]学者们在是否废除“人类世”这个术语上存在分歧。

Popular culture 流行文化

  • The concept gained attention of the public via documentary films[citation needed] such as The Antarctica Challenge: A Global Warning, The Polar Explorer, L'homme a mangé la Terre, Anthropocene: The Human Epoch and Anthropocene.
  • David Grinspoon makes a further distinction in the Anthropocene, namely the "proto-Anthropocene" and "mature Anthropocene". He also mentions the term "Terra Sapiens", or Wise Earth.[177]
  • In 2019, the English musician Nick Mulvey released a music video on YouTube named "In The Anthropocene".[178] In cooperation with Sharp's Brewery, the song was recorded on 105 vinyl records made of washed-up plastic from the Cornish coast.[179]
  • The Anthropocene Reviewed is a podcast and book by author John Green, where he "reviews different facets of the human-centered planet on a five-star scale".[180]
  • In 2015, the American death metal band Cattle Decapitation released its seventh studio album titled The Anthropocene Extinction.[181]
  • In 2020, the artist Grimes released an album titled Miss Anthropocene.
  • The concept gained attention of the public via documentary films such as The Antarctica Challenge: A Global Warning, The Polar Explorer, L'homme a mangé la Terre, Anthropocene: The Human Epoch and Anthropocene.
  • David Grinspoon makes a further distinction in the Anthropocene, namely the "proto-Anthropocene" and "mature Anthropocene". He also mentions the term "Terra Sapiens", or Wise Earth.
  • In 2019, the English musician Nick Mulvey released a music video on YouTube named "In The Anthropocene"."In The Anthropocene" song from Nick Mulvey In cooperation with Sharp's Brewery, the song was recorded on 105 vinyl records made of washed-up plastic from the Cornish coast.CMU: Nick Mulvey releases vinyl made from recycled plastic washed up on Cornish beaches
  • The Anthropocene Reviewed is a podcast and book by author John Green, where he "reviews different facets of the human-centered planet on a five-star scale".
  • In 2015, the American death metal band Cattle Decapitation released its seventh studio album titled The Anthropocene Extinction.
  • In 2020, the artist Grimes released an album titled Miss Anthropocene.
  • 人类世的概念通过一系列纪录片的推广得到了公众的关注,例如《南极洲的挑战: 全球警告》、《极地探险家》、《人类世:荣耀与毁灭》、《人类世: 人类纪元》和《人类世》。
  • 格林斯彭对人类世作了进一步的区分,即“原始人类世”和“成熟人类世”。他还提到“Terra Sapiens”,即智慧地球。[177]
  • 2019年,英国音乐家尼克·马尔维 Nick Mulvey在YouTube上发布了名为“在人类世”的音乐视频。[178]尼克 · 马尔维与夏普啤酒公司合作,将这首歌录制在105张用康沃尔海岸的废塑料制成的黑胶唱片上。[179]
  • 约翰 · 格林 John Green创作了《回顾人类世》一书以及同名播客,在当中他“用五星级规模从不同视角审视了这个以人类为中心的星球”。[180]
  • 2015年,美国死亡金属乐队“Cattle Decapitation”发行了第七张录音室专辑《人类世灭绝》The Anthropocene Extinction[181]
  • 2020年,艺术家格莱姆斯 Grimes发行了一张名为《人类世小姐姐》的专辑。

编者推荐

陆 宏 李江海:如何划分人类世? https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/ve0yBvyfRdiRXk9GpV5oFw 微信公众号-世界地球之旅

国际地层委员会官网:International Commission on Stratigraphy

沉积学与沉积岩岩石学相关课程:沉积岩岩石学_中国地质大学(北京)_中国大学MOOC(慕课) (icourse163.org)

See also 另见

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  • Anthropocentrism
  • Anthropogenic biomes
  • Climate engineering
  • Control of fire by early humans
  • Defaunation
  • Ecocriticism
  • Geobiology
  • Great Transition
  • Holocene extinction
  • Human overpopulation
  • Hypoxia (environmental)
  • International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme
  • Meghalayan
  • Novel ecosystem
  • Overconsumption
  • Planetary boundaries
  • Plastic pollution
  • Power Down: Options and Actions for a Post-Carbon World
  • 人类中心主义
  • 人类生物群落
  • 气候工程
  • 早期人类对火的控制
  • 动物迁徙
  • 生态批评
  • 地球生物学
  • 大变迁
  • 全新世灭绝事件人类人口过剩
  • 缺氧(环境)
  • 国际地圈-生物圈计划
  • 梅加拉扬
  • 新型生态系统
  • 过度消费
  • 地球界限
  • 塑料污染
  • 关闭电源: 后碳世界的选择和行动

References

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Further reading

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  • Bonneuil, Christophe; Fressoz, Jean-Baptiste.(2016) The Shock of the Anthropocene. The Earth, History and Us, Verso Books. Translated by David Fernbach. Originally published as L’événement Anthropocène: La terre, l’histoire et nous. Le Seuil 2013
  • Emmett, Robert, Thomas Lekan, eds. "Whose Anthropocene? Revisiting Dipesh Chakrabarty’s ‘Four Theses,’" RCC Perspectives: Transformations in Environment and Society 2016, no. 2. doi.org/10.5282/rcc/7421.
  • Kim, Rakhyun E. (2021). "Taming Gaia 2.0: Earth System Law in the Ruptured Anthropocene". The Anthropocene Review. https://doi.org/10.1177/20530196211026721
  • Purdy, Jedediah. (2015). "Anthropocene Fever". Aeon. pp. 1–9.
  • Thomas, Julia Adeney, Jan Zalasiewicz, "Strata and Three Stories." RCC Perspectives: Transformations in Environment and Society 2020, no. 3. doi.org/10.5282/rcc/9205.
  • Trischler, Helmuth, ed. "Anthropocene: Exploring the Future of the Age of Humans," RCC Perspectives 2013, no 3. doi.org/10.5282/rcc/5603.
  • Klinkenborg, Verlyn (December 2016). What’s Happening to the Bees and Butterflies? New York Review of Books
  • Vanishing: The Sixth Mass Extinction, and How to stop the sixth mass extinction (December 2016), CNN.
  • 'Ozymandias in the Anthropocene: the city as an emerging landform', Dixon S., et al. (2017) AREA, Royal Geographical Society
  • Bonneuil,Christophe; fresso,Jean-Baptiste.(2016)人类世的冲击。地球,历史和我们,Verso 书店。翻译: David Fernbach。Originally published as L’événement Anthropocène: La terre, l’histoire et nous.Le Seuil 2013
  • Emmett, Robert, Thomas Lekan, eds.“谁的人类世?重读迪佩什 · 查克拉巴蒂的《四条论纲》 ,《 RCC 透视: 环境与社会的转变》 ,2016年,第号。2. doi.org/10.5282/rcc/7421.
  • Purdy, Jedediah.(2015).“人类世热”。伊昂。聚丙烯。1–9.
  • 托马斯、朱莉娅 · 阿德尼(Julia Adeney)、扬 · 萨拉斯维奇(Jan Zalasiewicz) ,《地层与三个故事》(Strata and Three Stories)环境与社会的转变2020年,第号。3. doi.org/10.5282/rcc/9205.
  • Trischler,Helmuth,ed.《人类世: 探索人类时代的未来》 ,英国皇家学会展望2013年第3期, doi.org/10.5282/RCC/5603。
  • Klinkenborg, Verlyn (December 2016).蜜蜂和蝴蝶怎么了?纽约书评
  • 消失: 第六次大规模灭绝,以及如何阻止第六次大规模灭绝(2016年12月) ,CNN。‘ Ozymandias in the Anthropocene: the city as an emerging landform’,Dixon s,et al. 。2017年美国皇家地理学会

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External links

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  • "Have humans created a new geological age?", New Scientist, 24 January 2008
  • Videos of a Radcliffe conference on Biodiversity in the Anthropocene, 10 March 2006
  • "Debate over the Early Anthropogenic Hypothesis", RealClimate, December 2005
  • "Earth Is Us", Dot Earth blog, New York Times, 28 January 2008
  • Recent work on the Early Anthropocene Hypothesis presented at AGU, December 2008
  • Thierry Picquet, "New era in the evolution of the world", Planétarisation
  • Humanity Blamed for 9,000 Years of Global Warming
  • Nothing new under the sun: Anthropogenic global warming started when people began farming, The Economist review; includes nice graphic showing the rise in methane (a greenhouse gas), from agricultural slash-and-burn started 8,000 years ago.
  • How Did Humans First Alter Global Climate?, Scientific American, 2005
  • Methane: A Scientific Journey from Obscurity to Climate Super-Stardom NASA
  • Anthropocene: Have humans created a new geological age? BBC News, 11 May 2011
  • The Anthropocene epoch: have we entered a new phase of planetary history?, The Guardian, 2019
  • Tooze, Adam, "Whose century?", London Review of Books, vol. 42, no. 15 (30 July 2020), pp. 9–13. Tooze closes (p. 13): "Can [the US] fashion a domestic political bargain to enable the US to become what it currently is not: a competent and co-operative partner in the management of the collective risks of the Anthropocene. This is what the Green New Deal promised. After the shock of COVID-19 it is more urgent than ever."
  • The forgotten environmental crisis: how 20th century settler writers foreshadowed the Anthropocene. The Conversation. 3 December 2020.
  • Drawing A Line In The Mud: Scientists Debate When 'Age Of Humans' Began. NPR. 17 March 2021.
  • ”人类是否创造了一个新的地质时代?拉德克利夫生物多样性会议的视频,Anthropocene,2006年3月10日
  • ”关于早期人为假说的辩论”,RealClimate,2005年12月
  • ”地球就是我们”,Dot Earth blog,New York Times,2008年1月28日
  • 2008年12月在 AGU 上提出的早期人类世假说最近的工作
  • Thierry Picquet,”世界进化的新时代”,全球化
  • 人类为9000年的全球变暖负责
  • 太阳底下没有什么新的东西: 人类开始耕作时,全球变暖就开始了,《经济学人》评论;其中包括一张精美的图片,显示了8000年前开始的,农业刀耕火种引起的甲烷(一种温室气体)的上升。
  • 人类是如何首先改变全球气候的?甲烷: 从默默无闻到气候超级巨星的科学之旅 NASA 人类世: 人类是否创造了一个新的地质时代?新闻,2011年5月11日
  • 人类世纪: 我们是否进入了行星历史的新阶段?,卫报,2019
  • 图兹,亚当,“谁的世纪?”,London Review of Books,vol。42号,不。15(2020年7月30日) ,pp。9–13.图泽关闭(图13页) : “(美国)能否在国内达成一项政治协议,使美国成为目前所不具备的样子: 在管理人类世的集体风险方面,成为一个有能力的合作伙伴。这就是绿色新政所承诺的。在2019冠状病毒疾病的冲击之后,这比以往任何时候都更加紧迫。”被遗忘的环境危机: 20世纪的定居者作家如何预示了人类世。对话。二零二零年十二月三日。科学家争论“人类时代”何时开始。全国公共广播电台。二零二一年三月十七日。

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Category:Holocene Category:Human impact on the environment Category:Human ecology Category:1960s neologisms Category:Events in the geological history of Earth

类别: 全新世类别: 人类对环境的影响类别: 人类生态类别: 20世纪60年代的新词类别: 地质史事件


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Anthropocene. Its edit history can be viewed at 人类世/edithistory