地球系统科学

来自集智百科 - 复杂系统|人工智能|复杂科学|复杂网络|自组织
跳到导航 跳到搜索

本词条由小竹凉初步翻译。

此词条暂由彩云小译翻译,翻译字数共1366,未经人工整理和审校,带来阅读不便,请见谅。

An ecological analysis of 模板:Chem in an ecosystem. As systems biology, systems ecology seeks a holistic view of the interactions and transactions within and between biological and ecological systems.

Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth.[1][2][3][4] In particular, it considers interactions and 'feedbacks', through material and energy fluxes, between the Earth's sub-systems' cycles, processes and "spheres"—atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere,[5] geosphere, pedosphere, lithosphere, biosphere,[6] and even the magnetosphere[7]—as well as the impact of human societies on these components.[8] At its broadest scale, Earth system science brings together researchers across both the natural and social sciences, from fields including ecology, economics, geography, geology, glaciology, meteorology, oceanography, climatology, paleontology, sociology, and space science.[9] Like the broader subject of systems science, Earth system science assumes a holistic view of the dynamic interaction between the Earth's spheres and their many constituent subsystems fluxes and processes, the resulting spatial organization and time evolution of these systems, and their variability, stability and instability.[10][11][12] Subsets of Earth System science include systems geology[13][14] and systems ecology,[15] and many aspects of Earth System science are fundamental to the subjects of physical geography[16][17] and climate science.[18]



Earth system science (ESS) is the application of systems science to the Earth. In particular, it considers interactions and 'feedbacks', through material and energy fluxes, between the Earth's sub-systems' cycles, processes and "spheres"—atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, pedosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and even the magnetosphere—as well as the impact of human societies on these components. At its broadest scale, Earth system science brings together researchers across both the natural and social sciences, from fields including ecology, economics, geography, geology, glaciology, meteorology, oceanography, climatology, paleontology, sociology, and space science. Like the broader subject of systems science, Earth system science assumes a holistic view of the dynamic interaction between the Earth's spheres and their many constituent subsystems fluxes and processes, the resulting spatial organization and time evolution of these systems, and their variability, stability and instability. Subsets of Earth System science include systems geology

and systems ecology, and many aspects of Earth System science are fundamental to the subjects of physical geography and climate science.

地球系统科学是系统科学在地球方面的应用。特别是,它通过物质和能量的流动,考虑地球各个子系统的循环、过程和“圈”——大气层、水圈、冰圈、地圈、土壤圈、岩石圈、生物圈,甚至磁圈——之间的相互作用和“反馈”,以及人类社会对这些组成部分的影响。广义上说,地球系统科学汇集了来自自然科学和社会科学的研究人员,领域包括生态学、经济学、地理学、地质学、冰川学、气象学、海洋学、气候学、古生物学、社会学和空间科学。像广义的系统科学一样,地球系统科学对地球球体及其许多组成子系统通量和过程之间的动态相互作用、由此产生的这些系统的空间组织和时间演变及其可变性、稳定性和不稳定性有一个整体的看法。地球系统科学的子集包括系统地质学和系统生态学,地球系统科学的许多方面是自然地理学和气候科学的基础。

Definition

定义

The Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, offers the following description: "Earth System science embraces chemistry, physics, biology, mathematics and applied sciences in transcending disciplinary boundaries to treat the Earth as an integrated system. It seeks a deeper understanding of the physical, chemical, biological and human interactions that determine the past, current and future states of the Earth. Earth System science provides a physical basis for understanding the world in which we live and upon which humankind seeks to achieve sustainability".[19]

The Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College, offers the following description: "Earth System science embraces chemistry, physics, biology, mathematics and applied sciences in transcending disciplinary boundaries to treat the Earth as an integrated system. It seeks a deeper understanding of the physical, chemical, biological and human interactions that determine the past, current and future states of the Earth. Earth System science provides a physical basis for understanding the world in which we live and upon which humankind seeks to achieve sustainability".

卡尔顿学院科学教育资源中心提出: “地球系统科学包括化学、物理、生物、数学和应用科学。它超越学科界限,将地球视为一个完整的系统。它寻求对决定地球过去、现在和未来状态的物理、化学、生物和人类相互作用的更深入的理解。地球系统科学为了解我们生活的世界和人类谋求实现可持续性的世界提供了物理基础”。

Earth System science has articulated four overarching, definitive and critically important features of the Earth System, which include:

Earth System science has articulated four overarching, definitive and critically important features of the Earth System, which include:

地球系统科学阐述了地球系统的四个最重要、最明确和至关重要的特征,其中包括:

  1. Variability: Many of the Earth System's natural 'modes' and variabilities across space and time are beyond human experience, because of the stability of the recent Holocene. Much Earth System science therefore relies on studies of the Earth's past behaviour and models to anticipate future behaviour in response to pressures.
  2. Life: Biological processes play a much stronger role in the functioning and responses of the Earth System than previously thought. It appears to be integral to every part of the Earth System.
  3. Connectivity: Processes are connected in ways and across depths and lateral distances that were previously unknown and inconceivable.
  4. Non-linear: The behaviour of the Earth System is typified by strong non-linearities. This means that abrupt change can result when relatively small changes in a 'forcing function' push the System across a 'threshold'.
  1. Variability: Many of the Earth System's natural 'modes' and variabilities across space and time are beyond human experience, because of the stability of the recent Holocene. Much Earth System science therefore relies on studies of the Earth's past behaviour and models to anticipate future behaviour in response to pressures.
  2. Life: Biological processes play a much stronger role in the functioning and responses of the Earth System than previously thought. It appears to be integral to every part of the Earth System.
  3. Connectivity: Processes are connected in ways and across depths and lateral distances that were previously unknown and inconceivable.
  4. Non-linear: The behaviour of the Earth System is typified by strong non-linearities. This means that abrupt change can result when relatively small changes in a 'forcing function' push the System across a 'threshold'.
  1. 可变性:由于最近全新世的稳定性,地球系统在空间和时间上的许多自然“模式”和可变性超出了人类的经验。因此,许多地球系统科学依靠对地球过去行为和模型的研究来预测未来对压力的反应。2.生命:生物过程在地球系统的功能和反应中发挥着比以前想象的更强大的作用。它似乎是地球系统每一部分的组成部分。3.连接性: 过程以前所未知和难以想象的方式、跨越深度和横向距离进行连接。4.非线性: 地球系统的行为表现为强烈的非线性。这意味着,当“强制函数”中相对较小的变化将系统推过“阈值”时,就会产生突然的变化。

Origins

起源

For millennia, humans have speculated how the physical and living elements on the surface of the Earth combine, with gods and goddesses frequently posited to embody specific elements. The notion that the Earth, itself, is alive was a regular theme of Greek philosophy and religion.[20] Early scientific interpretations of the Earth system began in the field of geology, initially in the Middle East[21] and China,[22] and largely focused on aspects such as the age of the Earth and the large-scale processes involved in mountain and ocean formation. As geology developed as a science, understanding of the interplay of different facets of the Earth system increased, leading to the inclusion of factors such as the Earth's interior, planetary geology and living systems.

For millennia, humans have speculated how the physical and living elements on the surface of the Earth combine, with gods and goddesses frequently posited to embody specific elements. The notion that the Earth, itself, is alive was a regular theme of Greek philosophy and religion. Early scientific interpretations of the Earth system began in the field of geology, initially in the Middle EastFielding H. Garrison, An introduction to the history of medicine, W.B. Saunders, 1921. and China, and largely focused on aspects such as the age of the Earth and the large-scale processes involved in mountain and ocean formation. As geology developed as a science, understanding of the interplay of different facets of the Earth system increased, leading to the inclusion of factors such as the Earth's interior, planetary geology and living systems.

几千年来,人类一直在猜测地球表面的物质和生命元素是如何结合在一起的,神和女神经常被认为是必要的元素。认为地球本身是有生命的观念是希腊哲学和宗教的一个固定主题。对地球系统的早期科学解释始于地质学领域,最初是在中东和中国,且主要集中在地球年龄、山脉和海洋形成所涉及的大规模过程等方面。随着地质学作为一门科学的发展,人们对地球系统不同方面相互作用的理解不断增加,从而包含了诸如地球内部、行星地质学和生命系统等因素。

In many respects, the foundational concepts of Earth System science can be seen in the holistic interpretations of nature promoted by the 19th century geographer Alexander von Humboldt.[23] In the 20th century, Vladimir Vernadsky (1863–1945) saw the functioning of the biosphere as a geological force generating a dynamic disequilibrium, which in turn promoted the diversity of life. In the mid-1960s, James Lovelock first postulated a regulatory role for the biosphere in feedback mechanisms within the Earth system. Initially named the "Earth Feedback hypothesis",[24][25][26] Lovelock later renamed it the Gaia hypothesis,[20] and subsequently further developed the theory with American evolutionary theorist Lynn Margulis during the 1970s.[25][27] In parallel, the field of systems science was developing across numerous other scientific fields, driven in part by the increasing availability and power of computers, and leading to the development of climate models that began to allow the detailed and interacting simulations of the Earth's weather and climate.[28] Subsequent extension of these models has led to the development of "Earth system models" (ESMs) that include facets such as the cryosphere and the biosphere.[29]

In many respects, the foundational concepts of Earth System science can be seen in the holistic interpretations of nature promoted by the 19th century geographer Alexander von Humboldt. In the 20th century, Vladimir Vernadsky (1863–1945) saw the functioning of the biosphere as a geological force generating a dynamic disequilibrium, which in turn promoted the diversity of life. In the mid-1960s, James Lovelock first postulated a regulatory role for the biosphere in feedback mechanisms within the Earth system. Initially named the "Earth Feedback hypothesis", Lovelock later renamed it the Gaia hypothesis, and subsequently further developed the theory with American evolutionary theorist Lynn Margulis during the 1970s. In parallel, the field of systems science was developing across numerous other scientific fields, driven in part by the increasing availability and power of computers, and leading to the development of climate models that began to allow the detailed and interacting simulations of the Earth's weather and climate. Subsequent extension of these models has led to the development of "Earth system models" (ESMs) that include facets such as the cryosphere and the biosphere.

在许多方面,地球系统科学的基本概念可以在19世纪地理学家亚历山大·冯·洪堡对自然的整体解释中看到。在20世纪,弗拉基米尔·弗纳德斯基(1863-1945)将生物圈的功能视为产生动态不平衡的地质力量,这反过来又促进了生命的多样性。20世纪60年代中期,詹姆斯·洛夫洛克首次提出生物圈在地球系统反馈机制中的调节作用。洛夫洛克最初将其命名为“地球反馈假说”,后来又将其改名为“盖亚假说”(Gaia hypothesis) ,并在20世纪70年代与美国进化理论学家林恩 · 马古利斯进一步发展了这一理论。与此同时,系统科学领域正在跨越许多其他科学领域发展,部分原因是计算机的可用性和能力不断提高,并导致气候模型的发展,开始能够对地球的天气和气候进行详细和相互作用的模拟。这些模型随后的扩展导致了包括冰冻圈和生物圈等方面的“地球系统模型”的发展。

As an integrative field, Earth System science assumes the histories of a vast range of scientific disciplines, but as a discrete study it evolved in the 1980s, particularly at NASA, where a committee called the Earth System Science Committee was formed in 1983. The earliest reports of NASA's ESSC, Earth System Science: Overview (1986), and the book-length Earth System Science: A Closer View (1988), constitute a major landmark in the formal development of Earth system science.[30] Early works discussing Earth system science, like these NASA reports, generally emphasized the increasing human impacts on the Earth system as a primary driver for the need of greater integration among the life and geo-sciences, making the origins of Earth system science parallel to the beginnings of global change studies and programs.

As an integrative field, Earth System science assumes the histories of a vast range of scientific disciplines, but as a discrete study it evolved in the 1980s, particularly at NASA, where a committee called the Earth System Science Committee was formed in 1983. The earliest reports of NASA's ESSC, Earth System Science: Overview (1986), and the book-length Earth System Science: A Closer View (1988), constitute a major landmark in the formal development of Earth system science. Early works discussing Earth system science, like these NASA reports, generally emphasized the increasing human impacts on the Earth system as a primary driver for the need of greater integration among the life and geo-sciences, making the origins of Earth system science parallel to the beginnings of global change studies and programs.

作为一个综合性领域,地球系统科学假定了大范围科学分支的历史。但它在20世纪80年代才作为一个独立的研究发展起来,特别是1983年在美国国家航空航天局中成立的一个叫做地球系统科学委员会的组织。美国国家航空航天局的地球系统科学中心ESSC最早的报告《地球系统科学:概述》(1986年)和长达一本书的《地球系统科学:近距离观察》(1988年)是地球系统科学正式发展的一个重要里程碑。讨论地球系统科学的早期著作,如美国国家航空航天局的这些报告,一般强调人类对地球系统的影响日益增加,这是生命科学和地球科学之间进一步整合的主要驱动力,它使地球系统科学的起源与全球变化研究项目开始平行。

Climate science

气候科学

文件:Ocean & Earth System.jpg
The dynamic interaction of the Earth's oceans, climatological, geochemical systems.地球海洋、气候学、地球化学系统的动态相互作用。

Climatology and climate change have been central to Earth System science since its inception, as evidenced by the prominent place given to climate change in the early NASA reports discussed above. The Earth's climate system is a prime example of an emergent property of the whole planetary system, that is, one which cannot be fully understood without regarding it as a single integrated entity. It is also a system where human impacts have been growing rapidly in recent decades, lending immense importance to the successful development and advancement of Earth System science research. As just one example of the centrality of climatology to the field, leading American climatologist Michael E. Mann is the Director of one of the earliest centers for Earth System science research, the Earth System Science Center at Pennsylvania State University, and its mission statement reads, "the Earth System Science Center (ESSC) maintains a mission to describe, model, and understand the Earth's climate system".[31]


Climatology and climate change have been central to Earth System science since its inception, as evidenced by the prominent place given to climate change in the early NASA reports discussed above. The Earth's climate system is a prime example of an emergent property of the whole planetary system, that is, one which cannot be fully understood without regarding it as a single integrated entity. It is also a system where human impacts have been growing rapidly in recent decades, lending immense importance to the successful development and advancement of Earth System science research. As just one example of the centrality of climatology to the field, leading American climatologist Michael E. Mann is the Director of one of the earliest centers for Earth System science research, the Earth System Science Center at Pennsylvania State University, and its mission statement reads, "the Earth System Science Center (ESSC) maintains a mission to describe, model, and understand the Earth's climate system".

气候学和气候变化从一开始就是地球系统科学的核心,正如上文讨论的美国国家航空航天局早期报告中对气候变化的突出重视。地球的气候系统是整个行星系统的一个涌现特性的主要例子,也就是说,如果不把它看作一个单一的整体,就不能完全理解它。这也是一个近几十年来人类影响迅速增长的系统,为地球系统科学研究的成功发展和进步带来了巨大的重要性。作为气候学在该领域的中心地位的例子,美国著名气候学家迈克尔·E·曼是最早的地球系统科学研究中心之一,宾夕法尼亚州立大学地球系统科学中心的主任,他声明说: “地球系统科学中心(ESSC)承担着描述、模拟和理解地球气候系统的使命。”

Relationship to the Gaia hypothesis

与盖亚假说的关系

The Gaia hypothesis posits that living systems interact with physical components of the Earth system to form a self-regulating whole that maintains conditions that are favourable for life. Developed initially by James Lovelock, the hypothesis attempts to account for key features of the Earth system, including the long period (several billion years) of relatively favourable climatic conditions against a backdrop of steadily increasing solar radiation. Consequently, the Gaia hypothesis has important implications for Earth system science, as noted by NASA's Director for Planetary Science, James Green, in October 2010: "Dr. Lovelock and Dr. Margulis played a key role in the origins of what we now know as Earth system science".[32]


The Gaia hypothesis posits that living systems interact with physical components of the Earth system to form a self-regulating whole that maintains conditions that are favourable for life. Developed initially by James Lovelock, the hypothesis attempts to account for key features of the Earth system, including the long period (several billion years) of relatively favourable climatic conditions against a backdrop of steadily increasing solar radiation. Consequently, the Gaia hypothesis has important implications for Earth system science, as noted by NASA's Director for Planetary Science, James Green, in October 2010: "Dr. Lovelock and Dr. Margulis played a key role in the origins of what we now know as Earth system science".

盖亚假说认为,生命系统与地球系统的物理成分相互作用,形成一个自我调节的整体,维持有利于生命的条件。该假说最初由詹姆斯·洛夫洛克提出,试图解释地球系统的关键特征,包括在太阳辐射稳步增加的背景下相对有利的气候条件的长期(几十亿年)。因此,盖亚假说对地球系统科学具有重要意义,正如美国国家航空航天局行星科学主任詹姆斯·格林在2010年10月指出的那样:“洛夫洛克博士和马古利斯博士在我们现在所知的地球系统科学的起源中发挥了关键作用”。

Although the Gaia hypothesis and Earth system science take an interdisciplinary approach to studying systems operations on a planetary-scale,[25] they are not synonymous with one another. A number of potential Gaian feedback mechanisms have been proposed—such as the CLAW hypothesis[33]—but the hypothesis does not have universal support within the scientific community,[34][35][36][37] though it remains an active research topic.[38][39][40][41]

Although the Gaia hypothesis and Earth system science take an interdisciplinary approach to studying systems operations on a planetary-scale, they are not synonymous with one another. A number of potential Gaian feedback mechanisms have been proposed—such as the CLAW hypothesis—but the hypothesis does not have universal support within the scientific community, though it remains an active research topic.

尽管盖亚假说和地球系统科学采用跨学科的方法来研究行星尺度上的系统运行,但它们并不是彼此的同义词。人们已经提出了一些潜在的盖亚反馈机制,如爪假说,但是该假说在科学界没有得到普遍支持,尽管它仍然是一个活跃的研究课题。

Education

教育

Earth System science can be studied at a postgraduate level at some universities, with notable programs at such institutions as the University of California, Irvine, Pennsylvania State University, and Stanford University. In general education, the American Geophysical Union, in cooperation with the Keck Geology Consortium and with support from five divisions within the National Science Foundation, convened a workshop in 1996, "to define common educational goals among all disciplines in the Earth sciences". In its report, participants noted that, "The fields that make up the Earth and space sciences are currently undergoing a major advancement that promotes understanding the Earth as a number of interrelated systems". Recognizing the rise of this systems approach, the workshop report recommended that an Earth System science curriculum be developed with support from the National Science Foundation.[42] In 2000, the Earth System Science Education Alliance was begun, and currently includes the participation of 40+ institutions, with over 3,000 teachers having completed an ESSEA course as of fall 2009".[43]

Earth System science can be studied at a postgraduate level at some universities, with notable programs at such institutions as the University of California, Irvine, Pennsylvania State University, and Stanford University. In general education, the American Geophysical Union, in cooperation with the Keck Geology Consortium and with support from five divisions within the National Science Foundation, convened a workshop in 1996, "to define common educational goals among all disciplines in the Earth sciences". In its report, participants noted that, "The fields that make up the Earth and space sciences are currently undergoing a major advancement that promotes understanding the Earth as a number of interrelated systems". Recognizing the rise of this systems approach, the workshop report recommended that an Earth System science curriculum be developed with support from the National Science Foundation. In 2000, the Earth System Science Education Alliance was begun, and currently includes the participation of 40+ institutions, with over 3,000 teachers having completed an ESSEA course as of fall 2009".

地球系统科学可以在一些大学开展研究生水平的教学学习,比如加利福尼亚大学欧文分校,宾夕法尼亚州立大学和斯坦福大学。在普通教育方面,美国地球物理学联合会与凯克地质联合会合作,在国家科学基金会五个部门的支持下,于1996年召开了一次研讨会,“以确定地球科学所有学科的共同教育目标”。与会者在报告中指出,“构成地球和空间科学的领域目前正在取得重大进展,促进了对地球作为一系列相互关联的系统的理解”。他们认识到这种系统方法的兴起,建议在国家科学基金会的支持下开发地球系统科学课程。2000年,地球系统科学教育联盟成立,目前包括40多个机构的参与,截至2009年秋季,已有3,000多名教师完成了ESSEA课程”。

See also

模板:Portal


  • Earth system governance

地球系统治理

编者推荐

地球系统科学简史:理解地球复杂性的多学科探索历程

References

  1. Stanley, Steven M. (2005). Earth System History. Macmillan. ISBN 9780716739074. https://books.google.com/books?id=jd01mugCR7EC. 
  2. Jacobson, Michael (2000). Earth System Science, From Biogeochemical Cycles to Global Changes (2nd ed.). London: Elsevier Academic Press. ISBN 978-0123793706. https://play.google.com/books/reader?id=85YkdAm5tdoC&printsec=frontcover&output=reader&hl=en&pg=GBS.PA52.w.5.0.135. 
  3. Kump, Lee (2004). The Earth System (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-142059-5. 
  4. Christiansen, E.H.; Hamblin, W.K. (2014). Dynamic Earth. Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN 9781449659028. https://books.google.com/books?id=KEUoAwAAQBAJ&q=Dynamic+Earth+Hamblin. 
  5. Harris, Charles; Murton, Julian B. (2005). Cryospheric Systems: Glaciers and Permafrost. Geological Society of London. ISBN 9781862391758. https://books.google.com/books?id=F0KswTI39l8C&q=Cryospheric+Systems:+Glaciers+and+Permafrost. 
  6. Cockell, Charles (2008-02-28). An Introduction to the Earth-Life System. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521493918. https://books.google.com/books?id=95omVa4NRHIC. 
  7. Ohtani, Shin-ichi; Fujii, Ryoichi; Hesse, Michael; Lysak, Robert L. (2000). Magnetospheric Current Systems. American Geophysical Union. ISBN 9780875909769. https://books.google.com/books?id=QkuzsHT_U7sC&q=Magnetospheric+Current+Systems. 
  8. Ehlers, Eckart; Moss, C.; Krafft, Thomas (2006). Earth System Science in the Anthropocene: Emerging Issues and Problems. Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 9783540265900. https://books.google.com/books?id=Id3Z5XTcOWgC&q=Earth+System+Science+in+the+Anthropocene:+Emerging+Issues+and+Problems. 
  9. Butz, Stephen D. (2004). Science of Earth Systems. Thomson Learning. ISBN 978-0766833913. https://books.google.com/books?id=JB4ArbvXXDEC. 
  10. Hergarten, Stefan (2002). Self-Organized Criticality in Earth Systems. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 9783540434528. https://books.google.com/books?id=eBZbupdVnYAC&q=editions:XHdrTJ13cowC. 
  11. Tsonis, Anastasios A.; Elsner, James B. (2007). Nonlinear Dynamics in Geosciences. Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 9780387349183. https://books.google.com/books?id=-DLT_oqrs2gC&q=%22Nonlinear+Dynamics+in+Geosciences%22. 
  12. Neugebauer, Horst J.; Simmer, Clemens (2003). Dynamics of Multiscale Earth Systems. Springer. ISBN 9783540417965. https://books.google.com/books?id=h_y0Tg6KjbAC&q=editions:v80ZkcBaS6wC. 
  13. Merritts, Dorothy; De Wet, Andrew; Menking, Kirsten (1998). Environmental Geology: An Earth System Science Approach. W. H. Freeman. ISBN 9780716728344. https://books.google.com/books?id=XOdfzBxgZGMC&q=systems+geology. 
  14. Martin, Ronald (2011). Earth's Evolving Systems: The History of Planet Earth. Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN 9780763780012. https://books.google.com/books?id=agaOKrvAoeAC&q=%22earth+systems%22+geology. 
  15. Wilkinson, David M. (2006). Fundamental Processes in Ecology: An Earth Systems Approach. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198568469. https://books.google.com/books?id=PFGWHyRyzBwC&q=Fundamental+Processes+in+Ecology:+An+Earth+Systems+Approach. 
  16. Pidwirny, Michael; Jones, Scott (1999–2015). "Physical Geography".
  17. Marsh, William M.; Kaufman, Martin M. (2013). Physical Geography: Great Systems and Global Environments. Cambridege University Press. ISBN 9780521764285. https://books.google.com/books?id=uF3aJSC20yMC&q=physical+geography+system. 
  18. Cornell, Sarah E.; Prentice, I. Colin; House, Joanna I.; Downy, Catherine J. (2012). Understanding the Earth System: Global Change Science for Application. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139560542. https://books.google.com/books?id=J14gAwAAQBAJ&q=Understanding+the+Earth+System:+Global+Change+Science+for+Application&pg=PP1. 
  19. "Earth System Science in a Nutshell". Carleton College. Retrieved 10 March 2009.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Tickell, Crispin (2006). "Earth Systems Science: Are We Pushing Gaia Too Hard?". 46th Annual Bennett Lecture - University of Leicester. London: University of Leicester. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  21. Fielding H. Garrison, An introduction to the history of medicine, W.B. Saunders, 1921.
  22. Asimov, M. S.; Bosworth, Clifford Edmund, eds. The Age of Achievement: A.D. 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century : The Achievements. History of civilizations of Central Asia. pp. 211–214. ISBN 978-92-3-102719-2. 
  23. Jackson, Stephen T. (2009). "Alexander von Humboldt and the General Physics of the Earth" (PDF). Science. 324 (5927): 596–597. doi:10.1126/science.1171659. PMID 19407186. Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help)
  24. Kasting, James (24 April 2014). "The Gaia Hypothesis is Still Giving Us Feedback". Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Schneider, Stephen; Boston, Penelope (1992). "The Gaia Hypothesis and Earth System Science" (PDF). University of Florida. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  26. Highfield, Roger (April 2014). "Unlocking Lovelock, science's greatest maverick". The Telegraph. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  27. Gribbon, John and Mary (2009). James Lovelock: In Search of Gaia. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 
  28. Edwards, P.N. (2010). "History of climate modelling" (PDF). Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change. 2: 128–139. doi:10.1002/wcc.95. hdl:2027.42/79438.
  29. Washington, W.M.; Buja, L.; Craig, A. (2009). "The computational future for climate and Earth system models: on the path to petaflop and beyond". Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A. 367 (1890): 833–846. Bibcode:2009RSPTA.367..833W. doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0219. PMID 19087933.
  30. Mooney, Harold; et al. (26 February 2013). "Evolution of natural and social science interactions in global change research programs". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (Supplement 1, 3665–3672): 3665–3672. Bibcode:2013PNAS..110.3665M. doi:10.1073/pnas.1107484110. PMC 3586612. PMID 23297237.
  31. Mann, Michael. "Earth System Science Center". Penn State University. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
  32. NASA, 50th Anniversary Symposium: Seeking Signs of Life. "Opening Keynote - 'Exobiology in the Beginning'". livestream.com. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  33. Charlson, R. J., Lovelock, J. E., Andreae, M. O. and Warren, S. G. (1987). "Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulphur, cloud albedo and climate". Nature. 326 (6114): 655–661. Bibcode:1987Natur.326..655C. doi:10.1038/326655a0. Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  34. Kirchner, James W. (2002), "Toward a future for Gaia theory", Climatic Change, 52 (4): 391–408, doi:10.1023/a:1014237331082 Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help)
  35. Volk, Tyler (2002), "The Gaia hypothesis: fact, theory, and wishful thinking", Climatic Change, 52 (4): 423–430, doi:10.1023/a:1014218227825 Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help)
  36. Beerling, David (2007). The Emerald Planet: How plants changed Earth's history. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280602-4. http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780192806024.do. 
  37. Tyrrell, Toby (2013), On Gaia: A Critical Investigation of the Relationship between Life and Earth, Princeton: Princeton University Press, ISBN 9780691121581
  38. Hamilton, W.D.; Lenton, T.M. (1998). "Spora and Gaia: how microbes fly with their clouds". Ethology Ecology & Evolution. 10 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1080/08927014.1998.9522867. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011.
  39. Lenton, TM; Lovelock, JE (2000). "Daisyworld is Darwinian: Constraints on adaptation are important for planetary self-regulation". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 206 (1): 109–14. doi:10.1006/jtbi.2000.2105. PMID 10968941.
  40. Kirchner, James W. (2003). "The Gaia Hypothesis: Conjectures and Refutations". Climatic Change. 58 (1–2): 21–45. doi:10.1023/A:1023494111532. Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help)
  41. Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S. (2011), "The case against climate regulation via oceanic phytoplankton sulphur emissions", Nature, 480 (7375): 51–56, Bibcode:2011Natur.480...51Q, doi:10.1038/nature10580, PMID 22129724 Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help)
  42. "Shaping the Future of Undergraduate Earth Science Education". American Geophysical Union. Archived from the original on 16 September 2008. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
  43. "Earth System Science Education Alliance". Retrieved 25 July 2015.

模板:Systems


Category:Global natural environment

分类: 全球自然环境


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Earth system science. Its edit history can be viewed at 地球系统科学/edithistory