地球能量收支

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Earth's climate is largely determined by the planet's energy budget, i.e., the balance of incoming and outgoing radiation. It is measured by satellites and shown in W/m2.[1]

Earth's energy budget accounts for the balance between the energy that Earth receives from the Sun and the energy the Earth loses back into outer space. Smaller energy sources, such as Earth's internal heat, are taken into consideration, but make a tiny contribution compared to solar energy. The energy budget also accounts for how energy moves through the climate system.[2] Because the Sun heats the equatorial tropics more than the polar regions, received solar irradiance is unevenly distributed. As the energy seeks equilibrium across the planet, it drives interactions in Earth's climate system, i.e., Earth's water, ice, atmosphere, rocky crust, and all living things.[3] The result is Earth's climate.

Earth's energy budget accounts for the balance between the energy that Earth receives from the Sun and the energy the Earth loses back into outer space. Smaller energy sources, such as Earth's internal heat, are taken into consideration, but make a tiny contribution compared to solar energy. The energy budget also accounts for how energy moves through the climate system. "energy budget" Because the Sun heats the equatorial tropics more than the polar regions, received solar irradiance is unevenly distributed. As the energy seeks equilibrium across the planet, it drives interactions in Earth's climate system, i.e., Earth's water, ice, atmosphere, rocky crust, and all living things. "climate system" The result is Earth's climate.

地球能量收支代表地球接收的太阳能量和散失到外层空间的能量之间的平衡。虽然地球内部热量等较小的能量源也被考虑在内,相对与太阳能来说,但贡献很小。能量收支还可以解释能量如何在气候系统中流动。由于太阳能量辐射赤道热带多于极地,所以太阳辐照度分布不均。随着能量在地球上寻求平衡,它驱动了地球气候系统(即水、冰、大气、岩石地壳和所有生物)中的相互作用,最终形成地球气候。

Earth's energy budget depends on many factors, such as atmospheric aerosols, greenhouse gases, the planet's surface albedo (reflectivity), clouds, vegetation, land use patterns, and more. When the incoming and outgoing energy fluxes are in balance, Earth is in radiative equilibrium and the climate system will be relatively stable. Global warming occurs when earth receives more energy than it gives back to space, and global cooling takes place when the outgoing energy is greater.[4] Multiple types of measurements and observations show a warming imbalance since at least year 1970.[5][6] The rate of heating from this human-caused event is without precedence.[7]

Earth's energy budget depends on many factors, such as atmospheric aerosols, greenhouse gases, the planet's surface albedo (reflectivity), clouds, vegetation, land use patterns, and more. When the incoming and outgoing energy fluxes are in balance, Earth is in radiative equilibrium and the climate system will be relatively stable. Global warming occurs when earth receives more energy than it gives back to space, and global cooling takes place when the outgoing energy is greater. Multiple types of measurements and observations show a warming imbalance since at least year 1970. The rate of heating from this human-caused event is without precedence.

地球的能量收支取决于许多因素,例如大气气溶胶、温室气体、地球表面反射率、云层、植被、土地使用模式等等。当输入和输出的能量流处于平衡状态时,地球处于辐射平衡,气候系统将相对稳定。当地球吸收的能量多于回馈给太空的能量时,就会发生全球变暖; 当输出的能量更大时,就会发生全球变冷。多种类型的测量和观测显示,至少自1970年以来,气候变暖不平衡。这次人为事件的加热速度是无先例的。

When the energy budget changes, there is a delay before average global surface temperature changes significantly. This is due to the thermal inertia of the oceans, land and cryosphere.[8] Accurate quantification of these energy flows and storage amounts is a requirement within most climate models.

When the energy budget changes, there is a delay before average global surface temperature changes significantly. This is due to the thermal inertia of the oceans, land and cryosphere. Accurate quantification of these energy flows and storage amounts is a requirement within most climate models.

当能量收支发生变化时,在全球平均地表温度发生显著变化之前存在一个延迟。这是由于海洋、陆地和冰冻层的热惯性。大多数气候模型都要求对这些能量流和储存量进行准确的量化。

Earth's energy flows

文件:NPP Ceres Shortwave Radiation.ogv
Incoming, top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave flux radiation, shows energy received from the sun (26–27 Jan 2012).

In spite of the enormous transfers of energy into and from the Earth, it maintains a relatively constant temperature because, as a whole, there is little net gain or loss: Earth emits via atmospheric and terrestrial radiation (shifted to longer electromagnetic wavelengths) to space about the same amount of energy as it receives via solar insolation (all forms of electromagnetic radiation).

thumb|upright=1.3|Incoming, top-of-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave flux radiation, shows energy received from the sun (26–27 Jan 2012). In spite of the enormous transfers of energy into and from the Earth, it maintains a relatively constant temperature because, as a whole, there is little net gain or loss: Earth emits via atmospheric and terrestrial radiation (shifted to longer electromagnetic wavelengths) to space about the same amount of energy as it receives via solar insolation (all forms of electromagnetic radiation).

= = = 地球能量流 = = 拇指 | 竖直 = 1.3 | 入射的大气顶部短波通量辐射,显示了从太阳接收到的能量(2012年1月26日至27日)。尽管有大量能量进出地球,但地球的温度保持相对恒定,因为总体而言,净增益或净损失很小: 地球通过大气和地面辐射向太空释放的能量(转换为更长的电磁波长)与通过太阳辐射(所有形式的电磁辐射)接收的能量大致相同。

Incoming radiant energy (shortwave)

The total amount of energy received per second at the top of Earth's atmosphere (TOA) is measured in watts and is given by the solar constant times the cross-sectional area of the Earth corresponded to the radiation. Because the surface area of a sphere is four times the cross-sectional area of a sphere (i.e. the area of a circle), the globally and yearly averaged TOA flux is one quarter of the solar constant and so is approximately 340 watts per square meter (W/m2).[1][9] Since the absorption varies with location as well as with diurnal, seasonal and annual variations, the numbers quoted are multi-year averages obtained from multiple satellite measurements.[1]


The total amount of energy received per second at the top of Earth's atmosphere (TOA) is measured in watts and is given by the solar constant times the cross-sectional area of the Earth corresponded to the radiation. Because the surface area of a sphere is four times the cross-sectional area of a sphere (i.e. the area of a circle), the globally and yearly averaged TOA flux is one quarter of the solar constant and so is approximately 340 watts per square meter (W/m2). Since the absorption varies with location as well as with diurnal, seasonal and annual variations, the numbers quoted are multi-year averages obtained from multiple satellite measurements.

= = = 入射辐射能(短波) = = = 地球大气层顶部每秒接收的总能量(TOA)以瓦为单位,用太阳常数乘以地球截面积与辐射相对应的面积得出。因为一个球体的表面积是一个球体横截面积的四倍(即。圆的面积) ,全球和年平均 TOA 通量是太阳常数的四分之一,因此大约是每平方米340瓦(w/m2)。由于吸收随地点以及日变化、季节变化和年变化而变化,所引用的数字是多次卫星测量得到的多年平均值。

Of the ~340 W/m2 of solar radiation received by the Earth, an average of ~77 W/m2 is reflected back to space by clouds and the atmosphere and ~23 W/m2 is reflected by the surface albedo, leaving ~240 W/m2 of solar energy input to the Earth's energy budget. This amount is called the absorbed solar radiation (ASR). It implies a mean net albedo for Earth (specifically, its Bond albedo) of 0.306.[1]

Of the ~340 W/m2 of solar radiation received by the Earth, an average of ~77 W/m2 is reflected back to space by clouds and the atmosphere and ~23 W/m2 is reflected by the surface albedo, leaving ~240 W/m2 of solar energy input to the Earth's energy budget. This amount is called the absorbed solar radiation (ASR). It implies a mean net albedo for Earth (specifically, its Bond albedo) of 0.306.

在地球接收的约340 w/m2的太阳辐射中,平均约77 w/m2被云层和大气反射回太空,约23 w/m2被地表反照率反射回太阳,留下约240 w/m2的太阳能输入给地球的能量收支。这个量称为被吸收的太阳辐射(ASR)。它意味着地球的平均净反照率(具体地说,它的邦德反照率)为0.306。

Outgoing longwave radiation

文件:NPP Ceres Longwave Radiation.ogv
Outgoing, longwave flux radiation at the top-of-atmosphere (26–27 Jan 2012). Heat energy radiated from Earth (in watts per square metre) is shown in shades of yellow, red, blue and white. The brightest-yellow areas are the hottest and are emitting the most energy out to space, while the dark blue areas and the bright white clouds are much colder, emitting the least energy.

thumb|upright=1.3|Outgoing, longwave flux radiation at the top-of-atmosphere (26–27 Jan 2012). Heat energy radiated from Earth (in watts per square metre) is shown in shades of yellow, red, blue and white. The brightest-yellow areas are the hottest and are emitting the most energy out to space, while the dark blue areas and the bright white clouds are much colder, emitting the least energy.


= = = 地球长波辐射 = = = 拇指 | 竖直 = 1.3 | 大气层顶部向外的长波通量辐射(2012年1月26-27日)。地球辐射的热能(每平方米瓦特)以黄色、红色、蓝色和白色的阴影显示。最亮的黄色区域是最热的,向太空释放的能量最多,而深蓝色区域和明亮的白色云层则要冷得多,释放的能量最少。

Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is usually defined as outgoing energy leaving the planet, most of which is in the infrared band. Generally, absorbed solar energy is converted to different forms of heat energy. Some of this energy is emitted as OLR directly to space, while the rest is first transported through the climate system as radiant and other forms of thermal energy. For example, indirect emissions occur following heat transport from the planet's surface layers (land and ocean) to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration and latent heat fluxes or conduction/convection processes.[1] Ultimately, all of outgoing energy is radiated in the form of longwave radiation back into space.

Outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is usually defined as outgoing energy leaving the planet, most of which is in the infrared band. Generally, absorbed solar energy is converted to different forms of heat energy. Some of this energy is emitted as OLR directly to space, while the rest is first transported through the climate system as radiant and other forms of thermal energy. For example, indirect emissions occur following heat transport from the planet's surface layers (land and ocean) to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration and latent heat fluxes or conduction/convection processes. Ultimately, all of outgoing energy is radiated in the form of longwave radiation back into space.

地球长波辐射通常被定义为离开行星的能量输出,其中大部分是在红外波段。一般来说,吸收的太阳能转化为不同形式的热能。其中一部分能量以 OLR 的形式直接发射到太空,而其余的能量则首先以辐射能和其他形式的热能的形式通过气候系统传输。例如,地球表层(陆地和海洋)通过蒸发散和潜热通量或传导/对流过程将热量输送到大气层之后,就会产生间接排放。最终,所有的输出能量都以长波辐射的形式辐射回太空。

Despite multiple other influences, the Stefan-Boltzmann law of radiation describes the fundamental dependence of OLR upon Earth's surface skin temperature (Tskin):

[math]\displaystyle{ OLR = \sigma T_{skin}^{4}. }[/math]

Tskin has been globally measured from satellite observations of OLR in the infrared and microwave bands, and is approximated by in-situ surface temperatures.[10] The strong (fourth-power) temperature sensitivity acts to maintain a near-balance of the outgoing energy flow to the incoming flow via small changes in absolute temperature.

Despite multiple other influences, the Stefan-Boltzmann law of radiation describes the fundamental dependence of OLR upon Earth's surface skin temperature (Tskin):

OLR = \sigma T_{skin}^{4}.

Tskin has been globally measured from satellite observations of OLR in the infrared and microwave bands, and is approximated by in-situ surface temperatures. The strong (fourth-power) temperature sensitivity acts to maintain a near-balance of the outgoing energy flow to the incoming flow via small changes in absolute temperature.

尽管存在多重影响,斯特藩-玻尔兹曼辐射定律描述了 OLR 对地球表面皮肤温度的基本依赖性: :(Tskin):

[math]\displaystyle{ OLR = \sigma T_{skin}^{4}. }[/math] 。通过对 OLR 的红外和微波波段的卫星观测,对 Tskin 进行了全球测量,并用地表温度进行了近似计算。强大的(四次方)温度敏感性行为,以保持一个近乎平衡的能量流出的流入通过微小的变化,在绝对温度。

Earth's internal heat sources and other small effects

The geothermal heat flow from the Earth's interior is estimated to be 47 terawatts (TW)[11] and split approximately equally between radiogenic heat and heat left over from the Earth's formation. This corresponds to an average flux of 0.087 W/m2 and represents only 0.027% of Earth's total energy budget at the surface, being dwarfed by the 173,000 TW of incoming solar radiation.[12]

The geothermal heat flow from the Earth's interior is estimated to be 47 terawatts (TW) and split approximately equally between radiogenic heat and heat left over from the Earth's formation. This corresponds to an average flux of 0.087 W/m2 and represents only 0.027% of Earth's total energy budget at the surface, being dwarfed by the 173,000 TW of incoming solar radiation.

来自地球内部的地热热流估计为47太瓦(TW) ,在放射性成因热量和地球形成剩余热量之间大致平分。这相当于0.087 w/m2的平均通量,仅占地球表面总能量收支的0.027% ,与173000太瓦的太阳辐射相比相形见绌。

Human production of energy is even lower at an estimated 160,000 TW-hr for all of year 2019. This corresponds to an average continuous heat flow of about 18 TW.[13]

Human production of energy is even lower at an estimated 160,000 TW-hr for all of year 2019. This corresponds to an average continuous heat flow of about 18 TW.

2019年全年,人类的能源产量估计为每小时160000 TW-hr,甚至更低。这相当于大约18太瓦的平均连续热流。

Photosynthesis has a larger effect: An estimated 140 TW (or around 0.08%) of incident energy gets captured by photosynthesis, giving energy to plants to produce biomass.[14] A similar flow of thermal energy is released over the course of a year when plants are used as food or fuel.

Photosynthesis has a larger effect: An estimated 140 TW (or around 0.08%) of incident energy gets captured by photosynthesis, giving energy to plants to produce biomass. A similar flow of thermal energy is released over the course of a year when plants are used as food or fuel.

光合作用有一个更大的影响: 估计140太瓦(或约0.08%)的入射能量通过光合作用获得,给予植物能量生产生物量。当植物被用作食物或燃料时,一年中也会释放出类似的热能流。

Other minor sources of energy are usually ignored in the calculations, including accretion of interplanetary dust and solar wind, light from stars other than the Sun and the thermal radiation from space. Earlier, Joseph Fourier had claimed that deep space radiation was significant in a paper often cited as the first on the greenhouse effect.[15]

Other minor sources of energy are usually ignored in the calculations, including accretion of interplanetary dust and solar wind, light from stars other than the Sun and the thermal radiation from space. Earlier, Joseph Fourier had claimed that deep space radiation was significant in a paper often cited as the first on the greenhouse effect.

其他次要的能量来源通常在计算中被忽略,包括行星际尘埃和太阳风的吸积、来自除太阳以外的其他恒星的光以及来自太空的热辐射。早些时候,约瑟夫 · 傅立叶在一篇经常被引用为第一篇关于温室效应的论文中声称深空辐射是重要的。

Budget analysis

A Sankey diagram illustrating the Earth's energy budget described in this section – line thickness is linearly proportional to relative amount of energy.[16]

In simplest terms, Earth's energy budget is balanced when the incoming flow equals the outgoing flow. Since a portion of incoming energy is directly reflected, the balance can also be stated as absorbed incoming solar (shortwave) radiation equal to outgoing longwave radiation:

[math]\displaystyle{ ASR = OLR. }[/math]

In simplest terms, Earth's energy budget is balanced when the incoming flow equals the outgoing flow. Since a portion of incoming energy is directly reflected, the balance can also be stated as absorbed incoming solar (shortwave) radiation equal to outgoing longwave radiation:

ASR = OLR.

简单来说,当进入的能量流与出去的能量流相等时,地球的能量收支是平衡的。由于入射能量的一部分被直接反射,平衡也可以表示为吸收的太阳(短波)辐射等于地球长波辐射: : ASR = OLR。

Internal flow analysis

To describe some of the internal flows within the budget, let the insolation received at the top of the atmosphere be 100 units (=340 W/m2), as shown in the accompanying Sankey diagram. Called the albedo of Earth, around 35 units in this example are directly reflected back to space: 27 from the top of clouds, 2 from snow and ice-covered areas, and 6 by other parts of the atmosphere. The 65 remaining units (ASR=220 W/m2) are absorbed: 14 within the atmosphere and 51 by the Earth's surface.

To describe some of the internal flows within the budget, let the insolation received at the top of the atmosphere be 100 units (=340 W/m2), as shown in the accompanying Sankey diagram. Called the albedo of Earth, around 35 units in this example are directly reflected back to space: 27 from the top of clouds, 2 from snow and ice-covered areas, and 6 by other parts of the atmosphere. The 65 remaining units (ASR=220 W/m2) are absorbed: 14 within the atmosphere and 51 by the Earth's surface.

= = = 内部流动分析 = = = 为了描述预算内的一些内部流动,设大气层顶部收到的日照为100单位(= 340 w/m2) ,如附带的桑基图所示。在这个例子中,被称为地球反照率的大约35个单位被直接反射回太空: 27个单位来自云层顶部,2个单位来自冰雪覆盖的地区,6个单位来自大气的其他部分。其余65个单位(ASR = 220 w/m2)被吸收: 14个在大气层内,51个在地球表面。

The 51 units reaching and absorbed by the surface are emitted back to space through various forms of terrestrial energy: 17 directly radiated to space and 34 absorbed by the atmosphere (19 through latent heat of vaporisation, 9 via convection and turbulence, and 6 as absorbed infrared by greenhouse gases). The 48 units absorbed by the atmosphere (34 units from terrestrial energy and 14 from insolation) are then finally radiated back to space. This simplified example neglects mechanisms that recirculate, store, and thus lead to further buildup of heat near the surface.

The 51 units reaching and absorbed by the surface are emitted back to space through various forms of terrestrial energy: 17 directly radiated to space and 34 absorbed by the atmosphere (19 through latent heat of vaporisation, 9 via convection and turbulence, and 6 as absorbed infrared by greenhouse gases). The 48 units absorbed by the atmosphere (34 units from terrestrial energy and 14 from insolation) are then finally radiated back to space. This simplified example neglects mechanisms that recirculate, store, and thus lead to further buildup of heat near the surface.

到达地表并被地表吸收的51个单位通过各种形式的地面能量释放回太空: 17个直接辐射到太空,34个被大气吸收(19个通过蒸发潜热,9个通过对流和湍流,6个通过被温室气体吸收的红外线)。大气吸收的48个单位(34个地球能量单位和14个日照单位)最后辐射回太空。这个简单的例子忽略了再循环,储存,从而导致靠近表面的热量进一步累积的机制。

Ultimately the 65 units (17 from the ground and 48 from the atmosphere) are emitted as OLR. They approximately balance the 65 units (ASR) absorbed from the sun in order to maintain a net-zero gain of energy by Earth.[16]

Ultimately the 65 units (17 from the ground and 48 from the atmosphere) are emitted as OLR. They approximately balance the 65 units (ASR) absorbed from the sun in order to maintain a net-zero gain of energy by Earth.

最终这65个单元(17个来自地面,48个来自大气)以 OLR 的形式发射出去。它们大约平衡了从太阳吸收的65个单位(ASR) ,以保持地球能量的净零增益。

Role of the greenhouse effect

The greenhouse effect traps infrared heat, and ultimately raises Earth's surface temperatures.

The major atmospheric gases (oxygen and nitrogen) are transparent to incoming sunlight but are also transparent to outgoing longwave (thermal/infrared) radiation. However, water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane and other trace gases are opaque to many wavelengths of thermal radiation.[17]

thumb|upright=1.35|right|The greenhouse effect traps infrared heat, and ultimately raises Earth's surface temperatures.

The major atmospheric gases (oxygen and nitrogen) are transparent to incoming sunlight but are also transparent to outgoing longwave (thermal/infrared) radiation. However, water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane and other trace gases are opaque to many wavelengths of thermal radiation.

= = = 温室效应的作用 = = = 拇指 | 直立 = 1.35 | 右 | 温室效应捕获红外线热量,并最终提高地球表面温度。大气中的主要气体(氧气和氮气)对入射的阳光是透明的,但对出射的长波(热/红外线)辐射也是透明的。然而,水蒸气、二氧化碳、甲烷和其他示踪气体对于许多波长的热辐射是不透明的。

When greenhouse gas molecules absorb thermal infrared energy, their temperature rises. Those gases then radiate an increased amount of thermal infrared energy in all directions. Heat radiated upward continues to encounter greenhouse gas molecules; those molecules also absorb the heat, and their temperature rises and the amount of heat they radiate increases. The atmosphere thins with altitude, and at roughly 5–6 kilometres, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the overlying atmosphere is so thin that heat can escape to space.[17]

When greenhouse gas molecules absorb thermal infrared energy, their temperature rises. Those gases then radiate an increased amount of thermal infrared energy in all directions. Heat radiated upward continues to encounter greenhouse gas molecules; those molecules also absorb the heat, and their temperature rises and the amount of heat they radiate increases. The atmosphere thins with altitude, and at roughly 5–6 kilometres, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the overlying atmosphere is so thin that heat can escape to space.

当温室气体分子吸收热红外能量时,它们的温度上升。这些气体然后向各个方向辐射增加的热红外能量。向上辐射的热量继续遇到温室气体分子; 这些分子也吸收热量,它们的温度上升,它们辐射的热量增加。大气层随着海拔高度变薄,在大约5-6公里的高度,上层大气中的温室气体浓度非常稀薄,热量可以散发到太空中。

Because greenhouse gas molecules radiate infrared energy in all directions, some of it spreads downward and ultimately returns to the Earth's surface, where it is absorbed. The Earth's surface temperature is thus higher than it would be if it were heated only by direct solar heating. This supplemental heating is the natural greenhouse effect.[17] It is as if the Earth is covered by a blanket that allows high frequency radiation (sunlight) to enter, but slows the rate at which the longwave infrared radiation leaves.

Because greenhouse gas molecules radiate infrared energy in all directions, some of it spreads downward and ultimately returns to the Earth's surface, where it is absorbed. The Earth's surface temperature is thus higher than it would be if it were heated only by direct solar heating. This supplemental heating is the natural greenhouse effect. It is as if the Earth is covered by a blanket that allows high frequency radiation (sunlight) to enter, but slows the rate at which the longwave infrared radiation leaves.

因为温室气体分子向四面八方辐射红外能量,其中一些向下扩散,最终回到地球表面,在那里被吸收。因此,地球表面的温度高于仅靠太阳直接加热的情况。这种补充加热是自然的温室效应。这就好像地球被一层覆盖,允许高频率的辐射(阳光)进入,但是减慢了长波红外线离开的速度。

Ultimately, the surface temperature rises until the ASR = OLR balance is restored.

Ultimately, the surface temperature rises until the ASR = OLR balance is restored.

最终,表面温度升高,直到 ASR = OLR 平衡被恢复。

Heat storage reservoirs

The rising accumulation of thermal energy in the oceanic, land, ice, and atmospheric components of Earth's climate system since 1960.[6]

Land, ice, and oceans are active material constituents of Earth's climate system along with the atmosphere. They have far greater mass and heat capacity, and thus much more thermal inertia. When radiation is directly absorbed or the surface temperature changes, thermal energy will flow either into or out of the bulk mass of these components via additional heat transfer processes like conduction and convection. Such flows partially counteract the more rapid changes from solar-driven radiative processes in the atmosphere. As a result, the daytime versus nightime difference in surface temperatures is reduced, and the Earth system exhibits climate inertia over the long term.[18]

thumb|320px|The rising accumulation of thermal energy in the oceanic, land, ice, and atmospheric components of Earth's climate system since 1960. Land, ice, and oceans are active material constituents of Earth's climate system along with the atmosphere. They have far greater mass and heat capacity, and thus much more thermal inertia. When radiation is directly absorbed or the surface temperature changes, thermal energy will flow either into or out of the bulk mass of these components via additional heat transfer processes like conduction and convection. Such flows partially counteract the more rapid changes from solar-driven radiative processes in the atmosphere. As a result, the daytime versus nightime difference in surface temperatures is reduced, and the Earth system exhibits climate inertia over the long term.

自1960年以来,地球气候系统的海洋、陆地、冰和大气成分中不断上升的热能积累。陆地、冰和海洋是地球气候系统和大气层的活跃物质组成部分。它们有更大的质量和热容,因此有更大的热惯性。当辐射被直接吸收或表面温度发生变化时,热能将通过传导和对流等附加的传热过程流入或流出这些元件的体积质量。这种流动在一定程度上抵消了太阳驱动的大气辐射过程的较快变化。因此,地表温度的白天和夜晚的时间差减少了,地球系统在长期内表现出气候惯性。

The top few meters of Earth's oceans harbor more thermal energy than its entire atmosphere.[19] Like atmospheric gases, fluidic ocean waters transport vast amounts of thermal energy over the planet's surface. Heat is also distributed into and out of great depths under conditions that favor downwelling or upwelling.[20][21]

The top few meters of Earth's oceans harbor more thermal energy than its entire atmosphere. Like atmospheric gases, fluidic ocean waters transport vast amounts of thermal energy over the planet's surface. Heat is also distributed into and out of great depths under conditions that favor downwelling or upwelling.

地球海洋顶端几米的地方蕴藏着比整个大气层还要多的热能。就像大气中的气体一样,流体海洋水域在地球表面运输着大量的热能。在有利于下涌或上涌的条件下,热量也会进出很深的地方。

Over 90 percent of the heat that has accumulated on Earth from ongoing global warming since 1970 has been stored in the ocean.[19] About one-third of this energy has propagated to depths below 700 meters. The overall rate of growth has also risen during recent decades, reaching close to 500 TW (1 W/m2) as of 2020.[6][22] That led to about 14 zettajoules (ZJ) of heat gain, exceeding all other human production of energy by a factor of 20 for the year.[23]

Over 90 percent of the heat that has accumulated on Earth from ongoing global warming since 1970 has been stored in the ocean. About one-third of this energy has propagated to depths below 700 meters. The overall rate of growth has also risen during recent decades, reaching close to 500 TW (1 W/m2) as of 2020. That led to about 14 zettajoules (ZJ) of heat gain, exceeding all other human production of energy by a factor of 20 for the year.

自1970年以来,地球上因持续的全球变暖而积累的热量,有90% 以上储存在海洋中。大约三分之一的能量已经传播到700米以下的深度。近几十年来,总体增长率也有所上升,到2020年已接近500太瓦(1瓦/平方米)。这导致了大约14泽塔焦耳(ZJ)的热量增加,超过所有其他人类生产的能源的20倍,一年。

Heating/cooling rate analysis

Generally speaking, changes to Earth's energy flux balance can be thought of as being the result of external forcings (both natural and anthropogenic, radiative and non-radiative), system feedbacks, and internal system variability.[24] Such changes are primarily expressed as observable shifts in temperature (T), clouds (C), water vapor (W), aerosols (A), trace greenhouse gases (G), land/ocean/ice surface reflectance (S), and as minor shifts in insolaton (I) among other possible factors. Earth's heating/cooling rate (ΔE) can then be analyzed over selected timeframes as the net change in energy associated with these attributes:

[math]\displaystyle{ \Delta E = \Delta E_T + \Delta E_C + \Delta E_W + \Delta E_A + \Delta E_G + \Delta E_S + \Delta E_I +... = ASR - OLR }[/math].

Here the term ΔET is negative-valued when temperature rises due to the strong direct influence on OLR.[25][22]

Generally speaking, changes to Earth's energy flux balance can be thought of as being the result of external forcings (both natural and anthropogenic, radiative and non-radiative), system feedbacks, and internal system variability. Such changes are primarily expressed as observable shifts in temperature (T), clouds (C), water vapor (W), aerosols (A), trace greenhouse gases (G), land/ocean/ice surface reflectance (S), and as minor shifts in insolaton (I) among other possible factors. Earth's heating/cooling rate (ΔE) can then be analyzed over selected timeframes as the net change in energy associated with these attributes:

\Delta E = \Delta E_T + \Delta E_C + \Delta E_W + \Delta E_A + \Delta E_G + \Delta E_S + \Delta E_I +... = ASR - OLR.

Here the term ΔET is negative-valued when temperature rises due to the strong direct influence on OLR.

= = = = 加热/冷却速率分析 = = = 一般而言,地球能量通量平衡的变化可以被认为是外部强迫(自然和人为的,辐射和非辐射的)、系统反馈和内部系统变化的结果。这些变化主要表现为温度(t)、云(c)、水汽(w)、气溶胶(a)、微量温室气体(g)、陆地/海洋/冰面反射率(s)的可观测变化,以及日照(i)等可能因素的微小变化。地球的加热/冷却速率(ΔE)可以随着与这些属性有关的能量的净变化在选定的时间框架内进行分析: Delta e = ΔE _ t + ΔE _ c + ΔE _ w + ΔE _ a + ΔE _ g + ΔE _ s + ΔE _ i + ... = ASR-OLR。这里 ΔET 项在温度升高时为负值,因为它对 OLR 有很强的直接影响。

The recent increase in trace greenhouse gases produces an enhanced greenhouse effect, and thus a positive ΔEG forcing term. By contrast, a large volcanic eruption (e.g. Mount Pinatubo 1991, El Chichón 1982) can inject sulfur-containing compounds into the upper atmosphere. High concentrations of stratospheric sulfur aerosols may persist for up to a few years, yielding a negative forcing contribution to ΔEA.[26][27] Various other types of anthropogenic aerosol emissions make both positive and negative contributions to ΔEA. Solar cycles produce ΔEI smaller in magnitude than those of recent ΔEG trends from human activity.[28][29]

The recent increase in trace greenhouse gases produces an enhanced greenhouse effect, and thus a positive ΔEG forcing term. By contrast, a large volcanic eruption (e.g. Mount Pinatubo 1991, El Chichón 1982) can inject sulfur-containing compounds into the upper atmosphere. High concentrations of stratospheric sulfur aerosols may persist for up to a few years, yielding a negative forcing contribution to ΔEA. Various other types of anthropogenic aerosol emissions make both positive and negative contributions to ΔEA. Solar cycles produce ΔEI smaller in magnitude than those of recent ΔEG trends from human activity.

最近微量温室气体的增加产生了增强的温室效应,从而产生了一个正的 ΔEG 强迫项。相比之下,一个大的火山喷发类型。皮纳图博火山(1991年,El Chichón 1982年)可向高层大气注入含硫化合物。高浓度的硫酸盐气溶胶可能会持续几年,对 ΔEA 产生负的强制作用。各种其他类型的人为气溶胶排放对 ΔEA 既有正的贡献,也有负的贡献。太阳活动周期产生的 ΔEI 值小于人类活动产生的 ΔEG 值。

Climate forcings are complex since they can produce direct and indirect feedbacks that intensify (positive feedback) or weaken (negative feedback) the original forcing. These often follow the temperature response. Water vapor trends as a positive feedback with respect to temperature changes due to evaporation shifts and the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. An increase in water vapor results in positive ΔEW due to further enhancement of the greenhouse effect. A slower positive feedback is the ice-albedo feedback. For example, the loss of Arctic ice due to rising temperatures makes the region less reflective, leading to greater absorption of energy and even faster ice melt rates, thus positive influence on ΔES.[30] Collectively, feebacks tend to amplify global warming.[31]

Climate forcings are complex since they can produce direct and indirect feedbacks that intensify (positive feedback) or weaken (negative feedback) the original forcing. These often follow the temperature response. Water vapor trends as a positive feedback with respect to temperature changes due to evaporation shifts and the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. An increase in water vapor results in positive ΔEW due to further enhancement of the greenhouse effect. A slower positive feedback is the ice-albedo feedback. For example, the loss of Arctic ice due to rising temperatures makes the region less reflective, leading to greater absorption of energy and even faster ice melt rates, thus positive influence on ΔES. Collectively, feebacks tend to amplify global warming.

气候强迫是复杂的,因为它们可以产生直接和间接的反馈,加强(正反馈)或削弱(负反馈)原始强迫。这些通常跟随温度响应。由于蒸发位移和克劳修斯-克拉珀龙关系,水汽趋势与温度变化呈正反馈关系。由于温室效应的进一步加强,水汽含量的增加导致了 ΔEW 值的上升。一个较慢的正反馈是冰反照率反馈。例如,由于气温上升导致的北极冰层损失使得该地区的反射率降低,从而导致更大的能量吸收和更快的冰融化速度,从而对 ΔES 产生积极的影响。总体而言,经济衰退往往会加剧全球变暖。

Clouds are responsible for about half of Earth's albedo and are powerful expressions of internal variability of the climate system.[32][33] They may also act as feedbacks to forcings, and could be forcings themselves if for example a result of cloud seeding activity. Contributions to ΔEC vary regionally and depending upon cloud type. Measurements from satellites are gathered in concert with simulations from models in the effort to improve understanding and reduce uncertainty.[34]

Clouds are responsible for about half of Earth's albedo and are powerful expressions of internal variability of the climate system. They may also act as feedbacks to forcings, and could be forcings themselves if for example a result of cloud seeding activity. Contributions to ΔEC vary regionally and depending upon cloud type. Measurements from satellites are gathered in concert with simulations from models in the effort to improve understanding and reduce uncertainty.

云对地球大约一半的反照率负责,是气候系统内部变化的有力表现。它们也可以作为强迫的反馈,如果是播云活动的结果,它们本身也可以作为强迫。对 ΔEC 的贡献因地区和云的类型而异。来自卫星的测量数据与来自模型的模拟数据一起收集,以努力提高认识和减少不确定性。

Earth's energy imbalance

Schematic drawing of Earth's excess heat inventory as it relates to the planet's energy imbalance for two recent time periods.[6]

If Earth's incoming energy flux is larger or smaller than the outgoing energy flux, then the planet will gain (warm) or lose (cool) net heat energy in accordance with the law of energy conservation:

[math]\displaystyle{ EEI = ASR - OLR }[/math].

When Earth's energy imbalance (EEI) shifts by a sufficiently large amount, it is directly measurable by orbiting satellite-based radiometric instruments.[27][35] Imbalances which fail to reverse over time will also drive long-term temperature changes in the atmospheric, oceanic, land, and ice components of the climate system.[36][37] Temperature changes and their related effects may thus provide indirect measures of EEI. From mid-2005 to mid-2019, satellite and ocean temperature observations have each independently shown an approximate doubling of the (global) warming imbalance in Earth's energy budget.[6][22]

thumb|upright=1.3|Schematic drawing of Earth's excess heat inventory as it relates to the planet's energy imbalance for two recent time periods.

If Earth's incoming energy flux is larger or smaller than the outgoing energy flux, then the planet will gain (warm) or lose (cool) net heat energy in accordance with the law of energy conservation:

EEI = ASR - OLR.

When Earth's energy imbalance (EEI) shifts by a sufficiently large amount, it is directly measurable by orbiting satellite-based radiometric instruments. Imbalances which fail to reverse over time will also drive long-term temperature changes in the atmospheric, oceanic, land, and ice components of the climate system. Temperature changes and their related effects may thus provide indirect measures of EEI. From mid-2005 to mid-2019, satellite and ocean temperature observations have each independently shown an approximate doubling of the (global) warming imbalance in Earth's energy budget.

地球的能量不平衡地球的过剩热量库存的示意图,因为它涉及到地球的能量不平衡最近两个时期。如果地球入射的能量通量大于或小于出射的能量通量,那么根据能量守恒定律,地球将获得(暖)或失去(冷)净热能。当地球的能量不平衡(EEI)移动一百万足够大,它是可以直接测量的轨道卫星辐射仪器。随着时间的推移不能逆转的不平衡现象也将推动气候系统中大气、海洋、陆地和冰组成部分的长期温度变化。因此,温度变化及其相关影响可以提供 EEI 的间接测量。从2005年年中到2019年年中,卫星和海洋温度观测分别显示,地球能量收支中(全球变暖)的不平衡大约加倍。

Direct measurement

文件:NASA's 2011 fleet of Earth remote sensing observatories.ogv
Animation of the orbits of NASA's 2011 fleet of Earth remote sensing observatories.

Several satellites directly measure the energy absorbed and radiated by Earth, and thus by inference the energy imbalance. The NASA Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) project involves three such satellites: the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), launched October 1984; NOAA-9, launched December 1984; and NOAA-10, launched September 1986.[38]

thumb|upright=1.3|Animation of the orbits of NASA's 2011 fleet of Earth remote sensing observatories. Several satellites directly measure the energy absorbed and radiated by Earth, and thus by inference the energy imbalance. The NASA Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) project involves three such satellites: the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), launched October 1984; NOAA-9, launched December 1984; and NOAA-10, launched September 1986.

= = = 直接测量 = = 拇指 | 竖直 = 1.3 | 美国宇航局2011年地球遥感天文台轨道动画。几颗卫星直接测量地球吸收和辐射的能量,从而推断能量不平衡。美国航天局的地球辐射预算实验项目涉及三颗这样的卫星: 1984年10月发射的地球辐射预算卫星(ERBS) ; 1984年12月发射的 NOAA-9; 以及1986年9月发射的 NOAA-10。

NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments are part of the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) since 1998. CERES is designed to measure both solar-reflected (short wavelength) and Earth-emitted (long wavelength) radiation.[39] Analysis of CERES data by its principal investigators showed a linearly increasing trend in EEI, from +0.42 W m−2 (+/-0.48 W m−2) in 2005 to +1.12 W m−2 (+/-0.48 W m−2) in 2019.[22][40] Subsequent investigation of the behavior using the GFDL CM4/AM4 climate model concluded there was a less than 1% chance that internal climate variability caused the trend.[41]

NASA's Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments are part of the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) since 1998. CERES is designed to measure both solar-reflected (short wavelength) and Earth-emitted (long wavelength) radiation. Analysis of CERES data by its principal investigators showed a linearly increasing trend in EEI, from +0.42 W m−2 (+/-0.48 W m−2) in 2005 to +1.12 W m−2 (+/-0.48 W m−2) in 2019. Subsequent investigation of the behavior using the GFDL CM4/AM4 climate model concluded there was a less than 1% chance that internal climate variability caused the trend.

自1998年以来,美国宇航局的云和地球辐射能系统(CERES)仪器就是美国宇航局地球观测系统(EOS)的一部分。CERES 被设计用来测量太阳反射(短波长)和地球发射(长波长)辐射。主要研究者对 CERES 数据的分析表明,EEI 呈线性上升趋势,从2005年的 + 0.42 w m-2(+/-0.48 w m-2)上升到2019年的 + 1.12 w m-2(+/-0.48 w m-2)。随后使用 GFDL CM4/am4气候模式对这种行为进行了调查,结论是内部气候变化导致这种趋势的可能性小于1% 。

Other researchers have used data from CERES, AIRS, CloudSat, and other EOS instruments to look for trends of radiative forcing embedded within the EEI data. Their data analysis showed a forcing rise of +0.53 W m−2 (+/-0.11 W m−2) from years 2003 to 2018. About 80% of the increase was associated with the rising concentration of greenhouse gases which reduced the outgoing longwave radiation.[42][43][44]

Other researchers have used data from CERES, AIRS, CloudSat, and other EOS instruments to look for trends of radiative forcing embedded within the EEI data. Their data analysis showed a forcing rise of +0.53 W m−2 (+/-0.11 W m−2) from years 2003 to 2018. About 80% of the increase was associated with the rising concentration of greenhouse gases which reduced the outgoing longwave radiation.

其他研究人员使用来自 CERES、 AIRS、 CloudSat 和其他 EOS 仪器的数据来寻找嵌入在 EEI 数据中的辐射效应趋势。他们的数据分析显示,从2003年到2018年,海平面上升了0.53 w m-2(+/-0.11 w m-2)。大约80% 的增长与温室气体浓度的上升有关,温室气体浓度的上升降低了地球长波辐射。

Satellite observations have also indicated additional precipitation, which is sustained by increased energy leaving the surface through evaporation (the latent heat flux), offsetting some of the increase in the longwave greenhouse flux to the surface.[45]

Satellite observations have also indicated additional precipitation, which is sustained by increased energy leaving the surface through evaporation (the latent heat flux), offsetting some of the increase in the longwave greenhouse flux to the surface.

卫星观测还表明,通过蒸发(潜热通量)离开地面的能量增加,抵消了到地面的长波温室通量增加的一部分,从而维持了更多的降水。

It is noteworthy that radiometric calibration uncertainties limit the capability of the current generation of satellite-based instruments, which are otherwise stable and precise. As a result, relative changes in EEI are quantifiable with an accuracy which is not also achievable for any single measurement of the absolute imbalance.[46][47]

It is noteworthy that radiometric calibration uncertainties limit the capability of the current generation of satellite-based instruments, which are otherwise stable and precise. As a result, relative changes in EEI are quantifiable with an accuracy which is not also achievable for any single measurement of the absolute imbalance.

值得注意的是,辐射定标的不确定性限制了目前一代卫星仪器的能力,而这些仪器在其他方面都是稳定和精确的。因此,EEI 的相对变化是可以量化的,其精确度对于绝对不平衡的任何单一测量也是无法达到的。

Indirect measurements

Global surface temperature (GST) is calculated by averaging atmospheric temperatures measured over the surface of the sea along with temperatures measured over land. Reliable data extending to at least 1880 shows that GST has undergone a steady increase of about 0.18°C per decade since about year 1970.[48]


Global surface temperature (GST) is calculated by averaging atmospheric temperatures measured over the surface of the sea along with temperatures measured over land. Reliable data extending to at least 1880 shows that GST has undergone a steady increase of about 0.18°C per decade since about year 1970.

= = = 间接测量 = = = 全球表面温度(GST)是通过平均测量到的海洋表面的大气温度和测量到的陆地温度计算出来的。至少1880年的可靠数据显示,自1970年以来,商品及服务税每十年稳步上升约0.18摄氏度。

Ocean waters are especially effective absorbents of solar energy and have far greater total heat capacity than the atmosphere.[49] Research vessels and stations have sampled sea temperatures around the globe since before 1960. Additionally after year 2000, an expanding network of over 3000 Argo robotic floats has measured the temperature anomaly, or equivalently the change in ocean heat content (OHC). Since at least 1990, OHC has increased at a steady or accelerating rate. Changes in OHC provide the most robust indirect measure of EEI since the oceans take up 90% of the excess heat.[6][50]

Ocean waters are especially effective absorbents of solar energy and have far greater total heat capacity than the atmosphere. Research vessels and stations have sampled sea temperatures around the globe since before 1960. Additionally after year 2000, an expanding network of over 3000 Argo robotic floats has measured the temperature anomaly, or equivalently the change in ocean heat content (OHC). Since at least 1990, OHC has increased at a steady or accelerating rate. Changes in OHC provide the most robust indirect measure of EEI since the oceans take up 90% of the excess heat.

海水是特别有效的太阳能吸收剂,总热容量远远大于大气。自1960年以前,科考船和科考站就已经对全球海洋温度进行了采样。此外,2000年以后,一个由3000多个 Argo 机器人浮标组成的不断扩大的网络测量了温度异常,或相当于海洋热含量的变化。至少从1990年以来,职业健康保险的增长速度一直保持稳定或加快。由于海洋占据了过剩热量的90% ,OHC 的变化提供了最有力的 EEI 间接测量方法。

The extent of floating and grounded ice is measured by satellites, while the change in mass is then inferred from measured changes in sea level in concert with computational models that account for thermal expansion and other factors. Observations since 1994 show that ice has retreated from every part of Earth at an accelerating rate.[51]

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GST since 1850
OHC since 1958 in the top 2000 meters
Global ice loss since 1994

The extent of floating and grounded ice is measured by satellites, while the change in mass is then inferred from measured changes in sea level in concert with computational models that account for thermal expansion and other factors. Observations since 1994 show that ice has retreated from every part of Earth at an accelerating rate.


浮冰和地面冰的范围由卫星测量,然后根据测量的海平面变化和考虑热膨胀和其他因素的计算模型推断出质量的变化。自1994年以来的观测显示,冰川正以加速的速度从地球的各个角落消失。

Importance as a climate change metric

Long-time climate researchers Kevin Trenberth, James Hansen, and colleagues have identified the monitoring of Earth's energy imbalance as an imperative to help policymakers guide the pace of planning for climate change adaptation. Because of climate system inertia, longer-term EEI trends can forecast further changes that are "in the pipeline".[36][37][52]

Long-time climate researchers Kevin Trenberth, James Hansen, and colleagues have identified the monitoring of Earth's energy imbalance as an imperative to help policymakers guide the pace of planning for climate change adaptation. Because of climate system inertia, longer-term EEI trends can forecast further changes that are "in the pipeline".

长期气候研究人员凯文 · 特伦伯斯,詹姆斯 · 汉森和他的同事们认为,监测地球能源失衡是帮助决策者指导气候变化适应规划步伐的当务之急。由于气候系统的惯性,较长期的欧洲经济区趋势可以预测进一步的变化,这些变化”正在酝酿之中”。

In 2012, NASA scientists reported that to stop global warming atmospheric CO2 concentration would have to be reduced to 350 ppm or less, assuming all other climate forcings were fixed.[53] As of 2020, atmospheric CO2 reached 415 ppm and all long-lived greenhouse gases exceeded a 500 ppm [[CO2-eq|模板:CO2-equivalent]] concentration due to continued growth in human emissions.[54]

In 2012, NASA scientists reported that to stop global warming atmospheric CO2 concentration would have to be reduced to 350 ppm or less, assuming all other climate forcings were fixed. As of 2020, atmospheric CO2 reached 415 ppm and all long-lived greenhouse gases exceeded a 500 ppm -equivalent concentration due to continued growth in human emissions.

2012年,美国宇航局的科学家报告说,要阻止全球变暖,大气中的二氧化碳浓度必须降低到350ppm 或更低,假设所有其他气候影响都是固定的。截至2020年,由于人类排放量的持续增长,大气中的二氧化碳含量达到了415 ppm,所有长期存在的温室气体都超过了500 ppm 当量的浓度。

See also

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  • Lorenz energy cycle
  • Planetary equilibrium temperature
  • Climate sensitivity
  • Tipping points in the climate system
  • Anthropogenic metabolism

= =

  • Lorenz 能量循环
  • 行星平衡温度
  • 气候敏感性
  • 气候系统的临界点
  • 人类新陈代谢

Notes

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "The NASA Earth's Energy Budget Poster". NASA. Archived from the original on 21 April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  2. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。 "energy budget"
  3. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。 "climate system"
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Additional bibliography for cited sources

IPCC reports

AR5 Working Group I Report

Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C

AR6 Working Group I Report


  • (pb: ).
  • Global Warming of 1.5 ºC —.


= = = = = = = = = IPCC 报告附加书目 = = = = = = = = = = = 第五工作组第一报告 = = = = = = = = =

  • (pb:)。
  • = = = = 全球变暖1.5 ° c = = = =
  • 全球变暖1.5 ° c ー。
  • = = = ar6第一工作组报告 = = = =

External links

模板:Commons category


  • NASA: The Atmosphere's Energy Budget
  • Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)
  • NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project

= = 外部链接 =

  • 美国宇航局: 大气能量收支
  • 云和地球辐射能系统
  • 美国宇航局/地球辐射预算(SRB)项目

模板:Global warming 模板:Population


Category:Atmospheric sciences Category:Climate forcing Category:Climate variability and change Category:Climatology Category:Earth Category:Earth sciences Category:Energy Category:Environmental science Category:Oceanography Category:Articles containing video clips

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