岩石圈

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文件:Plates tect2 en.svg
The tectonic plates of the lithosphere on Earth地球岩石圈的构造板块
文件:Earth cutaway schematic-en.svg
Earth cutaway from center to surface, the lithosphere comprising the crust and lithospheric mantle (detail not to scale)地球剖面示意图,岩石圈由地壳和岩石圈地幔组成

A lithosphere (模板:Lang-grc [模板:Transl] for "rocky", and 模板:Wikt-lang [模板:Transl] for "sphere") is the rigid,[1] outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of up to thousands of years or more. The crust and upper mantle are distinguished on the basis of chemistry and mineralogy. thumb|upright=1.75|The tectonic plates of the lithosphere on Earth

A lithosphere ( [] for "rocky", and [] for "sphere") is the rigid,Skinner, B.J. & Porter, S.C.: Physical Geology, page 17, chapt. The Earth: Inside and Out, 1987, John Wiley & Sons, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite. On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of up to thousands of years or more. The crust and upper mantle are distinguished on the basis of chemistry and mineralogy.

岩石圈 Lithosphere([lithos]意为“岩石的”,[sphere]意为“球形外壳”)是类地行星 Terrestrial-type Planet自然卫星 Natural Satellite的最外层刚性外壳。[1]地球岩石圈包括地壳和部分上地幔,后者在数千年或更久的时间尺度上变化很大。地壳和上地幔的化学性质、矿物学组成是不同的。

Earth's lithosphere 地球岩石圈

Earth's lithosphere, which constitutes the hard and rigid outer vertical layer of the Earth, includes the crust and the uppermost mantle. The lithosphere is underlain by the asthenosphere which is the weaker, hotter, and deeper part of the upper mantle. The Lithosphere-Asthenosphere boundary is defined by a difference in response to stress: the lithosphere remains rigid for very long periods of geologic time in which it deforms elastically and through brittle failure, while the asthenosphere deforms viscously and accommodates strain through plastic deformation.

Earth's lithosphere, which constitutes the hard and rigid outer vertical layer of the Earth, includes the crust and the uppermost mantle. The lithosphere is underlain by the asthenosphere which is the weaker, hotter, and deeper part of the upper mantle. The Lithosphere-Asthenosphere boundary is defined by a difference in response to stress: the lithosphere remains rigid for very long periods of geologic time in which it deforms elastically and through brittle failure, while the asthenosphere deforms viscously and accommodates strain through plastic deformation.

地球岩石圈包括地壳和上地幔顶部,它构成了地球坚硬的外部垂直层。岩石圈之下是软流圈 Asthenosphere,软流圈是上地幔更深处强度较弱、温度更高的部分。岩石圈和软流圈的边界 Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary是由他们各自对应力响应的不同来确定的:在很长一段地质时期内,岩石圈保持刚性,在此期间它会发生弹性变形和脆性破坏,而软流圈则会发生粘性变形,并通过塑性变形来调节应变。

The thickness of the lithosphere is thus considered to be the depth to the isotherm associated with the transition between brittle and viscous behavior.[2] The temperature at which olivine becomes ductile (~模板:Cvt) is often used to set this isotherm because olivine is generally the weakest mineral in the upper mantle.[3]

The thickness of the lithosphere is thus considered to be the depth to the isotherm associated with the transition between brittle and viscous behavior. The temperature at which olivine becomes ductile (~1,000 °C or 1,830 °F) is often used to set this isotherm because olivine is generally the weakest mineral in the upper mantle.

因此,人们岩石圈的厚度与脆性和粘性之间的转变等温线有关。由于橄榄石 Olivine通常是上地幔中最脆弱的矿物,因此常用橄榄石变成塑性的温度(~1,000 °C or 1,830 °F)来确定这一等温线。[3]

The lithosphere is subdivided horizontally into tectonic plates, which often include terranes accreted from other plates.

The lithosphere is subdivided horizontally into tectonic plates, which often include terranes accreted from other plates.

岩石圈在水平方向上被细分为若干构造板块 Tectonic Plates,其中通常包括从其他板块聚集而来的地体 Terranes

History of the concept 概念由来

The concept of the lithosphere as Earth's strong outer layer was described by A.E.H. Love in his 1911 monograph "Some problems of Geodynamics" and further developed by Joseph Barrell, who wrote a series of papers about the concept and introduced the term "lithosphere".[4][5][6][7] The concept was based on the presence of significant gravity anomalies over continental crust, from which he inferred that there must exist a strong, solid upper layer (which he called the lithosphere) above a weaker layer which could flow (which he called the asthenosphere). These ideas were expanded by Reginald Aldworth Daly in 1940 with his seminal work "Strength and Structure of the Earth."[8] They have been broadly accepted by geologists and geophysicists. These concepts of a strong lithosphere resting on a weak asthenosphere are essential to the theory of plate tectonics.

The concept of the lithosphere as Earth's strong outer layer was described by A.E.H. Love in his 1911 monograph "Some problems of Geodynamics" and further developed by Joseph Barrell, who wrote a series of papers about the concept and introduced the term "lithosphere". The concept was based on the presence of significant gravity anomalies over continental crust, from which he inferred that there must exist a strong, solid upper layer (which he called the lithosphere) above a weaker layer which could flow (which he called the asthenosphere). These ideas were expanded by Reginald Aldworth Daly in 1940 with his seminal work "Strength and Structure of the Earth."Daly, R. (1940) Strength and structure of the Earth. New York: Prentice-Hall. They have been broadly accepted by geologists and geophysicists. These concepts of a strong lithosphere resting on a weak asthenosphere are essential to the theory of plate tectonics.

1911年,洛夫 A.E.H. Love在他的专著《地球动力学的若干问题》中阐述了岩石圈作为地球的外部坚硬圈层的概念。之后约瑟夫 · 巴雷尔 Joseph Barrell进一步介绍发展了“岩石圈”一词,并撰写了一系列与之相关的论文。[4][5][6][7] 这个概念是基于大陆地壳上存在显著地重力异常,他从中推断,在一个较弱的可流动层(软流圈)之上一定存在一个坚固的圈层(岩石圈)。1940年,雷金纳德 · 奥尔德沃斯 · 戴利 Reginald Aldworth Daly的开创性著作《地球的强度与结构》扩展了这些观点。[8] 至今它们已被地质学家和地球物理学家广泛接受。坚硬岩石圈位于软弱软流圈之上的概念对于板块构造理论 The Theory of Plate Tectonics至关重要。

Types 岩石圈类型

文件:Subduction-en.svg
Different types of lithosphere不同类型的岩石圈

The lithosphere can be divided into oceanic and continental lithosphere. Oceanic lithosphere is associated with oceanic crust (having a mean density of about 模板:Convert) and exists in the ocean basins. Continental lithosphere is associated with continental crust (having a mean density of about 模板:Convert) and underlies the continents and continental shelfs.[9]

The lithosphere can be divided into oceanic and continental lithosphere. Oceanic lithosphere is associated with oceanic crust (having a mean density of about ) and exists in the ocean basins. Continental lithosphere is associated with continental crust (having a mean density of about ) and underlies the continents and continental shelfs.

岩石圈可以分为大洋岩石圈和大陆岩石圈。大洋岩石圈与大洋地壳 Oceanic Crust相关(平均密度约为2.9克/立方厘米或0.10磅/立方英寸) ,存在于大洋盆地 Ocean Basins中。大陆岩石圈与大陆地壳 Continental Crust相关(平均密度为2.7克/立方厘米或0.098磅/立方英寸) ,位于大陆和大陆架的下面。[9]

Oceanic lithosphere 大洋岩石圈

模板:Further

Oceanic lithosphere consists mainly of mafic crust and ultramafic mantle (peridotite) and is denser than continental lithosphere. Young oceanic lithosphere, found at mid-ocean ridges, is no thicker than the crust, but oceanic lithosphere thickens as it ages and moves away from the mid-ocean ridge. The oldest oceanic lithosphere is typically about 模板:Convert thick.[3] This thickening occurs by conductive cooling, which converts hot asthenosphere into lithospheric mantle and causes the oceanic lithosphere to become increasingly thick and dense with age. In fact, oceanic lithosphere is a thermal boundary layer for the convection[10] in the mantle. The thickness of the mantle part of the oceanic lithosphere can be approximated as a thermal boundary layer that thickens as the square root of time.

[math]\displaystyle{ h\sim 2\sqrt{\kappa t} }[/math]

Oceanic lithosphere consists mainly of mafic crust and ultramafic mantle (peridotite) and is denser than continental lithosphere. Young oceanic lithosphere, found at mid-ocean ridges, is no thicker than the crust, but oceanic lithosphere thickens as it ages and moves away from the mid-ocean ridge. The oldest oceanic lithosphere is typically about thick. This thickening occurs by conductive cooling, which converts hot asthenosphere into lithospheric mantle and causes the oceanic lithosphere to become increasingly thick and dense with age. In fact, oceanic lithosphere is a thermal boundary layer for the convectionDonald L. Turcotte, Gerald Schubert, Geodynamics. Cambridge University Press, 25 mar 2002 - 456 in the mantle. The thickness of the mantle part of the oceanic lithosphere can be approximated as a thermal boundary layer that thickens as the square root of time.

h \, \sim \, 2\, \sqrt{ \kappa t } 

大洋岩石圈主要由镁铁质 Mafic地壳和超镁铁质 Ultramafic地幔(橄榄岩 Peridotite)组成,密度大于大陆岩石圈。在洋中脊 Mid-Ocean Ridges发现的年轻大洋岩石圈并不比地壳厚,但是大洋岩石圈随着年龄的增长而增厚,并且远离洋中脊。最古老的大洋岩石圈通常约厚140公里(87英里)。[3] 这种增厚是发生传导性冷却作用的结果,这种冷却作用将炽热的软流圈转化为岩石圈地幔,并导致大洋岩石圈随着年龄的增长而变得越来越厚,且越来越致密。实际上,大洋岩石圈是地幔对流的热边界层。[10] 大洋岩石圈地幔部分的厚度可近似为一个热边界层,其厚度为时间的平方根。

[math]\displaystyle{ h\sim 2\sqrt{\kappa t} }[/math]

Here, [math]\displaystyle{ h }[/math] is the thickness of the oceanic mantle lithosphere, [math]\displaystyle{ \kappa }[/math] is the thermal diffusivity (approximately 模板:Cvt) for silicate rocks, and [math]\displaystyle{ t }[/math] is the age of the given part of the lithosphere. The age is often equal to L/V, where L is the distance from the spreading centre of mid-oceanic ridge, and V is velocity of the lithospheric plate.[11]

Here, h is the thickness of the oceanic mantle lithosphere, \kappa is the thermal diffusivity (approximately ) for silicate rocks, and t is the age of the given part of the lithosphere. The age is often equal to L/V, where L is the distance from the spreading centre of mid-oceanic ridge, and V is velocity of the lithospheric plate.

这里,[math]\displaystyle{ h }[/math]是大洋地幔岩石圈的厚度,[math]\displaystyle{ \kappa }[/math] 是硅酸盐岩石的热扩散率,[math]\displaystyle{ t }[/math]是岩石圈特定部分的年龄,通常等于L/V,其中L为离洋中脊扩张中心的距离,V为岩石圈板块的速度。[11]

Oceanic lithosphere is less dense than asthenosphere for a few tens of millions of years but after this becomes increasingly denser than asthenosphere. While chemically differentiated oceanic crust is lighter than asthenosphere, thermal contraction of the mantle lithosphere makes it more dense than the asthenosphere. The gravitational instability of mature oceanic lithosphere has the effect that at subduction zones, oceanic lithosphere invariably sinks underneath the overriding lithosphere, which can be oceanic or continental. New oceanic lithosphere is constantly being produced at mid-ocean ridges and is recycled back to the mantle at subduction zones. As a result, oceanic lithosphere is much younger than continental lithosphere: the oldest oceanic lithosphere is about 170 million years old, while parts of the continental lithosphere are billions of years old.[12][13]

Oceanic lithosphere is less dense than asthenosphere for a few tens of millions of years but after this becomes increasingly denser than asthenosphere. While chemically differentiated oceanic crust is lighter than asthenosphere, thermal contraction of the mantle lithosphere makes it more dense than the asthenosphere. The gravitational instability of mature oceanic lithosphere has the effect that at subduction zones, oceanic lithosphere invariably sinks underneath the overriding lithosphere, which can be oceanic or continental. New oceanic lithosphere is constantly being produced at mid-ocean ridges and is recycled back to the mantle at subduction zones. As a result, oceanic lithosphere is much younger than continental lithosphere: the oldest oceanic lithosphere is about 170 million years old, while parts of the continental lithosphere are billions of years old.

年龄在数千万年间的年轻大洋岩石圈的密度低于软流圈,但随着时间的推移,它们的密度逐渐超过软流圈。另外,虽然化学成分不同的洋壳比软流圈轻,但地幔岩石圈的热收缩 Thermal Contraction使其密度变得比软流圈更大。俯冲带 Subduction Zones附近成熟大洋岩石圈的不稳定性使得它们总是俯冲到上覆岩石圈(无论是大洋型或是大陆型)之下。新的大洋岩石圈不断在洋中脊产生,并在俯冲带被循环回地幔。因此,大洋岩石圈比大陆岩石圈要年轻得多:最古老的大洋岩石圈约有1.7亿年的历史,而部分大陆岩石圈有数十亿年的历史。[12][13]

Subducted lithosphere 俯冲岩石圈

模板:Further

Geophysical studies in the early 21st century posit that large pieces of the lithosphere have been subducted into the mantle as deep as 模板:Convert to near the core-mantle boundary,[14] while others "float" in the upper mantle.[15][16] Yet others stick down into the mantle as far as 模板:Convert but remain "attached" to the continental plate above,[13] similar to the extent of the "tectosphere" proposed by Jordan in 1988.[17] Subducting lithosphere remains rigid (as demonstrated by deep earthquakes along Wadati–Benioff zone) to a depth of about 模板:Convert.[18]

Geophysical studies in the early 21st century posit that large pieces of the lithosphere have been subducted into the mantle as deep as to near the core-mantle boundary, while others "float" in the upper mantle. Yet others stick down into the mantle as far as but remain "attached" to the continental plate above, similar to the extent of the "tectosphere" proposed by Jordan in 1988. Subducting lithosphere remains rigid (as demonstrated by deep earthquakes along Wadati–Benioff zone) to a depth of about .

21世纪初的地球物理学研究认为,部分大块岩石圈板片已经俯冲到地幔中接近核-幔边界的位置,[14] 而其他岩石圈“漂浮”在上地幔中。[15][16] 而还有一些则一直在地幔中,仍然“附着”在其上的大陆板块,[13] 类似于约旦 Jordan1988年提出的“构造圈”的范围。[17] 俯冲岩石圈依然保持刚性(从沿着和达-贝尼奥夫带 Wadati–Benioff Zone发生的深部地震可以看出) ,深度约为600公里(370英里)。[18]

Continental lithosphere 大陆岩石圈

模板:Further

Continental lithosphere has a range in thickness from about 模板:Convert to perhaps 模板:Convert;[3] the upper approximately 模板:Convert of typical continental lithosphere is crust. The crust is distinguished from the upper mantle by the change in chemical composition that takes place at the Moho discontinuity. The oldest parts of continental lithosphere underlie cratons, and the mantle lithosphere there is thicker and less dense than typical; the relatively low density of such mantle "roots of cratons" helps to stabilize these regions.[12][13]

Continental lithosphere has a range in thickness from about 40 kilometres (25 mi) to perhaps 280 kilometres (170 mi); the upper approximately 30 to 50 kilometres (19 to 31 mi) of typical continental lithosphere is crust. The crust is distinguished from the upper mantle by the change in chemical composition that takes place at the Moho discontinuity. The oldest parts of continental lithosphere underlie cratons, and the mantle lithosphere there is thicker and less dense than typical; the relatively low density of such mantle "roots of cratons" helps to stabilize these regions.

大陆岩石圈的厚度从40公里(25英里)到280公里(170英里)不等;典型大陆岩石圈上部的地壳约厚30 ~ 50公里(19 ~ 31英里。地壳与上地幔的区别在于发生在莫霍间断面 Moho Discontinuity的化学成分的变化。大陆岩石圈最古老的部分位于克拉通 Craton之下,这里的地幔岩石圈比典型岩石圈更厚、密度更低;这种地幔“克拉通根”的密度相对较低,有助于稳定这些区域。[12][13]

Because of its relatively low density, continental lithosphere that arrives at a subduction zone cannot subduct much further than about 模板:Cvt before resurfacing. As a result, continental lithosphere is not recycled at subduction zones the way oceanic lithosphere is recycled. Instead, continental lithosphere is a nearly permanent feature of the Earth.[19]模板:Sfn

Because of its relatively low density, continental lithosphere that arrives at a subduction zone cannot subduct much further than about 100 km (62 mi) before resurfacing. As a result, continental lithosphere is not recycled at subduction zones the way oceanic lithosphere is recycled. Instead, continental lithosphere is a nearly permanent feature of the Earth.

由于密度相对较低,到达俯冲带的大陆岩石圈在重新浮出之前不能俯冲超过100公里(62英里)。因此,大陆岩石圈不像大洋岩石圈那样在俯冲带进行再循环。相反,大陆岩石圈几乎是地球的永久特征。[19]

Mantle xenoliths 地幔捕掳体

Geoscientists can directly study the nature of the subcontinental mantle by examining mantle xenoliths[20] brought up in kimberlite, lamproite, and other volcanic pipes. The histories of these xenoliths have been investigated by many methods, including analyses of abundances of isotopes of osmium and rhenium. Such studies have confirmed that mantle lithospheres below some cratons have persisted for periods in excess of 3 billion years, despite the mantle flow that accompanies plate tectonics.[21]

Geoscientists can directly study the nature of the subcontinental mantle by examining mantle xenoliths brought up in kimberlite, lamproite, and other volcanic pipes. The histories of these xenoliths have been investigated by many methods, including analyses of abundances of isotopes of osmium and rhenium. Such studies have confirmed that mantle lithospheres below some cratons have persisted for periods in excess of 3 billion years, despite the mantle flow that accompanies plate tectonics.

地球科学家可以通过研究金伯利岩 Kimberlite钾镁煌斑岩 Lamproite和其他火山管 Volcanic Pipes中的地幔捕虏体来直接研究次大陆地幔的性质。这些捕虏体的历史研究方法很多,包括锇 Osmium铼 Rhenium同位素丰度分析。这些研究已经证实,尽管地幔流动伴随着板块构造,但一些克拉通之下的地幔岩石圈仍持续存在了超过30亿年的时间。

See also 另见

编者推荐

Frederick K. Lutgens, Edward J. Tarbuck, Dennis G. Tasa (2016). Essentials of Geology, 13th Edition. Pearson. ISBN 10: 0134446623, ISBN 13: 9780134446622.

References 参考文献

  1. 1.0 1.1 Skinner, B.J. & Porter, S.C.: Physical Geology, page 17, chapt. The Earth: Inside and Out, 1987, John Wiley & Sons,
  2. Parsons, B. & McKenzie, D. (1978). "Mantle Convection and the thermal structure of the plates" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 83 (B9): 4485. Bibcode:1978JGR....83.4485P. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.708.5792. doi:10.1029/JB083iB09p04485.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Pasyanos M. E. (2008-05-15). "Lithospheric Thickness Modeled from Long Period Surface Wave Dispersion" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-04-25.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Barrell, J (1914). "The strength of the Earth's crust". Journal of Geology. 22 (4): 289–314. Bibcode:1914JG.....22..289B. doi:10.1086/622155. JSTOR 30056401. S2CID 118354240.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Barrell, J (1914). "The strength of the Earth's crust". Journal of Geology. 22 (5): 441–468. Bibcode:1914JG.....22..441B. doi:10.1086/622163. JSTOR 30067162. S2CID 224833672.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Barrell, J (1914). "The strength of the Earth's crust". Journal of Geology. 22 (7): 655–683. Bibcode:1914JG.....22..655B. doi:10.1086/622181. JSTOR 30060774. S2CID 224832862.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Barrell, J (1914). "The strength of the Earth's crust". Journal of Geology. 22 (6): 537–555. Bibcode:1914JG.....22..537B. doi:10.1086/622170. JSTOR 30067883. S2CID 128955134.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Daly, R. (1940) Strength and structure of the Earth. New York: Prentice-Hall.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Philpotts, Anthony R.; Ague, Jay J. (2009). Principles of igneous and metamorphic petrology (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 2–4, 29. ISBN 9780521880060. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Donald L. Turcotte, Gerald Schubert, Geodynamics. Cambridge University Press, 25 mar 2002 - 456
  11. 11.0 11.1 Stein, Seth; Stein, Carol A. (1996). "Thermo-Mechanical Evolution of Oceanic Lithosphere: Implications for the Subduction Process and Deep Earthquakes". Subduction. Geophysical Monograph Series. 96: 1–17. Bibcode:1996GMS....96....1S. doi:10.1029/GM096p0001. ISBN 9781118664575.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 Jordan, Thomas H. (1978). "Composition and development of the continental tectosphere". Nature. 274 (5671): 544–548. Bibcode:1978Natur.274..544J. doi:10.1038/274544a0. S2CID 4286280.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Zhang, Ming; Griffin, William L.; Begg, Graham; Hronsky, Jon (2009). "Ultradeep continental roots and their oceanic remnants: A solution to the geochemical "mantle reservoir" problem?". Lithos. 112: 1043–1054. Bibcode:2009Litho.112.1043O. doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2009.04.028.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Burke, Kevin; Torsvik, Trond H. (2004). "Derivation of Large Igneous Provinces of the past 200 million years from long-term heterogeneities in the deep mantle". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 227 (3–4): 531. Bibcode:2004E&PSL.227..531B. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2004.09.015.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Replumaz, Anne; Kárason, Hrafnkell; Van Der Hilst, Rob D; Besse, Jean; Tapponnier, Paul (2004). "4-D evolution of SE Asia's mantle from geological reconstructions and seismic tomography". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 221 (1–4): 103–115. Bibcode:2004E&PSL.221..103R. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(04)00070-6.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Li, Chang; Van Der Hilst, Robert D.; Engdahl, E. Robert; Burdick, Scott (2008). "A new global model for P wave speed variations in Earth's mantle". Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. 9 (5): n/a. Bibcode:2008GGG.....905018L. doi:10.1029/2007GC001806.
  17. 17.0 17.1 Jordan, T. H. (1988). "Structure and formation of the continental tectosphere". Journal of Petrology. 29 (1): 11–37. Bibcode:1988JPet...29S..11J. doi:10.1093/petrology/Special_Volume.1.11.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Frolich, C. (1989). "The Nature of Deep Focus Earthquakes". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 17: 227–254. Bibcode:1989AREPS..17..227F. doi:10.1146/annurev.ea.17.050189.001303.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Ernst, W. G. (June 1999). "Metamorphism, partial preservation, and exhumation of ultrahigh‐pressure belts". Island Arc. 8 (2): 125–153. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1738.1999.00227.x.
  20. Nixon, P.H. (1987) Mantle xenoliths J. Wiley & Sons, 844 p.
  21. Carlson, Richard W. (2005). "Physical, chemical, and chronological characteristics of continental mantle". Reviews of Geophysics. 43 (1): RG1001. Bibcode:2005RvGeo..43.1001C. doi:10.1029/2004RG000156.

Further reading 拓展阅读

  • Chernicoff, Stanley; Whitney, Donna (1990). Geology. An Introduction to Physical Geology (4th ed.). Pearson. ISBN 978-0-13-175124-8. 

External links

模板:Commons category

  • Earth's Crust, Lithosphere and Asthenosphere
  • Crust and Lithosphere

= = =

  • 地壳、岩石圈和软流圈
  • 地壳和岩石圈

模板:Earthsinterior


Category:Plate tectonics Category:Earth's mantle Category:Systems ecology

类别: 板块构造类别: 地幔类别: 系统生态学


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Lithosphere. Its edit history can be viewed at 岩石圈/edithistory