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Open systems have input and output flows, representing exchanges of matter, energy or information with its surroundings.

An open system is a system that has external interactions. Such interactions can take the form of information, energy, or material transfers into or out of the system boundary, depending on the discipline which defines the concept. An open system is contrasted with the concept of an isolated system which exchanges neither energy, matter, nor information with its environment. An open system is also known as a flow system.

An open system is a system that has external interactions. Such interactions can take the form of information, energy, or material transfers into or out of the system boundary, depending on the discipline which defines the concept. An open system is contrasted with the concept of an isolated system which exchanges neither energy, matter, nor information with its environment. An open system is also known as a flow system.

开放系统是一个具有外部相互作用的系统。这种相互作用可以采取信息、能量或物质转移的形式进入或离开系统边界,这取决于定义概念的学科。开放系统与隔离系统的概念形成对比,隔离系统不与环境交换能量、物质或信息。开放系统也称为流动系统。

The concept of an open system was formalized within a framework that enabled one to interrelate the theory of the organism, thermodynamics, and evolutionary theory.[1] This concept was expanded upon with the advent of information theory and subsequently systems theory. Today the concept has its applications in the natural and social sciences.

文件:Diagram Systems.png
Properties of isolated, closed, and open systems in exchanging energy and matter.

In the natural sciences an open system is one whose border is permeable to both energy and mass.[2] By contrast, a closed system is permeable to energy but not to matter.

The concept of an open system was formalized within a framework that enabled one to interrelate the theory of the organism, thermodynamics, and evolutionary theory.Luhmann, Niklas. Social Systems. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995; pp. 6-7 This concept was expanded upon with the advent of information theory and subsequently systems theory. Today the concept has its applications in the natural and social sciences. thumb|253x253px|Properties of isolated, closed, and open systems in exchanging energy and matter. In the natural sciences an open system is one whose border is permeable to both energy and mass.Glossary Maxwell Demon, 1998. By contrast, a closed system is permeable to energy but not to matter.

开放系统的概念在一个框架内形式化,使人们能够相互关联的有机体理论,热力学和进化理论。卢曼,尼克拉斯。社会系统。斯坦福: 斯坦福大学出版社,1995; pp。6-7随着信息论和随后的系统论的出现,这一概念得到了扩展。今天,这个概念已经在自然科学和社会科学中得到应用。独立、封闭和开放系统在能量和物质交换中的特性。在自然科学中,一个开放系统的边界是能量和质量都可以渗透的。词汇: Maxwell Demon,1998。相比之下,一个封闭的系统能够渗透能量,但不能渗透物质。

The definition of an open system assumes that there are supplies of energy that cannot be depleted; in practice, this energy is supplied from some source in the surrounding environment, which can be treated as infinite for the purposes of study. One type of open system is the radiant energy system, which receives its energy from solar radiation – an energy source that can be regarded as inexhaustible for all practical purposes.

The definition of an open system assumes that there are supplies of energy that cannot be depleted; in practice, this energy is supplied from some source in the surrounding environment, which can be treated as infinite for the purposes of study. One type of open system is the radiant energy system, which receives its energy from solar radiation – an energy source that can be regarded as inexhaustible for all practical purposes.

开放系统的定义假定有不能耗尽的能量供应; 实际上,这种能量是从周围环境的某种来源提供的,为了研究的目的,这种来源可以被视为无限的。开放系统的一种类型是辐射能系统,它从太阳辐射中获得能量,这种能源在所有实际用途中都可以被认为是取之不尽用之不竭的。

Social sciences

In the social sciences an open system is a process that exchanges material, energy, people, capital and information with its environment. French/Greek philosopher Kostas Axelos argued that seeing the "world system" as inherently open (though unified) would solve many of the problems in the social sciences, including that of praxis (the relation of knowledge to practice), so that various social scientific disciplines would work together rather than create monopolies whereby the world appears only sociological, political, historical, or psychological. Axelos argues that theorizing a closed system contributes to making it closed, and is thus a conservative approach.[3]模板:Qn The Althusserian concept of overdetermination (drawing on Sigmund Freud) posits that there are always multiple causes in every event.[4]

In the social sciences an open system is a process that exchanges material, energy, people, capital and information with its environment. French/Greek philosopher Kostas Axelos argued that seeing the "world system" as inherently open (though unified) would solve many of the problems in the social sciences, including that of praxis (the relation of knowledge to practice), so that various social scientific disciplines would work together rather than create monopolies whereby the world appears only sociological, political, historical, or psychological. Axelos argues that theorizing a closed system contributes to making it closed, and is thus a conservative approach.Axelos, K. ([2006] 1984). "The World: Being Becoming Totality," from Systematique ouverte (Trans. Gerald Moore, Les Editions de Minuit: Paris). Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, Vol. 24, 643-651. The Althusserian concept of overdetermination (drawing on Sigmund Freud) posits that there are always multiple causes in every event.Althusser, L. ([2005] 1969). For Marx. London: Verso Books, Ch. 3: "Contradiction and Overdetermination," .

社会科学在社会科学中,开放系统是一个与环境交换物质、能量、人、资本和信息的过程。法国/希腊哲学家 Kostas Axelos 认为,将“世界体系”视为内在开放(尽管是统一的)将解决社会科学中的许多问题,包括实践(知识与实践的关系) ,这样各种社会科学分支将一起工作,而不是创造垄断,使世界仅仅看起来是社会学、政治学、历史学或心理学的。阿克塞洛斯认为,将封闭系统理论化有助于使其封闭,因此是一种保守的方法。阿克塞洛斯,k ([2006]1984)。“世界: 正在成为总体性”——从系统论出发。杰拉德 · 摩尔,《午夜出版社: 巴黎》)。环境与规划 d: 社会与空间,第卷。24, 643-651.阿尔都塞关于过度决定的概念(借鉴西格蒙德 · 弗洛伊德的理论)认为每一件事情都有多重原因。阿尔都塞,l. ([2005]1969)。对马克思来说。伦敦: Verso Books,Ch。3: “矛盾和过度决定”。

David Harvey uses this to argue that when systems such as capitalism enter a phase of crisis, it can happen through one of a number of elements, such as gender roles, the relation to nature/the environment, or crises in accumulation.[5] Looking at the crisis in accumulation, Harvey argues that phenomena such as foreign direct investment, privatization of state-owned resources, and accumulation by dispossession act as necessary outlets when capital has overaccumulated too much in private hands and cannot circulate effectively in the marketplace. He cites the forcible displacement of Mexican and Indian peasants since the 1970s and the Asian and South-East Asian financial crisis of 1997-8, involving "hedge fund raising" of national currencies, as examples of this.[6]

David Harvey uses this to argue that when systems such as capitalism enter a phase of crisis, it can happen through one of a number of elements, such as gender roles, the relation to nature/the environment, or crises in accumulation.RSA Animate - David Harvey, The Crises of Capitalism: . Looking at the crisis in accumulation, Harvey argues that phenomena such as foreign direct investment, privatization of state-owned resources, and accumulation by dispossession act as necessary outlets when capital has overaccumulated too much in private hands and cannot circulate effectively in the marketplace. He cites the forcible displacement of Mexican and Indian peasants since the 1970s and the Asian and South-East Asian financial crisis of 1997-8, involving "hedge fund raising" of national currencies, as examples of this.Harvey, D. (2005). The New Imperialism. New York: Oxford University Press USA, Ch. 3: "Accumulation by Dispossession," 137-182.


戴维 · 哈维用这个观点来论证,当资本主义这样的系统进入危机阶段时,它可能通过一系列因素之一发生,比如性别角色、与自然/环境的关系,或累积危机。哈维认为,当资本在私人手中过度积累,无法在市场上有效流通时,外国直接投资、国有资源私有化和剥夺性积累等现象是必要的出路。他以上世纪70年代以来墨西哥和印度农民被迫流离失所,以及1997年至1998年的亚洲和东南亚金融危机为例,这场危机涉及国家货币的“对冲基金筹集”。哈维博士(2005)。新帝国主义。纽约: 牛津大学出版社。3:”处置的积累”,137-182。

Structural functionalists such as Talcott Parsons and neofunctionalists such as Niklas Luhmann have incorporated system theory to describe society and its components.

Structural functionalists such as Talcott Parsons and neofunctionalists such as Niklas Luhmann have incorporated system theory to describe society and its components.

结构功能主义者如塔尔科特 · 帕森斯和新功能主义者如尼克拉斯 · 卢曼已经将系统理论纳入到社会及其组成部分的描述中。

The sociology of religion finds both open and closed systems within the field of religion.[7][8]

The sociology of religion finds both open and closed systems within the field of religion.



宗教社会学在宗教领域既有开放的系统,也有封闭的系统。

Thermodynamics

See the book[9]

See the book


= = 热力学 = = 参见本书

Systems engineering

See also


  • Business process
  • Complex system
  • Dynamical system
  • Glossary of systems theory
  • Ludwig von Bertalanffy
  • Maximum power principle
  • Non-equilibrium thermodynamics
  • Open system (computing)
  • Open System Environment Reference Model
  • Openness
  • Open and Closed Systems in Social Science
  • Phantom loop
  • Thermodynamic system


References

  1. Luhmann, Niklas. Social Systems. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1995; pp. 6-7
  2. Glossary -{zh-cn:互联网档案馆; zh-tw:網際網路檔案館; zh-hk:互聯網檔案館;}-存檔,存档日期2007-08-17. Maxwell Demon, 1998.
  3. Axelos, K. ([2006] 1984). "The World: Being Becoming Totality," from Systematique ouverte (Trans. Gerald Moore, Les Editions de Minuit: Paris). Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, Vol. 24, 643-651.
  4. Althusser, L. ([2005] 1969). For Marx. London: Verso Books, Ch. 3: "Contradiction and Overdetermination," [1].
  5. RSA Animate - David Harvey, The Crises of Capitalism: [2].
  6. Harvey, D. (2005). The New Imperialism. New York: Oxford University Press USA, Ch. 3: "Accumulation by Dispossession," 137-182.
  7. Henderson, Ian H.; Oegema, Gerbern S.; Parks Ricker, Sara, eds. (2006). The Changing Face of Judaism, Christianity, and Other Greco-Roman Religions in Antiquity. Volume 2 of Studien zu den Jüdischen Schriften aus hellenistisch-römischer Zeit. Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus. p. 21. ISBN 9783579053615. https://books.google.com/books?id=G5bXAAAAMAAJ. "The example of setting up new cults demonstrates how widely spread religious competence is in this open system [...]." 
  8. Rich, John Martin (1971). Humanistic Foundations of Education. C. A. Jones Publishing Company. p. 31. https://books.google.com/books?id=hP4DAAAAMAAJ. "No matter how definitive the evidence produced to the contrary, religionists deny that it in any way falsifies their knowledge-claims. Religion is not an open system." 
  9. Pokrovskii, Vladimir (2021) (in English). Thermodynamics of Complex Systems: Principles and applications.. IOP Publishing, Bristol, UK.. Bibcode 2020tcsp.book.....P. 

Further reading

  • Khalil, E.L. (1995). Nonlinear thermodynamics and social science modeling: fad cycles, cultural development and identificational slips. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 54, Issue 4, pp. 423–438.
  • Weber, B.H. (1989). Ethical Implications Of The Interface Of Natural And Artificial Systems. Delicate Balance: Technics, Culture and Consequences: Conference Proceedings for the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.
  • Khalil, E.L. (1995). Nonlinear thermodynamics and social science modeling: fad cycles, cultural development and identificational slips. The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol. 54, Issue 4, pp. 423–438.
  • Weber, B.H. (1989). Ethical Implications Of The Interface Of Natural And Artificial Systems. Delicate Balance: Technics, Culture and Consequences: Conference Proceedings for the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.

= = 进一步阅读 = =

  • Khalil,e.l. (1995)。非线性热力学与社会科学建模: 时尚周期、文化发展与认同错误。美国经济学与社会学期刊,第一卷。54,Issue 4,pp.423–438.
  • Weber,b.h.(1989).自然系统与人工系统界面的伦理意义。微妙的平衡: 技术、文化和后果: 电气和电子工程师学会会议录。

External links

  • OPEN SYSTEM, Principia Cybernetica Web, 2007.

= 外部链接 =

  • OPEN SYSTEM,Principia Cybernetica Web,2007。

Category:Cybernetics Category:Thermodynamic systems System

分类: 控制论分类: 热力系统分类


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Open system (systems theory). Its edit history can be viewed at 开放系统/edithistory