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文件:Fahr-Simulation.jpg
Driving simulator.

Driving simulator.

驾驶模拟器。

模板:Other uses

模板:Distinguish

模板:Redirect


A simulation is an approximate imitation of the operation of a process or system;[1] that represents its operation over time.

A simulation is an approximate imitation of the operation of a process or system; that represents its operation over time.

模拟是对一个过程或系统的操作的近似模仿,代表了它在一段时间内的操作。


Simulation is used in many contexts, such as simulation of technology for performance tuning or optimizing, safety engineering, testing, training, education, and video games. Often, computer experiments are used to study simulation models. Simulation is also used with scientific modelling of natural systems or human systems to gain insight into their functioning,[2] as in economics. Simulation can be used to show the eventual real effects of alternative conditions and courses of action. Simulation is also used when the real system cannot be engaged, because it may not be accessible, or it may be dangerous or unacceptable to engage, or it is being designed but not yet built, or it may simply not exist.[3]

Simulation is used in many contexts, such as simulation of technology for performance tuning or optimizing, safety engineering, testing, training, education, and video games. Often, computer experiments are used to study simulation models. Simulation is also used with scientific modelling of natural systems or human systems to gain insight into their functioning, as in economics. Simulation can be used to show the eventual real effects of alternative conditions and courses of action. Simulation is also used when the real system cannot be engaged, because it may not be accessible, or it may be dangerous or unacceptable to engage, or it is being designed but not yet built, or it may simply not exist.

模拟被用于许多场合,例如性能调优或优化的模拟技术、安全工程、测试、培训、教育和视频游戏。通常,计算机实验是用来研究仿真模型的。模拟也被用于自然系统或人类系统的科学模型,以获得其功能的洞察力,如在经济学中。模拟可以用来显示替代条件和行动过程的最终实际效果。当真实系统无法参与时,也可以使用模拟,因为它可能无法访问,或者它可能是危险的或不可接受的,参与,或者它正在设计但尚未建成,或者它可能根本不存在。


Key issues in simulation include the acquisition of valid sources of information about the relevant selection of key characteristics and behaviors, the use of simplifying approximations and assumptions within the simulation, and fidelity and validity of the simulation outcomes. Procedures and protocols for model verification and validation are an ongoing field of academic study, refinement, research and development in simulations technology or practice, particularly in the work of computer simulation.

Key issues in simulation include the acquisition of valid sources of information about the relevant selection of key characteristics and behaviors, the use of simplifying approximations and assumptions within the simulation, and fidelity and validity of the simulation outcomes. Procedures and protocols for model verification and validation are an ongoing field of academic study, refinement, research and development in simulations technology or practice, particularly in the work of computer simulation.

仿真中的关键问题包括获取关于关键特征和行为的相关选择的有效信息源,在仿真中使用简化的近似和假设,以及仿真结果的逼真度和有效性。模型验证及确认的程序和协议是一个正在进行的学术研究,改进,模拟技术或实践的研究和开发领域,特别是在计算机模拟的工作。


Classification and terminology

Human-in-the-loop simulation of outer space

外层空间的人在回路模拟

Visualization of a direct numerical simulation model.

[直接数值模拟模型. ]的可视化


Historically, simulations used in different fields developed largely independently, but 20th-century studies of systems theory and cybernetics combined with spreading use of computers across all those fields have led to some unification and a more systematic view of the concept.

Historically, simulations used in different fields developed largely independently, but 20th-century studies of systems theory and cybernetics combined with spreading use of computers across all those fields have led to some unification and a more systematic view of the concept.

从历史上看,在不同领域使用的模拟技术基本上是独立发展的,但20世纪对系统论和控制论的研究,加上计算机在所有这些领域的广泛应用,使这一概念得到了一些统一和更系统的认识。


Physical simulation refers to simulation in which physical objects are substituted for the real thing (some circles[4] use the term for computer simulations modelling selected laws of physics, but this article does not). These physical objects are often chosen because they are smaller or cheaper than the actual object or system.

Physical simulation refers to simulation in which physical objects are substituted for the real thing (some circles use the term for computer simulations modelling selected laws of physics, but this article does not). These physical objects are often chosen because they are smaller or cheaper than the actual object or system.

物理模拟是指用物理物体代替真实物体的模拟(有些圈子用计算机模拟选定的物理定律,但这篇文章没有)。选择这些物理对象通常是因为它们比实际对象或系统小或者便宜。


Interactive simulation is a special kind of physical simulation, often referred to as a human in the loop simulation, in which physical simulations include human operators, such as in a flight simulator, sailing simulator, or driving simulator.

Interactive simulation is a special kind of physical simulation, often referred to as a human in the loop simulation, in which physical simulations include human operators, such as in a flight simulator, sailing simulator, or driving simulator.

交互式仿真是一种特殊的物理仿真,通常被称为人在回路仿真,在这种物理仿真中包括人操作员,例如在飞行模拟器、航海模拟器或驾驶模拟器中。


Continuous simulation is a simulation based on continuous time, rather than discrete time steps, using numerical integration of differential equations.[5]

Continuous simulation is a simulation based on continuous time, rather than discrete time steps, using numerical integration of differential equations.

连续模拟是一种基于连续时间的模拟,而不是基于离散时间步骤,使用微分方程的数值积分。


Discrete-event simulation studies systems whose states change their values only at discrete times.[6]

Discrete-event simulation studies systems whose states change their values only at discrete times.

离散事件仿真研究状态只在离散时刻改变其值的系统。

For example, a simulation of an epidemic could change the number of infected people at time instants when susceptible individuals get infected or when infected individuals recover.

For example, a simulation of an epidemic could change the number of infected people at time instants when susceptible individuals get infected or when infected individuals recover.

例如,模拟一场流行病可以在易感人群感染或感染人群康复的瞬间改变受感染人群的数量。


Stochastic simulation is a simulation where some variable or process is subject to random variations and is projected using Monte Carlo techniques using pseudo-random numbers. Thus replicated runs with the same boundary conditions will each produce different results within a specific confidence band.[5]

Stochastic simulation is a simulation where some variable or process is subject to random variations and is projected using Monte Carlo techniques using pseudo-random numbers. Thus replicated runs with the same boundary conditions will each produce different results within a specific confidence band.

随机模拟是一种模拟,其中一些变量或过程受到随机变化,并使用蒙特卡罗技术投影使用伪随机数。因此,在相同边界条件下进行的复制运行将在特定的置信区间内产生不同的结果。


Deterministic simulation is a simulation which is not stochastic: thus the variables are regulated by deterministic algorithms. So replicated runs from the same boundary conditions always produce identical results.

A stand alone simulation is a simulation running on a single workstation by itself.

一个独立的模拟是一个模拟运行在单一的工作站本身。


Hybrid Simulation (sometime Combined Simulation) corresponds to a mix between Continuous and Discrete Event Simulation and results in integrating numerically the differential equations between two sequential events to reduce the number of discontinuities.[7]

A distributed simulation is one which uses more than one computer simultaneously, in order to guarantee access from/to different resources (e.g. multi-users operating different systems, or distributed data sets); a classical example is Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS).

分布式仿真是同时使用多台计算机,以保证对不同资源的访问(例如:。多用户操作不同的系统,或分布式数据集) ,一个典型的例子是分布式交互仿真(DIS)。


A stand alone simulation is a simulation running on a single workstation by itself.

Parallel Simulation speeds up a simulation's execution by concurrently distributing its workload over multiple processors, as in High-Performance Computing.

并行仿真通过在多个处理器上并发分配工作负载来加速仿真的执行,就像在高性能计算中那样。


A distributed simulation is one which uses more than one computer simultaneously, in order to guarantee access from/to different resources (e.g. multi-users operating different systems, or distributed data sets); a classical example is Distributed Interactive Simulation (DIS).[8]

Interoperable Simulation where multiple models, simulators (often defined as Federates) interoperate locally, distributed over a network; a classical example is High-Level Architecture.

多个模型、模拟器(通常定义为联邦成员)通过网络在本地进行互操作的互操作模拟; 一个典型的例子是高级体系结构。


Parallel Simulation speeds up a simulation's execution by concurrently distributing its workload over multiple processors, as in High-Performance Computing.[9]

Modeling & Simulation as a Service where simulation is accessed as a service over the web.

建模与仿真作为一个服务,其中仿真是作为一个服务访问在网络上。


Interoperable Simulation where multiple models, simulators (often defined as Federates) interoperate locally, distributed over a network; a classical example is High-Level Architecture.[10][11]

Modeling, interoperable Simulation and Serious Games where Serious Games Approaches (e.g. Game Engines and Engagement Methods) are integrated with Interoperable Simulation.

建模、互操作模拟和严肃游戏。游戏引擎和交战方法)与互操作仿真集成。


Modeling & Simulation as a Service where simulation is accessed as a service over the web.[12]

Simulation Fidelity is used to describe the accuracy of a simulation and how closely it imitates the real-life counterpart. Fidelity is broadly classified as one of three categories: low, medium, and high. Specific descriptions of fidelity levels are subject to interpretation, but the following generalizations can be made:

仿真逼真度是用来描述仿真的准确性,以及仿真过程与真实生活中的仿真对象的逼真程度。富达基本上被分为三类: 低、中、高。对于逼真度等级的具体描述可以进行解释,但可以作出以下概括:


Modeling, interoperable Simulation and Serious Games where Serious Games Approaches (e.g. Game Engines and Engagement Methods) are integrated with Interoperable Simulation.[13]


Simulation Fidelity is used to describe the accuracy of a simulation and how closely it imitates the real-life counterpart. Fidelity is broadly classified as one of three categories: low, medium, and high. Specific descriptions of fidelity levels are subject to interpretation, but the following generalizations can be made:

  • Low – the minimum simulation required for a system to respond to accept inputs and provide outputs

Human in the loop simulations can include a computer simulation as a so-called synthetic environment.

人在回路模拟可以包括一个计算机模拟作为所谓的合成环境。

  • Medium – responds automatically to stimuli, with limited accuracy
  • High – nearly indistinguishable or as close as possible to the real system

Simulation in failure analysis refers to simulation in which we create environment/conditions to identify the cause of equipment failure. This was the best and fastest method to identify the failure cause.

故障分析中的仿真是指通过创建环境/条件来识别设备故障原因的仿真。这是识别故障原因的最好和最快的方法。


Human in the loop simulations can include a computer simulation as a so-called synthetic environment.模板:Refn


Simulation in failure analysis refers to simulation in which we create environment/conditions to identify the cause of equipment failure. This was the best and fastest method to identify the failure cause.

A computer simulation (or "sim") is an attempt to model a real-life or hypothetical situation on a computer so that it can be studied to see how the system works. By changing variables in the simulation, predictions may be made about the behaviour of the system. It is a tool to virtually investigate the behaviour of the system under study. and human systems in economics and social science (e.g., computational sociology) as well as in engineering to gain insight into the operation of those systems. A good example of the usefulness of using computers to simulate can be found in the field of network traffic simulation. In such simulations, the model behaviour will change each simulation according to the set of initial parameters assumed for the environment.

计算机模拟是一种在计算机上模拟现实生活或假设情况的尝试,这样就可以研究系统是如何工作的。通过改变模拟中的变量,可以对系统的行为进行预测。这是一个用来虚拟调查所研究系统行为的工具。以及经济学、社会科学(例如计算社会学)和工程学中的人类系统,以深入了解这些系统的运作。在网络流量模拟领域,可以找到一个很好的例子,说明用计算机进行模拟是有用的。在这种模拟中,模型行为将根据假定的环境初始参数集改变每个模拟。


Computer simulation

Traditionally, the formal modeling of systems has been via a mathematical model, which attempts to find analytical solutions enabling the prediction of the behaviour of the system from a set of parameters and initial conditions. Computer simulation is often used as an adjunct to, or substitution for, modeling systems for which simple closed form analytic solutions are not possible. There are many different types of computer simulation, the common feature they all share is the attempt to generate a sample of representative scenarios for a model in which a complete enumeration of all possible states would be prohibitive or impossible.

传统上,系统的形式化建模一直是通过一个数学模型,试图找到解析的解决方案,使预测行为的系统从一组参数和初始条件。计算机模拟通常被用来作为模型系统的辅助或替代,对于这些系统,简单的封闭形式的解析解是不可能的。计算机模拟有许多不同的类型,它们都有一个共同的特点,就是试图为一个模型生成一个代表性场景的样本,在这个模型中,对所有可能的状态进行完整的枚举将是禁止的或不可能的。

A computer simulation (or "sim") is an attempt to model a real-life or hypothetical situation on a computer so that it can be studied to see how the system works. By changing variables in the simulation, predictions may be made about the behaviour of the system. It is a tool to virtually investigate the behaviour of the system under study.[1]

Several software packages exist for running computer-based simulation modeling (e.g. Monte Carlo simulation, stochastic modeling, multimethod modeling) that makes all the modeling almost effortless.

有几个软件包用于运行基于计算机的仿真建模(例如:。蒙特卡罗模拟,随机建模,多方法建模) ,使所有的建模几乎不费力。


Computer simulation has become a useful part of modeling many natural systems in physics, chemistry and biology,[14] and human systems in economics and social science (e.g., computational sociology) as well as in engineering to gain insight into the operation of those systems. A good example of the usefulness of using computers to simulate can be found in the field of network traffic simulation. In such simulations, the model behaviour will change each simulation according to the set of initial parameters assumed for the environment.

Modern usage of the term "computer simulation" may encompass virtually any computer-based representation.

“计算机模拟”一词的现代用法实际上可以包括任何基于计算机的表示。


Traditionally, the formal modeling of systems has been via a mathematical model, which attempts to find analytical solutions enabling the prediction of the behaviour of the system from a set of parameters and initial conditions. Computer simulation is often used as an adjunct to, or substitution for, modeling systems for which simple closed form analytic solutions are not possible. There are many different types of computer simulation, the common feature they all share is the attempt to generate a sample of representative scenarios for a model in which a complete enumeration of all possible states would be prohibitive or impossible.



< ! ——此部分链接自模拟器 -- >

Several software packages exist for running computer-based simulation modeling (e.g. Monte Carlo simulation, stochastic modeling, multimethod modeling) that makes all the modeling almost effortless.


In computer science, simulation has some specialized meanings: Alan Turing used the term "simulation" to refer to what happens when a universal machine executes a state transition table (in modern terminology, a computer runs a program) that describes the state transitions, inputs and outputs of a subject discrete-state machine. The computer simulates the subject machine. Accordingly, in theoretical computer science the term simulation is a relation between state transition systems, useful in the study of operational semantics.

在计算机科学中,模拟有一些特殊的含义: 阿兰 · 图灵用术语“模拟”来指通用机器执行状态转换表(在现代术语中,计算机运行程序)时发生的情况,该表描述了主体离散状态机的状态转换、输入和输出。计算机模拟主题机器。因此,在理论计算机科学中,模拟一词是状态转移系统之间的一种关系,在操作语义学的研究中很有用。

Modern usage of the term "computer simulation" may encompass virtually any computer-based representation.


Less theoretically, an interesting application of computer simulation is to simulate computers using computers. In computer architecture, a type of simulator, typically called an emulator, is often used to execute a program that has to run on some inconvenient type of computer (for example, a newly designed computer that has not yet been built or an obsolete computer that is no longer available), or in a tightly controlled testing environment (see Computer architecture simulator and Platform virtualization). For example, simulators have been used to debug a microprogram or sometimes commercial application programs, before the program is downloaded to the target machine. Since the operation of the computer is simulated, all of the information about the computer's operation is directly available to the programmer, and the speed and execution of the simulation can be varied at will.

在理论上,计算机模拟的一个有趣的应用是模拟使用计算机的计算机。在计算机体系结构中,一种典型的模拟器,通常被称为模拟器,用于执行一个必须在某种不方便的计算机上运行的程序(例如,一台新设计的计算机尚未建成,或者一台过时的计算机不再可用) ,或者在一个严格控制的测试环境中(见计算机体系结构模拟器和平台虚拟化)。例如,在将程序下载到目标计算机之前,模拟器被用来调试微程序或有时是商业应用程序。由于计算机的操作是模拟的,所有关于计算机操作的信息都可以直接提供给程序员,并且模拟的速度和执行可以随意变化。

Computer science

Simulators may also be used to interpret fault trees, or test VLSI logic designs before they are constructed. Symbolic simulation uses variables to stand for unknown values.

模拟器也可以用来解释故障树,或者在建造之前测试 VLSI 逻辑设计。符号模拟使用变量来表示未知值。


In computer science, simulation has some specialized meanings: Alan Turing used the term "simulation" to refer to what happens when a universal machine executes a state transition table (in modern terminology, a computer runs a program) that describes the state transitions, inputs and outputs of a subject discrete-state machine.[15] The computer simulates the subject machine. Accordingly, in theoretical computer science the term simulation is a relation between state transition systems, useful in the study of operational semantics.

In the field of optimization, simulations of physical processes are often used in conjunction with evolutionary computation to optimize control strategies.

在最优化领域,物理过程的模拟常常与进化计算一起用来优化控制策略。


Less theoretically, an interesting application of computer simulation is to simulate computers using computers. In computer architecture, a type of simulator, typically called an emulator, is often used to execute a program that has to run on some inconvenient type of computer (for example, a newly designed computer that has not yet been built or an obsolete computer that is no longer available), or in a tightly controlled testing environment (see Computer architecture simulator and Platform virtualization). For example, simulators have been used to debug a microprogram or sometimes commercial application programs, before the program is downloaded to the target machine. Since the operation of the computer is simulated, all of the information about the computer's operation is directly available to the programmer, and the speed and execution of the simulation can be varied at will.


Simulators may also be used to interpret fault trees, or test VLSI logic designs before they are constructed. Symbolic simulation uses variables to stand for unknown values.


Simulation is extensively used for educational purposes. It is used for cases where it is prohibitively expensive or simply too dangerous to allow trainees to use the real equipment in the real world. In such situations they will spend time learning valuable lessons in a "safe" virtual environment yet living a lifelike experience (or at least it is the goal). Often the convenience is to permit mistakes during training for a safety-critical system.

模拟被广泛用于教育目的。它用于那些昂贵得令人望而却步或者让学员在现实世界中使用真正的设备太危险的情况。在这种情况下,他们会花时间在一个“安全”的虚拟环境中学习有价值的经验教训,然而生活在栩栩如生的经验(或者至少这是目标)。方便的做法通常是允许生命攸关系统在训练中犯错误。

In the field of optimization, simulations of physical processes are often used in conjunction with evolutionary computation to optimize control strategies.


Simulations in education are somewhat like training simulations. They focus on specific tasks. The term 'microworld' is used to refer to educational simulations which model some abstract concept rather than simulating a realistic object or environment, or in some cases model a real-world environment in a simplistic way so as to help a learner develop an understanding of the key concepts. Normally, a user can create some sort of construction within the microworld that will behave in a way consistent with the concepts being modeled. Seymour Papert was one of the first to advocate the value of microworlds, and the Logo programming environment developed by Papert is one of the most well-known microworlds.

教育中的模拟有点像训练模拟。他们专注于特定的任务。”微观世界”一词是指教育模拟,模拟一些抽象概念,而不是模拟一个现实的物体或环境,或者在某些情况下以简单的方式模拟一个现实世界的环境,以帮助学习者发展对关键概念的理解。通常,用户可以在微观世界中创建某种结构,这种结构的行为与所建模的概念一致。Seymour Papert 是最早倡导微世界价值的人之一,由 Papert 开发的 Logo 编程环境是最著名的微世界之一。

Simulation in education and training

Project Management Simulation is increasingly used to train students and professionals in the art and science of project management. Using simulation for project management training improves learning retention and enhances the learning process.

项目管理模拟越来越多地用于培训学生和专业人员的艺术和科学的项目管理。使用模拟项目管理培训提高学习保留和增强学习过程。


Simulation is extensively used for educational purposes. It is used for cases where it is prohibitively expensive or simply too dangerous to allow trainees to use the real equipment in the real world. In such situations they will spend time learning valuable lessons in a "safe" virtual environment yet living a lifelike experience (or at least it is the goal). Often the convenience is to permit mistakes during training for a safety-critical system.

Social simulations may be used in social science classrooms to illustrate social and political processes in anthropology, economics, history, political science, or sociology courses, typically at the high school or university level. These may, for example, take the form of civics simulations, in which participants assume roles in a simulated society, or international relations simulations in which participants engage in negotiations, alliance formation, trade, diplomacy, and the use of force. Such simulations might be based on fictitious political systems, or be based on current or historical events. An example of the latter would be Barnard College's Reacting to the Past series of historical educational games. The National Science Foundation has also supported the creation of reacting games that address science and math education. In social media simulations, participants train communication with critics and other stakeholders in a private environment.

社会模拟可用于社会科学课堂,以说明社会和政治过程中的人类学,经济学,历史,政治科学,或社会学课程,通常在高中或大学水平。例如,这些可能采取公民学模拟的形式,参与者在模拟社会中扮演角色,或者参与谈判、联盟形成、贸易、外交和使用武力的国际关系模拟。这种模拟可能基于虚构的政治系统,或者基于当前或历史事件。后者的一个例子是巴纳德学院的历史教育游戏的反应过去系列。美国国家科学基金会也支持创造反应游戏,解决科学和数学教育。在社交媒体模拟中,参与者在一个私人环境中训练与批评家和其他利益相关者的沟通。


Simulations in education are somewhat like training simulations. They focus on specific tasks. The term 'microworld' is used to refer to educational simulations which model some abstract concept rather than simulating a realistic object or environment, or in some cases model a real-world environment in a simplistic way so as to help a learner develop an understanding of the key concepts. Normally, a user can create some sort of construction within the microworld that will behave in a way consistent with the concepts being modeled. Seymour Papert was one of the first to advocate the value of microworlds, and the Logo programming environment developed by Papert is one of the most well-known microworlds.

In recent years, there has been increasing use of social simulations for staff training in aid and development agencies. The Carana simulation, for example, was first developed by the United Nations Development Programme, and is now used in a very revised form by the World Bank for training staff to deal with fragile and conflict-affected countries.

近年来,在援助和发展机构的工作人员培训中越来越多地使用社会模拟。例如,卡拉纳模拟法最初是由联合国开发计划署开发的,现在世界银行以非常修订的形式将其用于培训工作人员处理脆弱和受冲突影响国家的问题。


Project Management Simulation is increasingly used to train students and professionals in the art and science of project management. Using simulation for project management training improves learning retention and enhances the learning process.[16][17]

Military uses for simulation often involve aircraft or armoured fighting vehicles, but can also target small arms and other weapon systems training. Specifically, virtual firearms ranges have become the norm in most military training processes and there is a significant amount of data to suggest this is a useful tool for armed professionals.

模拟的军事用途通常涉及飞机或装甲战车,但也可以针对小武器和其他武器系统的训练。具体而言,虚拟火器射程已成为大多数军事训练过程的规范,大量数据表明,这是武装专业人员的一个有用工具。


Social simulations may be used in social science classrooms to illustrate social and political processes in anthropology, economics, history, political science, or sociology courses, typically at the high school or university level. These may, for example, take the form of civics simulations, in which participants assume roles in a simulated society, or international relations simulations in which participants engage in negotiations, alliance formation, trade, diplomacy, and the use of force. Such simulations might be based on fictitious political systems, or be based on current or historical events. An example of the latter would be Barnard College's Reacting to the Past series of historical educational games.[18] The National Science Foundation has also supported the creation of reacting games that address science and math education.[19] In social media simulations, participants train communication with critics and other stakeholders in a private environment.


Virtual simulations represent a specific category of simulation that utilizes simulation equipment to create a simulated world for the user. Virtual simulations allow users to interact with a virtual world. Virtual worlds operate on platforms of integrated software and hardware components. In this manner, the system can accept input from the user (e.g., body tracking, voice/sound recognition, physical controllers) and produce output to the user (e.g., visual display, aural display, haptic display) . Virtual Simulations use the aforementioned modes of interaction to produce a sense of immersion for the user.

虚拟仿真代表一种特定的仿真类型,利用仿真设备为用户创建一个仿真世界。虚拟仿真允许用户与虚拟世界进行交互。虚拟世界是在集成软件和硬件组件的平台上运行的。通过这种方式,系统可以接受用户的输入(例如,身体跟踪、声音/声音识别、物理控制器) ,并向用户输出(例如,视觉显示、听觉显示、触觉显示)。虚拟仿真使用上述的交互模式为用户创造一种沉浸感。

In recent years, there has been increasing use of social simulations for staff training in aid and development agencies. The Carana simulation, for example, was first developed by the United Nations Development Programme, and is now used in a very revised form by the World Bank for training staff to deal with fragile and conflict-affected countries.[20]


Military uses for simulation often involve aircraft or armoured fighting vehicles, but can also target small arms and other weapon systems training. Specifically, virtual firearms ranges have become the norm in most military training processes and there is a significant amount of data to suggest this is a useful tool for armed professionals.[21]

Motorcycle simulator of Bienal do Automóvel exhibition, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

[巴西贝洛奥里藏特 Bienal do Automóvel 摩托车模拟展]


There is a wide variety of input hardware available to accept user input for virtual simulations. The following list briefly describes several of them:

有各种各样的输入硬件可用来接受用户输入进行虚拟仿真。下面的清单简要介绍了其中的几个问题:

Common user interaction systems for virtual simulations

Virtual simulations represent a specific category of simulation that utilizes simulation equipment to create a simulated world for the user. Virtual simulations allow users to interact with a virtual world. Virtual worlds operate on platforms of integrated software and hardware components. In this manner, the system can accept input from the user (e.g., body tracking, voice/sound recognition, physical controllers) and produce output to the user (e.g., visual display, aural display, haptic display) .[22] Virtual Simulations use the aforementioned modes of interaction to produce a sense of immersion for the user.

Body tracking: The motion capture method is often used to record the user's movements and translate the captured data into inputs for the virtual simulation. For example, if a user physically turns their head, the motion would be captured by the simulation hardware in some way and translated to a corresponding shift in view within the simulation.

人体跟踪: 运动捕获方法通常用于记录用户的动作,并将捕获的数据转换为虚拟仿真的输入。例如,如果一个用户物理地转动他们的头部,运动将被模拟硬件以某种方式捕获并转换为模拟中相应的视图移动。


Virtual simulation input hardware

文件:Simuladormotocicleta.jpg
Motorcycle simulator of Bienal do Automóvel exhibition, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Physical controllers: Physical controllers provide input to the simulation only through direct manipulation by the user. In virtual simulations, tactile feedback from physical controllers is highly desirable in a number of simulation environments.

物理控制器: 物理控制器只通过用户的直接操作为仿真提供输入。在虚拟仿真中,来自物理控制器的触觉反馈在许多仿真环境中是非常理想的。

There is a wide variety of input hardware available to accept user input for virtual simulations. The following list briefly describes several of them:


Body tracking: The motion capture method is often used to record the user's movements and translate the captured data into inputs for the virtual simulation. For example, if a user physically turns their head, the motion would be captured by the simulation hardware in some way and translated to a corresponding shift in view within the simulation.

Voice/sound recognition: This form of interaction may be used either to interact with agents within the simulation (e.g., virtual people) or to manipulate objects in the simulation (e.g., information). Voice interaction presumably increases the level of immersion for the user.

语音/声音识别: 这种形式的交互可以用于与模拟中的代理进行交互(例如,虚拟人) ,也可以用于操作模拟中的对象(例如,信息)。语音交互可能会增加用户的沉浸感。

  • Capture suits and/or gloves may be used to capture movements of users body parts. The systems may have sensors incorporated inside them to sense movements of different body parts (e.g., fingers). Alternatively, these systems may have exterior tracking devices or marks that can be detected by external ultrasound, optical receivers or electromagnetic sensors. Internal inertial sensors are also available on some systems. The units may transmit data either wirelessly or through cables.
  • Eye trackers can also be used to detect eye movements so that the system can determine precisely where a user is looking at any given instant.

Physical controllers: Physical controllers provide input to the simulation only through direct manipulation by the user. In virtual simulations, tactile feedback from physical controllers is highly desirable in a number of simulation environments.

Research in future input systems holds a great deal of promise for virtual simulations. Systems such as brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) offer the ability to further increase the level of immersion for virtual simulation users. Lee, Keinrath, Scherer, Bischof, Pfurtscheller proved that naïve subjects could be trained to use a BCI to navigate a virtual apartment with relative ease. Using the BCI, the authors found that subjects were able to freely navigate the virtual environment with relatively minimal effort. It is possible that these types of systems will become standard input modalities in future virtual simulation systems.

对未来输入系统的研究为虚拟仿真带来了巨大的希望。大脑-计算机接口(bci)等系统为虚拟仿真用户提供了进一步提高沉浸水平的能力。证明了天真的受试者可以被训练使用脑机接口相对轻松地在虚拟公寓中导航。使用脑机接口,研究人员发现受试者能够自由地在虚拟环境中导航,只需要相对较少的努力。这些类型的系统有可能成为未来虚拟仿真系统的标准输入模式。

  • High fidelity instrumentation such as instrument panels in virtual aircraft cockpits provides users with actual controls to raise the level of immersion. For example, pilots can use the actual global positioning system controls from the real device in a simulated cockpit to help them practice procedures with the actual device in the context of the integrated cockpit system.

Voice/sound recognition: This form of interaction may be used either to interact with agents within the simulation (e.g., virtual people) or to manipulate objects in the simulation (e.g., information). Voice interaction presumably increases the level of immersion for the user.

  • Users may use headsets with boom microphones, lapel microphones or the room may be equipped with strategically located microphones.

There is a wide variety of output hardware available to deliver a stimulus to users in virtual simulations. The following list briefly describes several of them:

有各种各样的输出硬件可以在虚拟仿真中为用户提供刺激。下面的清单简要介绍了其中的几个问题:


Current research into user input systems

Visual display: Visual displays provide the visual stimulus to the user.

视觉显示: 视觉显示为用户提供视觉刺激。

Research in future input systems holds a great deal of promise for virtual simulations. Systems such as brain–computer interfaces (BCIs) offer the ability to further increase the level of immersion for virtual simulation users. Lee, Keinrath, Scherer, Bischof, Pfurtscheller[23] proved that naïve subjects could be trained to use a BCI to navigate a virtual apartment with relative ease. Using the BCI, the authors found that subjects were able to freely navigate the virtual environment with relatively minimal effort. It is possible that these types of systems will become standard input modalities in future virtual simulation systems.


Virtual simulation output hardware

Aural display: Several different types of audio systems exist to help the user hear and localize sounds spatially. Special software can be used to produce 3D audio effects 3D audio to create the illusion that sound sources are placed within a defined three-dimensional space around the user.

听觉显示: 几种不同类型的音频系统存在,以帮助用户听到和定位声音空间化。特殊的软件可以用来产生3 d 音频效果3 d 音频创造出一种错觉,声源被放置在一个定义的三维空间周围的用户。

There is a wide variety of output hardware available to deliver a stimulus to users in virtual simulations. The following list briefly describes several of them:


Vestibular display: These displays provide a sense of motion to the user (motion simulator). They often manifest as motion bases for virtual vehicle simulation such as driving simulators or flight simulators. Motion bases are fixed in place but use actuators to move the simulator in ways that can produce the sensations pitching, yawing or rolling. The simulators can also move in such a way as to produce a sense of acceleration on all axes (e.g., the motion base can produce the sensation of falling).

前庭显示: 这些显示器提供了一个运动的感觉给用户(运动模拟器)。它们常常作为虚拟车辆仿真的运动基础,如驾驶模拟器或飞行模拟器。运动基地固定在地方,但使用驱动器移动模拟器的方式,可以产生俯仰,偏航或滚动的感觉。模拟器也可以在所有轴上产生加速感(例如,运动基座可以产生下落的感觉)。

Visual display: Visual displays provide the visual stimulus to the user.

  • Stationary displays can vary from a conventional desktop display to 360-degree wrap-around screens to stereo three-dimensional screens. Conventional desktop displays can vary in size from 模板:Convert. Wrap around screens is typically utilized in what is known as a cave automatic virtual environment (CAVE). Stereo three-dimensional screens produce three-dimensional images either with or without special glasses—depending on the design.
  • Head-mounted displays (HMDs) have small displays that are mounted on headgear worn by the user. These systems are connected directly into the virtual simulation to provide the user with a more immersive experience. Weight, update rates and field of view are some of the key variables that differentiate HMDs. Naturally, heavier HMDs are undesirable as they cause fatigue over time. If the update rate is too slow, the system is unable to update the displays fast enough to correspond with a quick head turn by the user. Slower update rates tend to cause simulation sickness and disrupt the sense of immersion. Field of view or the angular extent of the world that is seen at a given moment field of view can vary from system to system and has been found to affect the user's sense of immersion.

Aural display: Several different types of audio systems exist to help the user hear and localize sounds spatially. Special software can be used to produce 3D audio effects 3D audio to create the illusion that sound sources are placed within a defined three-dimensional space around the user.

Medical simulators are increasingly being developed and deployed to teach therapeutic and diagnostic procedures as well as medical concepts and decision making to personnel in the health professions. Simulators have been developed for training procedures ranging from the basics such as blood draw, to laparoscopic surgery and trauma care. They are also important to help on prototyping new devices for biomedical engineering problems. Currently, simulators are applied to research and develop tools for new therapies, treatments and early diagnosis in medicine.

越来越多的医疗模拟器正在开发和部署,用于向保健专业人员传授治疗和诊断程序以及医疗概念和决策。模拟器已经开发出来用于训练程序,范围从基础训练,如抽血,到腹腔镜手术和创伤护理。它们对于帮助建立新设备的原型以解决生物医学工程问题也很重要。目前,模拟器应用于研究和开发新的疗法,治疗和早期诊断的医学工具。

  • Stationary conventional speaker systems may be used to provide dual or multi-channel surround sound. However, external speakers are not as effective as headphones in producing 3D audio effects.[22]
  • Conventional headphones offer a portable alternative to stationary speakers. They also have the added advantages of masking real-world noise and facilitate more effective 3D audio sound effects.[22] 模板:Dubious

Many medical simulators involve a computer connected to a plastic simulation of the relevant

许多医学模拟器都涉及到一台连接计算机的相关整形模拟器


anatomy. Sophisticated simulators of this type employ a life-size mannequin that responds to injected drugs and can be programmed to create simulations of life-threatening emergencies.

解剖学。这种类型的复杂模拟器使用真人大小的人体模型,对注射药物有反应,可以编程模拟危及生命的紧急情况。

Haptic display: These displays provide a sense of touch to the user (haptic technology). This type of output is sometimes referred to as force feedback.

In other simulations, visual components of the procedure are reproduced by computer graphics techniques, while touch-based components are reproduced by haptic feedback devices combined with physical simulation routines computed in response to the user's actions. Medical simulations of this sort will often use 3D CT or MRI scans of patient data to enhance realism. Some medical simulations are developed to be widely distributed (such as web-enabled simulations and procedural simulations that can be viewed via standard web browsers) and can be interacted with using standard computer interfaces, such as the keyboard and mouse.

在其他模拟中,程序的视觉部分通过触觉/计算机图形学技术再现,而基于触觉的部分则通过触觉反馈设备再现,并结合物理模拟例程根据用户的动作进行计算。这类医学模拟通常使用病人数据的三维 CT 或 MRI 扫描来增强真实性。一些医学模拟被开发成广泛分布的(例如可通过标准网络浏览器查看的网络模拟和程序模拟) ,并可与标准计算机界面(例如键盘和鼠标)互动。

  • Tactile tile displays use different types of actuators such as inflatable bladders, vibrators, low-frequency sub-woofers, pin actuators and/or thermo-actuators to produce sensations for the user.
  • End effector displays can respond to users inputs with resistance and force.[22] These systems are often used in medical applications for remote surgeries that employ robotic instruments.[24]

Another important medical application of a simulator—although, perhaps, denoting a slightly different meaning of simulator—is the use of a placebo drug, a formulation that simulates the active drug in trials of drug efficacy (see Placebo (origins of technical term)).

模拟器的另一个重要医学应用是使用安慰剂药物,这是一种在药物功效试验中模拟活性药物的配方(见 Placebo (技术术语起源))。

Vestibular display: These displays provide a sense of motion to the user (motion simulator). They often manifest as motion bases for virtual vehicle simulation such as driving simulators or flight simulators. Motion bases are fixed in place but use actuators to move the simulator in ways that can produce the sensations pitching, yawing or rolling. The simulators can also move in such a way as to produce a sense of acceleration on all axes (e.g., the motion base can produce the sensation of falling).


Clinical healthcare simulators

Patient safety is a concern in the medical industry. Patients have been known to suffer injuries and even death due to management error, and lack of using best standards of care and training. According to Building a National Agenda for Simulation-Based Medical Education (Eder-Van Hook, Jackie, 2004), "a health care provider's ability to react prudently in an unexpected situation is one of the most critical factors in creating a positive outcome in medical emergency, regardless of whether it occurs on the battlefield, freeway, or hospital emergency room." Eder-Van Hook (2004) also noted that medical errors kill up to 98,000 with an estimated cost between $37 and $50 million and $17 to $29 billion for preventable adverse events dollars per year.

病人的安全是医疗行业关注的问题。众所周知,由于管理失误,以及缺乏最佳的护理和培训标准,患者会受伤甚至死亡。根据《建立基于模拟的医学教育国家议程》(Eder-Van Hook,Jackie,2004) ,“医疗保健提供者在意外情况下谨慎应对的能力是在医疗紧急情况下创造积极结果的最关键因素之一,无论是在战场上、高速公路上还是医院急诊室。”Eder-Van Hook (2004年)还指出,每年因可预防的不良事件造成的医疗差错死亡人数高达98000人,估计费用在3700万至5000万美元之间,170亿至290亿美元之间。

Medical simulators are increasingly being developed and deployed to teach therapeutic and diagnostic procedures as well as medical concepts and decision making to personnel in the health professions. Simulators have been developed for training procedures ranging from the basics such as blood draw, to laparoscopic surgery[25] and trauma care. They are also important to help on prototyping new devices[26] for biomedical engineering problems. Currently, simulators are applied to research and develop tools for new therapies,[27] treatments[28] and early diagnosis[29] in medicine.

Simulation is being used to study patient safety, as well as train medical professionals. Studying patient safety and safety interventions in healthcare is challenging, because there is a lack of experimental control (i.e., patient complexity, system/process variances) to see if an intervention made a meaningful difference (Groves & Manges, 2017). An example of innovative simulation to study patient safety is from nursing research. Groves et al. (2016) used a high-fidelity simulation to examine nursing safety-oriented behaviors during times such as change-of-shift report. However, there is a need to have improved evidence to show that crew resource management training through simulation. Although evidence that simulation-based training actually improves patient outcome has been slow to accrue, today the ability of simulation to provide hands-on experience that translates to the operating room is no longer in doubt.

模拟正被用于研究病人安全,以及培训医学专业人员。研究医疗保健中的病人安全和安全干预是一个挑战,因为缺乏实验控制(即,病人的复杂性,系统/过程的差异)来检验干预是否产生了有意义的差异(Groves & Manges,2017)。研究病人安全的创新模拟的一个例子来自护理科研。格罗夫斯等人。(2016)采用高保真模拟方法,考察护理安全导向行为的时间,如更换班次的报告。然而,有必要有改进的证据表明,船员资源管理培训通过仿真。虽然以模拟为基础的训练实际上改善病人结果的证据增长缓慢,但今天,模拟提供实际操作经验的能力转化为手术室已不再是疑问。


Many medical simulators involve a computer connected to a plastic simulation of the relevant

One of the largest factors that might impact the ability to have training impact the work of practitioners at the bedside is the ability to empower frontline staff (Stewart, Manges, Ward, 2015). Another example of an attempt to improve patient safety through the use of simulations training is patient care to deliver just-in-time service or/and just-in-place. This training consists of 20  minutes of simulated training just before workers report to shift. One study found that just in time training improved the transition to the bedside. The conclusion as reported in Nishisaki (2008) work, was that the simulation training improved resident participation in real cases; but did not sacrifice the quality of service. It could be therefore hypothesized that by increasing the number of highly trained residents through the use of simulation training, that the simulation training does, in fact, increase patient safety.

影响培训能力的最大因素之一可能是培训一线员工的能力(Stewart,Manges,Ward,2015)。试图通过使用模拟培训提高病人安全的另一个例子是病人护理,以提供准时服务或/和准时到位服务。这个训练包括20分钟的模拟训练,就在工人报到换班之前。一项研究发现,及时的训练可以改善病人到床边的过渡状态。在西崎(2008年)的工作中得出的结论是,模拟培训提高了居民在真实案例中的参与度,但没有牺牲服务质量。因此可以假设,通过使用模拟训练增加受过高度训练的住院医生的数量,模拟训练确实增加了病人的安全。

anatomy.[citation needed] Sophisticated simulators of this type employ a life-size mannequin that responds to injected drugs and can be programmed to create simulations of life-threatening emergencies.

In other simulations, visual components of the procedure are reproduced by computer graphics techniques, while touch-based components are reproduced by haptic feedback devices combined with physical simulation routines computed in response to the user's actions. Medical simulations of this sort will often use 3D CT or MRI scans of patient data to enhance realism. Some medical simulations are developed to be widely distributed (such as web-enabled simulations[30] and procedural simulations[31] that can be viewed via standard web browsers) and can be interacted with using standard computer interfaces, such as the keyboard and mouse.


The first medical simulators were simple models of human patients.

最早的医学模拟器是人类病人的简单模型。

Another important medical application of a simulator—although, perhaps, denoting a slightly different meaning of simulator—is the use of a placebo drug, a formulation that simulates the active drug in trials of drug efficacy (see Placebo (origins of technical term)).


Since antiquity, these representations in clay and stone were used to demonstrate clinical features of disease states and their effects on humans. Models have been found in many cultures and continents. These models have been used in some cultures (e.g., Chinese culture) as a "diagnostic" instrument, allowing women to consult male physicians while maintaining social laws of modesty. Models are used today to help students learn the anatomy of the musculoskeletal system and organ systems.

自古以来,这些在粘土和石头上的表现被用来展示疾病状态的临床特征及其对人类的影响。在许多文化和大陆上都可以找到模特。这些模型在一些文化(如中国文化)中被用作一种“诊断”工具,允许女性在保持谦逊的社会法则的同时向男性医生咨询。今天,模型被用来帮助学生学习肌肉骨骼系统和器官系统的解剖学。

Improving patient safety

Patient safety is a concern in the medical industry. Patients have been known to suffer injuries and even death due to management error, and lack of using best standards of care and training. According to Building a National Agenda for Simulation-Based Medical Education (Eder-Van Hook, Jackie, 2004), "a health care provider's ability to react prudently in an unexpected situation is one of the most critical factors in creating a positive outcome in medical emergency, regardless of whether it occurs on the battlefield, freeway, or hospital emergency room." Eder-Van Hook (2004) also noted that medical errors kill up to 98,000 with an estimated cost between $37 and $50 million and $17 to $29 billion for preventable adverse events dollars per year.

The need for a "uniform mechanism to educate, evaluate, and certify simulation instructors for the health care profession" was recognized by McGaghie et al. in their critical review of simulation-based medical education research. In 2012 the SSH piloted two new certifications to provide recognition to educators in an effort to meet this need.

需要一个“统一的机制,以教育,评估,并认证模拟教员的卫生保健专业”是麦加吉等人认识到。在他们的模拟为基础的医学教育研究的批判性审查。2012年,宋承宪试行了两项新的认证,以向教育工作者提供认证,努力满足这一需求。


Simulation is being used to study patient safety, as well as train medical professionals.[32] Studying patient safety and safety interventions in healthcare is challenging, because there is a lack of experimental control (i.e., patient complexity, system/process variances) to see if an intervention made a meaningful difference (Groves & Manges, 2017).[33] An example of innovative simulation to study patient safety is from nursing research. Groves et al. (2016) used a high-fidelity simulation to examine nursing safety-oriented behaviors during times such as change-of-shift report.[32]


However, the value of simulation interventions to translating to clinical practice are is still debatable.[34] As Nishisaki states, "there is good evidence that simulation training improves provider and team self-efficacy and competence on manikins. There is also good evidence that procedural simulation improves actual operational performance in clinical settings."[34] However, there is a need to have improved evidence to show that crew resource management training through simulation.[34] One of the largest challenges is showing that team simulation improves team operational performance at the bedside.[35] Although evidence that simulation-based training actually improves patient outcome has been slow to accrue, today the ability of simulation to provide hands-on experience that translates to the operating room is no longer in doubt.[36][37][38]


Active models that attempt to reproduce living anatomy or physiology are recent developments. The famous "Harvey" mannequin was developed at the University of Miami and is able to recreate many of the physical findings of the cardiology examination, including palpation, auscultation, and electrocardiography.

试图再现活体解剖学或生理学的主动模型是最近的发展。这个著名的“ Harvey”模型是在迈阿密大学研制的,它能够再现心脏病检查的许多物理发现,包括触诊、听诊和心电扫描仪。

One of the largest factors that might impact the ability to have training impact the work of practitioners at the bedside is the ability to empower frontline staff (Stewart, Manges, Ward, 2015).[35][39] Another example of an attempt to improve patient safety through the use of simulations training is patient care to deliver just-in-time service or/and just-in-place. This training consists of 20  minutes of simulated training just before workers report to shift. One study found that just in time training improved the transition to the bedside. The conclusion as reported in Nishisaki (2008) work, was that the simulation training improved resident participation in real cases; but did not sacrifice the quality of service. It could be therefore hypothesized that by increasing the number of highly trained residents through the use of simulation training, that the simulation training does, in fact, increase patient safety.


History of simulation in healthcare

More recently, interactive models have been developed that respond to actions taken by a student or physician. For patients, "cybertherapy" can be used for sessions simulating traumatic experiences, from fear of heights to social anxiety.

最近,交互模型已经开发出来,可以响应学生或医生所采取的行动。对于患者来说,“网络疗法”可以用于模拟创伤经历,从恐高到社交焦虑。

The first medical simulators were simple models of human patients.[40]


Programmed patients and simulated clinical situations, including mock disaster drills, have been used extensively for education and evaluation. These "lifelike" simulations are expensive, and lack reproducibility. A fully functional "3Di" simulator would be the most specific tool available for teaching and measurement of clinical skills. Gaming platforms have been applied to create these virtual medical environments to create an interactive method for learning and application of information in a clinical context.

程序化的病人和模拟的临床情况,包括模拟灾难演习,已被广泛用于教育和评估。这些“逼真”的模拟很昂贵,而且缺乏可重复性。一个全功能的“3Di”模拟器将是教学和测量临床技能的最具体的工具。游戏平台已被应用于创建这些虚拟医疗环境,以创建一个交互式的方法学习和应用信息在临床上。

Since antiquity, these representations in clay and stone were used to demonstrate clinical features of disease states and their effects on humans. Models have been found in many cultures and continents. These models have been used in some cultures (e.g., Chinese culture) as a "diagnostic" instrument, allowing women to consult male physicians while maintaining social laws of modesty. Models are used today to help students learn the anatomy of the musculoskeletal system and organ systems.[40]


Immersive disease state simulations allow a doctor or HCP to experience what a disease actually feels like. Using sensors and transducers symptomatic effects can be delivered to a participant allowing them to experience the patients disease state.

身临其境的疾病状态模拟允许医生或 HCP 体验疾病的真实感觉。使用传感器和传感器的症状效应可以传递给参与者,让他们体验病人的疾病状态。

In 2002, the Society for Simulation in Healthcare (SSH) was formed to become a leader in international interprofessional advances the application of medical simulation in healthcare[41]


Such a simulator meets the goals of an objective and standardized examination for clinical competence. This system is superior to examinations that use "standard patients" because it permits the quantitative measurement of competence, as well as reproducing the same objective findings.

这样的模拟器满足客观和标准化的临床能力考试的目标。该系统优于使用”标准病人”的检查,因为它允许对能力进行定量测量,并重现相同的客观结果。

The need for a "uniform mechanism to educate, evaluate, and certify simulation instructors for the health care profession" was recognized by McGaghie et al. in their critical review of simulation-based medical education research.[42] In 2012 the SSH piloted two new certifications to provide recognition to educators in an effort to meet this need.[43]


Type of models

Simulation in entertainment encompasses many large and popular industries such as film, television, video games (including serious games) and rides in theme parks. Although modern simulation is thought to have its roots in training and the military, in the 20th century it also became a conduit for enterprises which were more hedonistic in nature.

娱乐模拟包括许多大型和流行的行业,如电影,电视,电子游戏(包括严肃的游戏)和主题公园的游乐设施。尽管现代模拟被认为起源于训练和军事,但在20世纪,它也成为了企业享乐主义的渠道。


Active models

Active models that attempt to reproduce living anatomy or physiology are recent developments. The famous "Harvey" mannequin was developed at the University of Miami and is able to recreate many of the physical findings of the cardiology examination, including palpation, auscultation, and electrocardiography.[44]


Interactive models

The first simulation game may have been created as early as 1947 by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann. This was a straightforward game that simulated a missile being fired at a target. The curve of the missile and its speed could be adjusted using several knobs. In 1958, a computer game called "Tennis for Two" was created by Willy Higginbotham which simulated a tennis game between two players who could both play at the same time using hand controls and was displayed on an oscilloscope. This was one of the first electronic video games to use a graphical display.

第一款模拟游戏可能早在1947年就由小托马斯·T·戈德史密斯和 Estle Ray Mann 创造了。这是一个简单的游戏,模拟一个导弹被发射到一个目标。导弹的曲线和速度可以通过几个旋钮来调节。1958年,威利 · 希金波坦发明了一款名为“双人网球”的电脑游戏,该游戏模拟了两名玩家之间的网球游戏,这两名玩家可以同时使用手动控制器进行游戏,并在示波器上显示出来。这是最早使用图形显示的电子视频游戏之一。

More recently, interactive models have been developed that respond to actions taken by a student or physician.[44] Until recently, these simulations were two dimensional computer programs that acted more like a textbook than a patient. Computer simulations have the advantage of allowing a student to make judgments, and also to make errors. The process of iterative learning through assessment, evaluation, decision making, and error correction creates a much stronger learning environment than passive instruction.


Computer simulators

Computer-generated imagery was used in the film to simulate objects as early as 1972 in the A Computer Animated Hand, parts of which were shown on the big screen in the 1976 film Futureworld. Many will remember the "targeting computer" that young Skywalker turns off in the 1977 film Star Wars.

早在1972年,计算机成像就在电影中被用来模拟电脑生成的手中的物体,其中一部分在1976年的电影《未来世界》中出现在大银幕上。许多人会记得1977年的电影《星球大战》中年轻的天行者关闭的“瞄准计算机”。

文件:3DiTeams percuss chest.JPG
3DiTeams learner is percussing the patient's chest in virtual field hospital


The film Tron (1982) was the first film to use computer-generated imagery for more than a couple of minutes.

电影《创: 战纪》(Tron,1982)是第一部使用计算机成像超过几分钟的电影。

Simulators have been proposed as an ideal tool for assessment of students for clinical skills.[45] For patients, "cybertherapy" can be used for sessions simulating traumatic experiences, from fear of heights to social anxiety.[46]


Advances in technology in the 1980s caused 3D simulation to become more widely used and it began to appear in movies and in computer-based games such as Atari's Battlezone (1980) and Acornsoft's Elite (1984), one of the first wire-frame 3D graphics games for home computers.

20世纪80年代技术的进步使得3D 模拟技术得到了更广泛的应用,它开始出现在电影和电脑游戏中,比如雅达利的 Battlezone (1980年)和 Acornsoft 的 Elite (1984年) ,后者是最早的家用电脑线框3D 图形游戏之一。

Programmed patients and simulated clinical situations, including mock disaster drills, have been used extensively for education and evaluation. These "lifelike" simulations are expensive, and lack reproducibility. A fully functional "3Di" simulator would be the most specific tool available for teaching and measurement of clinical skills. Gaming platforms have been applied to create these virtual medical environments to create an interactive method for learning and application of information in a clinical context.[47][48]


Immersive disease state simulations allow a doctor or HCP to experience what a disease actually feels like. Using sensors and transducers symptomatic effects can be delivered to a participant allowing them to experience the patients disease state.

Advances in technology in the 1980s made the computer more affordable and more capable than they were in previous decades, which facilitated the rise of computer such as the Xbox gaming. The first video game consoles released in the 1970s and early 1980s fell prey to the industry crash in 1983, but in 1985, Nintendo released the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) which became one of the best selling consoles in video game history. In the 1990s, computer games became widely popular with the release of such game as The Sims and Command & Conquer and the still increasing power of desktop computers. Today, computer simulation games such as World of Warcraft are played by millions of people around the world.

20世纪80年代的技术进步使得电脑比前几十年更便宜、更有能力,促进了电脑的兴起,比如 Xbox 游戏。1970年代和1980年代早期发布的第一台视频游戏机在1983年的行业崩溃中成为牺牲品,但是在1985年,任天堂发布了 FC游戏机游戏机,成为视频游戏历史上最畅销的游戏机之一。在20世纪90年代,随着《模拟人生》和《模拟命令与征服系列》等游戏的发行,以及台式电脑不断增强的功能,电脑游戏变得越来越流行。今天,世界各地数以百万计的人都在玩计算机模拟的游戏,比如魔兽世界。


Such a simulator meets the goals of an objective and standardized examination for clinical competence.[49] This system is superior to examinations that use "standard patients" because it permits the quantitative measurement of competence, as well as reproducing the same objective findings.[50]

In 1993, the film Jurassic Park became the first popular film to use computer-generated graphics extensively, integrating the simulated dinosaurs almost seamlessly into live action scenes.

1993年,电影《侏罗纪公园》成为第一部广泛使用计算机生成图形的流行电影,将模拟的恐龙几乎无缝地整合到真人动作场景中。


Simulation in entertainment

This event transformed the film industry; in 1995, the film Toy Story was the first film to use only computer-generated images and by the new millennium computer generated graphics were the leading choice for special effects in films.

这一事件改变了电影业; 1995年,电影《玩具总动员》是第一部只使用电脑生成图像的电影,到了新千年,电脑生成的图像成为电影特效的主要选择。

Simulation in entertainment encompasses many large and popular industries such as film, television, video games (including serious games) and rides in theme parks. Although modern simulation is thought to have its roots in training and the military, in the 20th century it also became a conduit for enterprises which were more hedonistic in nature.


History of visual simulation in film and games

The advent of virtual cinematography in the early 2000s (decade) has led to an explosion of movies that would have been impossible to shoot without it. Classic examples are the digital look-alikes of Neo, Smith and other characters in the Matrix sequels and the extensive use of physically impossible camera runs in The Lord of the Rings (film series) trilogy.

21世纪初虚拟摄影的出现导致了电影的爆炸式增长,没有它是不可能拍摄的。经典的例子包括《黑客帝国》续集中尼奥、史密斯和其他角色的数码相似镜头,以及《指环王》(电影系列)三部曲中大量使用物理上不可能的摄像机。


Early history (1940s and 1950s)

The terminal in the Pan Am (TV series) no longer existed during the filming of this 2011–2012 aired series, which was no problem as they created it in virtual cinematography utilizing automated viewpoint finding and matching in conjunction with compositing real and simulated footage, which has been the bread and butter of the movie artist in and around film studios since the early 2000s.

在这部2011-2012年的电视剧的拍摄过程中,泛美航空公司的终端已经不存在了,这并不是什么问题,因为他们在21世纪虚拟摄影利用自动视点查找和匹配,结合合成真实的和模拟的镜头,这已经成为电影工作室里和周围电影艺术家的面包和黄油。

The first simulation game may have been created as early as 1947 by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann. This was a straightforward game that simulated a missile being fired at a target. The curve of the missile and its speed could be adjusted using several knobs. In 1958, a computer game called "Tennis for Two" was created by Willy Higginbotham which simulated a tennis game between two players who could both play at the same time using hand controls and was displayed on an oscilloscope.[51] This was one of the first electronic video games to use a graphical display.


Computer-generated imagery is "the application of the field of 3D computer graphics to special effects". This technology is used for visual effects because they are high in quality, controllable, and can create effects that would not be feasible using any other technology either because of cost, resources or safety. Computer-generated graphics can be seen in many live-action movies today, especially those of the action genre. Further, computer-generated imagery has almost completely supplanted hand-drawn animation in children's movies which are increasingly computer-generated only. Examples of movies that use computer-generated imagery include Finding Nemo, 300 and Iron Man.

计算机成像是「三维计算机图形在特技效果方面的应用」。这种技术被用于视觉效果,因为它们质量高、可控,而且可以创造出任何其他技术都无法实现的效果,无论是因为成本、资源还是安全。今天,电脑生成的图像可以在许多真人电影中看到,尤其是那些动作电影。此外,在儿童电影中,《计算机成像几乎完全取代了传统动画,而儿童电影越来越多地采用电脑制作。使用计算机成像的电影包括《海底总动员》、《300勇士》和《钢铁侠》。

1970s and early 1980s

Computer-generated imagery was used in the film to simulate objects as early as 1972 in the A Computer Animated Hand, parts of which were shown on the big screen in the 1976 film Futureworld. Many will remember the "targeting computer" that young Skywalker turns off in the 1977 film Star Wars.


The film Tron (1982) was the first film to use computer-generated imagery for more than a couple of minutes.[52]


Simulation games, as opposed to other genres of video and computer games, represent or simulate an environment accurately. Moreover, they represent the interactions between the playable characters and the environment realistically. These kinds of games are usually more complex in terms of gameplay. Simulation games have become incredibly popular among people of all ages. Popular simulation games include SimCity and Tiger Woods PGA Tour. There are also flight simulator and driving simulator games.

与其他类型的视频和电脑游戏相比,模拟游戏能够准确地表现或模拟环境。此外,他们还真实地表现了游戏角色与环境之间的相互作用。这些类型的游戏通常在游戏性方面更加复杂。模拟游戏在各个年龄段的人中间已经变得非常流行。流行的模拟游戏包括模拟城市和老虎伍兹 PGA 巡回赛。还有飞行模拟器和驾驶模拟器游戏。

Advances in technology in the 1980s caused 3D simulation to become more widely used and it began to appear in movies and in computer-based games such as Atari's Battlezone (1980) and Acornsoft's Elite (1984), one of the first wire-frame 3D graphics games for home computers.


Pre-virtual cinematography era (early 1980s to 1990s)

Simulators have been used for entertainment since the Link Trainer in the 1930s. The first modern simulator ride to open at a theme park was Disney's Star Tours in 1987 soon followed by Universal's The Funtastic World of Hanna-Barbera in 1990 which was the first ride to be done entirely with computer graphics.

自20世纪30年代链接训练器以来,模拟器一直被用于娱乐。第一个在主题公园开放的现代模拟游乐设施是1987年迪斯尼的星际之旅,不久之后环球公司在1990年推出了汉纳-巴贝拉的欢乐世界,这是第一个完全由计算机图形学公司完成的游乐设施。

Advances in technology in the 1980s made the computer more affordable and more capable than they were in previous decades,[53] which facilitated the rise of computer such as the Xbox gaming. The first video game consoles released in the 1970s and early 1980s fell prey to the industry crash in 1983, but in 1985, Nintendo released the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) which became one of the best selling consoles in video game history.[54] In the 1990s, computer games became widely popular with the release of such game as The Sims and Command & Conquer and the still increasing power of desktop computers. Today, computer simulation games such as World of Warcraft are played by millions of people around the world.


Simulator rides are the progeny of military training simulators and commercial simulators, but they are different in a fundamental way. While military training simulators react realistically to the input of the trainee in real time, ride simulators only feel like they move realistically and move according to prerecorded motion scripts.

模拟器游戏是军事训练模拟器和商业模拟器的产物,但它们在根本上是不同的。军事训练模拟器对学员的实时输入做出真实的反应,而驾驶模拟器只有按照预先录制的动作脚本进行真实的动作和移动的感觉。

In 1993, the film Jurassic Park became the first popular film to use computer-generated graphics extensively, integrating the simulated dinosaurs almost seamlessly into live action scenes.


This event transformed the film industry; in 1995, the film Toy Story was the first film to use only computer-generated images and by the new millennium computer generated graphics were the leading choice for special effects in films.[55]

Manufacturing represents one of the most important applications of simulation. This technique represents a valuable tool used by engineers when evaluating the effect of capital investment in equipment and physical facilities like factory plants, warehouses, and distribution centers. Simulation can be used to predict the performance of an existing or planned system and to compare alternative solutions for a particular design problem.

制造业是模拟技术最重要的应用之一。这项技术代表了工程师在评估设备和物理设施(如工厂厂房、仓库和配送中心)的资本投资效果时使用的一个有价值的工具。仿真可用于预测现有或计划中系统的性能,并比较特定设计问题的替代解决方案。


Virtual cinematography (early 2000s–present)

Another important goal of Simulation in Manufacturing Systems is to quantify system performance. Common measures of system performance include the following:

制造系统仿真的另一个重要目标是量化系统性能。系统性能的常见衡量标准包括:

The advent of virtual cinematography in the early 2000s (decade) has led to an explosion of movies that would have been impossible to shoot without it. Classic examples are the digital look-alikes of Neo, Smith and other characters in the Matrix sequels and the extensive use of physically impossible camera runs in The Lord of the Rings (film series) trilogy.


The terminal in the Pan Am (TV series) no longer existed during the filming of this 2011–2012 aired series, which was no problem as they created it in virtual cinematography utilizing automated viewpoint finding and matching in conjunction with compositing real and simulated footage, which has been the bread and butter of the movie artist in and around film studios since the early 2000s.


Computer-generated imagery is "the application of the field of 3D computer graphics to special effects". This technology is used for visual effects because they are high in quality, controllable, and can create effects that would not be feasible using any other technology either because of cost, resources or safety.[56] Computer-generated graphics can be seen in many live-action movies today, especially those of the action genre. Further, computer-generated imagery has almost completely supplanted hand-drawn animation in children's movies which are increasingly computer-generated only. Examples of movies that use computer-generated imagery include Finding Nemo, 300 and Iron Man.


Examples of non-film entertainment simulation

Simulation games

Simulation games, as opposed to other genres of video and computer games, represent or simulate an environment accurately. Moreover, they represent the interactions between the playable characters and the environment realistically. These kinds of games are usually more complex in terms of gameplay.[57] Simulation games have become incredibly popular among people of all ages.[58] Popular simulation games include SimCity and Tiger Woods PGA Tour. There are also flight simulator and driving simulator games.


Theme park rides

Simulators have been used for entertainment since the Link Trainer in the 1930s.[59] The first modern simulator ride to open at a theme park was Disney's Star Tours in 1987 soon followed by Universal's The Funtastic World of Hanna-Barbera in 1990 which was the first ride to be done entirely with computer graphics.[60]


Simulator rides are the progeny of military training simulators and commercial simulators, but they are different in a fundamental way. While military training simulators react realistically to the input of the trainee in real time, ride simulators only feel like they move realistically and move according to prerecorded motion scripts.[60] One of the first simulator rides, Star Tours, which cost $32 million, used a hydraulic motion based cabin. The movement was programmed by a joystick. Today's simulator rides, such as The Amazing Adventures of Spider-Man include elements to increase the amount of immersion experienced by the riders such as: 3D imagery, physical effects (spraying water or producing scents), and movement through an environment.[61]

Car racing simulator

赛车模拟器


A soldier tests out a heavy-wheeled-vehicle driver simulator.

一名士兵正在试验重型轮式车辆驾驶模拟器。

Simulation and manufacturing

Manufacturing represents one of the most important applications of simulation. This technique represents a valuable tool used by engineers when evaluating the effect of capital investment in equipment and physical facilities like factory plants, warehouses, and distribution centers. Simulation can be used to predict the performance of an existing or planned system and to compare alternative solutions for a particular design problem.[62]

An automobile simulator provides an opportunity to reproduce the characteristics of real vehicles in a virtual environment. It replicates the external factors and conditions with which a vehicle interacts enabling a driver to feel as if they are sitting in the cab of their own vehicle. Scenarios and events are replicated with sufficient reality to ensure that drivers become fully immersed in the experience rather than simply viewing it as an educational experience.

汽车模拟器提供了在虚拟环境中再现真实车辆特性的机会。它复制了交通工具相互作用的外部因素和条件,使驾驶员感觉好像他们正坐在自己车辆的驾驶室里。情景和事件被充分的现实复制,以确保司机完全沉浸在经验中,而不是简单地将其视为一种教育经验。


Another important goal of Simulation in Manufacturing Systems is to quantify system performance. Common measures of system performance include the following:[63]

The simulator provides a constructive experience for the novice driver and enables more complex exercises to be undertaken by the more mature driver. For novice drivers, truck simulators provide an opportunity to begin their career by applying best practice. For mature drivers, simulation provides the ability to enhance good driving or to detect poor practice and to suggest the necessary steps for remedial action. For companies, it provides an opportunity to educate staff in the driving skills that achieve reduced maintenance costs, improved productivity and, most importantly, to ensure the safety of their actions in all possible situations.

该模拟器提供了一个建设性的经验,为新手司机,并使更复杂的练习,以承担更成熟的司机。对于新手司机,卡车模拟器提供了一个机会,开始他们的职业生涯应用最佳实践。对于成熟的驾驶者,模拟提供了加强良好驾驶或发现不良行为的能力,并提出补救行动的必要步骤。对于公司来说,它提供了一个机会,教育员工驾驶技能,以降低维护成本,提高生产力,最重要的是,确保他们的行动在所有可能的情况下的安全。

  • Throughput under average and peak loads;
  • System cycle time (how long it takes to produce one part);
  • Utilization of resource, labor, and machines;

An open-source simulation platform for creating dynamic mechanical models built from combinations of rigid and deformable bodies, joints, constraints, and various force actuators. It is specialized for creating biomechanical models of human anatomical structures, with the intention to study their function and eventually assist in the design and planning of medical treatment.

一个开源的仿真平台,用于创建由刚性和可变形的物体、关节、约束和各种力的驱动器组合而成的动态机械模型。它专门用于创建人体解剖结构的生物力学模型,目的是研究其功能,并最终协助设计和规划医疗。

  • Bottlenecks and choke points;
  • Queuing at work locations;

A biomechanics simulator is used to analyze walking dynamics, study sports performance, simulate surgical procedures, analyze joint loads, design medical devices, and animate human and animal movement.

利用生物力学模拟器分析步行动力学,研究运动表现,模拟手术过程,分析关节负荷,设计医疗器械,动画人和动物的运动。

  • Queuing and delays caused by material-handling devices and systems;
  • WIP storages needs;

A neuromechanical simulator that combines biomechanical and biologically realistic neural network simulation. It allows the user to test hypotheses on the neural basis of behavior in a physically accurate 3-D virtual environment.

结合生物力学和生物仿真神经网络模拟的神经机械模拟器。它允许用户在一个物理精确的三维虚拟环境中根据行为的神经基础来测试假设。

  • Staffing requirements;
  • Effectiveness of scheduling systems;
  • Effectiveness of control systems.


A city simulator can be a city-building game but can also be a tool used by urban planners to understand how cities are likely to evolve in response to various policy decisions. AnyLogic is an example of modern, large-scale urban simulators designed for use by urban planners. City simulators are generally agent-based simulations with explicit representations for land use and transportation. UrbanSim and LEAM are examples of large-scale urban simulation models that are used by metropolitan planning agencies and military bases for land use and transportation planning.

城市模拟器可以是城市建造游戏的,也可以是城市规划者用来了解城市如何应对各种政策决策的工具。AnyLogic 是为城市规划者设计的现代大规模城市模拟器的一个例子。城市模拟器通常是基于 agent 的模拟,具有土地使用和交通的显式表示。UrbanSim 和 LEAM 是城市规划机构和军事基地用于土地利用和交通规划的大规模城市模拟模型的例子。

More examples of simulation

Automobiles

The "classroom of the future" will probably contain several kinds of simulators, in addition to textual and visual learning tools. This will allow students to enter the clinical years better prepared, and with a higher skill level. The advanced student or postgraduate will have a more concise and comprehensive method of retraining—or of incorporating new clinical procedures into their skill set—and regulatory bodies and medical institutions will find it easier to assess the proficiency and competency of individuals.

“未来的教室”可能包含几种类型的模拟器,除了文字和视觉学习工具。这将使学生进入临床年更好地准备,并具有更高的技能水平。高级学生或研究生将有更简洁和全面的再培训方法,或将新的临床程序纳入他们的技能组合,监管机构和医疗机构将发现更容易评估个人的熟练程度和能力。

文件:Vehicle simulator.jpg
A soldier tests out a heavy-wheeled-vehicle driver simulator.

The classroom of the future will also form the basis of a clinical skills unit for continuing education of medical personnel; and in the same way that the use of periodic flight training assists airline pilots, this technology will assist practitioners throughout their career.

未来的教室还将成为医务人员继续教育临床技能单位的基础; 同样,定期飞行培训有助于航空公司飞行员,这项技术也将有助于从业人员的整个职业生涯。


An automobile simulator provides an opportunity to reproduce the characteristics of real vehicles in a virtual environment. It replicates the external factors and conditions with which a vehicle interacts enabling a driver to feel as if they are sitting in the cab of their own vehicle. Scenarios and events are replicated with sufficient reality to ensure that drivers become fully immersed in the experience rather than simply viewing it as an educational experience.

The simulator will be more than a "living" textbook, it will become an integral a part of the practice of medicine. The simulator environment will also provide a standard platform for curriculum development in institutions of medical education.

该模拟器将不仅仅是一本“活的”教科书,它将成为医学实践不可或缺的一部分。模拟器环境也将为医学教育机构的课程开发提供一个标准化的平台。


The simulator provides a constructive experience for the novice driver and enables more complex exercises to be undertaken by the more mature driver. For novice drivers, truck simulators provide an opportunity to begin their career by applying best practice. For mature drivers, simulation provides the ability to enhance good driving or to detect poor practice and to suggest the necessary steps for remedial action. For companies, it provides an opportunity to educate staff in the driving skills that achieve reduced maintenance costs, improved productivity and, most importantly, to ensure the safety of their actions in all possible situations.


Modern satellite communications systems (SATCOM) are often large and complex with many interacting parts and elements. In addition, the need for broadband connectivity on a moving vehicle has increased dramatically in the past few years for both commercial and military applications. To accurately predict and deliver high quality of service, SATCOM system designers have to factor in terrain as well as atmospheric and meteorological conditions in their planning. To deal with such complexity, system designers and operators increasingly turn towards computer models of their systems to simulate real-world operating conditions and gain insights into usability and requirements prior to final product sign-off. Modeling improves the understanding of the system by enabling the SATCOM system designer or planner to simulate real-world performance by injecting the models with multiple hypothetical atmospheric and environmental conditions. Simulation is often used in the training of civilian and military personnel. This usually occurs when it is prohibitively expensive or simply too dangerous to allow trainees to use the real equipment in the real world. In such situations, they will spend time learning valuable lessons in a "safe" virtual environment yet living a lifelike experience (or at least it is the goal). Often the convenience is to permit mistakes during training for a safety-critical system.

现代卫星通信系统(SATCOM)往往是大型和复杂的许多相互作用的部分和要素。此外,在过去几年中,商业和军事应用对移动车辆宽带连接的需求急剧增加。为了准确预测和提供高质量的服务,SATCOM 系统设计人员在规划时必须考虑地形以及大气和气象条件。为了应付这种复杂性,系统设计人员和操作人员越来越多地求助于他们系统的计算机模型,以模拟真实世界的操作条件,并在最终产品签字之前深入了解可用性和需求。通过使 SATCOM 系统设计人员或规划人员能够通过向模型中注入多种假设的大气和环境条件来模拟真实世界的性能,建模可以提高对系统的理解。模拟常用于文职和军事人员的培训。这种情况通常发生在过于昂贵或过于危险的情况下,不允许受训者在现实世界中使用真正的设备。在这种情况下,他们会花时间在一个“安全”的虚拟环境中学习有价值的经验教训,但生活的栩栩如生的经验(或者至少这是目标)。方便的做法通常是允许生命攸关系统在训练中犯错误。

Biomechanics

An open-source simulation platform for creating dynamic mechanical models built from combinations of rigid and deformable bodies, joints, constraints, and various force actuators. It is specialized for creating biomechanical models of human anatomical structures, with the intention to study their function and eventually assist in the design and planning of medical treatment.


Simulation of airflow over an engine

发动机内部气流的模拟

A biomechanics simulator is used to analyze walking dynamics, study sports performance, simulate surgical procedures, analyze joint loads, design medical devices, and animate human and animal movement.


Simulation solutions are being increasingly integrated with CAx (CAD, CAM, CAE....) solutions and processes. The use of simulation throughout the product lifecycle, especially at the earlier concept and design stages, has the potential of providing substantial benefits. These benefits range from direct cost issues such as reduced prototyping and shorter time-to-market to better performing products and higher margins. However, for some companies, simulation has not provided the expected benefits.

仿真解决方案正日益与 CAx (CAD,CAM,CAE...)解决方案和流程集成。在整个产品生命周期中,尤其是在早期的概念和设计阶段,使用模拟具有提供实质性好处的潜力。这些好处包括减少原型开发和缩短上市时间等直接成本问题,以及性能更好的产品和更高的利润率。然而,对于一些公司来说,模拟并没有提供预期的好处。

A neuromechanical simulator that combines biomechanical and biologically realistic neural network simulation. It allows the user to test hypotheses on the neural basis of behavior in a physically accurate 3-D virtual environment.


The research firm Aberdeen Group has found that nearly all best-in-class manufacturers use simulation early in the design process as compared to 3 or 4 laggards who do not.

研究公司阿伯丁集团发现,几乎所有一流的制造商在设计过程的早期使用模拟,相比之下,有3或4个落后者不使用。

City and urban

模板:Further

The successful use of simulation, early in the lifecycle, has been largely driven by increased integration of simulation tools with the entire CAD, CAM and PLM solution-set. Simulation solutions can now function across the extended enterprise in a multi-CAD environment, and include solutions for managing simulation data and processes and ensuring that simulation results are made part of the product lifecycle history. The ability to use simulation across the entire lifecycle has been enhanced through improved user interfaces such as tailorable user interfaces and "wizards" which allow all appropriate PLM participants to take part in the simulation process.

在产品生命周期的早期阶段,仿真的成功应用在很大程度上是由于仿真工具与整个 CAD、 CAM 和 PLM 解决方案集的日益集成。仿真解决方案现在可以在多 cad 环境中跨企业运行,包括管理仿真数据和过程的解决方案,并确保仿真结果成为产品生命周期历史的一部分。通过改进的用户界面,如可裁剪的用户界面和允许所有适当的 PLM 参与者参与模拟过程的“向导” ,在整个生命周期使用模拟的能力得到了增强。

A city simulator can be a city-building game but can also be a tool used by urban planners to understand how cities are likely to evolve in response to various policy decisions. AnyLogic is an example of modern, large-scale urban simulators designed for use by urban planners. City simulators are generally agent-based simulations with explicit representations for land use and transportation. UrbanSim and LEAM are examples of large-scale urban simulation models that are used by metropolitan planning agencies and military bases for land use and transportation planning.


Classroom of the future

Simulation training has become a method for preparing people for disasters. Simulations can replicate emergency situations and track how learners respond thanks to a lifelike experience. Disaster preparedness simulations can involve training on how to handle terrorism attacks, natural disasters, pandemic outbreaks, or other life-threatening emergencies.

模拟训练已经成为人们应对灾害的一种方法。模拟可以复制紧急情况,并且通过栩栩如生的体验跟踪学习者的反应。灾害管理模拟可以包括如何处理恐怖袭击、自然灾害、流行病爆发或其他威胁生命的紧急情况的培训。

The "classroom of the future" will probably contain several kinds of simulators, in addition to textual and visual learning tools. This will allow students to enter the clinical years better prepared, and with a higher skill level. The advanced student or postgraduate will have a more concise and comprehensive method of retraining—or of incorporating new clinical procedures into their skill set—and regulatory bodies and medical institutions will find it easier to assess the proficiency and competency of individuals.


One organization that has used simulation training for disaster preparedness is CADE (Center for Advancement of Distance Education). CADE has used a video game to prepare emergency workers for multiple types of attacks. As reported by News-Medical.Net, "The video game is the first in a series of simulations to address bioterrorism, pandemic flu, smallpox, and other disasters that emergency personnel must prepare for." Developed by a team from the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), the game allows learners to practice their emergency skills in a safe, controlled environment.

其中一个使用模拟训练的组织就是 CADE (远程教育发展中心) ,这个组织为灾害管理提供模拟训练。CADE 使用了一个视频游戏来帮助应急人员应对多种类型的攻击。正如 News-Medical 所报道。视频游戏是一系列应对生物恐怖主义、大流行性流感、天花和其他紧急救援人员必须做好准备的灾难模拟中的第一个这个游戏是由伊利诺大学芝加哥分校的一个团队开发的,它允许学习者在一个安全的、可控的环境中练习他们的应急技能。

The classroom of the future will also form the basis of a clinical skills unit for continuing education of medical personnel; and in the same way that the use of periodic flight training assists airline pilots, this technology will assist practitioners throughout their career.[citation needed]


The Emergency Simulation Program (ESP) at the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada is another example of an organization that uses simulation to train for emergency situations. ESP uses simulation to train on the following situations: forest fire fighting, oil or chemical spill response, earthquake response, law enforcement, municipal firefighting, hazardous material handling, military training, and response to terrorist attack One feature of the simulation system is the implementation of "Dynamic Run-Time Clock," which allows simulations to run a 'simulated' time frame, "'speeding up' or 'slowing down' time as desired"

加拿大不列颠哥伦比亚省温哥华市不列颠哥伦比亚理工学院(BCIT)的紧急情况模拟程序(ESP)是另一个利用模拟训练应对紧急情况的组织实例。ESP 使用模拟来训练以下情况: 森林火灾扑救、石油或化学品泄漏应急、地震反应、执法、市政消防、危险物质处理、军事训练和恐怖袭击应对模拟系统的一个特点是实现“动态运行时钟” ,它允许模拟运行一个“模拟时间框架” ,“根据需要‘加快’或‘减慢’时间”

The simulator will be more than a "living" textbook, it will become an integral a part of the practice of medicine.[citation needed] The simulator environment will also provide a standard platform for curriculum development in institutions of medical education.


Most engineering simulations entail mathematical modeling and computer-assisted investigation. There are many cases, however, where mathematical modeling is not reliable. Simulation of fluid dynamics problems often require both mathematical and physical simulations. In these cases the physical models require dynamic similitude. Physical and chemical simulations have also direct realistic uses, rather than research uses; in chemical engineering, for example, process simulations are used to give the process parameters immediately used for operating chemical plants, such as oil refineries. Simulators are also used for plant operator training. It is called Operator Training Simulator (OTS) and has been widely adopted by many industries from chemical to oil&gas and to the power industry. This created a safe and realistic virtual environment to train board operators and engineers. Mimic is capable of providing high fidelity dynamic models of nearly all chemical plants for operator training and control system testing.

大多数工程模拟需要数学建模和计算机辅助调查。然而,在许多情况下,数学建模是不可靠的。流体动力学问题的模拟往往需要数学和物理模拟。在这些情况下,物理模型需要动态相似。物理和化学模拟也有直接的现实用途,而不是研究用途; 例如,在化学工程中,过程模拟被用来给出直接用于运行化工厂的过程参数,例如炼油厂。模拟器也用于工厂操作员的培训。它被称为操作员培训模拟器(OTS) ,已被从化工到石油天然气和电力工业的许多行业广泛采用。这创造了一个安全和现实的虚拟环境,以培训董事会操作员和工程师。模拟能够为操作员培训和控制系统测试提供几乎所有化工厂的高保真动态模型。

Communication satellites

Modern satellite communications systems (SATCOM) are often large and complex with many interacting parts and elements. In addition, the need for broadband connectivity on a moving vehicle has increased dramatically in the past few years for both commercial and military applications. To accurately predict and deliver high quality of service, SATCOM system designers have to factor in terrain as well as atmospheric and meteorological conditions in their planning. To deal with such complexity, system designers and operators increasingly turn towards computer models of their systems to simulate real-world operating conditions and gain insights into usability and requirements prior to final product sign-off. Modeling improves the understanding of the system by enabling the SATCOM system designer or planner to simulate real-world performance by injecting the models with multiple hypothetical atmospheric and environmental conditions. Simulation is often used in the training of civilian and military personnel. This usually occurs when it is prohibitively expensive or simply too dangerous to allow trainees to use the real equipment in the real world. In such situations, they will spend time learning valuable lessons in a "safe" virtual environment yet living a lifelike experience (or at least it is the goal). Often the convenience is to permit mistakes during training for a safety-critical system.


Ergonomic simulation involves the analysis of virtual products or manual tasks within a virtual environment. In the engineering process, the aim of ergonomics is to develop and to improve the design of products and work environments. Ergonomic simulation utilizes an anthropometric virtual representation of the human, commonly referenced as a mannequin or Digital Human Models (DHMs), to mimic the postures, mechanical loads, and performance of a human operator in a simulated environment such as an airplane, automobile, or manufacturing facility. DHMs are recognized as evolving and valuable tool for performing proactive ergonomics analysis and design. The simulations employ 3D-graphics and physics-based models to animate the virtual humans. Ergonomics software uses inverse kinematics (IK) capability for posing the DHMs.

人体工程学仿真涉及虚拟产品或虚拟环境中的手动任务的分析。在工程过程中,人机工程学的目标是开发和改进产品和工作环境的设计。人体工程学模拟利用人体的人体测量实际代表,通常被称为人体模型或数字人体模型(dhm) ,来模拟人体操作者在飞机、汽车或制造设备等模拟环境中的姿势、机械负荷和表现。Dhm 被认为是进化中的有价值的工具,可以进行主动的人机工程学分析和设计。模拟使用3d 图形和基于物理的模型来动画虚拟人。人机工程学软件使用逆运动学的能力,提出的 dhm。

Digital Lifecycle

文件:Ugs-nx-5-engine-airflow-simulation.jpg
Simulation of airflow over an engine

Modeling and simulation of a task can be performed by manually manipulating the virtual human in the simulated environment. Some ergonomics simulation software permits interactive, real-time simulation and evaluation through actual human input via motion capture technologies. However, motion capture for ergonomics requires expensive equipment and the creation of props to represent the environment or product.

任务的建模与模拟可以通过在模拟环境中手动操作虚拟人来完成。一些人机工程学模拟软体允许通过运动捕捉技术通过实际的人体输入进行交互式、实时的模拟和评估。然而,动作捕捉的人机工程学需要昂贵的设备和创造的道具来代表的环境或产品。


Simulation solutions are being increasingly integrated with CAx (CAD, CAM, CAE....) solutions and processes. The use of simulation throughout the product lifecycle, especially at the earlier concept and design stages, has the potential of providing substantial benefits. These benefits range from direct cost issues such as reduced prototyping and shorter time-to-market to better performing products and higher margins. However, for some companies, simulation has not provided the expected benefits.

Some applications of ergonomic simulation in include analysis of solid waste collection, disaster management tasks, interactive gaming, automotive assembly line, virtual prototyping of rehabilitation aids, and aerospace product design. Ford engineers use ergonomics simulation software to perform virtual product design reviews. Using engineering data, the simulations assist evaluation of assembly ergonomics. The company uses Siemen's Jack and Jill ergonomics simulation software in improving worker safety and efficiency, without the need to build expensive prototypes.

人机工程学仿真在固体废物收集分析、灾害管理任务、交互游戏、汽车装配线、康复辅具虚拟样机、航空航天产品设计等领域的应用。福特公司的工程师们使用人体工程学模拟软体进行虚拟产品设计评审。利用工程数据,模拟辅助评价装配人机工程学。该公司使用 Siemen’ s Jack and Jill 的人体工程学模拟软体来提高工人的安全性和效率,而不需要制造昂贵的原型。


The research firm Aberdeen Group has found that nearly all best-in-class manufacturers use simulation early in the design process as compared to 3 or 4 laggards who do not.


The successful use of simulation, early in the lifecycle, has been largely driven by increased integration of simulation tools with the entire CAD, CAM and PLM solution-set. Simulation solutions can now function across the extended enterprise in a multi-CAD environment, and include solutions for managing simulation data and processes and ensuring that simulation results are made part of the product lifecycle history. The ability to use simulation across the entire lifecycle has been enhanced through improved user interfaces such as tailorable user interfaces and "wizards" which allow all appropriate PLM participants to take part in the simulation process.


In finance, computer simulations are often used for scenario planning. Risk-adjusted net present value, for example, is computed from well-defined but not always known (or fixed) inputs. By imitating the performance of the project under evaluation, simulation can provide a distribution of NPV over a range of discount rates and other variables. Simulations are also often used to test a financial theory or the ability of a financial model.

在金融学中,计算机模拟常用于情景规划。例如,风险调整后的净现值是从定义良好但并不总是已知(或固定)输入中计算出来的。通过模拟被评估项目的性能,模拟可以提供净现值在一系列贴现率和其他变量上的分布。模拟也经常被用来测试金融理论或金融模型的能力。

Disaster preparedness

Simulation training has become a method for preparing people for disasters. Simulations can replicate emergency situations and track how learners respond thanks to a lifelike experience. Disaster preparedness simulations can involve training on how to handle terrorism attacks, natural disasters, pandemic outbreaks, or other life-threatening emergencies.

Simulations are frequently used in financial training to engage participants in experiencing various historical as well as fictional situations. There are stock market simulations, portfolio simulations, risk management simulations or models and forex simulations. Such simulations are typically based on stochastic asset models. Using these simulations in a training program allows for the application of theory into a something akin to real life. As with other industries, the use of simulations can be technology or case-study driven.

模拟经常用于金融培训,以使参与者体验各种历史和虚构的情况。有股票市场模拟,投资组合模拟,风险管理模拟或模型和外汇模拟。这种模拟通常基于随机资产模型。在训练计划中使用这些模拟可以将理论应用到类似于现实生活的事情中。与其他行业一样,模拟的使用可以是技术或案例研究驱动的。


One organization that has used simulation training for disaster preparedness is CADE (Center for Advancement of Distance Education). CADE[64] has used a video game to prepare emergency workers for multiple types of attacks. As reported by News-Medical.Net, "The video game is the first in a series of simulations to address bioterrorism, pandemic flu, smallpox, and other disasters that emergency personnel must prepare for.[65]" Developed by a team from the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC), the game allows learners to practice their emergency skills in a safe, controlled environment.


The Emergency Simulation Program (ESP) at the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT), Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada is another example of an organization that uses simulation to train for emergency situations. ESP uses simulation to train on the following situations: forest fire fighting, oil or chemical spill response, earthquake response, law enforcement, municipal firefighting, hazardous material handling, military training, and response to terrorist attack[66] One feature of the simulation system is the implementation of "Dynamic Run-Time Clock," which allows simulations to run a 'simulated' time frame, "'speeding up' or 'slowing down' time as desired"[66] Additionally, the system allows session recordings, picture-icon based navigation, file storage of individual simulations, multimedia components, and launch external applications.


Flight Simulation Training Devices (FSTD) are used to train pilots on the ground. In comparison to training in an actual aircraft, simulation-based training allows for the training of maneuvers or situations that may be impractical (or even dangerous) to perform in the aircraft while keeping the pilot and instructor in a relatively low-risk environment on the ground. For example, electrical system failures, instrument failures, hydraulic system failures, and even flight control failures can be simulated without risk to the pilots or an aircraft.

飞行模拟训练设备(FSTD)是用来训练飞行员在地面上。与在实际飞机上进行训练相比,基于模拟的训练允许对机动或可能不切实际(甚至危险)的情况进行训练,同时将飞行员和教练留在地面上一个相对低风险的环境中。例如,电气系统故障、仪表故障、液压系统故障,甚至飞行控制故障都可以模拟出来,而不会对飞行员或飞机造成危险。

At the University of Québec in Chicoutimi, a research team at the outdoor research and expertise laboratory (Laboratoire d'Expertise et de Recherche en Plein Air – LERPA) specializes in using wilderness backcountry accident simulations to verify emergency response coordination.


Instructors can also provide students with a higher concentration of training tasks in a given period of time than is usually possible in the aircraft. For example, conducting multiple instrument approaches in the actual aircraft may require significant time spent repositioning the aircraft, while in a simulation, as soon as one approach has been completed, the instructor can immediately preposition the simulated aircraft to an ideal (or less than ideal) location from which to begin the next approach.

教练还可以在给定的时间内为学生提供比在飞机上更高的训练任务集中度。例如,在实际飞机上进行多种仪表接近可能需要花费大量时间重新定位飞机,而在模拟中,一旦一种接近完成,教练可以立即将模拟飞机前置到理想(或不理想)位置,从而开始下一次接近。

Instructionally, the benefits of emergency training through simulations are that learner performance can be tracked through the system. This allows the developer to make adjustments as necessary or alert the educator on topics that may require additional attention. Other advantages are that the learner can be guided or trained on how to respond appropriately before continuing to the next emergency segment—this is an aspect that may not be available in the live environment. Some emergency training simulators also allow for immediate feedback, while other simulations may provide a summary and instruct the learner to engage in the learning topic again.


Flight simulation also provides an economic advantage over training in an actual aircraft. Once fuel, maintenance, and insurance costs are taken into account, the operating costs of an FSTD are usually substantially lower than the operating costs of the simulated aircraft. For some large transport category airplanes, the operating costs may be several times lower for the FSTD than the actual aircraft.

飞行模拟还提供了一个经济优势培训在实际飞机。一旦将燃料、维护和保险费用考虑在内,FSTD 的运营成本通常大大低于模拟飞机的运营成本。对于一些大型运输类飞机,FSTD 的运营成本可能比实际飞机低几倍。

In a live-emergency situation, emergency responders do not have time to waste. Simulation-training in this environment provides an opportunity for learners to gather as much information as they can and practice their knowledge in a safe environment. They can make mistakes without risk of endangering lives and be given the opportunity to correct their errors to prepare for the real-life emergency.


Some people who use simulator software, especially flight simulator software, build their own simulator at home. Some people—to further the realism of their homemade simulator—buy used cards and racks that run the same software used by the original machine. While this involves solving the problem of matching hardware and software—and the problem that hundreds of cards plug into many different racks—many still find that solving these problems is well worthwhile. Some are so serious about a realistic simulation that they will buy real aircraft parts, like complete nose sections of written-off aircraft, at aircraft boneyards. This permits people to simulate a hobby that they are unable to pursue in real life.

一些使用模拟器软件,特别是飞行模拟器软件的人,在家里建立自己的模拟器。一些人为了进一步验证他们自制的模拟器的真实性,购买了运行原机器所使用的相同软件的二手卡片和机架。虽然这涉及到解决硬件和软件的匹配问题,以及数百张卡插入许多不同机架的问题,但许多人仍然认为,解决这些问题是非常值得的。有些人对于真实的模拟是如此认真,以至于他们会在飞机的骨架上购买真正的飞机零件,比如完整的被注销飞机的机头部分。这使得人们可以模拟一个他们在现实生活中无法追求的爱好。

Economics

In economics and especially macroeconomics, the effects of proposed policy actions, such as fiscal policy changes or monetary policy changes, are simulated to judge their desirability. A mathematical model of the economy, having been fitted to historical economic data, is used as a proxy for the actual economy; proposed values of government spending, taxation, open market operations, etc. are used as inputs to the simulation of the model, and various variables of interest such as the inflation rate, the unemployment rate, the balance of trade deficit, the government budget deficit, etc. are the outputs of the simulation. The simulated values of these variables of interest are compared for different proposed policy inputs to determine which set of outcomes is most desirable.


Bearing resemblance to flight simulators, marine simulators train ships' personnel. The most common marine simulators include:

与飞行模拟器方位相似,海上模拟器训练船员。最常见的海洋模拟器包括:

Engineering, technology, and processes

Simulation is an important feature in engineering systems or any system that involves many processes. For example, in electrical engineering, delay lines may be used to simulate propagation delay and phase shift caused by an actual transmission line. Similarly, dummy loads may be used to simulate impedance without simulating propagation and is used in situations where propagation is unwanted. A simulator may imitate only a few of the operations and functions of the unit it simulates. Contrast with: emulate.[67]


Most engineering simulations entail mathematical modeling and computer-assisted investigation. There are many cases, however, where mathematical modeling is not reliable. Simulation of fluid dynamics problems often require both mathematical and physical simulations. In these cases the physical models require dynamic similitude. Physical and chemical simulations have also direct realistic uses, rather than research uses; in chemical engineering, for example, process simulations are used to give the process parameters immediately used for operating chemical plants, such as oil refineries. Simulators are also used for plant operator training. It is called Operator Training Simulator (OTS) and has been widely adopted by many industries from chemical to oil&gas and to the power industry. This created a safe and realistic virtual environment to train board operators and engineers. Mimic is capable of providing high fidelity dynamic models of nearly all chemical plants for operator training and control system testing.


Ergonomics

Ergonomic simulation involves the analysis of virtual products or manual tasks within a virtual environment. In the engineering process, the aim of ergonomics is to develop and to improve the design of products and work environments.[68] Ergonomic simulation utilizes an anthropometric virtual representation of the human, commonly referenced as a mannequin or Digital Human Models (DHMs), to mimic the postures, mechanical loads, and performance of a human operator in a simulated environment such as an airplane, automobile, or manufacturing facility. DHMs are recognized as evolving and valuable tool for performing proactive ergonomics analysis and design.[69] The simulations employ 3D-graphics and physics-based models to animate the virtual humans. Ergonomics software uses inverse kinematics (IK) capability for posing the DHMs.[68]

Simulators like these are mostly used within maritime colleges, training institutions, and navies. They often consist of a replication of a ships' bridge, with the operating console(s), and a number of screens on which the virtual surroundings are projected.

这样的模拟器主要用于海事学院、培训机构和海军。它们通常包括一个舰桥的复制品,带有操作控制台,以及一些投影虚拟环境的屏幕。


Software tools typically calculate biomechanical properties including individual muscle forces, joint forces and moments. Most of these tools employ standard ergonomic evaluation methods such as the NIOSH lifting equation and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA). Some simulations also analyze physiological measures including metabolism, energy expenditure, and fatigue limits Cycle time studies, design and process validation, user comfort, reachability, and line of sight are other human-factors that may be examined in ergonomic simulation packages.[70]


Modeling and simulation of a task can be performed by manually manipulating the virtual human in the simulated environment. Some ergonomics simulation software permits interactive, real-time simulation and evaluation through actual human input via motion capture technologies. However, motion capture for ergonomics requires expensive equipment and the creation of props to represent the environment or product.

Military simulations, also known informally as war games, are models in which theories of warfare can be tested and refined without the need for actual hostilities. They exist in many different forms, with varying degrees of realism. In recent times, their scope has widened to include not only military but also political and social factors (for example, the NationLab series of strategic exercises in Latin America). While many governments make use of simulation, both individually and collaboratively, little is known about the model's specifics outside professional circles.

军事模拟,也被非正式地称为战争游戏,是一种模型,其中战争的理论可以在不需要实际敌对行动的情况下进行测试和改进。它们以不同的形式存在,具有不同程度的现实主义。最近,它们的范围已经扩大,不仅包括军事因素,还包括政治和社会因素(例如,拉丁美洲的国家实验室系列战略演习)。虽然许多国家的政府利用模拟,无论是单独的还是协作的,但是在专业圈子之外,人们对模型的细节知之甚少。


Some applications of ergonomic simulation in include analysis of solid waste collection, disaster management tasks, interactive gaming,[71] automotive assembly line,[72] virtual prototyping of rehabilitation aids,[73] and aerospace product design.[74] Ford engineers use ergonomics simulation software to perform virtual product design reviews. Using engineering data, the simulations assist evaluation of assembly ergonomics. The company uses Siemen's Jack and Jill ergonomics simulation software in improving worker safety and efficiency, without the need to build expensive prototypes.[75]


Network and distributed systems have been extensively simulated in other to understand the impact of new protocols and algorithms before their deployment in the actual systems. The simulation can focus on different levels (physical layer, network layer, application layer), and evaluate different metrics (network bandwidth, resource consumption, service time, dropped packets, system availability). Examples of simulation scenarios of network and distributed systems are:

网络和分布式系统在实际系统中部署之前,已经在其他系统中进行了广泛的模拟,以了解新协议和算法的影响。仿真可以针对不同的层次(物理层、网络层、应用层) ,评估不同的指标(网络带宽、资源消耗、服务时间、丢包、系统可用性)。网络和分布式系统仿真场景的例子如下:

Finance


In finance, computer simulations are often used for scenario planning. Risk-adjusted net present value, for example, is computed from well-defined but not always known (or fixed) inputs. By imitating the performance of the project under evaluation, simulation can provide a distribution of NPV over a range of discount rates and other variables. Simulations are also often used to test a financial theory or the ability of a financial model.[76]


Simulations are frequently used in financial training to engage participants in experiencing various historical as well as fictional situations. There are stock market simulations, portfolio simulations, risk management simulations or models and forex simulations. Such simulations are typically based on stochastic asset models. Using these simulations in a training program allows for the application of theory into a something akin to real life. As with other industries, the use of simulations can be technology or case-study driven.


Simulation techniques have also been applied to payment and securities settlement systems. Among the main users are central banks who are generally responsible for the oversight of market infrastructure and entitled to contribute to the smooth functioning of the payment systems.

仿真技术也应用于支付和证券结算系统。主要用户包括中央银行,它们一般负责监督市场基础设施,并有权为支付系统的顺利运作作出贡献。

Flight

Central banks have been using payment system simulations to evaluate things such as the adequacy or sufficiency of liquidity available ( in the form of account balances and intraday credit limits) to participants (mainly banks) to allow efficient settlement of payments. The need for liquidity is also dependent on the availability and the type of netting procedures in the systems, thus some of the studies have a focus on system comparisons.

中央银行一直利用支付系统模拟评估参与者(主要是银行)是否有足够的流动资金(以帐户结余和即日信贷限额的形式) ,以便有效结算支付。对流动资金的需要还取决于系统中的可用性和净额结算程序的类型,因此有些研究侧重于系统比较。


Flight Simulation Training Devices (FSTD) are used to train pilots on the ground. In comparison to training in an actual aircraft, simulation-based training allows for the training of maneuvers or situations that may be impractical (or even dangerous) to perform in the aircraft while keeping the pilot and instructor in a relatively low-risk environment on the ground. For example, electrical system failures, instrument failures, hydraulic system failures, and even flight control failures can be simulated without risk to the pilots or an aircraft.

Another application is to evaluate risks related to events such as communication network breakdowns or the inability of participants to send payments (e.g. in case of possible bank failure). This kind of analysis falls under the concepts of stress testing or scenario analysis.

另一个应用程序是评估与事件相关的风险,如通信网络故障或参与者无法发送付款(例如:。以防可能出现银行倒闭)。这种分析属于压力测试或情景分析的概念。


Instructors can also provide students with a higher concentration of training tasks in a given period of time than is usually possible in the aircraft. For example, conducting multiple instrument approaches in the actual aircraft may require significant time spent repositioning the aircraft, while in a simulation, as soon as one approach has been completed, the instructor can immediately preposition the simulated aircraft to an ideal (or less than ideal) location from which to begin the next approach.

A common way to conduct these simulations is to replicate the settlement logics of the real payment or securities settlement systems under analysis and then use real observed payment data. In case of system comparison or system development, naturally, also the other settlement logics need to be implemented.

进行这些模拟的常用方法是复制被分析的实际支付或证券结算系统的结算逻辑,然后使用实际观察到的支付数据。在系统比较或系统开发的情况下,自然也需要实现其他结算逻辑。


Flight simulation also provides an economic advantage over training in an actual aircraft. Once fuel, maintenance, and insurance costs are taken into account, the operating costs of an FSTD are usually substantially lower than the operating costs of the simulated aircraft. For some large transport category airplanes, the operating costs may be several times lower for the FSTD than the actual aircraft.

To perform stress testing and scenario analysis, the observed data needs to be altered, e.g. some payments delayed or removed. To analyze the levels of liquidity, initial liquidity levels are varied. System comparisons (benchmarking) or evaluations of new netting algorithms or rules are performed by running simulations with a fixed set of data and varying only the system setups.

为了执行压力测试和场景分析,需要更改观察到的数据,例如。有些付款被延迟或取消了。为了分析流动性水平,初始流动性水平是不同的。系统比较(基准测试)或对新的网络算法或规则的评估是通过使用固定的数据集和只改变系统设置来进行模拟运行的。


Some people who use simulator software, especially flight simulator software, build their own simulator at home. Some people—to further the realism of their homemade simulator—buy used cards and racks that run the same software used by the original machine. While this involves solving the problem of matching hardware and software—and the problem that hundreds of cards plug into many different racks—many still find that solving these problems is well worthwhile. Some are so serious about a realistic simulation that they will buy real aircraft parts, like complete nose sections of written-off aircraft, at aircraft boneyards. This permits people to simulate a hobby that they are unable to pursue in real life.

An inference is usually done by comparing the benchmark simulation results to the results of altered simulation setups by comparing indicators such as unsettled transactions or settlement delays.

推断通常是通过比较未完成的交易或结算延迟等指标,将基准模拟结果与更改后的模拟设置的结果进行比较。


Marine

Bearing resemblance to flight simulators, marine simulators train ships' personnel. The most common marine simulators include:

  • Ship's bridge simulators

Project management simulation is simulation used for project management training and analysis. It is often used as a training simulation for project managers. In other cases, it is used for what-if analysis and for supporting decision-making in real projects. Frequently the simulation is conducted using software tools.

项目管理模拟是用于项目管理培训和分析的模拟。它经常被用作项目经理的培训模拟。在其他情况下,它用于假设分析和支持实际项目中的决策。通常使用软件工具进行模拟。

  • Engine room simulators
  • Cargo handling simulators
  • Communication / GMDSS simulators
  • ROV simulators

A robotics simulator is used to create embedded applications for a specific (or not) robot without being dependent on the 'real' robot. In some cases, these applications can be transferred to the real robot (or rebuilt) without modifications. Robotics simulators allow reproducing situations that cannot be 'created' in the real world because of cost, time, or the 'uniqueness' of a resource. A simulator also allows fast robot prototyping. Many robot simulators feature physics engines to simulate a robot's dynamics.

机器人模拟器用于为特定(或不特定)机器人创建嵌入式应用程序,而不依赖于“真实”机器人。在某些情况下,这些应用程序可以转移到真正的机器人(或重建)而不需要修改。机器人模拟器允许再现那些由于成本、时间或资源的独特性而无法在现实世界中“创造”的情况。模拟器还可以快速制作机器人原型。许多机器人模拟器以物理引擎为特征来模拟机器人的动力学。


Simulators like these are mostly used within maritime colleges, training institutions, and navies. They often consist of a replication of a ships' bridge, with the operating console(s), and a number of screens on which the virtual surroundings are projected.


Simulation of production systems is used mainly to examine the effect of improvements or investments in a production system. Most often this is done using a static spreadsheet with process times and transportation times. For more sophisticated simulations Discrete Event Simulation (DES) is used with the advantages to simulate dynamics in the production system. A production system is very much dynamic depending on variations in manufacturing processes, assembly times, machine set-ups, breaks, breakdowns and small stoppages. There is much software commonly used for discrete event simulation. They differ in usability and markets but do often share the same foundation.

生产系统的模拟主要用于检查生产系统中的改进或投资的效果。大多数情况下,这是使用一个静态电子表格与流程时间和运输时间。对于更加复杂的模拟,离散事件仿真模拟具有在生产系统中模拟动态的优点。一个生产系统是非常动态的,取决于制造过程的变化,装配时间,机器设置,休息,故障和小停工。有很多软件通常用于离散事件仿真。它们在可用性和市场方面各不相同,但基础往往是相同的。

Military

Military simulations, also known informally as war games, are models in which theories of warfare can be tested and refined without the need for actual hostilities. They exist in many different forms, with varying degrees of realism. In recent times, their scope has widened to include not only military but also political and social factors (for example, the NationLab series of strategic exercises in Latin America).[77] While many governments make use of simulation, both individually and collaboratively, little is known about the model's specifics outside professional circles.


Simulations are useful in modeling the flow of transactions through business processes, such as in the field of sales process engineering, to study and improve the flow of customer orders through various stages of completion (say, from an initial proposal for providing goods/services through order acceptance and installation). Such simulations can help predict the impact of how improvements in methods might impact variability, cost, labor time, and the number of transactions at various stages in the process. A full-featured computerized process simulator can be used to depict such models, as can simpler educational demonstrations using spreadsheet software, pennies being transferred between cups based on the roll of a die, or dipping into a tub of colored beads with a scoop.

模拟有助于通过业务流程建立交易流程模型,例如在销售流程工程领域,研究和改进客户订单在各个完成阶段的流程(例如,从提供货物/服务的初始建议到订单接受和安装)。这样的模拟可以帮助预测方法的改进会如何影响可变性、成本、劳动时间和过程中不同阶段的事务数量。一个全功能的计算机化过程模拟器可以用来描绘这样的模型,比如用电子试算表进行简单的教学演示,根据骰子的滚动在杯子之间转移硬币,或者用勺子把硬币放进一桶彩色珠子里。

Network and distributed systems

Network and distributed systems have been extensively simulated in other to understand the impact of new protocols and algorithms before their deployment in the actual systems. The simulation can focus on different levels (physical layer, network layer, application layer), and evaluate different metrics (network bandwidth, resource consumption, service time, dropped packets, system availability). Examples of simulation scenarios of network and distributed systems are:


In sports, computer simulations are often done to predict the outcome of events and the performance of individual sportspeople. They attempt to recreate the event through models built from statistics. The increase in technology has allowed anyone with knowledge of programming the ability to run simulations of their models. The simulations are built from a series of mathematical algorithms, or models, and can vary with accuracy. Accuscore, which is licensed by companies such as ESPN, is a well-known simulation program for all major sports. It offers a detailed analysis of games through simulated betting lines, projected point totals and overall probabilities.

在体育运动中,计算机模拟常常被用来预测比赛的结果和个体运动员的表现。他们试图通过由统计数据构建的模型重新创建事件。技术的进步使得任何具有编程知识的人都有能力运行他们模型的模拟。这些模拟是由一系列数学算法或模型构成的,并且可以随着精度的变化而变化。由 ESPN 等公司授权,是一个著名的模拟程序,适用于所有主要体育项目。它提供了一个通过模拟投注线,计划总分和总体概率游戏的详细分析。

  • Smart cities

With the increased interest in fantasy sports simulation models that predict individual player performance have gained popularity. Companies like What If Sports and StatFox specialize in not only using their simulations for predicting game results but how well individual players will do as well. Many people use models to determine whom to start in their fantasy leagues.

随着人们对奇幻运动模拟模型兴趣的增加,预测个人运动员表现的模型也越来越受欢迎。像 What If Sports 和 StatFox 这样的公司不仅擅长使用他们的模拟来预测比赛结果,还擅长预测单个运动员的表现。许多人使用模型来决定在他们的幻想联盟中开始谁。

  • Internet of things


Another way simulations are helping the sports field is in the use of biomechanics. Models are derived and simulations are run from data received from sensors attached to athletes and video equipment. Sports biomechanics aided by simulation models answer questions regarding training techniques such as the effect of fatigue on throwing performance (height of throw) and biomechanical factors of the upper limbs (reactive strength index; hand contact time).

另一种帮助运动领域的模拟方法是运用生物力学。模型是从运动员和视频设备上的传感器接收到的数据推导出来的,模拟是运行的。借助于模拟模型,运动生物力学可以回答有关训练技术的问题,比如疲劳对投掷性能的影响(投掷高度)和上肢的生物力学因素(反应力量指数; 手部接触时间)。

Payment and securities settlement system

Simulation techniques have also been applied to payment and securities settlement systems. Among the main users are central banks who are generally responsible for the oversight of market infrastructure and entitled to contribute to the smooth functioning of the payment systems.

Computer simulations allow their users to take models which before were too complex to run, and give them answers. Simulations have proven to be some of the best insights into both play performance and team predictability.

计算机模拟允许他们的用户采用以前太复杂而无法运行的模型,并给他们答案。模拟已经被证明是对比赛表现和团队可预测性的最好的洞察。


Central banks have been using payment system simulations to evaluate things such as the adequacy or sufficiency of liquidity available ( in the form of account balances and intraday credit limits) to participants (mainly banks) to allow efficient settlement of payments.[82][83] The need for liquidity is also dependent on the availability and the type of netting procedures in the systems, thus some of the studies have a focus on system comparisons.[84]


Firing Room 1 configured for Space Shuttle launches

一号发射室配置为[航天飞机发射]

Another application is to evaluate risks related to events such as communication network breakdowns or the inability of participants to send payments (e.g. in case of possible bank failure).[85] This kind of analysis falls under the concepts of stress testing or scenario analysis.

Simulation was used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to train and certify Space Shuttle engineers during simulated launch countdown operations. The Space Shuttle engineering community would participate in a launch countdown integrated simulation before each Shuttle flight. This simulation is a virtual simulation where real people interact with simulated Space Shuttle vehicle and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) hardware. The Shuttle Final Countdown Phase Simulation, also known as S0044, involved countdown processes that would integrate many of the Space Shuttle vehicle and GSE systems. Some of the Shuttle systems integrated in the simulation are the main propulsion system, RS-25, solid rocket boosters, ground liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, external tank, flight controls, navigation, and avionics. The high-level objectives of the Shuttle Final Countdown Phase Simulation are:

在模拟发射倒计时操作期间,肯尼迪航天中心航天中心(KSC)利用模拟技术对航天飞机工程师进行培训和认证。航天飞机工程界将在每次航天飞机飞行前参加发射倒计时综合模拟。该仿真是一个虚拟仿真,真实的人与模拟航天飞机和地面支持设备(GSE)硬件进行交互。航天飞机最终倒计时阶段模拟,也称为 S0044,包括了将航天飞机飞行器和 GSE 系统集成在一起的倒计时过程。在模拟中集成的一些航天飞机系统是主推进系统,RS-25,固体火箭助推器,地面液氢和液氧,外部燃料箱,飞行控制,导航和航空电子设备。航天飞机最后倒计时阶段模拟的高级目标是:


A common way to conduct these simulations is to replicate the settlement logics of the real payment or securities settlement systems under analysis and then use real observed payment data. In case of system comparison or system development, naturally, also the other settlement logics need to be implemented.


To perform stress testing and scenario analysis, the observed data needs to be altered, e.g. some payments delayed or removed. To analyze the levels of liquidity, initial liquidity levels are varied. System comparisons (benchmarking) or evaluations of new netting algorithms or rules are performed by running simulations with a fixed set of data and varying only the system setups.


An inference is usually done by comparing the benchmark simulation results to the results of altered simulation setups by comparing indicators such as unsettled transactions or settlement delays.

The Shuttle Final Countdown Phase Simulation took place at the Kennedy Space Center Launch Control Center Firing Rooms. The firing room used during the simulation is the same control room where real launch countdown operations are executed. As a result, equipment used for real launch countdown operations is engaged. Command and control computers, application software, engineering plotting and trending tools, launch countdown procedure documents, launch commit criteria documents, hardware requirement documents, and any other items used by the engineering launch countdown teams during real launch countdown operations are used during the simulation.

航天飞机最后倒计时阶段模拟在肯尼迪航天中心空间站发射控制中心的发射室进行。模拟过程中使用的发射室是执行真正发射倒计时操作的同一个控制室。因此,设备用于真正的发射倒计时操作是从事。模拟期间使用了指挥和控制计算机、应用软件、工程绘图和趋势工具、发射倒计时程序文件、发射提交标准文件、硬件要求文件以及工程发射倒计时小组在实际发射倒计时操作中使用的任何其他项目。


The Space Shuttle vehicle hardware and related GSE hardware is simulated by mathematical models (written in Shuttle Ground Operations Simulator (SGOS) modeling language) that behave and react like real hardware. During the Shuttle Final Countdown Phase Simulation, engineers command and control hardware via real application software executing in the control consoles – just as if they were commanding real vehicle hardware. However, these real software applications do not interface with real Shuttle hardware during simulations. Instead, the applications interface with mathematical model representations of the vehicle and GSE hardware. Consequently, the simulations bypass sensitive and even dangerous mechanisms while providing engineering measurements detailing how the hardware would have reacted. Since these math models interact with the command and control application software, models and simulations are also used to debug and verify the functionality of application software.

航天飞机的硬件和相关的 GSE 硬件是通过数学模型来模拟的(编写在航天飞机地面操作模拟器(SGOS)建模语言) ,它的行为和反应就像真正的硬件。在航天飞机最终倒计时阶段模拟中,工程师们通过在控制台上执行的真实应用软件来指挥和控制硬件——就好像他们在指挥真实的航天飞机硬件一样。然而,这些真正的软件应用程序并不与真正的航天飞机硬件在仿真界面。相反,应用程序接口的数学模型表示的车辆和 GSE 的硬件。因此,模拟绕过敏感甚至危险的机制,同时提供工程测量详细说明硬件将如何反应。由于这些数学模型与指挥控制应用软件相互作用,模型和仿真也被用来调试和验证应用软件的功能。

Project management

Project management simulation is simulation used for project management training and analysis. It is often used as a training simulation for project managers. In other cases, it is used for what-if analysis and for supporting decision-making in real projects. Frequently the simulation is conducted using software tools.

The only true way to test GNSS receivers (commonly known as Sat-Nav's in the commercial world) is by using an RF Constellation Simulator. A receiver that may, for example, be used on an aircraft, can be tested under dynamic conditions without the need to take it on a real flight. The test conditions can be repeated exactly, and there is full control over all the test parameters. this is not possible in the 'real-world' using the actual signals. For testing receivers that will use the new Galileo (satellite navigation) there is no alternative, as the real signals do not yet exist.

测试 GNSS 接收器(在商业界通常称为 Sat-Nav)的唯一真正方法是使用射频星座模拟器。例如,可以在飞机上使用的接收器,可以在动态条件下进行测试,而不需要在实际飞行中使用。试验条件可以精确重复,并且对所有的试验参数有完全的控制。这在现实世界中是不可能的,用真实的信号。对于测试将使用新伽利略(卫星导航)的接收器来说,没有其他选择,因为真正的信号还不存在。


Robotics

Predicting weather conditions by extrapolating/interpolating previous data is one of the real use of simulation. Most of the weather forecasts use this information published by Weather bureaus. This kind of simulations helps in predicting and forewarning about extreme weather conditions like the path of an active hurricane/cyclone. Numerical weather prediction for forecasting involves complicated numeric computer models to predict weather accurately by taking many parameters into account.

通过对以前的数据进行外推/内插来预测天气状况是模拟的真正用途之一。大多数天气预报使用气象局发布的这一信息。这种模拟有助于预测和预警极端天气状况,例如活跃的飓风/气旋的路径。天气预报数值天气预报涉及复杂的数字计算机模型,通过考虑许多参数来准确地预报天气。

A robotics simulator is used to create embedded applications for a specific (or not) robot without being dependent on the 'real' robot. In some cases, these applications can be transferred to the real robot (or rebuilt) without modifications. Robotics simulators allow reproducing situations that cannot be 'created' in the real world because of cost, time, or the 'uniqueness' of a resource. A simulator also allows fast robot prototyping. Many robot simulators feature physics engines to simulate a robot's dynamics.


Production

Simulation of production systems is used mainly to examine the effect of improvements or investments in a production system. Most often this is done using a static spreadsheet with process times and transportation times. For more sophisticated simulations Discrete Event Simulation (DES) is used with the advantages to simulate dynamics in the production system. A production system is very much dynamic depending on variations in manufacturing processes, assembly times, machine set-ups, breaks, breakdowns and small stoppages.[86] There is much software commonly used for discrete event simulation. They differ in usability and markets but do often share the same foundation.

Strategy games—both traditional and modern—may be viewed as simulations of abstracted decision-making for the purpose of training military and political leaders (see History of Go for an example of such a tradition, or Kriegsspiel for a more recent example).

无论是传统的还是现代的战略游戏,都可以被看作是为了训练军事和政治领导人而进行的抽象决策的模拟(参见围棋历史就是这种传统的一个例子,或者参见 Kriegsspiel 就是一个更新的例子)。


Sales process

Many other video games are simulators of some kind. Such games can simulate various aspects of reality, from business, to government, to construction, to piloting vehicles (see above).

许多其他视频游戏都是某种类型的模拟器。这样的游戏可以模拟现实的各个方面,从商业,到政府,到建筑,再到驾驶汽车(见上文)。

Simulations are useful in modeling the flow of transactions through business processes, such as in the field of sales process engineering, to study and improve the flow of customer orders through various stages of completion (say, from an initial proposal for providing goods/services through order acceptance and installation). Such simulations can help predict the impact of how improvements in methods might impact variability, cost, labor time, and the number of transactions at various stages in the process. A full-featured computerized process simulator can be used to depict such models, as can simpler educational demonstrations using spreadsheet software, pennies being transferred between cups based on the roll of a die, or dipping into a tub of colored beads with a scoop.[87]


Historically, the word had negative connotations:

从历史上看,这个词有负面的含义:

Sports

In sports, computer simulations are often done to predict the outcome of events and the performance of individual sportspeople. They attempt to recreate the event through models built from statistics. The increase in technology has allowed anyone with knowledge of programming the ability to run simulations of their models. The simulations are built from a series of mathematical algorithms, or models, and can vary with accuracy. Accuscore, which is licensed by companies such as ESPN, is a well-known simulation program for all major sports. It offers a detailed analysis of games through simulated betting lines, projected point totals and overall probabilities.


With the increased interest in fantasy sports simulation models that predict individual player performance have gained popularity. Companies like What If Sports and StatFox specialize in not only using their simulations for predicting game results but how well individual players will do as well. Many people use models to determine whom to start in their fantasy leagues.


Another way simulations are helping the sports field is in the use of biomechanics. Models are derived and simulations are run from data received from sensors attached to athletes and video equipment. Sports biomechanics aided by simulation models answer questions regarding training techniques such as the effect of fatigue on throwing performance (height of throw) and biomechanical factors of the upper limbs (reactive strength index; hand contact time).[88]

However, the connection between simulation and dissembling later faded out and is now only of linguistic interest.

然而,模拟和掩饰之间的联系后来逐渐消失,现在只有语言学家感兴趣。


Computer simulations allow their users to take models which before were too complex to run, and give them answers. Simulations have proven to be some of the best insights into both play performance and team predictability.


Space shuttle countdown

文件:KSCFiringroom1.jpg
Firing Room 1 configured for Space Shuttle launches

Simulation was used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to train and certify Space Shuttle engineers during simulated launch countdown operations. The Space Shuttle engineering community would participate in a launch countdown integrated simulation before each Shuttle flight. This simulation is a virtual simulation where real people interact with simulated Space Shuttle vehicle and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) hardware. The Shuttle Final Countdown Phase Simulation, also known as S0044, involved countdown processes that would integrate many of the Space Shuttle vehicle and GSE systems. Some of the Shuttle systems integrated in the simulation are the main propulsion system, RS-25, solid rocket boosters, ground liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, external tank, flight controls, navigation, and avionics.[89] The high-level objectives of the Shuttle Final Countdown Phase Simulation are:

  • To demonstrate Firing Room final countdown phase operations.
  • To provide training for system engineers in recognizing, reporting and evaluating system problems in a time critical environment.
  • To exercise the launch team's ability to evaluate, prioritize and respond to problems in an integrated manner within a time critical environment.
  • To provide procedures to be used in performing failure/recovery testing of the operations performed in the final countdown phase.[90]


The Shuttle Final Countdown Phase Simulation took place at the Kennedy Space Center Launch Control Center Firing Rooms. The firing room used during the simulation is the same control room where real launch countdown operations are executed. As a result, equipment used for real launch countdown operations is engaged. Command and control computers, application software, engineering plotting and trending tools, launch countdown procedure documents, launch commit criteria documents, hardware requirement documents, and any other items used by the engineering launch countdown teams during real launch countdown operations are used during the simulation.

The Space Shuttle vehicle hardware and related GSE hardware is simulated by mathematical models (written in Shuttle Ground Operations Simulator (SGOS) modeling language[91]) that behave and react like real hardware. During the Shuttle Final Countdown Phase Simulation, engineers command and control hardware via real application software executing in the control consoles – just as if they were commanding real vehicle hardware. However, these real software applications do not interface with real Shuttle hardware during simulations. Instead, the applications interface with mathematical model representations of the vehicle and GSE hardware. Consequently, the simulations bypass sensitive and even dangerous mechanisms while providing engineering measurements detailing how the hardware would have reacted. Since these math models interact with the command and control application software, models and simulations are also used to debug and verify the functionality of application software.[92]


Satellite navigation

The only true way to test GNSS receivers (commonly known as Sat-Nav's in the commercial world) is by using an RF Constellation Simulator. A receiver that may, for example, be used on an aircraft, can be tested under dynamic conditions without the need to take it on a real flight. The test conditions can be repeated exactly, and there is full control over all the test parameters. this is not possible in the 'real-world' using the actual signals. For testing receivers that will use the new Galileo (satellite navigation) there is no alternative, as the real signals do not yet exist.


Weather

Predicting weather conditions by extrapolating/interpolating previous data is one of the real use of simulation. Most of the weather forecasts use this information published by Weather bureaus. This kind of simulations helps in predicting and forewarning about extreme weather conditions like the path of an active hurricane/cyclone. Numerical weather prediction for forecasting involves complicated numeric computer models to predict weather accurately by taking many parameters into account.


Simulation games

Strategy games—both traditional and modern—may be viewed as simulations of abstracted decision-making for the purpose of training military and political leaders (see History of Go for an example of such a tradition, or Kriegsspiel for a more recent example).


Many other video games are simulators of some kind. Such games can simulate various aspects of reality, from business, to government, to construction, to piloting vehicles (see above).


Historical usage

Historically, the word had negative connotations:


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/* Styling for Template:Quote */ .templatequote { overflow: hidden; margin: 1em 0; padding: 0 40px; } .templatequote .templatequotecite {

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However, the connection between simulation and dissembling later faded out and is now only of linguistic interest.[93]


See also

Category:Modeling and simulation

类别: 建模与模拟

Category:Mathematical and quantitative methods (economics)

类别: 数学和定量方法(经济学)


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Simulation. Its edit history can be viewed at 模拟/edithistory

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  93. South, in the passage quoted, was speaking of the differences between a falsehood and an honestly mistaken statement; the difference being that in order for the statement to be a lie the truth must be known, and the opposite of the truth must have been knowingly uttered. And, from this, to the extent to which a lie involves deceptive words, a simulation involves deceptive actions, deceptive gestures, or deceptive behavior. Thus, it would seem, if a simulation is false, then the truth must be known (in order for something other than the truth to be presented in its stead); and, for the simulation to simulate. Because, otherwise, one would not know what to offer up in a simulation. Bacon's essay Of Simulation and Dissimulation expresses somewhat similar views; it is also significant that Samuel Johnson thought so highly of South's definition, that he used it in the entry for simulation in his Dictionary of the English Language.