氮循环

来自集智百科 - 复杂系统|人工智能|复杂科学|复杂网络|自组织
跳到导航 跳到搜索

此词条暂由彩云小译翻译,翻译字数共3710,未经人工整理和审校,带来阅读不便,请见谅。

模板:Pp-semi-indef

文件:Reactive Nitrogen Global Annual Fluxes.jpg
Global cycling of reactive nitrogen模板:Hsp[1] including industrial fertilizer production,[2] nitrogen fixed by natural ecosystems,[3] nitrogen fixed by oceans,[4] nitrogen fixed by agricultural crops,[5] NOx emitted by biomass burning,[6] NOx emitted from soil,[7] nitrogen fixed by lightning,[8] NH3 emitted by terrestrial ecosystems,[9] deposition of nitrogen to terrestrial surfaces and oceans,[10][11] NH3 emitted from oceans,[12][13][11] ocean NO2 emissions from the atmosphere,[14] denitrification in oceans,[4][15][11] and reactive nitrogen burial in oceans.[5]


thumb|upright=1.9| Global cycling of reactive nitrogen including industrial fertilizer production, nitrogen fixed by natural ecosystems, nitrogen fixed by oceans, nitrogen fixed by agricultural crops, NOx emitted by biomass burning, NOx emitted from soil, nitrogen fixed by lightning, NH3 emitted by terrestrial ecosystems, deposition of nitrogen to terrestrial surfaces and oceans, NH3 emitted from oceans, ocean NO2 emissions from the atmosphere, denitrification in oceans, and reactive nitrogen burial in oceans.|alt=

全球活性氮的循环,包括工业化肥生产,自然生态系统固定的氮,海洋固定的氮,农作物固定的氮,生物质燃烧排放的氮氧化物,土壤排放的氮氧化物,闪电固定的氮,陆地生态系统排放的氨,氮沉积到陆地表面和海洋,海洋排放的氨,大气中的二氧化氮,海洋脱氮,海洋中的活性氮埋藏。2012年10月12日

The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems. The conversion of nitrogen can be carried out through both biological and physical processes. Important processes in the nitrogen cycle include fixation, ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification. The majority of Earth's atmosphere (78%) is atmospheric nitrogen,[16] making it the largest source of nitrogen. However, atmospheric nitrogen has limited availability for biological use, leading to a scarcity of usable nitrogen in many types of ecosystems.

The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems. The conversion of nitrogen can be carried out through both biological and physical processes. Important processes in the nitrogen cycle include fixation, ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification. The majority of Earth's atmosphere (78%) is atmospheric nitrogen, making it the largest source of nitrogen. However, atmospheric nitrogen has limited availability for biological use, leading to a scarcity of usable nitrogen in many types of ecosystems.

氮循环是氮在大气、陆地和海洋生态系统中循环时转化为多种化学形式的生物地质化学循环。氮的转化可以通过生物和物理过程进行。氮循环中的重要过程包括固定化、氨化、硝化和反硝化。地球大气层的主要成分(78%)是大气中的氮,是氮的最大来源。然而,大气中的氮对生物利用的可利用性有限,导致许多类型的生态系统中可利用的氮缺乏。

The nitrogen cycle is of particular interest to ecologists because nitrogen availability can affect the rate of key ecosystem processes, including primary production and decomposition. Human activities such as fossil fuel combustion, use of artificial nitrogen fertilizers, and release of nitrogen in wastewater have dramatically altered the global nitrogen cycle.[17][18][19] Human modification of the global nitrogen cycle can negatively affect the natural environment system and also human health.[20][21]

The nitrogen cycle is of particular interest to ecologists because nitrogen availability can affect the rate of key ecosystem processes, including primary production and decomposition. Human activities such as fossil fuel combustion, use of artificial nitrogen fertilizers, and release of nitrogen in wastewater have dramatically altered the global nitrogen cycle. Human modification of the global nitrogen cycle can negatively affect the natural environment system and also human health.

生态学家对氮循环特别感兴趣,因为氮的可利用性可以影响包括初级生产和分解在内的关键生态系统过程的速率。人类活动,例如化石燃料的燃烧、人工氮肥的使用以及废水中氮的释放,都极大地改变了全球的氮循环。人类对全球氮循环的改变会对自然环境系统和人类健康产生负面影响。

Processes

模板:Biogeochemical cycle sidebar Nitrogen is present in the environment in a wide variety of chemical forms including organic nitrogen, ammonium (模板:Chem2), nitrite (模板:Chem2), nitrate (模板:Chem2), nitrous oxide (模板:Chem2), nitric oxide (NO) or inorganic nitrogen gas (模板:Chem2). Organic nitrogen may be in the form of a living organism, humus or in the intermediate products of organic matter decomposition. The processes in the nitrogen cycle is to transform nitrogen from one form to another. Many of those processes are carried out by microbes, either in their effort to harvest energy or to accumulate nitrogen in a form needed for their growth. For example, the nitrogenous wastes in animal urine are broken down by nitrifying bacteria in the soil to be used by plants. The diagram alongside shows how these processes fit together to form the nitrogen cycle.


Nitrogen is present in the environment in a wide variety of chemical forms including organic nitrogen, ammonium (), nitrite (), nitrate (), nitrous oxide (), nitric oxide (NO) or inorganic nitrogen gas (). Organic nitrogen may be in the form of a living organism, humus or in the intermediate products of organic matter decomposition. The processes in the nitrogen cycle is to transform nitrogen from one form to another. Many of those processes are carried out by microbes, either in their effort to harvest energy or to accumulate nitrogen in a form needed for their growth. For example, the nitrogenous wastes in animal urine are broken down by nitrifying bacteria in the soil to be used by plants. The diagram alongside shows how these processes fit together to form the nitrogen cycle.

= = = 在环境中,氮以多种化学形式存在,包括有机氮、铵()、亚硝酸盐()、硝酸盐()、一氧化二氮()、一氧化氮(NO)或无机氮气()。有机氮可以是活的有机体、腐殖质或有机物分解的中间产物。氮循环的过程是将氮从一种形态转化为另一种形态。其中许多过程是由微生物进行的,要么是为了获取能量,要么是为了以微生物生长所需的形式积累氮。例如,动物尿液中的含氮废物被土壤中的硝化细菌分解,供植物利用。旁边的图表显示了这些过程如何组合在一起形成氮循环。

Nitrogen fixation

The conversion of nitrogen gas (模板:Chem2) into nitrates and nitrites through atmospheric, industrial and biological processes is called nitrogen fixation. Atmospheric nitrogen must be processed, or "fixed", into a usable form to be taken up by plants. Between 5 and 10 billion kg per year are fixed by lightning strikes, but most fixation is done by free-living or symbiotic bacteria known as diazotrophs. These bacteria have the nitrogenase enzyme that combines gaseous nitrogen with hydrogen to produce ammonia, which is converted by the bacteria into other organic compounds. Most biological nitrogen fixation occurs by the activity of Mo-nitrogenase, found in a wide variety of bacteria and some Archaea. Mo-nitrogenase is a complex two-component enzyme that has multiple metal-containing prosthetic groups.[22] An example of free-living bacteria is Azotobacter. Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as Rhizobium usually live in the root nodules of legumes (such as peas, alfalfa, and locust trees). Here they form a mutualistic relationship with the plant, producing ammonia in exchange for carbohydrates. Because of this relationship, legumes will often increase the nitrogen content of nitrogen-poor soils. A few non-legumes can also form such symbioses. Today, about 30% of the total fixed nitrogen is produced industrially using the Haber-Bosch process,[23] which uses high temperatures and pressures to convert nitrogen gas and a hydrogen source (natural gas or petroleum) into ammonia.[24]


The conversion of nitrogen gas () into nitrates and nitrites through atmospheric, industrial and biological processes is called nitrogen fixation. Atmospheric nitrogen must be processed, or "fixed", into a usable form to be taken up by plants. Between 5 and 10 billion kg per year are fixed by lightning strikes, but most fixation is done by free-living or symbiotic bacteria known as diazotrophs. These bacteria have the nitrogenase enzyme that combines gaseous nitrogen with hydrogen to produce ammonia, which is converted by the bacteria into other organic compounds. Most biological nitrogen fixation occurs by the activity of Mo-nitrogenase, found in a wide variety of bacteria and some Archaea. Mo-nitrogenase is a complex two-component enzyme that has multiple metal-containing prosthetic groups. An example of free-living bacteria is Azotobacter. Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as Rhizobium usually live in the root nodules of legumes (such as peas, alfalfa, and locust trees). Here they form a mutualistic relationship with the plant, producing ammonia in exchange for carbohydrates. Because of this relationship, legumes will often increase the nitrogen content of nitrogen-poor soils. A few non-legumes can also form such symbioses. Today, about 30% of the total fixed nitrogen is produced industrially using the Haber-Bosch process, which uses high temperatures and pressures to convert nitrogen gas and a hydrogen source (natural gas or petroleum) into ammonia.

= = = = = = = 通过大气、工业和生物过程将氮气转化为硝酸盐和亚硝酸盐的固氮作用称为固氮作用。大气中的氮必须经过处理,或者说“固定”成一种可以被植物吸收的形式。每年有50亿到100亿公斤被雷击固定,但大多数固定是由称为二氮营养体的自由生存或共生细菌完成的。这些细菌有固氮酶,它能将气态氮和氢结合起来产生氨,然后被细菌转化成其他有机化合物。大多数生物固氮作用是通过钼固氮酶的活性产生的,这种酶存在于多种细菌和一些古生菌中。钼固氮酶是一种复杂的双组分酶,具有多个含金属的修复基团。自由生活细菌的一个例子是固氮菌。共生固氮细菌如根瘤菌通常生活在豆类植物的根瘤中(如豌豆、苜蓿和刺槐树)。在这里,它们与植物形成互惠关系,产生氨以交换碳水化合物。由于这种关系,豆科作物往往会增加缺氮土壤的氮含量。一些非豆科植物也可以形成这样的共生体。目前,大约30% 的固定氮气是通过哈伯-博施工艺在工业上生产的,该工艺利用高温高压将氮气和氢气(天然气或石油)转化为氨气。

Assimilation

Plants can absorb nitrate or ammonium from the soil by their root hairs. If nitrate is absorbed, it is first reduced to nitrite ions and then ammonium ions for incorporation into amino acids, nucleic acids, and chlorophyll. In plants that have a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia, some nitrogen is assimilated in the form of ammonium ions directly from the nodules. It is now known that there is a more complex cycling of amino acids between Rhizobia bacteroids and plants. The plant provides amino acids to the bacteroids so ammonia assimilation is not required and the bacteroids pass amino acids (with the newly fixed nitrogen) back to the plant, thus forming an interdependent relationship.[25] While many animals, fungi, and other heterotrophic organisms obtain nitrogen by ingestion of amino acids, nucleotides, and other small organic molecules, other heterotrophs (including many bacteria) are able to utilize inorganic compounds, such as ammonium as sole N sources. Utilization of various N sources is carefully regulated in all organisms.


Plants can absorb nitrate or ammonium from the soil by their root hairs. If nitrate is absorbed, it is first reduced to nitrite ions and then ammonium ions for incorporation into amino acids, nucleic acids, and chlorophyll. In plants that have a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia, some nitrogen is assimilated in the form of ammonium ions directly from the nodules. It is now known that there is a more complex cycling of amino acids between Rhizobia bacteroids and plants. The plant provides amino acids to the bacteroids so ammonia assimilation is not required and the bacteroids pass amino acids (with the newly fixed nitrogen) back to the plant, thus forming an interdependent relationship. While many animals, fungi, and other heterotrophic organisms obtain nitrogen by ingestion of amino acids, nucleotides, and other small organic molecules, other heterotrophs (including many bacteria) are able to utilize inorganic compounds, such as ammonium as sole N sources. Utilization of various N sources is carefully regulated in all organisms.

= = = 同化 = = = 植物可以通过根毛吸收土壤中的硝酸盐或铵。如果硝酸盐被吸收,它首先被还原为亚硝酸根离子,然后是铵离子,以便与氨基酸、核酸和叶绿素结合。在与根瘤菌有共生关系的植物中,一些氮以铵离子的形式直接从根瘤中吸收。现在已知,在根瘤菌菌类和植物之间有一个更复杂的氨基酸循环。植物为类杆菌提供氨基酸,因此不需要氨同化,类杆菌通过氨基酸(新固定的氮)返回植物,从而形成一种相互依赖的关系。虽然许多动物、真菌和其他异养生物通过摄取氨基酸、核苷酸和其他小分子有机物获得氮,但其他异养生物(包括许多细菌)能够利用无机化合物,如铵作为唯一的氮源。各种氮源的利用在所有生物中都受到严格控制。

Ammonification

When a plant or animal dies or an animal expels waste, the initial form of nitrogen is organic. Bacteria or fungi convert the organic nitrogen within the remains back into ammonium (模板:Chem2), a process called ammonification or mineralization. Enzymes involved are:

  • GS: Gln Synthetase (Cytosolic & Plastic)
  • GOGAT: Glu 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (Ferredoxin & NADH-dependent)
  • GDH: Glu Dehydrogenase:
    • Minor Role in ammonium assimilation.
    • Important in amino acid catabolism.

When a plant or animal dies or an animal expels waste, the initial form of nitrogen is organic. Bacteria or fungi convert the organic nitrogen within the remains back into ammonium (), a process called ammonification or mineralization. Enzymes involved are:

  • GS: Gln Synthetase (Cytosolic & Plastic)
  • GOGAT: Glu 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (Ferredoxin & NADH-dependent)
  • GDH: Glu Dehydrogenase:
    • Minor Role in ammonium assimilation.
    • Important in amino acid catabolism.

当植物或动物死亡或动物排泄废物时,初始形态的氮是有机的。细菌或真菌将残留物中的有机氮转化为铵() ,这一过程称为氨化或矿化。涉及的酶是:

  • GS: Gln 合成酶(胞浆和塑料)
  • GOGAT: Glu 2- 氧戊二酸氨基转移酶(Ferredoxin & nadh 依赖)
  • GDH: Glu 脱氢酶:
  • 在铵同化中的次要作用。
  • 在氨基酸分解代谢中很重要。
文件:Nitrogen Cycle - Reactions and Enzymes.svg
模板:Center ANAMMOX is anaerobic ammonium oxidation, DNRA is dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, and COMMAMOX is complete ammonium oxidation.

Nitrification

The conversion of ammonium to nitrate is performed primarily by soil-living bacteria and other nitrifying bacteria. In the primary stage of nitrification, the oxidation of ammonium (模板:Chem2) is performed by bacteria such as the Nitrosomonas species, which converts ammonia to nitrites (模板:Chem2). Other bacterial species such as Nitrobacter, are responsible for the oxidation of the nitrites (模板:Chem2) into nitrates (模板:Chem2). It is important for the ammonia (模板:Chem2) to be converted to nitrates or nitrites because ammonia gas is toxic to plants.


The conversion of ammonium to nitrate is performed primarily by soil-living bacteria and other nitrifying bacteria. In the primary stage of nitrification, the oxidation of ammonium () is performed by bacteria such as the Nitrosomonas species, which converts ammonia to nitrites (). Other bacterial species such as Nitrobacter, are responsible for the oxidation of the nitrites () into nitrates (). It is important for the ammonia () to be converted to nitrates or nitrites because ammonia gas is toxic to plants.

= = = 硝化 = = 氨转化为硝酸盐主要由土壤生活细菌和其他硝化细菌进行。在硝化的初级阶段,氨()的氧化是由亚硝基单胞菌(Nitrosomonas)这样的细菌完成的,它将氨转化为亚硝酸盐()。其他细菌种类,如硝酸杆菌,负责将亚硝酸盐()氧化成硝酸盐()。将氨()转化为硝酸盐或亚硝酸盐很重要,因为氨气对植物有毒。

Due to their very high solubility and because soils are highly unable to retain anions, nitrates can enter groundwater. Elevated nitrate in groundwater is a concern for drinking water use because nitrate can interfere with blood-oxygen levels in infants and cause methemoglobinemia or blue-baby syndrome.[26] Where groundwater recharges stream flow, nitrate-enriched groundwater can contribute to eutrophication, a process that leads to high algal population and growth, especially blue-green algal populations. While not directly toxic to fish life, like ammonia, nitrate can have indirect effects on fish if it contributes to this eutrophication. Nitrogen has contributed to severe eutrophication problems in some water bodies. Since 2006, the application of nitrogen fertilizer has been increasingly controlled in Britain and the United States. This is occurring along the same lines as control of phosphorus fertilizer, restriction of which is normally considered essential to the recovery of eutrophied waterbodies.

Due to their very high solubility and because soils are highly unable to retain anions, nitrates can enter groundwater. Elevated nitrate in groundwater is a concern for drinking water use because nitrate can interfere with blood-oxygen levels in infants and cause methemoglobinemia or blue-baby syndrome. Where groundwater recharges stream flow, nitrate-enriched groundwater can contribute to eutrophication, a process that leads to high algal population and growth, especially blue-green algal populations. While not directly toxic to fish life, like ammonia, nitrate can have indirect effects on fish if it contributes to this eutrophication. Nitrogen has contributed to severe eutrophication problems in some water bodies. Since 2006, the application of nitrogen fertilizer has been increasingly controlled in Britain and the United States. This is occurring along the same lines as control of phosphorus fertilizer, restriction of which is normally considered essential to the recovery of eutrophied waterbodies.

由于硝酸盐具有很高的溶解性,而且土壤极不能保留阴离子,因此它们可以进入地下水。地下水中硝酸盐含量升高是饮用水使用的一个问题,因为硝酸盐会干扰婴儿的血氧水平,导致正铁血红蛋白血症或蓝婴综合症。在地下水补给溪流的地方,富含硝酸盐的地下水可能导致富营养化,这一过程导致高藻类种群和增长,特别是蓝绿色藻类种群。硝酸盐虽然不会像氨那样直接对鱼类产生毒性,但是如果它导致水体富营养化,就会对鱼类产生间接影响。氮在一些水体中造成了严重的富营养化问题。自2006年以来,英国和美国越来越多地控制氮肥的施用。这种情况与控制磷肥的情况相同,限制磷肥通常被认为对恢复富营养化水体至关重要。

Denitrification

Denitrification is the reduction of nitrates back into nitrogen gas (N2), completing the nitrogen cycle. This process is performed by bacterial species such as Pseudomonas and Paracoccus, under anaerobic conditions. They use the nitrate as an electron acceptor in the place of oxygen during respiration. These facultatively (meaning optionally) anaerobic bacteria can also live in aerobic conditions. Denitrification happens in anaerobic conditions e.g. waterlogged soils. The denitrifying bacteria use nitrates in the soil to carry out respiration and consequently produce nitrogen gas, which is inert and unavailable to plants. Denitrification occurs in free-living microorganisms as well as obligate symbionts of anaerobic ciliates.[27]


Denitrification is the reduction of nitrates back into nitrogen gas (N2), completing the nitrogen cycle. This process is performed by bacterial species such as Pseudomonas and Paracoccus, under anaerobic conditions. They use the nitrate as an electron acceptor in the place of oxygen during respiration. These facultatively (meaning optionally) anaerobic bacteria can also live in aerobic conditions. Denitrification happens in anaerobic conditions e.g. waterlogged soils. The denitrifying bacteria use nitrates in the soil to carry out respiration and consequently produce nitrogen gas, which is inert and unavailable to plants. Denitrification occurs in free-living microorganisms as well as obligate symbionts of anaerobic ciliates.

= = = 反硝化 = = 反硝化是将硝酸盐还原为氮气(N2) ,完成氮循环。在厌氧条件下,这个过程是由假单胞菌和副孢子菌等细菌进行的。在呼吸作用中,他们用硝酸盐代替氧气作为电子受体。这些兼性厌氧细菌也可以在有氧条件下生存。反硝化作用发生在厌氧条件下,例如:。浸水土壤。反硝化细菌利用土壤中的硝酸盐进行呼吸作用,从而产生惰性的、植物无法利用的氮气。反硝化作用发生在自由生活的微生物和厌氧纤毛虫的专性共生体中。


File:Nitrogen cycle.jpg| Classical representation of nitrogen cycle File:Nitrogen Cycle 2.svg|alt=Diagram of nitrogen cycle above and below ground. Atmospheric nitrogen goes to nitrogen-fixing bacteria in legumes and the soil, then ammonium, then nitrifying bacteria into nitrites then nitrates (which is also produced by lightning), then back to the atmosphere or assimilated by plants, then animals. Nitrogen in animals and plants become ammonium through decomposers (bacteria and fungi).|Flow of nitrogen through the ecosystem. Bacteria are a key element in the cycle, providing different forms of nitrogen compounds able to be assimilated by higher organisms


文件: n Cycle.jpg | 经典的氮循环代表文件: n Cycle 2. svg | alt = 地上和地下氮循环图。大气中的氮进入豆科植物和土壤中的固氮细菌,然后是铵,然后硝化细菌转化为亚硝酸盐(也是通过闪电产生的) ,最后回到大气中或者被植物吸收,然后是动物。动物和植物中的氮通过分解物(细菌和真菌)变成铵。细菌是这个循环中的一个关键因素,它们提供不同形式的氮化合物,能够被高等生物吸收


File:The Nitrogen Cycle.png| Simple representation of the nitrogen cycle. Blue represent nitrogen storage, green is for processes moving nitrogen from one place to another, and red is for the bacteria involved


文件: 氮循环 png | 氮循环的简单表示。蓝色代表氮的储存,绿色代表将氮从一个地方转移到另一个地方的过程,红色代表涉及的细菌

模板:Clear left

Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium

Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), or nitrate/nitrite ammonification, is an anaerobic respiration process. Microbes which undertake DNRA oxidise organic matter and use nitrate as an electron acceptor, reducing it to nitrite, then ammonium (模板:Chem2).[28] Both denitrifying and nitrate ammonification bacteria will be competing for nitrate in the environment, although DNRA acts to conserve bioavailable nitrogen as soluble ammonium rather than producing dinitrogen gas.[29]


Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), or nitrate/nitrite ammonification, is an anaerobic respiration process. Microbes which undertake DNRA oxidise organic matter and use nitrate as an electron acceptor, reducing it to nitrite, then ammonium (). Both denitrifying and nitrate ammonification bacteria will be competing for nitrate in the environment, although DNRA acts to conserve bioavailable nitrogen as soluble ammonium rather than producing dinitrogen gas.

= = = = 异化硝酸盐还原为铵盐(DNRA) ,或硝酸盐/亚硝酸盐的氨化,是一个缺氧唿吸过程。进行 DNRA 的微生物氧化有机物质,将硝酸盐作为电子受体,使其还原为亚硝酸盐,然后是铵盐。反硝化细菌和硝酸盐氨化细菌都会在环境中争夺硝酸盐,而 DNRA 的作用是将生物可利用氮作为可溶性铵而不是产生二氮气体。

Anaerobic ammonia oxidation

In this biological process, nitrite and ammonia are converted directly into molecular nitrogen (N2) gas. This process makes up a major proportion of nitrogen conversion in the oceans. The balanced formula for this "anammox" chemical reaction is: 模板:Chem2G° = 模板:Val).[30]


In this biological process, nitrite and ammonia are converted directly into molecular nitrogen (N2) gas. This process makes up a major proportion of nitrogen conversion in the oceans. The balanced formula for this "anammox" chemical reaction is: (ΔG° = ).

在这个生物过程中,亚硝酸盐和氨被直接转化为分子氮气。这个过程构成了海洋中氮转化的主要部分。这个“ anammox”化学反应的平衡式是: (ΔG ° =)。

Other processes

Though nitrogen fixation is the primary source of plant-available nitrogen in most ecosystems, in areas with nitrogen-rich bedrock, the breakdown of this rock also serves as a nitrogen source.[31][32][33] Nitrate reduction is also part of the iron cycle, under anoxic conditions Fe(II) can donate an electron to 模板:Chem2 and is oxidized to Fe(III) while 模板:Chem2 is reduced to 模板:Chem2, and 模板:Chem2 depending on the conditions and microbial species involved.[34] The fecal plumes of cetaceans also act as a junction in the marine nitrogen cycle, concentrating nitrogen in the epipelagic zones of ocean environments before its dispersion through various marine layers, ultimately enhancing oceanic primary productivity.[35]

Though nitrogen fixation is the primary source of plant-available nitrogen in most ecosystems, in areas with nitrogen-rich bedrock, the breakdown of this rock also serves as a nitrogen source. Nitrate reduction is also part of the iron cycle, under anoxic conditions Fe(II) can donate an electron to and is oxidized to Fe(III) while is reduced to , and depending on the conditions and microbial species involved. The fecal plumes of cetaceans also act as a junction in the marine nitrogen cycle, concentrating nitrogen in the epipelagic zones of ocean environments before its dispersion through various marine layers, ultimately enhancing oceanic primary productivity.

虽然在大多数生态系统中,固氮作用是植物可利用氮的主要来源,但在富含氮的基岩地区,这种岩石的分解也是氮的来源。硝酸盐还原也是铁循环的一部分,在缺氧条件下,Fe (II)可以向 Fe (III)输送一个电子并被氧化成 Fe (III) ,同时还原成 Fe (III) ,这取决于所涉及的条件和微生物种类。鲸目动物的排泄物羽流也是海洋氮循环的一个连接点,在海洋环境的上层区域聚集氮,然后通过各种海洋层扩散,最终提高海洋的初级生产力。

Marine nitrogen cycle

文件:Main marine nitrogen cycles.jpg
The main studied processes of the N cycle in different marine environments. Every coloured arrow represents a N transformation: N2 fixation (red), nitrification (light blue), nitrate reduction (violet), DNRA (magenta), denitrification (aquamarine), N-damo (green), and anammox (orange). Black curved arrows represent physical processes such as advection and diffusion.[36]

thumb|upright=1.8|


= = = 海洋氮循环 = = 拇指 | 直立 = 1.8 |

thumb|upright=1.8|

1.8 |

The nitrogen cycle is an important process in the ocean as well. While the overall cycle is similar, there are different players[37] and modes of transfer for nitrogen in the ocean. Nitrogen enters the water through the precipitation, runoff, or as N2 from the atmosphere. Nitrogen cannot be utilized by phytoplankton as N2 so it must undergo nitrogen fixation which is performed predominately by cyanobacteria.[38] Without supplies of fixed nitrogen entering the marine cycle, the fixed nitrogen would be used up in about 2000 years.[39] Phytoplankton need nitrogen in biologically available forms for the initial synthesis of organic matter. Ammonia and urea are released into the water by excretion from plankton. Nitrogen sources are removed from the euphotic zone by the downward movement of the organic matter. This can occur from sinking of phytoplankton, vertical mixing, or sinking of waste of vertical migrators. The sinking results in ammonia being introduced at lower depths below the euphotic zone. Bacteria are able to convert ammonia to nitrite and nitrate but they are inhibited by light so this must occur below the euphotic zone.[40] Ammonification or Mineralization is performed by bacteria to convert organic nitrogen to ammonia. Nitrification can then occur to convert the ammonium to nitrite and nitrate.[41] Nitrate can be returned to the euphotic zone by vertical mixing and upwelling where it can be taken up by phytoplankton to continue the cycle. N2 can be returned to the atmosphere through denitrification.

The nitrogen cycle is an important process in the ocean as well. While the overall cycle is similar, there are different players and modes of transfer for nitrogen in the ocean. Nitrogen enters the water through the precipitation, runoff, or as N2 from the atmosphere. Nitrogen cannot be utilized by phytoplankton as N2 so it must undergo nitrogen fixation which is performed predominately by cyanobacteria. Without supplies of fixed nitrogen entering the marine cycle, the fixed nitrogen would be used up in about 2000 years. Phytoplankton need nitrogen in biologically available forms for the initial synthesis of organic matter. Ammonia and urea are released into the water by excretion from plankton. Nitrogen sources are removed from the euphotic zone by the downward movement of the organic matter. This can occur from sinking of phytoplankton, vertical mixing, or sinking of waste of vertical migrators. The sinking results in ammonia being introduced at lower depths below the euphotic zone. Bacteria are able to convert ammonia to nitrite and nitrate but they are inhibited by light so this must occur below the euphotic zone. Ammonification or Mineralization is performed by bacteria to convert organic nitrogen to ammonia. Nitrification can then occur to convert the ammonium to nitrite and nitrate. Nitrate can be returned to the euphotic zone by vertical mixing and upwelling where it can be taken up by phytoplankton to continue the cycle. N2 can be returned to the atmosphere through denitrification.

氮循环也是海洋中的一个重要过程。虽然整个循环是相似的,但是在海洋中氮的转移有不同的参与者和模式。氮通过降水、径流或大气中的 n2进入水中。氮不能作为 n 2被浮游植物利用,所以它必须经历以蓝藻为主的固氮作用。如果没有固定氮的供应进入海洋循环,固定氮将在大约2000年内用完。浮游植物需要氮的生物可利用形式的初步合成有机物质。氨和尿素是由浮游生物的排泄物释放到水中的。氮源通过有机质的向下运动从透光带中移走。这可能发生在浮游植物下沉,垂直混合,或垂直迁移的废物下沉。沉没的结果是在透光带以下较低的深度引入了氨。细菌可以将氨转化为亚硝酸盐和硝酸盐,但是它们受到光的抑制,所以这必须发生在透光层以下。氨化或矿化是由细菌将有机氮转化为氨。硝化作用可以发生,将铵转化为亚硝酸盐和硝酸盐。硝酸盐可以通过垂直混合和上升流返回到真光带,在那里它可以被浮游植物吸收继续循环。N2可以通过反硝化作用返回大气。

Ammonium is thought to be the preferred source of fixed nitrogen for phytoplankton because its assimilation does not involve a redox reaction and therefore requires little energy. Nitrate requires a redox reaction for assimilation but is more abundant so most phytoplankton have adapted to have the enzymes necessary to undertake this reduction (nitrate reductase). There are a few notable and well-known exceptions that include most Prochlorococcus and some Synechococcus that can only take up nitrogen as ammonium.[39]

Ammonium is thought to be the preferred source of fixed nitrogen for phytoplankton because its assimilation does not involve a redox reaction and therefore requires little energy. Nitrate requires a redox reaction for assimilation but is more abundant so most phytoplankton have adapted to have the enzymes necessary to undertake this reduction (nitrate reductase). There are a few notable and well-known exceptions that include most Prochlorococcus and some Synechococcus that can only take up nitrogen as ammonium.

氨被认为是浮游植物固定氮的首选来源,因为它的同化作用不涉及氧化还原反应,因此需要很少的能量。硝酸盐需要氧化还原反应才能被同化,但是由于硝酸盐含量更丰富,因此大多数浮游植物已经适应了进行这种还原所必需的酶(硝酸盐还原酶)。有一些著名的和众所周知的例外,包括大多数原绿球菌和一些聚球菌,只能吸收氮作为铵。

The nutrients in the ocean are not uniformly distributed. Areas of upwelling provide supplies of nitrogen from below the euphotic zone. Coastal zones provide nitrogen from runoff and upwelling occurs readily along the coast. However, the rate at which nitrogen can be taken up by phytoplankton is decreased in oligotrophic waters year-round and temperate water in the summer resulting in lower primary production.[42] The distribution of the different forms of nitrogen varies throughout the oceans as well.

The nutrients in the ocean are not uniformly distributed. Areas of upwelling provide supplies of nitrogen from below the euphotic zone. Coastal zones provide nitrogen from runoff and upwelling occurs readily along the coast. However, the rate at which nitrogen can be taken up by phytoplankton is decreased in oligotrophic waters year-round and temperate water in the summer resulting in lower primary production. The distribution of the different forms of nitrogen varies throughout the oceans as well.

海洋中的营养物质不是均匀分布的。上升流区域从透光带以下提供氮的供应。沿海地带提供径流中的氮,沿海岸上涌很容易发生。然而,在贫营养水域全年和夏季温和水域,浮游植物吸收氮的速率减慢,导致初级生产力下降。不同形式的氮在整个海洋中的分布也各不相同。

Nitrate is depleted in near-surface water except in upwelling regions. Coastal upwelling regions usually have high nitrate and chlorophyll levels as a result of the increased production. However, there are regions of high surface nitrate but low chlorophyll that are referred to as HNLC (high nitrogen, low chlorophyll) regions. The best explanation for HNLC regions relates to iron scarcity in the ocean, which may play an important part in ocean dynamics and nutrient cycles. The input of iron varies by region and is delivered to the ocean by dust (from dust storms) and leached out of rocks. Iron is under consideration as the true limiting element to ecosystem productivity in the ocean.

Nitrate is depleted in near-surface water except in upwelling regions. Coastal upwelling regions usually have high nitrate and chlorophyll levels as a result of the increased production. However, there are regions of high surface nitrate but low chlorophyll that are referred to as HNLC (high nitrogen, low chlorophyll) regions. The best explanation for HNLC regions relates to iron scarcity in the ocean, which may play an important part in ocean dynamics and nutrient cycles. The input of iron varies by region and is delivered to the ocean by dust (from dust storms) and leached out of rocks. Iron is under consideration as the true limiting element to ecosystem productivity in the ocean.

除上升流区外,近地表水中硝酸盐消耗殆尽。由于产量的增加,沿海上升流区的硝酸盐和叶绿素含量通常较高。但也有表层硝酸盐含量高、叶绿素含量低的区域,称为高氮、低叶绿素区。HNLC 区域的最佳解释与海洋中的铁缺乏有关,这可能在海洋动力学和营养循环中发挥重要作用。铁的输入因地区不同而不同,通过沙尘暴和岩石中的淋滤物输入海洋。人们正在考虑将铁作为海洋生态系统生产力的真正限制因素。

Ammonium and nitrite show a maximum concentration at 50–80 m (lower end of the euphotic zone) with decreasing concentration below that depth. This distribution can be accounted for by the fact that nitrite and ammonium are intermediate species. They are both rapidly produced and consumed through the water column.[39] The amount of ammonium in the ocean is about 3 orders of magnitude less than nitrate.[39] Between ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate, nitrite has the fastest turnover rate. It can be produced during nitrate assimilation, nitrification, and denitrification; however, it is immediately consumed again.

Ammonium and nitrite show a maximum concentration at 50–80 m (lower end of the euphotic zone) with decreasing concentration below that depth. This distribution can be accounted for by the fact that nitrite and ammonium are intermediate species. They are both rapidly produced and consumed through the water column. The amount of ammonium in the ocean is about 3 orders of magnitude less than nitrate. Between ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate, nitrite has the fastest turnover rate. It can be produced during nitrate assimilation, nitrification, and denitrification; however, it is immediately consumed again.

铵盐和亚硝酸盐在50-80米(透光带下端)的浓度最高,在该深度以下浓度逐渐降低。这种分布可以用亚硝酸盐和铵是中间产物的事实来解释。它们都是通过水柱迅速生成和消耗的。海洋中的铵含量比硝酸盐少3百万数量级。在铵盐、亚硝酸盐和硝酸盐之间,亚硝酸盐的周转速度最快。在硝酸盐同化、硝化和反硝化过程中可以产生这种物质,但是,它会立即被消耗掉。

New vs. regenerated nitrogen

Nitrogen entering the euphotic zone is referred to as new nitrogen because it is newly arrived from outside the productive layer.[38] The new nitrogen can come from below the euphotic zone or from outside sources. Outside sources are upwelling from deep water and nitrogen fixation. If the organic matter is eaten, respired, delivered to the water as ammonia, and re-incorporated into organic matter by phytoplankton it is considered recycled/regenerated production.

Nitrogen entering the euphotic zone is referred to as new nitrogen because it is newly arrived from outside the productive layer. The new nitrogen can come from below the euphotic zone or from outside sources. Outside sources are upwelling from deep water and nitrogen fixation. If the organic matter is eaten, respired, delivered to the water as ammonia, and re-incorporated into organic matter by phytoplankton it is considered recycled/regenerated production.

= = = 进入透光层的新氮和再生氮被称为新氮,因为它是新近从生产层以外进入的。新氮可以来自透光带以下或外界来源。外部资源正从深水和固氮作用涌上来。如果有机物被食用、呼吸、以氨的形式释放到水中,并被浮游植物重新吸收进有机物,则被认为是循环再生产品。

New production is an important component of the marine environment. One reason is that only continual input of new nitrogen can determine the total capacity of the ocean to produce a sustainable fish harvest.[42] Harvesting fish from regenerated nitrogen areas will lead to a decrease in nitrogen and therefore a decrease in primary production. This will have a negative effect on the system. However, if fish are harvested from areas of new nitrogen the nitrogen will be replenished.

New production is an important component of the marine environment. One reason is that only continual input of new nitrogen can determine the total capacity of the ocean to produce a sustainable fish harvest. Harvesting fish from regenerated nitrogen areas will lead to a decrease in nitrogen and therefore a decrease in primary production. This will have a negative effect on the system. However, if fish are harvested from areas of new nitrogen the nitrogen will be replenished.

新产品是海洋环境的重要组成部分。其中一个原因是,只有不断地输入新的氮元素,才能决定海洋产生可持续的鱼类捕捞量的总能力。从再生氮区捕捞鱼类将导致氮的减少,从而减少初级生产。这将对系统产生负面影响。然而,如果从新氮区域捕捞鱼类,氮将得到补充。

Future acidification

As illustrated by the diagram on the right, additional carbon dioxide is absorbed by the ocean and reacts with water, carbonic acid is formed and broken down into both bicarbonate (H2CO3) and hydrogen (H+) ions (gray arrow), which reduces bioavailable carbonate and decreases ocean pH (black arrow). This is likely to enhance nitrogen fixation by diazatrophs (gray arrow), which utilize H+ ions to convert nitrogen into bioavailable forms such as ammonia (NH3) and ammonium ions (模板:Chem2). However, as pH decreases, and more ammonia is converted to ammonium ions (gray arrow), there is less oxidation of ammonia to nitrite (NO模板:Su), resulting in an overall decrease in nitrification and denitrification (black arrows). This in turn would lead to a further build up of fixed nitrogen in the ocean, with the potential consequence of eutrophication. Gray arrows represent an increase while black arrows represent a decrease in the associated process.[43]

As illustrated by the diagram on the right, additional carbon dioxide is absorbed by the ocean and reacts with water, carbonic acid is formed and broken down into both bicarbonate (H2CO3) and hydrogen (H+) ions (gray arrow), which reduces bioavailable carbonate and decreases ocean pH (black arrow). This is likely to enhance nitrogen fixation by diazatrophs (gray arrow), which utilize H+ ions to convert nitrogen into bioavailable forms such as ammonia (NH3) and ammonium ions (). However, as pH decreases, and more ammonia is converted to ammonium ions (gray arrow), there is less oxidation of ammonia to nitrite (NO), resulting in an overall decrease in nitrification and denitrification (black arrows). This in turn would lead to a further build up of fixed nitrogen in the ocean, with the potential consequence of eutrophication. Gray arrows represent an increase while black arrows represent a decrease in the associated process. 50px Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

= = = 未来酸化 = = = = 如右图所示,额外的二氧化碳被海洋吸收并与水反应,碳酸形成并分解为重碳酸盐(H2CO3)和氢(h +)离子(灰色箭头) ,从而降低生物可利用碳酸盐和海洋 pH 值(黑箭头)。这可能会增强重氮固氮作用(灰色箭头) ,它利用 h + 离子将氮转化为生物可利用形式,如氨(NH3)和铵离子()。然而,随着 pH 值的降低,更多的氨转化为铵离子(灰箭头) ,氨转化为亚硝酸盐(NO)的氧化作用减少,导致硝化和反硝化作用的总体下降(黑箭头)。这反过来又会导致海洋中固定氮的进一步累积,带来潜在的富营养化后果。灰色箭头表示增加,而黑色箭头表示相关进程的减少。50px 材料复制自这个来源,可以在知识共享署名4.0国际许可证下获得。

Human influences on the nitrogen cycle

As a result of extensive cultivation of legumes (particularly soy, alfalfa, and clover), growing use of the Haber–Bosch process in the creation of chemical fertilizers, and pollution emitted by vehicles and industrial plants, human beings have more than doubled the annual transfer of nitrogen into biologically available forms.[26] In addition, humans have significantly contributed to the transfer of nitrogen trace gases from Earth to the atmosphere and from the land to aquatic systems. Human alterations to the global nitrogen cycle are most intense in developed countries and in Asia, where vehicle emissions and industrial agriculture are highest.[44]

thumb|Nitrogen fertilizer application thumb|Nitrogen in manure production

As a result of extensive cultivation of legumes (particularly soy, alfalfa, and clover), growing use of the Haber–Bosch process in the creation of chemical fertilizers, and pollution emitted by vehicles and industrial plants, human beings have more than doubled the annual transfer of nitrogen into biologically available forms. In addition, humans have significantly contributed to the transfer of nitrogen trace gases from Earth to the atmosphere and from the land to aquatic systems. Human alterations to the global nitrogen cycle are most intense in developed countries and in Asia, where vehicle emissions and industrial agriculture are highest.

由于大面积种植豆类作物(特别是大豆、苜蓿和三叶草) ,越来越多地使用 Haber-Bosch 工艺生产化肥,以及车辆和工业植物排放的污染物,人类每年将氮转化为生物可利用形式的数量增加了一倍以上。此外,人类对氮微量气体从地球到大气层和从陆地到水生系统的转移作出了重大贡献。人类对全球氮循环的改变在发达国家和亚洲最为剧烈,这些地方的汽车排放和工业化农业最为严重。

Generation of Nr, reactive nitrogen, has increased over 10 fold in the past century due to global industrialisation.[2][45] This form of nitrogen follows a cascade through the biosphere via a variety of mechanisms, and is accumulating as the rate of its generation is greater than the rate of denitrification.[46]

Generation of Nr, reactive nitrogen, has increased over 10 fold in the past century due to global industrialisation. This form of nitrogen follows a cascade through the biosphere via a variety of mechanisms, and is accumulating as the rate of its generation is greater than the rate of denitrification.

在过去的一个世纪,由于全球工业化,Nr (活性氮)的产量增加了10倍以上。这种形式的氮通过各种机制沿着生物圈的级联运行,并且随着其生成速率大于反硝化速率而累积。

Nitrous oxide (N2O) has risen in the atmosphere as a result of agricultural fertilization, biomass burning, cattle and feedlots, and industrial sources.[47] N2O has deleterious effects in the stratosphere, where it breaks down and acts as a catalyst in the destruction of atmospheric ozone. Nitrous oxide is also a greenhouse gas and is currently the third largest contributor to global warming, after carbon dioxide and methane. While not as abundant in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, it is, for an equivalent mass, nearly 300 times more potent in its ability to warm the planet.[48]

Nitrous oxide (N2O) has risen in the atmosphere as a result of agricultural fertilization, biomass burning, cattle and feedlots, and industrial sources. N2O has deleterious effects in the stratosphere, where it breaks down and acts as a catalyst in the destruction of atmospheric ozone. Nitrous oxide is also a greenhouse gas and is currently the third largest contributor to global warming, after carbon dioxide and methane. While not as abundant in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, it is, for an equivalent mass, nearly 300 times more potent in its ability to warm the planet.

由于农业施肥、生物质燃烧、牲畜和饲养场以及工业来源,一氧化二氮(N2O)在大气中上升。一氧化二氮在平流层中具有有害影响,在那里它分解并作为破坏大气臭氧的催化剂。一氧化二氮也是一种温室气体,目前是继二氧化碳和甲烷之后导致全球变暖的第三大因素。虽然大气中的二氧化碳含量不如二氧化碳丰富,但相当于二氧化碳的质量,其使地球变暖的能力要强出近300倍。

Ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere has tripled as the result of human activities. It is a reactant in the atmosphere, where it acts as an aerosol, decreasing air quality and clinging to water droplets, eventually resulting in nitric acid (HNO3) that produces acid rain. Atmospheric ammonia and nitric acid also damage respiratory systems.

Ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere has tripled as the result of human activities. It is a reactant in the atmosphere, where it acts as an aerosol, decreasing air quality and clinging to water droplets, eventually resulting in nitric acid (HNO3) that produces acid rain. Atmospheric ammonia and nitric acid also damage respiratory systems.

由于人类活动,大气中的氨(NH3)含量增加了两倍。它是大气中的一种反应物,在大气中扮演气溶胶的角色,降低空气质量并附着在水滴上,最终产生硝酸(HNO < sub > 3 ) ,从而产生酸雨。大气中的氨和硝酸也会损害呼吸系统。

The very high temperature of lightning naturally produces small amounts of NOx, NH3, and HNO3, but high-temperature combustion has contributed to a 6- or 7-fold increase in the flux of NOx to the atmosphere. Its production is a function of combustion temperature - the higher the temperature, the more NOx is produced. Fossil fuel combustion is a primary contributor, but so are biofuels and even the burning of hydrogen. However, the rate that hydrogen is directly injected into the combustion chambers of internal combustion engines can be controlled to prevent the higher combustion temperatures that produce NOx.

The very high temperature of lightning naturally produces small amounts of NOx, NH3, and HNO3, but high-temperature combustion has contributed to a 6- or 7-fold increase in the flux of NOx to the atmosphere. Its production is a function of combustion temperature - the higher the temperature, the more NOx is produced. Fossil fuel combustion is a primary contributor, but so are biofuels and even the burning of hydrogen. However, the rate that hydrogen is directly injected into the combustion chambers of internal combustion engines can be controlled to prevent the higher combustion temperatures that produce NOx.

闪电的极高温度自然会产生少量的氮氧化物、氨和硝酸,但高温燃烧会使氮氧化物进入大气的通量增加6至7倍。它的产生是燃烧温度的函数 -- 温度越高,产生的氮氧化物就越多。化石燃料的燃烧是主要原因,生物燃料甚至氢气的燃烧也是主要原因。然而,氢直接注入内燃机燃烧室的速度可以控制,以防止较高的燃烧温度产生氮氧化物。

Ammonia and nitrous oxides actively alter atmospheric chemistry. They are precursors of tropospheric (lower atmosphere) ozone production, which contributes to smog and acid rain, damages plants and increases nitrogen inputs to ecosystems. Ecosystem processes can increase with nitrogen fertilization, but anthropogenic input can also result in nitrogen saturation, which weakens productivity and can damage the health of plants, animals, fish, and humans.[26]

Ammonia and nitrous oxides actively alter atmospheric chemistry. They are precursors of tropospheric (lower atmosphere) ozone production, which contributes to smog and acid rain, damages plants and increases nitrogen inputs to ecosystems. Ecosystem processes can increase with nitrogen fertilization, but anthropogenic input can also result in nitrogen saturation, which weakens productivity and can damage the health of plants, animals, fish, and humans.

氨和氮氧化物积极地改变大气化学。它们是对流层(低层大气)臭氧产生的前体,而臭氧产生烟雾和酸雨,破坏植物,增加对生态系统的氮输入。生态系统过程可以增加氮肥,但人为输入也可以导致氮饱和,这削弱了生产力,可以损害健康的植物,动物,鱼和人类。

Decreases in biodiversity can also result if higher nitrogen availability increases nitrogen-demanding grasses, causing a degradation of nitrogen-poor, species-diverse heathlands.[49]

Decreases in biodiversity can also result if higher nitrogen availability increases nitrogen-demanding grasses, causing a degradation of nitrogen-poor, species-diverse heathlands.

生物多样性的减少也可能导致较高的氮供应增加氮需求的草,造成退化的氮贫乏,物种多样性荒原。

Consequence of human modification of the nitrogen cycle

Consequence of human modification of the nitrogen cycle

= = 人类改变氮循环的后果 =

Impacts on natural systems

Increasing levels of nitrogen deposition are shown to have a number of negative effects on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.[50][51] Nitrogen gases and aerosols can be directly toxic to certain plant species, affecting the aboveground physiology and growth of plants near large point sources of nitrogen pollution. Changes to plant species may also occur, as accumulation of nitrogen compounds increase its availability in a given ecosystem, eventually changing the species composition, plant diversity, and nitrogen cycling. Ammonia and ammonium - two reduced forms of nitrogen - can be detrimental over time due to an increased toxicity toward sensitive species of plants,[52] particularly those that are accustomed to using nitrate as their source of nitrogen, causing poor development of their roots and shoots. Increased nitrogen deposition also leads to soil acidification, which increases base cation leaching in the soil and amounts of aluminum and other potentially toxic metals, along with decreasing the amount of nitrification occurring and increasing plant-derived litter. Due to the ongoing changes caused by high nitrogen deposition, an environment's susceptibility to ecological stress and disturbance - such as pests and pathogens - may increase, thus making it less resilient to situations that otherwise would have little impact to its long-term vitality.

Increasing levels of nitrogen deposition are shown to have a number of negative effects on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Nitrogen gases and aerosols can be directly toxic to certain plant species, affecting the aboveground physiology and growth of plants near large point sources of nitrogen pollution. Changes to plant species may also occur, as accumulation of nitrogen compounds increase its availability in a given ecosystem, eventually changing the species composition, plant diversity, and nitrogen cycling. Ammonia and ammonium - two reduced forms of nitrogen - can be detrimental over time due to an increased toxicity toward sensitive species of plants, particularly those that are accustomed to using nitrate as their source of nitrogen, causing poor development of their roots and shoots. Increased nitrogen deposition also leads to soil acidification, which increases base cation leaching in the soil and amounts of aluminum and other potentially toxic metals, along with decreasing the amount of nitrification occurring and increasing plant-derived litter. Due to the ongoing changes caused by high nitrogen deposition, an environment's susceptibility to ecological stress and disturbance - such as pests and pathogens - may increase, thus making it less resilient to situations that otherwise would have little impact to its long-term vitality.

= = = 对自然系统的影响 = = = 越来越多的氮沉积对陆地和水生生态系统都有一些负面影响。氮气和气溶胶对某些植物物种有直接毒性,影响地上生理和大量氮污染点附近植物的生长。植物物种的变化也可能发生,因为氮化合物的积累增加了它在特定生态系统中的有效性,最终改变了物种组成、植物多样性和氮循环。随着时间的推移,氨和铵——两种还原形式的氮——可能是有害的,因为它们对敏感植物的毒性增加,特别是那些习惯于将硝酸盐作为氮源的植物,导致它们的根和茎发育不良。氮沉降增加还导致土壤酸化,增加土壤中碱性阳离子的淋失,增加铝和其他潜在有毒金属的含量,同时减少硝化作用的发生,增加植物衍生的凋落物。由于氮沉降量高造成的持续变化,环境对生态压力和干扰(如害虫和病原体)的敏感性可能会增加,从而降低环境对否则不会对其长期生命力产生影响的情况的适应能力。

Additional risks posed by increased availability of inorganic nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems include water acidification; eutrophication of fresh and saltwater systems; and toxicity issues for animals, including humans.[53] Eutrophication often leads to lower dissolved oxygen levels in the water column, including hypoxic and anoxic conditions, which can cause death of aquatic fauna. Relatively sessile benthos, or bottom-dwelling creatures, are particularly vulnerable because of their lack of mobility, though large fish kills are not uncommon. Oceanic dead zones near the mouth of the Mississippi in the Gulf of Mexico are a well-known example of algal bloom-induced hypoxia.[54][55] The New York Adirondack Lakes, Catskills, Hudson Highlands, Rensselaer Plateau and parts of Long Island display the impact of nitric acid rain deposition, resulting in the killing of fish and many other aquatic species.[56]

Additional risks posed by increased availability of inorganic nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems include water acidification; eutrophication of fresh and saltwater systems; and toxicity issues for animals, including humans. Eutrophication often leads to lower dissolved oxygen levels in the water column, including hypoxic and anoxic conditions, which can cause death of aquatic fauna. Relatively sessile benthos, or bottom-dwelling creatures, are particularly vulnerable because of their lack of mobility, though large fish kills are not uncommon. Oceanic dead zones near the mouth of the Mississippi in the Gulf of Mexico are a well-known example of algal bloom-induced hypoxia. The New York Adirondack Lakes, Catskills, Hudson Highlands, Rensselaer Plateau and parts of Long Island display the impact of nitric acid rain deposition, resulting in the killing of fish and many other aquatic species.

水生生态系统中无机氮供应增加带来的其他风险包括水的酸化; 淡水和咸水系统的富营养化; 以及包括人类在内的动物的毒性问题。富营养化往往导致水体中溶解氧水平降低,包括缺氧和缺氧条件,这可能导致水生动物的死亡。相对固着的底栖生物,或者说底栖生物,由于缺乏流动性而特别容易受到伤害,尽管大型鱼类被捕杀的情况并不少见。墨西哥湾密西西比河口附近的海洋死亡区是藻类水华引起的缺氧的一个著名例子。New York Adirondack Lakes、 Catskills、哈德逊高地、 Rensselaer Plateau 和长岛部分地区显示出硝酸雨沉积的影响,导致鱼类和许多其他水生物种死亡。

Ammonia (NH3) is highly toxic to fish and the level of ammonia discharged from wastewater treatment facilities must be closely monitored. To prevent fish deaths, nitrification via aeration prior to discharge is often desirable. Land application can be an attractive alternative to the aeration.

Ammonia (NH3) is highly toxic to fish and the level of ammonia discharged from wastewater treatment facilities must be closely monitored. To prevent fish deaths, nitrification via aeration prior to discharge is often desirable. Land application can be an attractive alternative to the aeration.

氨(NH3)对鱼类具有高度毒性,必须密切监测废水处理设施排放的氨水平。为了防止鱼类死亡,通过曝气亚硝化排放之前往往是可取的。土地利用可以是一个有吸引力的替代通风。

Impacts on human health: nitrate accumulation in drinking water

Leakage of Nr (reactive nitrogen) from human activities can cause nitrate accumulation in the natural water environment, which can create harmful impacts on human health. Excessive use of N-fertilizer in agriculture has been one of the major sources of nitrate pollution in groundwater and surface water.[57][58] Due to its high solubility and low retention by soil, nitrate can easily escape from the subsoil layer to the groundwater, causing nitrate pollution. Some other non-point sources for nitrate pollution in groundwater are originated from livestock feeding, animal and human contamination and municipal and industrial waste. Since groundwater often serves as the primary domestic water supply, nitrate pollution can be extended from groundwater to surface and drinking water in the process of potable water production, especially for small community water supplies, where poorly regulated and unsanitary waters are used.[59]

Leakage of Nr (reactive nitrogen) from human activities can cause nitrate accumulation in the natural water environment, which can create harmful impacts on human health. Excessive use of N-fertilizer in agriculture has been one of the major sources of nitrate pollution in groundwater and surface water. Due to its high solubility and low retention by soil, nitrate can easily escape from the subsoil layer to the groundwater, causing nitrate pollution. Some other non-point sources for nitrate pollution in groundwater are originated from livestock feeding, animal and human contamination and municipal and industrial waste. Since groundwater often serves as the primary domestic water supply, nitrate pollution can be extended from groundwater to surface and drinking water in the process of potable water production, especially for small community water supplies, where poorly regulated and unsanitary waters are used.

= = = 对人体健康的影响: 饮用水中的硝酸盐累积 = = = = 人类活动中硝酸盐(活性氮)的泄漏,可引起自然水环境中的硝酸盐累积,对人体健康造成有害影响。农业过量使用氮肥是地下水和地表水硝酸盐污染的主要来源之一。由于硝酸盐的高溶解性和低截留性,使其很容易从土壤下层逸出到地下水中,造成硝酸盐污染。地下水中硝酸盐污染的其他一些非点源来自牲畜饲养、动物和人类污染以及城市和工业废物。由于地下水往往是主要的生活用水供应,硝酸盐污染可以从地下水扩展到地表水和饮用水生产过程中的饮用水,特别是小型社区的供水,因为那里的水管理不善,不卫生。

The WHO standard for drinking water is 50 mg 模板:Chem2 L−1 for short-term exposure, and for 3 mg 模板:Chem2 L−1 chronic effects.[60] Once it enters the human body, nitrate can react with organic compounds through nitrosation reactions in the stomach to form nitrosamines and nitrosamides, which are involved in some types of cancers (e.g., oral cancer and gastric cancer).[61]

The WHO standard for drinking water is 50 mg L−1 for short-term exposure, and for 3 mg L−1 chronic effects. Once it enters the human body, nitrate can react with organic compounds through nitrosation reactions in the stomach to form nitrosamines and nitrosamides, which are involved in some types of cancers (e.g., oral cancer and gastric cancer).

世界卫生组织的饮用水标准是50毫克 l-1的短期接触,和3毫克 l-1的慢性影响。硝酸盐一旦进入人体,便会透过胃内的亚硝化反应与有机化合物产生反应,形成亚硝胺和亚硝胺,这些化合物可引致某些癌症(例如口腔癌和胃癌)。

Impacts on human health: air quality

Human activities have also dramatically altered the global nitrogen cycle via production of nitrogenous gases, associated with the global atmospheric nitrogen pollution. There are multiple sources of atmospheric reactive nitrogen (Nr) fluxes. Agricultural sources of reactive nitrogen can produce atmospheric emission of ammonia (模板:Chem2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Combustion processes in energy production, transportation and industry can also result in the formation of new reactive nitrogen via the emission of NOx, an unintentional waste product. When those reactive nitrogens are released to the lower atmosphere, they can induce the formation of smog, particulate matter and aerosols, all of which are major contributors to adverse health effects on human health from air pollution.[62] In the atmosphere, NO2 can be oxidized to nitric acid (HNO3), and it can further react with NH3 to form ammonium nitrate, which facilitates the formation of particular nitrate. Moreover, NH3 can react with other acid gases (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) to form ammonium-containing particles, which are the precursors for the secondary organic aerosol particles in photochemical smog.[63]

Human activities have also dramatically altered the global nitrogen cycle via production of nitrogenous gases, associated with the global atmospheric nitrogen pollution. There are multiple sources of atmospheric reactive nitrogen (Nr) fluxes. Agricultural sources of reactive nitrogen can produce atmospheric emission of ammonia (), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Combustion processes in energy production, transportation and industry can also result in the formation of new reactive nitrogen via the emission of NOx, an unintentional waste product. When those reactive nitrogens are released to the lower atmosphere, they can induce the formation of smog, particulate matter and aerosols, all of which are major contributors to adverse health effects on human health from air pollution. In the atmosphere, NO2 can be oxidized to nitric acid (HNO3), and it can further react with NH3 to form ammonium nitrate, which facilitates the formation of particular nitrate. Moreover, NH3 can react with other acid gases (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) to form ammonium-containing particles, which are the precursors for the secondary organic aerosol particles in photochemical smog.

= = = 对人类健康的影响: 空气质量 = = = 人类活动通过产生与全球大气氮污染有关的含氮气体,也大大改变了全球氮循环。大气活性氮通量有多种来源。农业活性氮源可以产生氨()、氮氧化物(NOx)和一氧化二氮(N2O)的大气排放。能源生产、运输和工业中的燃烧过程也可以通过排放氮氧化物形成新的活性氮,氮氧化物是一种无意产生的废物。当这些反应性氮被释放到低层大气中时,它们可以诱发烟雾、颗粒物和气溶胶的形成,所有这些都是空气污染对人类健康造成不利影响的主要因素。在大气中,no2可以被氧化成硝酸(HNO3) ,它还可以与 nh3进一步反应生成硝酸铵,促进特定硝酸盐的形成。此外,nh3还能与其它酸性气体(硫酸和盐酸)反应生成含铵粒子,这些粒子是光化学烟雾中次生有机气溶胶粒子的前驱体。

See also

See also

References

  1. Fowler, David; Coyle, Mhairi; Skiba, Ute; Sutton, Mark A.; Cape, J. Neil; Reis, Stefan; Sheppard, Lucy J.; Jenkins, Alan; Grizzetti, Bruna; Galloway, JN; Vitousek, P; Leach, A; Bouwman, AF; Butterbach-Bahl, K; Dentener, F; Stevenson, D; Amann, M; Voss, M (5 July 2013). "The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 368 (1621): 20130164. doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0164. PMC 3682748. PMID 23713126.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Galloway, J. N.; Townsend, A. R.; Erisman, J. W.; Bekunda, M.; Cai, Z.; Freney, J. R.; Martinelli, L. A.; Seitzinger, S. P.; Sutton, M. A. (2008). "Transformation of the Nitrogen Cycle: Recent Trends, Questions, and Potential Solutions" (PDF). Science. 320 (5878): 889–892. Bibcode:2008Sci...320..889G. doi:10.1126/science.1136674. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 18487183. S2CID 16547816. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-11-08. Retrieved 2019-09-23.
  3. Vitousek, P. M.; Menge, D. N. L.; Reed, S. C.; Cleveland, C. C. (2013). "Biological nitrogen fixation: rates, patterns and ecological controls in terrestrial ecosystems". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 368 (1621): 20130119. doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0119. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 3682739. PMID 23713117.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Voss, M.; Bange, H. W.; Dippner, J. W.; Middelburg, J. J.; Montoya, J. P.; Ward, B. (2013). "The marine nitrogen cycle: recent discoveries, uncertainties and the potential relevance of climate change". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 368 (1621): 20130121. doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0121. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 3682741. PMID 23713119.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Fowler, David; Coyle, Mhairi; Skiba, Ute; Sutton, Mark A.; Cape, J. Neil; Reis, Stefan; Sheppard, Lucy J.; Jenkins, Alan; Grizzetti, Bruna; Galloway, JN; Vitousek, P; Leach, A; Bouwman, AF; Butterbach-Bahl, K; Dentener, F; Stevenson, D; Amann, M; Voss, M (5 July 2013). "The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 368 (1621): 20130164. doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0164. PMC 3682748. PMID 23713126.
  6. Vuuren, Detlef P van; Bouwman, Lex F; Smith, Steven J; Dentener, Frank (2011). "Global projections for anthropogenic reactive nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere: an assessment of scenarios in the scientific literature". Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 3 (5): 359–369. doi:10.1016/j.cosust.2011.08.014. hdl:1874/314192. ISSN 1877-3435.
  7. Pilegaard, K. (2013). "Processes regulating nitric oxide emissions from soils". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 368 (1621): 20130126. doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0126. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 3682746. PMID 23713124.
  8. Levy, H.; Moxim, W. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S. (1996). "A global three-dimensional time-dependent lightning source of tropospheric NOx". Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 101 (D17): 22911–22922. Bibcode:1996JGR...10122911L. doi:10.1029/96jd02341. ISSN 0148-0227.
  9. Sutton, M. A.; Reis, S.; Riddick, S. N.; Dragosits, U.; Nemitz, E.; Theobald, M. R.; Tang, Y. S.; Braban, C. F.; Vieno, M. (2013). "Towards a climate-dependent paradigm of ammonia emission and deposition". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 368 (1621): 20130166. doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0166. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 3682750. PMID 23713128.
  10. Dentener, F.; Drevet, J.; Lamarque, J. F.; Bey, I.; Eickhout, B.; Fiore, A. M.; Hauglustaine, D.; Horowitz, L. W.; Krol, M. (2006). "Nitrogen and sulfur deposition on regional and global scales: a multimodel evaluation" (PDF). Global Biogeochemical Cycles (in English). 20 (4): n/a. Bibcode:2006GBioC..20.4003D. doi:10.1029/2005GB002672.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Duce, R. A.; LaRoche, J.; Altieri, K.; Arrigo, K. R.; Baker, A. R.; Capone, D. G.; Cornell, S.; Dentener, F.; Galloway, J. (2008). "Impacts of Atmospheric Anthropogenic Nitrogen on the Open Ocean". Science. 320 (5878): 893–897. Bibcode:2008Sci...320..893D. doi:10.1126/science.1150369. hdl:21.11116/0000-0001-CD7A-0. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 18487184. S2CID 11204131.
  12. Bouwman, L.; Goldewijk, K. K.; Van Der Hoek, K. W.; Beusen, A. H. W.; Van Vuuren, D. P.; Willems, J.; Rufino, M. C.; Stehfest, E. (2011-05-16). "Exploring global changes in nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in agriculture induced by livestock production over the 1900-2050 period". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 110 (52): 20882–20887. doi:10.1073/pnas.1012878108. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 3876211. PMID 21576477.
  13. Solomon, Susan (2007). Climate change 2007 : the physical science basis. Published for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [by] Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521880091. OCLC 228429704. 
  14. Sutton, Mark A., editor (2011-04-14). The European nitrogen assessment : sources, effects, and policy perspectives. ISBN 9781107006126. OCLC 690090202. 
  15. Deutsch, Curtis; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Sigman, Daniel M.; Gruber, Nicolas; Dunne, John P. (2007). "Spatial coupling of nitrogen inputs and losses in the ocean". Nature. 445 (7124): 163–167. Bibcode:2007Natur.445..163D. doi:10.1038/nature05392. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 17215838. S2CID 10804715.
  16. Steven B. Carroll; Steven D. Salt (2004). Ecology for gardeners. Timber Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-88192-611-8. https://books.google.com/books?id=aM4W9e5nmsoC&pg=PA93. 
  17. Kuypers, MMM; Marchant, HK; Kartal, B (2011). "The Microbial Nitrogen-Cycling Network". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 1 (1): 1–14. doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2018.9. PMID 29398704. S2CID 3948918.
  18. Galloway, J. N.; et al. (2004). "Nitrogen cycles: past, present, and future generations". Biogeochemistry. 70 (2): 153–226. doi:10.1007/s10533-004-0370-0. S2CID 98109580.
  19. Reis, Stefan; Bekunda, Mateete; Howard, Clare M; Karanja, Nancy; Winiwarter, Wilfried; Yan, Xiaoyuan; Bleeker, Albert; Sutton, Mark A (2016-12-01). "Synthesis and review: Tackling the nitrogen management challenge: from global to local scales". Environmental Research Letters. 11 (12): 120205. Bibcode:2016ERL....11l0205R. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/11/12/120205. ISSN 1748-9326.
  20. Gu, Baojing; Ge, Ying; Ren, Yuan; Xu, Bin; Luo, Weidong; Jiang, Hong; Gu, Binhe; Chang, Jie (2012-08-17). "Atmospheric Reactive Nitrogen in China: Sources, Recent Trends, and Damage Costs". Environmental Science & Technology. 46 (17): 9420–9427. Bibcode:2012EnST...46.9420G. doi:10.1021/es301446g. ISSN 0013-936X. PMID 22852755.
  21. Kim, Haryun; Lee, Kitack; Lim, Dhong-Il; Nam, Seung-Il; Kim, Tae-Wook; Yang, Jin-Yu T.; Ko, Young Ho; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Eunil (2017-05-11). "Widespread Anthropogenic Nitrogen in Northwestern Pacific Ocean Sediment". Environmental Science & Technology. 51 (11): 6044–6052. Bibcode:2017EnST...51.6044K. doi:10.1021/acs.est.6b05316. ISSN 0013-936X. PMID 28462990.
  22. Moir, JWB (editor) (2011). Nitrogen Cycling in Bacteria: Molecular Analysis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-86-8. 
  23. Smith, B., R. L. Richards, and W. E. Newton. 2004. Catalysts for nitrogen fixation : nitrogenases, relevant chemical models and commercial processes. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht ; Boston.
  24. Smil, V (2000). Cycles of Life. Scientific American Library, New York. 
  25. Willey, Joanne M. (2011). Prescott's Microbiology 8th Ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw Hill. pp. 705. ISBN 978-0-07-337526-7. 
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Vitousek, PM; Aber, J; Howarth, RW; Likens, GE; Matson, PA; Schindler, DW; Schlesinger, WH; Tilman, GD (1997). "Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: Sources and consequences" (PDF). Ecological Applications. 1 (3): 1–17. doi:10.1890/1051-0761(1997)007[0737:HAOTGN]2.0.CO;2. hdl:1813/60830. ISSN 1051-0761.
  27. Graf, Jon S.; Schorn, Sina; Kitzinger, Katharina; Ahmerkamp, Soeren; Woehle, Christian; Huettel, Bruno; Schubert, Carsten J.; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Milucka, Jana (3 March 2021). "Anaerobic endosymbiont generates energy for ciliate host by denitrification". Nature. 591 (7850): 445–450. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-03297-6. ISSN 0028-0836. PMC 7969357. PMID 33658719.
  28. Lam, Phyllis and Kuypers, Marcel M. M. (2011). "Microbial Nitrogen Processes in Oxygen Minimum Zones". Annual Review of Marine Science. 3: 317–345. Bibcode:2011ARMS....3..317L. doi:10.1146/annurev-marine-120709-142814. hdl:21.11116/0000-0001-CA25-2. PMID 21329208.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  29. Marchant, H. K., Lavik, G., Holtappels, M., and Kuypers, M. M. M. (2014). "The Fate of Nitrate in Intertidal Permeable Sediments". PLOS ONE. 9 (8): e104517. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9j4517M. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104517. PMC 4134218. PMID 25127459.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  30. "Anammox". Anammox - MicrobeWiki. MicrobeWiki. Archived from the original on 2015-09-27. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  31. "Nitrogen Study Could 'Rock' A Plant's World". 2011-09-06. Archived from the original on 2011-12-05. Retrieved 2011-10-22.
  32. Schuur, E. A. G. (2011). "Ecology: Nitrogen from the deep". Nature. 477 (7362): 39–40. Bibcode:2011Natur.477...39S. doi:10.1038/477039a. PMID 21886152. S2CID 2946571.
  33. Morford, S. L.; Houlton, B. Z.; Dahlgren, R. A. (2011). "Increased forest ecosystem carbon and nitrogen storage from nitrogen rich bedrock". Nature. 477 (7362): 78–81. Bibcode:2011Natur.477...78M. doi:10.1038/nature10415. PMID 21886160. S2CID 4352571.
  34. Burgin, Amy J.; Yang, Wendy H.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Silver, Whendee L. (2011). "Beyond carbon and nitrogen: how the microbial energy economy couples elemental cycles in diverse ecosystems". Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment (in English). 9 (1): 44–52. doi:10.1890/090227. hdl:1808/21008. ISSN 1540-9309.
  35. Roman, J.; McCarthy, J.J. (2010). "The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin". PLOS One. 5 (10): e13255. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013255. PMC 2952594.
  36. Pajares Moreno, S. and Ramos, R. (2019) "Processes and Microorganisms Involved in the Marine Nitrogen Cycle: Knowledge and Gaps". Frontiers in Marine Science, 6: 739. doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00739. 50px Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  37. Moulton, Orissa M; Altabet, Mark A; Beman, J Michael; Deegan, Linda A; Lloret, Javier; Lyons, Meaghan K; Nelson, James A; Pfister, Catherine A (May 2016). "Microbial associations with macrobiota in coastal ecosystems: patterns and implications for nitrogen cycling". Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment (in English). 14 (4): 200–208. doi:10.1002/fee.1262. hdl:1912/8083. ISSN 1540-9295.
  38. 38.0 38.1 Miller, Charles (2008). Biological Oceanography. 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148 USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. pp. 60–62. ISBN 978-0-632-05536-4. 
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 Gruber, Nicolas (2008). Nitrogen in the Marine Environment. 30 Corporate Drive, Suite 400, Burlington, MA 01803: Elsevier. pp. 1–35. ISBN 978-0-12-372522-6. 
  40. Miller, Charles (2008). Biological oceanography. 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148 USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. pp. 60–62. ISBN 978-0-632-05536-4. 
  41. Boyes, Elliot, Susan, Michael. "Learning Unit: Nitrogen Cycle Marine Environment". Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
  42. 42.0 42.1 Lalli, Parsons, Carol, Timothy (1997). Biological oceanography: An introduction. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-3384-0. 
  43. O'Brien, Paul A.; Morrow, Kathleen M.; Willis, Bette L.; Bourne, David G. (2016). "Implications of Ocean Acidification for Marine Microorganisms from the Free-Living to the Host-Associated". Frontiers in Marine Science. 3. doi:10.3389/fmars.2016.00047. 50px Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
  44. Holland, Elisabeth A.; Dentener, Frank J.; Braswell, Bobby H.; Sulzman, James M. (1999). "Contemporary and pre-industrial global reactive nitrogen budgets". Biogeochemistry. 46 (1–3): 7. doi:10.1007/BF01007572. S2CID 189917368.
  45. Gu, Baojing; Ge, Ying; Ren, Yuan; Xu, Bin; Luo, Weidong; Jiang, Hong; Gu, Binhe; Chang, Jie (2012-09-04). "Atmospheric Reactive Nitrogen in China: Sources, Recent Trends, and Damage Costs". Environmental Science & Technology (in English). 46 (17): 9420–9427. Bibcode:2012EnST...46.9420G. doi:10.1021/es301446g. ISSN 0013-936X. PMID 22852755.
  46. Cosby, B. Jack; Cowling, Ellis B.; Howarth, Robert W.; Seitzinger, Sybil P.; Erisman, Jan Willem; Aber, John D.; Galloway, James N. (2003-04-01). "The Nitrogen Cascade". BioScience (in English). 53 (4): 341–356. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2003)053[0341:TNC]2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0006-3568.
  47. Chapin, S. F. III, Matson, P. A., Mooney H. A. 2002. Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology. -{zh-cn:互联网档案馆; zh-tw:網際網路檔案館; zh-hk:互聯網檔案館;}-存檔,存档日期2014-06-28. Springer, New York 2002 , p.345
  48. Proceedings of the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE) International Biofuels Project Rapid Assessment, 22–25 September 2008, Gummersbach, Germany, R. W. Howarth and S. Bringezu, editors. 2009 Executive Summary, p. 3 -{zh-cn:互联网档案馆; zh-tw:網際網路檔案館; zh-hk:互聯網檔案館;}-存檔,存档日期2009-06-06.
  49. Aerts, Rien & Berendse, Frank (1988). "The Effect of Increased Nutrient Availability on Vegetation Dynamics in Wet Heathlands". Vegetatio. 76 (1/2): 63–69. JSTOR 20038308.
  50. Bobbink, R.; Hicks, K.; Galloway, J.; Spranger, T.; Alkemade, R.; Ashmore, M.; Bustamante, M.; Cinderby, S.; Davidson, E. (2010-01-01). "Global assessment of nitrogen deposition effects on terrestrial plant diversity: a synthesis" (PDF). Ecological Applications (in English). 20 (1): 30–59. doi:10.1890/08-1140.1. ISSN 1939-5582. PMID 20349829. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-09-30. Retrieved 2019-09-30.
  51. Liu, Xuejun; Duan, Lei; Mo, Jiangming; Du, Enzai; Shen, Jianlin; Lu, Xiankai; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Xiaobing; He, Chune (2011). "Nitrogen deposition and its ecological impact in China: An overview". Environmental Pollution (in English). 159 (10): 2251–2264. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2010.08.002. PMID 20828899.
  52. Britto, Dev T.; Kronzucker, Herbert J. (2002). "NH4+ toxicity in higher plants: a critical review". Journal of Plant Physiology. 159 (6): 567–584. doi:10.1078/0176-1617-0774.
  53. Camargoa, Julio A.; Alonso, Álvaro (2006). "Ecological and toxicological effects of inorganic nitrogen pollution in aquatic ecosystems: A global assessment". Environment International. 32 (6): 831–849. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2006.05.002. PMID 16781774.
  54. Rabalais, Nancy N., R. Eugene Turner, and William J. Wiseman, Jr. (2002). "Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia, aka "The Dead Zone"". Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 33: 235–63. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.33.010802.150513. JSTOR 3069262.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  55. Dybas, Cheryl Lyn. (2005). "Dead Zones Spreading in World Oceans". BioScience. 55 (7): 552–557. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0552:DZSIWO]2.0.CO;2.
  56. New York State Environmental Conservation, Environmental Impacts of Acid Deposition: Lakes [1] -{zh-cn:互联网档案馆; zh-tw:網際網路檔案館; zh-hk:互聯網檔案館;}-存檔,存档日期2010-11-24.
  57. Power, J.F.; Schepers, J.S. (1989). "Nitrate contamination of groundwater in North America". Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 26 (3–4): 165–187. doi:10.1016/0167-8809(89)90012-1. ISSN 0167-8809.
  58. Strebel, O.; Duynisveld, W.H.M.; Böttcher, J. (1989). "Nitrate pollution of groundwater in western Europe". Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 26 (3–4): 189–214. doi:10.1016/0167-8809(89)90013-3. ISSN 0167-8809.
  59. Fewtrell, Lorna (2004). "Drinking-Water Nitrate, Methemoglobinemia, and Global Burden of Disease: A Discussion". Environmental Health Perspectives. 112 (14): 1371–1374. doi:10.1289/ehp.7216. ISSN 0091-6765. PMC 1247562. PMID 15471727.
  60. Global Health Observatory : (GHO). World Health Organization. OCLC 50144984. 
  61. Canter, Larry W. (2019-01-22), "Illustrations of Nitrate Pollution of Groundwater", Nitrates in Groundwater, Routledge, pp. 39–71, doi:10.1201/9780203745793-3, ISBN 9780203745793
  62. Kampa, Marilena; Castanas, Elias (2008). "Human health effects of air pollution". Environmental Pollution. 151 (2): 362–367. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2007.06.012. ISSN 0269-7491. PMID 17646040.
  63. Erisman, J. W.; Galloway, J. N.; Seitzinger, S.; Bleeker, A.; Dise, N. B.; Petrescu, A. M. R.; Leach, A. M.; de Vries, W. (2013-05-27). "Consequences of human modification of the global nitrogen cycle". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 368 (1621): 20130116. doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0116. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 3682738. PMID 23713116.

引用错误:在<references>中以“Sparacino-Watkins 2013”名字定义的<ref>标签没有在先前的文字中使用。

引用错误:在<references>中以“Simon 2013”名字定义的<ref>标签没有在先前的文字中使用。

模板:Biogeochemical cycle


Cycle Category:Biogeochemical cycle Category:Soil biology Category:Metabolism Category:Biogeography Category:Fishkeeping

循环类别: 生物地质化学循环类别: 土壤生物类别: 代谢类别: 生物地理类别: 养鱼


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Nitrogen cycle. Its edit history can be viewed at 氮循环/edithistory