沃伦·麦卡洛克

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Warren Sturgis McCulloch
Born(1898-模板:MONTHNUMBER-16)16 1898
Orange, New Jersey, United States
Died24 September 1969(1969-09-24) (aged 70)
NationalityAmerican
CitizenshipUnited States
Alma materYale University
Columbia University
Known forHeterarchy
AwardsWiener Gold Medal (1968)
Scientific career
FieldsCybernetics
Artificial neural network
Neuropsychology
Biophysics
Computer Science
InstitutionsMassachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Yale University
University of Illinois at Chicago
Notable studentsStafford Beer

Warren Sturgis McCulloch (November 16, 1898 – September 24, 1969) was an American neurophysiologist and cybernetician, known for his work on the foundation for certain brain theories and his contribution to the cybernetics movement.[1] Along with Walter Pitts, McCulloch created computational models based on mathematical algorithms called threshold logic which split the inquiry into two distinct approaches, one approach focused on biological processes in the brain and the other focused on the application of neural networks to artificial intelligence.[2]

Warren Sturgis McCulloch (November 16, 1898 – September 24, 1969) was an American neurophysiologist and cybernetician, known for his work on the foundation for certain brain theories and his contribution to the cybernetics movement.Ken Aizawa (2004), "McCulloch, Warren Sturgis". In: Dictionary of the Philosophy of Mind. Retrieved May 17, 2008. Along with Walter Pitts, McCulloch created computational models based on mathematical algorithms called threshold logic which split the inquiry into two distinct approaches, one approach focused on biological processes in the brain and the other focused on the application of neural networks to artificial intelligence.

沃伦·麦卡洛克是一位美国神经生理学家和控制论专家,以其对某些大脑理论基础的研究和对控制论运动的贡献而闻名。Ken Aizawa (2004) ,“ McCulloch,Warren Sturgis”。心灵哲学词典。17,2008.麦卡洛克和沃尔特 · 皮茨一起创建了基于数学算法的计算模型,称为阈值逻辑,它将研究分为两种不同的方法,一种侧重于大脑中的生物过程,另一种侧重于神经网络在人工智能中的应用。

Biography

Warren Sturgis McCulloch was born in Orange, New Jersey, in 1898. His brother was a chemical engineer and Warren was originally planning to join the Christian ministry. As a teenager he was associated with the theologians Henry Sloane Coffin, Harry Emerson Fosdick, Herman Karl Wilhelm Kumm and Julian F. Hecker. He was also mentored by the Quaker, Rufus Jones.[3] He attended Haverford College and studied philosophy and psychology at Yale University, where he received an A.B. degree in 1921. He continued to study psychology at Columbia and received a M.A. degree in 1923. Receiving his MD in 1927 from the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, he undertook an internship at Bellevue Hospital, New York. Then he worked under Eilhard von Domarus at the Rockland State Hospital for the Insane.[4] He returned to academia in 1934. He worked at the Laboratory for Neurophysiology at Yale University from 1934 to 1941.

Warren Sturgis McCulloch was born in Orange, New Jersey, in 1898. His brother was a chemical engineer and Warren was originally planning to join the Christian ministry. As a teenager he was associated with the theologians Henry Sloane Coffin, Harry Emerson Fosdick, Herman Karl Wilhelm Kumm and Julian F. Hecker. He was also mentored by the Quaker, Rufus Jones. He attended Haverford College and studied philosophy and psychology at Yale University, where he received an A.B. degree in 1921. He continued to study psychology at Columbia and received a M.A. degree in 1923. Receiving his MD in 1927 from the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, he undertook an internship at Bellevue Hospital, New York. Then he worked under Eilhard von Domarus at the Rockland State Hospital for the Insane. He returned to academia in 1934. He worked at the Laboratory for Neurophysiology at Yale University from 1934 to 1941.

沃伦·麦卡洛克于1898年出生于新泽西州的奥兰治。他的兄弟是一名化学工程师,沃伦最初计划加入基督教部。少年时期,他与神学家亨利 · 斯隆 · 科芬、哈里 · 爱默生 · 福斯迪克、赫尔曼 · 卡尔 · 威廉 · 库姆和朱利安 · f · 赫克联系在一起。他还受到贵格会教徒鲁弗斯 · 琼斯的指导。他就读于哈弗福德学院,并在耶鲁大学学习哲学和心理学,在那里他获得了 a. b。1921年获得学位。他继续在哥伦比亚大学学习心理学,并获得了文学硕士学位。1923年获得学位。1927年,他从纽约的哥伦比亚大学医学院获得了医学博士学位,并在纽约的贝尔维尤医院实习。然后他在 Rockland State Hospital 的精神病院为艾哈德 · 冯 · 多马鲁斯工作。1934年,他回到学术界。1934年至1941年,他在耶鲁大学神经生理学实验室工作。

In 1941 he moved to Chicago and joined the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Illinois at Chicago, where he was a professor of psychiatry, as well as the director of the Illinois Neuropsychiatric Institute until 1951.[5] From 1952 he worked at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts with Norbert Wiener. He was a founding member of the American Society for Cybernetics and its second president during 1967–1968. He was a mentor to the British operations research pioneer Stafford Beer.

In 1941 he moved to Chicago and joined the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Illinois at Chicago, where he was a professor of psychiatry, as well as the director of the Illinois Neuropsychiatric Institute until 1951. From 1952 he worked at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts with Norbert Wiener. He was a founding member of the American Society for Cybernetics and its second president during 1967–1968. He was a mentor to the British operations research pioneer Stafford Beer.

1941年,他搬到了芝加哥,加入了精神科医院,在伊利诺大学芝加哥分校任精神病学教授,同时担任伊利诺伊州神经精神病学研究所主任,直到1951年。从1952年起,他与诺伯特 · 维纳一起在马萨诸塞州剑桥的麻省理工学院工作。他是美国控制论学会的创始成员,并在1967-1968年担任该学会的第二任主席。他是英国运筹学先驱斯塔福德 · 比尔的导师。

McCulloch had a range of interests and talents. In addition to his scientific contributions he wrote poetry (sonnets), and he designed and engineered buildings and a dam at his farm in Old Lyme, Connecticut.

McCulloch had a range of interests and talents. In addition to his scientific contributions he wrote poetry (sonnets), and he designed and engineered buildings and a dam at his farm in Old Lyme, Connecticut.

麦卡洛克兴趣广泛,才华横溢。除了科学贡献,他还写诗(十四行诗) ,他还在康涅狄格州老莱姆的农场里设计和建造建筑物和水坝。

McCulloch married Ruth Metzger, known as 'Rook', in 1924 and they had three children.[6] He died in Cambridge in 1969.

McCulloch married Ruth Metzger, known as 'Rook', in 1924 and they had three children. He died in Cambridge in 1969.

1924年,麦卡洛克与露丝 · 梅茨格结婚,并育有三个孩子。他于1969年在剑桥去世。

Work

He is remembered for his work with Joannes Gregorius Dusser de Barenne from Yale[7] and later with Walter Pitts from the University of Chicago. He provided the foundation for certain brain theories in a number of classic papers, including "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" (1943) and "How We Know Universals: The Perception of Auditory and Visual Forms" (1947), both published in the Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics. The former is "widely credited with being a seminal contribution to neural network theory, the theory of automata, the theory of computation, and cybernetics".[1]

He is remembered for his work with Joannes Gregorius Dusser de Barenne from Yale and later with Walter Pitts from the University of Chicago. He provided the foundation for certain brain theories in a number of classic papers, including "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" (1943) and "How We Know Universals: The Perception of Auditory and Visual Forms" (1947), both published in the Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics. The former is "widely credited with being a seminal contribution to neural network theory, the theory of automata, the theory of computation, and cybernetics".

= = 工作 = = 他因与耶鲁大学的乔安尼 · 格雷戈里斯 · 杜塞尔 · 德 · 巴伦内以及后来与芝加哥大学的沃尔特 · 皮茨的合作而被人们铭记。他在一系列经典论文中为某些大脑理论奠定了基础,包括《神经活动中内在思想的逻辑演算》(1943)和《我们如何知道共相: 对听觉和视觉形式的感知》(1947) ,这两篇论文均发表在《数学生物物理学公报》上。前者被广泛认为是对神经网络理论、自动机理论、计算理论和控制论的开创性贡献。

McCulloch was the chair of the set of Macy conferences dedicated to Cybernetics. These, greatly due to the diversity of the background of the participants McCulloch brought in, became the foundation for the field.

McCulloch was the chair of the set of Macy conferences dedicated to Cybernetics. These, greatly due to the diversity of the background of the participants McCulloch brought in, became the foundation for the field.

麦卡洛克是致力于控制论的梅西会议的主席。这些,很大程度上由于麦卡洛克带来的参与者背景的多样性,成为该领域的基础。

Neural network modelling

In the 1943 paper McCulloch and Pitts attempted to demonstrate that a Turing machine program could be implemented in a finite network of formal neurons (in the event, the Turing Machine contains their model of the brain, but the converse is not true[8]), that the neuron was the base logic unit of the brain. In the 1947 paper they offered approaches to designing "nervous nets" to recognize visual inputs despite changes in orientation or size.

In the 1943 paper McCulloch and Pitts attempted to demonstrate that a Turing machine program could be implemented in a finite network of formal neurons (in the event, the Turing Machine contains their model of the brain, but the converse is not truesee: S.C. Kleene, "Representations of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata"), that the neuron was the base logic unit of the brain. In the 1947 paper they offered approaches to designing "nervous nets" to recognize visual inputs despite changes in orientation or size.

= = = 神经网络建模 = = = = = = 在1943年的论文中,麦卡洛克和皮茨试图证明图灵机程序可以在有限的形式神经元网络中实现(在这种情况下,图灵机包含了他们的大脑模型,但反之则不然: s.c. 克莱恩,《神经网络和有限自动机中的事件表征》) ,即神经元是大脑的基本逻辑单位。在1947年的论文中,他们提出了设计“神经网络”的方法来识别视觉输入,尽管方向或大小发生了变化。

From 1952 McCulloch worked at the Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT, working primarily on neural network modelling. His team examined the visual system of the frog in consideration of McCulloch's 1947 paper, discovering that the eye provides the brain with information that is already, to a degree, organized and interpreted, instead of simply transmitting an image.

From 1952 McCulloch worked at the Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT, working primarily on neural network modelling. His team examined the visual system of the frog in consideration of McCulloch's 1947 paper, discovering that the eye provides the brain with information that is already, to a degree, organized and interpreted, instead of simply transmitting an image.

从1952年开始,麦卡洛克在麻省理工学院电子学研究实验室工作,主要研究神经网络模型。考虑到麦卡洛克1947年的论文,他的团队检查了青蛙的视觉系统,发现眼睛为大脑提供的信息在某种程度上已经被组织和解释了,而不是简单地传输一个图像。

Reticular formation

McCulloch also posited the concept of "poker chip" reticular formations as to how the brain deals with contradictory information in a democratic, somatotopical neural network. His principle of "Redundancy of Potential Command"[9] was developed by von Foerster and Pask in their study of self-organization[10] and by Pask in his Conversation Theory and Interactions of Actors Theory.[11]

McCulloch also posited the concept of "poker chip" reticular formations as to how the brain deals with contradictory information in a democratic, somatotopical neural network. His principle of "Redundancy of Potential Command"Some Mechanisms For A Theory of the Reticular Formation was developed by von Foerster and Pask in their study of self-organization"A Predictive Model for Self-Organizing Systems", Part I: Cybernetica 3, pp. 258–300; Part II: Cybernetica 4, pp. 20–55, 1961 Heinz von Foerster and Gordon Pask and by Pask in his Conversation Theory and Interactions of Actors Theory.Gordon Pask (1996). Heinz von Foerster's Self-Organisation, the Progenitor of Conversation and Interaction Theories

麦卡洛克还提出了“扑克筹码”网状结构的概念,来解释大脑如何在一个民主的、网状结构的神经网络中处理矛盾的信息。他的“潜在指挥冗余”的原则是由 von Foerster 和 Pask 在他们的研究《自组织系统的预测模型》中提出的,第一部分: 网状结构理论的一些机制,第3页,自我组织。258-300; 第二部分: Cybernetica 4,pp。20-55,1961 Heinz von Foerster and Gordon Pask and by Pask in his Conversation Theory and Interactions Theory.戈登 · 帕斯克(1996)。海因茨 · 冯 · 福斯特的自我组织——会话与互动理论的先驱

Publications

McCulloch wrote a book and several articles:[12]

  • 1965, Embodiments of Mind. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • 1993, The Complete Works of Warren S. McCulloch. Intersystems Publications: Salinas, CA.

McCulloch wrote a book and several articles:His papers now reside in the manuscripts collection of the American Philosophical Society.

  • 1965, Embodiments of Mind. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
  • 1993, The Complete Works of Warren S. McCulloch. Intersystems Publications: Salinas, CA.

麦卡洛克写了一本书和几篇文章: 他的论文现收藏在美国哲学学会的手稿集里。1965,心灵的化身。麻省理工学院出版社,剑桥,马萨诸塞州。1993,The Complete Works of Warren s. McCulloch.Intersystems 出版物: Salinas,CA。

Articles, a selection:

Articles, a selection:

  • 1943, "A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity". With Walter Pitts. In: Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics Vol 5, pp 115–133.
  • 1945, "A Heterarchy of Values Determined by the Topology of Nervous Nets". In: Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, 7, 1945, 89–93.
  • 1959, "What The Frog's Eye Tells The Frog's Brain". With Jerome Lettvin, H.R. Maturana and W.H. Pitts [It is widely known that the actual authors of this work were only Lettvin and Maturana.] In: Proc. of the I. R. E. Vol 47 (11).
  • 1969, "Recollections of the Many Sources of Cybernetics", published in: ASC FORUM Volume VI, Number 2 -Summer 1974.

文章选集:

  • 1943,“神经活动中内在思想的逻辑演算”。和 Walter Pitts 一起。参见: 《数学生物物理学通报》第5卷,第115-133页。
  • 1945年,《神经网络拓扑决定价值的异质层次》。刊于: 《数学生物物理学通报》 ,7,1945,89-93。
  • 1959年,《青蛙的眼睛告诉青蛙的大脑》。和 Jerome Lettvin 一起,人力资源部。Maturana 和 w.h。众所周知,这部作品的真正作者只有莱特文和马图拉纳发布时间: Proc。第47卷(11)。
  • 1969年,”许多控制论来源的回忆”,出版于: ASC 论坛第六卷,第2期-1974年夏。

Papers published by the Chicago Literary Club:

Papers published by the Chicago Literary Club:

  • 1945, "One Word After Another".
  • 1959, "The Past of a Delusion".
  • 1959, "The Natural Fit".

芝加哥文学俱乐部出版的论文:

  • 1945年,“一个字接着一个字”。
  • 1959年,《妄想的过去》。
  • 1959年,《自然契合》。

See also

  • Randolph diagram

= = =

  • Randolph diagram

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ken Aizawa (2004), "McCulloch, Warren Sturgis". In: Dictionary of the Philosophy of Mind. Retrieved May 17, 2008.
  2. McCulloch, Warren; Walter Pitts (1943). "A Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity". Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics. 5 (4): 115–133. doi:10.1007/BF02478259.
  3. McCulloch, Warren (1961). "What is a number, that a man may know it, and a man, that he may know a Number". General Semantics Bulletin (26 & 27): 7–18.
  4. Abraham, Tara H. (2002). "(Physio)logical circuits: The intellectual origins of the McCulloch-Pitts neural networks". Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. 38 (1): 3–25. ISSN 0022-5061.
  5. Smalheiser, Neil (2000). "Walter Pitts". Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (43, 2): 217–226.
  6. H., Abraham, Tara (2016-10-28). Rebel genius : Warren S. McCulloch's transdisciplinary life in science. Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 9780262035095. OCLC 946160418. 
  7. "Joannes Gregorius Dusser de Barenne". Yale J Biol Med. 12 (6): 742.2–746. 1940. PMC 2602446. PMID 21433922.
  8. see: S.C. Kleene, "Representations of Events in Nerve Nets and Finite Automata"
  9. Some Mechanisms For A Theory of the Reticular Formation
  10. "A Predictive Model for Self-Organizing Systems", Part I: Cybernetica 3, pp. 258–300; Part II: Cybernetica 4, pp. 20–55, 1961 Heinz von Foerster and Gordon Pask
  11. Gordon Pask (1996). Heinz von Foerster's Self-Organisation, the Progenitor of Conversation and Interaction Theories
  12. His papers now reside in the manuscripts collection of the American Philosophical Society.

Further reading

模板:Wikiquote

  • Rebel Genius: Warren S. McCulloch's Transdisciplinary Life in Science (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2016).
  • New York Times (1969), Obituaries, September 25.
  • Crevier, Daniel (1993), AI: The Tumultuous Search for Artificial Intelligence, BasicBooks, New York, NY.


  • Rebel Genius: Warren S. McCulloch's Transdisciplinary Life in Science (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2016).
  • New York Times (1969), Obituaries, September 25.
  • Crevier, Daniel (1993), AI: The Tumultuous Search for Artificial Intelligence, BasicBooks, New York, NY.

= 进一步阅读 =

  • 反叛天才: 沃伦 · s · 麦卡洛克的《科学中的跨学科生活》(剑桥,麻省理工学院出版社,2016)。
  • 《纽约时报》(1969) ,讣告版,9月25日。
  • Crevier,Daniel (1993) ,AI: The turtuous Search for Artificial Intelligence,BasicBooks,New York,NY.

模板:Cybernetics

模板:Authority control


Category:1898 births Category:1969 deaths Category:Cyberneticists Category:History of artificial intelligence Category:American neuroscientists Category:American systems scientists Category:People from Orange, New Jersey Category:Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons alumni Category:Haverford College alumni Category:Yale University alumni

类别: 1898年出生类别: 1969年死亡类别: 控制论者类别: 人工智能历史类别: 美国神经科学家类别: 美国系统科学家类别: 来自新泽西州奥兰治的人类类别: 哥伦比亚大学医学院校友类别: 哈弗福德学院校友类别: 耶鲁大学校友


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Warren Sturgis McCulloch. Its edit history can be viewed at 沃伦·麦卡洛克/edithistory