沃尔特·皮茨

来自集智百科 - 复杂系统|人工智能|复杂科学|复杂网络|自组织
跳到导航 跳到搜索

此词条暂由彩云小译翻译,翻译字数共1689,未经人工整理和审校,带来阅读不便,请见谅。

Walter Pitts
文件:Lettvin Pitts.jpg
Walter Pitts (right) with Jerome Lettvin, co-author of the cognitive science paper "What the Frog's Eye Tells the Frog's Brain" (1959)
Born
Walter Harry Pitts, Jr.

(1923-模板:MONTHNUMBER-23)23 1923
Detroit, Michigan, United States
Died14 May 1969(1969-05-14) (aged 46)
United States
Scientific career
FieldsLogician

Walter Harry Pitts, Jr. (23 April 1923 – 14 May 1969) was a logician who worked in the field of computational neuroscience.[1] He proposed landmark theoretical formulations of neural activity and generative processes that influenced diverse fields such as cognitive sciences and psychology, philosophy, neurosciences, computer science, artificial neural networks, cybernetics and artificial intelligence, together with what has come to be known as the generative sciences. He is best remembered for having written along with Warren McCulloch, a seminal paper in scientific history, titled "A Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" (1943). This paper proposed the first mathematical model of a neural network. The unit of this model, a simple formalized neuron, is still the standard of reference in the field of neural networks. It is often called a McCulloch–Pitts neuron. Prior to that paper, he formalized his ideas regarding the fundamental steps to building a Turing machine in "The Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics" in an essay titled "Some observations on the simple neuron circuit".

Walter Harry Pitts, Jr. (23 April 1923 – 14 May 1969) was a logician who worked in the field of computational neuroscience.Smalheiser, Neil R. "Walter Pitts" , Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Volume 43, Number 2, Winter 2000, pp. 217–226, The Johns Hopkins University Press He proposed landmark theoretical formulations of neural activity and generative processes that influenced diverse fields such as cognitive sciences and psychology, philosophy, neurosciences, computer science, artificial neural networks, cybernetics and artificial intelligence, together with what has come to be known as the generative sciences. He is best remembered for having written along with Warren McCulloch, a seminal paper in scientific history, titled "A Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity" (1943). This paper proposed the first mathematical model of a neural network. The unit of this model, a simple formalized neuron, is still the standard of reference in the field of neural networks. It is often called a McCulloch–Pitts neuron. Prior to that paper, he formalized his ideas regarding the fundamental steps to building a Turing machine in "The Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics" in an essay titled "Some observations on the simple neuron circuit".

小 Walter Harry Pitts (1923年4月23日至1969年5月14日)是一位逻辑学家,在计算神经科学领域工作。“ Walter Pitts”,Perspectives in Biology and Medicine,Volume 43,Number 2,Winter 2000,pp。约翰霍普金斯大学出版社他提出了神经活动和生成过程的里程碑式的理论构想,这些构想影响了多个领域,如认知科学和心理学、哲学、神经科学、计算机科学、人工神经网络、控制论和人工智能,以及后来被称为生成科学的领域。他与沃伦•麦卡洛克(Warren McCulloch)合著了一篇在科学史上具有开创性意义的论文,题为《神经活动中内在思想的逻辑演算》(a Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity,1943年)。本文提出了第一个神经网络的数学模型。这个模型的单位,一个简单的形式化神经元,仍然是神经网络领域的参考标准。它通常被称为 McCulloch-Pitts 神经元。在那篇论文之前,他在《数学生物物理学公报》上发表了一篇题为《简单神经元电路的一些观察》的文章,将他关于构建图灵机的基本步骤的想法形式化了。

Early life

Walter Pitts was born in Detroit, Michigan on April 23, 1923, the son of Walter and Marie (née Welsia). He was an autodidact who taught himself logic and mathematics and was able to read several languages including Greek and Latin. His father and brothers were rough, uneducated, and regarded Walter as a freak. He is widely remembered for having spent three days in a library, at the age of 12, reading Principia Mathematica and sent a letter to Bertrand Russell pointing out what he considered serious problems with the first half of the first volume. Russell was appreciative and invited him to study in the United Kingdom. Although Bertrand Russell invited him to Cambridge University at age 12, the offer was not taken up; however, Pitts did decide to become a logician. At age 15 he ran away from home, and from that time he refused to speak of his family.

Walter Pitts was born in Detroit, Michigan on April 23, 1923, the son of Walter and Marie (née Welsia). He was an autodidact who taught himself logic and mathematics and was able to read several languages including Greek and Latin. His father and brothers were rough, uneducated, and regarded Walter as a freak. He is widely remembered for having spent three days in a library, at the age of 12, reading Principia Mathematica and sent a letter to Bertrand Russell pointing out what he considered serious problems with the first half of the first volume. Russell was appreciative and invited him to study in the United Kingdom. Although Bertrand Russell invited him to Cambridge University at age 12, the offer was not taken up; however, Pitts did decide to become a logician. At age 15 he ran away from home, and from that time he refused to speak of his family.

早年生活1923年4月23日,沃尔特和玛丽的儿子,出生在密歇根州的底特律。他是一个自学成才的人,自学了逻辑和数学,能够阅读包括希腊语和拉丁语在内的几种语言。他的父亲和兄弟都很粗暴,没有受过教育,把沃尔特当作怪物。12岁的时候,他在图书馆呆了三天,阅读了《数学原理志,并给伯特兰·罗素写了一封信,指出了他认为第一卷前半部分存在的严重问题。罗素非常感激,并邀请他去英国学习。虽然伯特兰·罗素邀请他在12岁时去剑桥大学,但他没有接受这个邀请; 然而,Pitts 决定成为一名逻辑学家。15岁时,他离家出走,从那时起,他拒绝谈论他的家庭。

Academic career

Pitts probably continued to correspond with Bertrand Russell; and at the age of 15 he attended Russell's lectures at the University of Chicago.[1][2] He stayed there, without registering as a student. While there, in 1938 he met Jerome Lettvin, a pre-medical student, and the two became close friends.[3] Russell was a visiting professor at the University of Chicago in the fall of 1938, and he directed Pitts to study with the logician Rudolf Carnap.[3] Pitts met Carnap at Chicago by walking into his office during office hours, and presenting him with an annotated version of Carnap's recent book on logic, The Logical Syntax of Language.[4] Since Pitts did not introduce himself, Carnap spent months searching for him, and, when he found him, he obtained for him a menial job at the university and had Pitts study with him. Pitts at the time was homeless and without income.[5] He mastered Carnap's abstract logic, then met with and was intrigued by the work of the Russian mathematical physicist Nicolas Rashevsky, who was also at Chicago and was the founder of mathematical biophysics, remodeling biology on the structure of the physical sciences and mathematical logic.[6] Pitts also worked closely with the mathematician Alston Scott Householder, who was a member of Rashevsky's group.[7][8][9] During his studies under Carnap, Pitts was also a regular attendant at Nicolas Rashevsky’s seminars in theoretical biology, which included Frank Offner, Herbert Landahl, Alston Householder, and the neuroanatomist Gerhardt von Bonin from the University of Illinois at Chicago. In 1940, Von Bonin introduced Lettvin to Warren McCulloch, who would become a professor of psychiatry at Illinois.

Pitts probably continued to correspond with Bertrand Russell; and at the age of 15 he attended Russell's lectures at the University of Chicago.Cf. Anderson (1998) p.218 conversation with Michael A. Arbib He stayed there, without registering as a student. While there, in 1938 he met Jerome Lettvin, a pre-medical student, and the two became close friends.Cf. Conway, Flo; Siegelman, Jim (2005), p.138 Russell was a visiting professor at the University of Chicago in the fall of 1938, and he directed Pitts to study with the logician Rudolf Carnap. Pitts met Carnap at Chicago by walking into his office during office hours, and presenting him with an annotated version of Carnap's recent book on logic, The Logical Syntax of Language.Singer, Milton, "A Tale of Two Amateurs Who Crossed Cultural Frontiers with Boole's Symbolical Algebra", Semiotica. Volume 105, Issue 1-2, 1995. Cf. pp. 134–138 Since Pitts did not introduce himself, Carnap spent months searching for him, and, when he found him, he obtained for him a menial job at the university and had Pitts study with him. Pitts at the time was homeless and without income."Pitts, Walter", MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science () He mastered Carnap's abstract logic, then met with and was intrigued by the work of the Russian mathematical physicist Nicolas Rashevsky, who was also at Chicago and was the founder of mathematical biophysics, remodeling biology on the structure of the physical sciences and mathematical logic.Cf. Conway, Flo; Siegelman, Jim (2005), p.139 Pitts also worked closely with the mathematician Alston Scott Householder, who was a member of Rashevsky's group.Cf. Aizawa & SchlatterCf. Anderson (1998) p.105 conversation with Jack D. CowanCf. Aizawa 1992 During his studies under Carnap, Pitts was also a regular attendant at Nicolas Rashevsky’s seminars in theoretical biology, which included Frank Offner, Herbert Landahl, Alston Householder, and the neuroanatomist Gerhardt von Bonin from the University of Illinois at Chicago. In 1940, Von Bonin introduced Lettvin to Warren McCulloch, who would become a professor of psychiatry at Illinois.

15岁时,他参加了罗素在芝加哥大学的讲座,这次讲座的主题是伯特兰·罗素。安德森(1998) p. 218与迈克尔 · a · 阿比的对话他没有注册学生,就留在了那里。1938年,他在那里遇到了医学预科学生杰罗姆 · 莱特文,两人成了亲密的朋友。罗素是1938年秋天芝加哥大学的客座教授,他指导皮茨向逻辑学家鲁道夫 · 卡尔纳普学习。皮茨在办公时间走进卡尔纳普的办公室,向他展示了卡尔纳普最近出版的一本关于逻辑的书《语言的逻辑语法》的注释版本,从而结识了卡尔纳普。歌手,米尔顿,“两个业余爱好者谁跨越文化边界与布尔的象征代数”,符号学。1995年第105卷第1-2期。参考资料。聚丙烯。由于皮茨没有自我介绍,卡尔纳普花了几个月的时间寻找他,当他找到他时,他在大学里找了一份卑微的工作,让皮茨和他一起学习。皮茨当时无家可归,没有收入。他掌握了卡尔纳普的抽象逻辑,然后会见了俄罗斯数学物理学家尼古拉斯 · 拉舍夫斯基,并对他的工作产生了兴趣。拉舍夫斯基也在芝加哥,是数学生物物理学的创始人,他重塑了物理科学和数学逻辑的结构。康威,弗洛; 西格尔曼,吉姆(2005) ,p. 139皮茨还与数学家 Alston Scott Householder 密切合作,他是拉舍夫斯基小组的成员。Aizawa & SchlatterCf.安德森(1998) p. 105与杰克 · d · 考安克夫的对话。1992年 Aizawa 在 Carnap 的指导下学习期间,Pitts 也是 Nicolas Rashevsky 理论生物学研讨会的常客,这些研讨会包括 Frank Offner,Herbert Landahl,Alston Householder,以及伊利诺大学芝加哥分校的神经解剖学家 Gerhardt von Bonin。1940年,冯 · 博宁把莱特文介绍给沃伦 · 麦卡洛克,后者后来成为伊利诺伊大学的精神病学教授。

In 1941 Warren McCulloch took a position as professor of psychiatry at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and in early 1942 he invited Pitts, who was still homeless, together with Lettvin to live with his family.[10] In the evenings, McCulloch and Pitts collaborated. Pitts was familiar with the work of Gottfried Leibniz on computing and they considered the question of whether the nervous system could be considered a kind of universal computing device as described by Leibniz. This led to their seminal neural networks paper "A Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity". After five years of unofficial studies, the University of Chicago awarded Pitts an Associate of Arts (his only earned degree) for his work on the paper.[11]

In 1941 Warren McCulloch took a position as professor of psychiatry at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and in early 1942 he invited Pitts, who was still homeless, together with Lettvin to live with his family. In the evenings, McCulloch and Pitts collaborated. Pitts was familiar with the work of Gottfried Leibniz on computing and they considered the question of whether the nervous system could be considered a kind of universal computing device as described by Leibniz. This led to their seminal neural networks paper "A Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity". After five years of unofficial studies, the University of Chicago awarded Pitts an Associate of Arts (his only earned degree) for his work on the paper.

1941年,Warren McCulloch 在伊利诺大学芝加哥分校担任精神病学教授,1942年初,他邀请仍然无家可归的 Pitts 和 Lettvin 一起和他的家人住在一起。晚上,麦卡洛克和皮茨合作。皮茨熟悉戈特弗里德 · 莱布尼茨在计算方面的工作,他们考虑了神经系统是否可以被认为是莱布尼茨所描述的一种通用计算设备的问题。这导致了他们的精神神经网络论文“思想的内在逻辑演算在神经活动”。经过五年的非官方研究,芝加哥大学授予皮茨一个文科副学士学位(他唯一获得的学位) ,以表彰他在论文方面的工作。

In 1943, Lettvin introduced Pitts to Norbert Wiener at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Their first meeting, where they discussed Wiener's proof of the ergodic theorem, went so well that Pitts moved to Greater Boston to work with Wiener. While Pitts was an unofficial student under the aegis of Wiener at MIT until their acrimonious parting in 1952, he formally enrolled as a graduate student in the physics department during the 1943-1944 academic year and in the electrical engineering-computer science department from 1956-1958.[11][12]

In 1943, Lettvin introduced Pitts to Norbert Wiener at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Their first meeting, where they discussed Wiener's proof of the ergodic theorem, went so well that Pitts moved to Greater Boston to work with Wiener. While Pitts was an unofficial student under the aegis of Wiener at MIT until their acrimonious parting in 1952, he formally enrolled as a graduate student in the physics department during the 1943-1944 academic year and in the electrical engineering-computer science department from 1956-1958.Cf. Conway, Flo; Siegelman, Jim (2005), pp. 141–2

1943年,莱特文在麻省理工学院将皮茨介绍给诺伯特 · 维纳。他们的第一次会面,讨论了维纳对遍历定理的证明,进行得非常顺利,以至于皮茨搬到大波士顿与维纳一起工作。皮茨是麻省理工学院维纳的一名非正式学生,直到1952年他们激烈分手。1943-1944学年,皮茨正式进入物理系攻读研究生,1956-1958学年进入电气工程-计算机科学系攻读研究生。参考资料。康威,弗洛; 西格尔曼,吉姆(2005) ,页。141–2

In 1944, Pitts was hired by Kellex Corporation (later acquired in 1950 by Vitro Corporation) in New York City, part of the Atomic Energy Project.[13]

In 1944, Pitts was hired by Kellex Corporation (later acquired in 1950 by Vitro Corporation) in New York City, part of the Atomic Energy Project.Cf. Anderson (1998) p.4 conversation with Jerome Y. Lettvin

1944年,皮茨受雇于纽约市的 Kellex 公司(后于1950年被 Vitro 公司收购) ,这是原子能计划的一部分。安德森(1998)与杰罗姆 · y · 莱特文的对话

From 1946, Pitts was a core member and involved with the Macy conferences, whose principal purpose was to set the foundations for a general science of the workings of the human mind.

From 1946, Pitts was a core member and involved with the Macy conferences, whose principal purpose was to set the foundations for a general science of the workings of the human mind.

从1946年开始,皮茨就是梅西会议的核心成员之一,梅西会议的主要目的是为研究人类心理活动的一般科学奠定基础。

Personal life, emotional trauma and decline

In 1951, Wiener convinced Jerome Wiesner to hire some physiologists of the nervous system. A group was established with Pitts, Lettvin, McCulloch, and Pat Wall. Pitts wrote a large dissertation on the properties of neural nets connected in three dimensions. Lettvin described him as "in no uncertain sense the genius of the group … when you asked him a question, you would get back a whole textbook." Pitts never married.[1] Pitts was also described as an eccentric, refusing to allow his name to be made publicly available. He continued to refuse all offers of advanced degrees or positions of authority at MIT, in part as he would have to sign his name.

In 1951, Wiener convinced Jerome Wiesner to hire some physiologists of the nervous system. A group was established with Pitts, Lettvin, McCulloch, and Pat Wall. Pitts wrote a large dissertation on the properties of neural nets connected in three dimensions. Lettvin described him as "in no uncertain sense the genius of the group … when you asked him a question, you would get back a whole textbook." Pitts never married. Pitts was also described as an eccentric, refusing to allow his name to be made publicly available. He continued to refuse all offers of advanced degrees or positions of authority at MIT, in part as he would have to sign his name.

个人生活,情感创伤和衰退1951年,维纳说服杰罗姆 · 威斯纳雇佣一些神经系统生理学家。皮茨、莱特文、麦卡洛克和帕特 · 沃尔组成了一个小组。皮茨写了一篇关于三维连接的神经网络特性的大型论文。莱特文形容他为“毫无疑问的天才组... 当你问他一个问题,你会得到一个完整的教科书。”皮茨从没结过婚。皮茨还被形容为一个古怪的人,拒绝让公众知道他的名字。他继续拒绝麻省理工学院所有的高级学位或权威职位,部分原因是他必须签署他的名字。

In 1952, Wiener suddenly turned against McCulloch—his wife, Margaret Wiener, hated McCulloch[14]—and broke off relations with anyone connected to him, including Pitts.[14]

In 1952, Wiener suddenly turned against McCulloch—his wife, Margaret Wiener, hated McCulloch—and broke off relations with anyone connected to him, including Pitts.

1952年,维纳突然转而反对麦卡洛克ーー他的妻子玛格丽特•维纳憎恨麦卡洛克ーー并与任何与他有关的人断绝关系,包括皮茨。

Although he remained employed as a research associate in the Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT "as little more than a technicality"[15] for the rest of his life, Pitts became increasingly socially isolated. In 1959, the paradigmatic "What the Frog’s Eye Tells the Frog’s Brain" (credited to Humberto Maturana, Lettvin, McCulloch and Pitts) conclusively demonstrated that "analog processes in the eye were doing at least part of the interpretive work" in image processing as opposed to "the brain computing information digital neuron by digital neuron using the exacting implement of mathematical logic", leading Pitts to burn his unpublished doctoral dissertation on probabilistic three-dimensional neural networks and years of unpublished research. He took little further interest in work, excepting only a collaboration with Lettvin and Robert Gesteland which produced a paper on olfaction in 1965.

Although he remained employed as a research associate in the Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT "as little more than a technicality" for the rest of his life, Pitts became increasingly socially isolated. In 1959, the paradigmatic "What the Frog’s Eye Tells the Frog’s Brain" (credited to Humberto Maturana, Lettvin, McCulloch and Pitts) conclusively demonstrated that "analog processes in the eye were doing at least part of the interpretive work" in image processing as opposed to "the brain computing information digital neuron by digital neuron using the exacting implement of mathematical logic", leading Pitts to burn his unpublished doctoral dissertation on probabilistic three-dimensional neural networks and years of unpublished research. He took little further interest in work, excepting only a collaboration with Lettvin and Robert Gesteland which produced a paper on olfaction in 1965.

尽管他在麻省理工学院电子研究实验室做助理研究员的工作已经持续了一辈子,但是皮茨在社会上越来越孤立。1959年,经典著作《青蛙的眼睛告诉青蛙的大脑什么》(该书归功于 Humberto Maturana,Lettvin,McCulloch 和 Pitts)最终证明,在图像处理中,“眼睛中的模拟过程至少做了一部分解释工作”,而不是“使用精确的数学逻辑工具,通过数字神经元计算大脑信息数字神经元”,导致 Pitts 烧毁了他未发表的关于三维神经网络和多年未发表研究的博士论文。除了在1965年与莱特文和罗伯特 · 盖斯特兰合作发表了一篇关于嗅觉的论文之外,他对工作几乎没有什么兴趣。

Pitts died in 1969 of bleeding esophageal varices, a condition usually associated with cirrhosis and alcoholism.[1][2][14]

Pitts died in 1969 of bleeding esophageal varices, a condition usually associated with cirrhosis and alcoholism.

皮茨于1969年死于食道静脉曲张,这种疾病通常与肝硬化和酗酒有关。

Publications

  • Walter Pitts, "Some observations on the simple neuron circuit", Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, Volume 4, Number 3, 121–129, 1942.
  • Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts, "A Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity", 1943, Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 5:115–133. Reprinted in Neurocomputing: Foundations of Research. Edited by James A. Anderson and Edward Rosenfeld. MIT Press, 1988. pages 15–27
  • Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts, "On how we know universals: The perception of auditory and visual forms", 1947, Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 9:127–147.
  • R. Howland, Jerome Lettvin, Warren McCulloch, Walter Pitts, and P. D. Wall, "Reflex inhibition by dorsal root interaction", 1955, Journal of Neurophysiology 18:1–17.
  • P. D. Wall, Warren McCulloch, Jerome Lettvin and Walter Pitts, "Effects of strychnine with special reference to spinal afferent fibres", 1955, Epilepsia Series 3, 4:29–40.
  • Jerome Lettvin, Humberto Maturana, Warren McCulloch, and Walter Pitts, "What the Frog's Eye Tells the Frog's Brain", 1959, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers 47: 1940–1951.
  • Humberto Maturana, Jerome Lettvin, Warren McCulloch, and Walter Pitts, "Anatomy and physiology of vision in the frog", 1960, Journal of General Physiology, 43:129—175.
  • Robert Gesteland, Jerome Lettvin and Walter Pitts, "Chemical Transmission in the Nose of the Frog", 1965, J.Physiol. 181, 525–529.
  • Walter Pitts, "Some observations on the simple neuron circuit", Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, Volume 4, Number 3, 121–129, 1942.
  • Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts, "A Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity", 1943, Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 5:115–133. Reprinted in Neurocomputing: Foundations of Research. Edited by James A. Anderson and Edward Rosenfeld. MIT Press, 1988. pages 15–27
  • Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts, "On how we know universals: The perception of auditory and visual forms", 1947, Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 9:127–147.
  • R. Howland, Jerome Lettvin, Warren McCulloch, Walter Pitts, and P. D. Wall, "Reflex inhibition by dorsal root interaction", 1955, Journal of Neurophysiology 18:1–17.
  • P. D. Wall, Warren McCulloch, Jerome Lettvin and Walter Pitts, "Effects of strychnine with special reference to spinal afferent fibres", 1955, Epilepsia Series 3, 4:29–40.
  • Jerome Lettvin, Humberto Maturana, Warren McCulloch, and Walter Pitts, "What the Frog's Eye Tells the Frog's Brain", 1959, Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers 47: 1940–1951.
  • Humberto Maturana, Jerome Lettvin, Warren McCulloch, and Walter Pitts, "Anatomy and physiology of vision in the frog", 1960, Journal of General Physiology, 43:129—175.
  • Robert Gesteland, Jerome Lettvin and Walter Pitts, "Chemical Transmission in the Nose of the Frog", 1965, J.Physiol. 181, 525–529.

《简单神经元回路的一些观察》 ,《数学生物学公报》 ,第4卷,第3期,121-129,1942年。

  • Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts,“ a Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity”,1943,Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 5:115-133。在 Neurocomputing 再版: 研究的基础。编辑: 詹姆斯 · a · 安德森和爱德华 · 罗森菲尔德。麻省理工出版社,1988。Warren McCulloch 和 Walter Pitts,“ On how we know universals: The perception of auditory and visual forms”,1947,Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 9:127-147。
  • r. Howland,Jerome Lettvin,Warren McCulloch,Walter Pitts,and P.d. Wall,“脊髓背根相互作用的反射抑制”,1955,Journal of Neurophysiology 18:1-17。
  • p. d. Wall,Warren McCulloch,Jerome Lettvin 和 Walter Pitts,“番木鳖碱对脊髓传入纤维的影响”,1955,癫痫丛书3,4:29-40。
  • Jerome Lettvin,Humberto Maturana,Warren McCulloch 和 Walter Pitts,“ What the Frog’s Eye Tells the Frog’s Brain”,1959,Proceedings of the Institute of Radio Engineers 47:1940-1951。
  • Humberto Maturana,Jerome Lettvin,Warren McCulloch,and Walter Pitts,“ Anatomy and Physiology of vision in the frog”,1960,Journal of General Physiology,43:129ー175。
  • 罗伯特 · 格斯特兰、杰罗姆 · 莱特文和沃尔特 · 皮茨,《青蛙鼻子里的化学传递》 ,1965,J.Physiol。181, 525–529.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Smalheiser, Neil R. "Walter Pitts" -{zh-cn:互联网档案馆; zh-tw:網際網路檔案館; zh-hk:互聯網檔案館;}-存檔,存档日期2016-03-04., Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Volume 43, Number 2, Winter 2000, pp. 217–226, The Johns Hopkins University Press
  2. 2.0 2.1 Cf. Anderson (1998) p.218 conversation with Michael A. Arbib
  3. 3.0 3.1 Cf. Conway, Flo; Siegelman, Jim (2005), p.138
  4. Singer, Milton, "A Tale of Two Amateurs Who Crossed Cultural Frontiers with Boole's Symbolical Algebra", Semiotica. Volume 105, Issue 1-2, 1995. Cf. pp. 134–138https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defekte_Weblinks?dwl={{{url}}} Seite nicht mehr abrufbar], Suche in Webarchiven: Kategorie:Wikipedia:Weblink offline (andere Namensräume)[http://timetravel.mementoweb.org/list/2010/Kategorie:Wikipedia:Vorlagenfehler/Vorlage:Toter Link/URL_fehlt
  5. "Pitts, Walter", MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science (-{zh-cn:互联网档案馆; zh-tw:網際網路檔案館; zh-hk:互聯網檔案館;}-存檔,存档日期August 30, 2003,.)
  6. Cf. Conway, Flo; Siegelman, Jim (2005), p.139
  7. Cf. Aizawa & Schlatter
  8. Cf. Anderson (1998) p.105 conversation with Jack D. Cowan
  9. Cf. Aizawa 1992
  10. Smalheiser, Neil (2000). "Walter Pitts". Perspectives in Biology and Medicine (43, 2): 217–226.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Gödel, Kurt (9 January 2014). Kurt Gödel: Collected Works. Clarendon Press. ISBN 9780191003776. https://books.google.com/books?id=4pjlAgAAQBAJ&q=%22Research+Laboratory+of+Electronics%22+%22walter+pitts%22&pg=PA157. 
  12. Cf. Conway, Flo; Siegelman, Jim (2005), pp. 141–2
  13. Cf. Anderson (1998) p.4 conversation with Jerome Y. Lettvin
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Gefter, Amanda (February 5, 2015). "The Man Who Tried to Redeem the World with Logic". Nautilus. No. 21. MIT Press and NautilusThink. ISSN 2372-1758. Archived from the original on June 14, 2016. Retrieved 13 Jul 2016. There was just one person who wasn’t happy about the reunion: Wiener's wife. Margaret Wiener was, by all accounts, a controlling, conservative prude—and she despised McCulloch's influence on her husband. McCulloch hosted wild get-togethers at his family farm in Old Lyme, Connecticut, where ideas roamed free and everyone went skinny-dipping. It had been one thing when McCulloch was in Chicago, but now he was coming to Cambridge and Margaret wouldn’t have it. And so she invented a story. She sat Wiener down and informed him that when their daughter, Barbara, had stayed at McCulloch's house in Chicago, several of "his boys" had seduced her. Wiener immediately sent an angry telegram to Wiesner: "Please inform [Pitts and Lettvin] that all connection between me and your projects is permanently abolished. They are your problem. Wiener." He never spoke to Pitts again.
  15. Gefter, Amanda (5 February 2015). "The Man Who Tried to Redeem the World with Logic". Nautilus.

Further reading

  • Aizawa, Kenneth, "Connectionism and artificial intelligence: history and philosophical interpretation", Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, Volume 4, Issue 4, 1992, pages 295–313
  • Aizawa, Kenneth; Schlatter, Mark, "Walter Pitts and 'A Logical Calculus'", Synthese (2008) 162:235–250.
  • Aizawa, Kenneth; Schlatter, Mark, "Another Look at McCulloch and Pitts's 'Logical Calculus'", Centenary College of Louisiana, Shreveport, Louisiana
  • Anderson, James A.; Rosenfeld, Edward (editors), Talking Nets: An Oral History of Neural Networks, 1998. The interview with Jerome Lettvin discusses Walter Pitts.
  • Conway, Flo; Siegelman, Jim, Dark hero of the information age: in search of Norbert Wiener, the father of Cybernetics, Basic Books, 2005. Cf. p.138 & various.
  • Easterling, Keller, "Walter Pitts", Cabinet, Issue 5 Winter 2001/02
  • Piccinini, Gualtiero, "The First Computational Theory of Mind and Brain: A Close Look at McCulloch and Pitts's 'Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity'", Synthese 141: 175–215, 2004. Kluwer Academic Publishers A. Gefter 2016, “The Man Who Tried to Redeem the World with Logic.” The Best American Science and Nature Writing

= = 进一步阅读 = = = Aizawa,Kenneth,“连接主义与人工智能: 历史与哲学阐释”,《实验与理论人工智能期刊》 ,第4卷,第4期,1992年,第295-313页

  • Aizawa,Kenneth; Schlatter,Mark,“ Walter Pitts and‘ a Logical Calculus’”,Synthese (2008)162:235-250。
  • Aizawa,Kenneth; Schlatter,Mark,“ Another Look A. McCulloch and Pitts’s‘ Logical Calculus’”,路易斯安那百年学院,什里夫波特
  • Anderson,James a. ; Rosenfeld,Edward (editors) ,Talking Nets: A. Oral History of Neural Networks,1998。对杰罗姆 · 莱特文的采访讨论了沃尔特 · 皮茨。
  • Conway,Flo; Siegelman,Jim,the Dark hero of the information age: in search of Norbert Wiener,the father of Cybernetics,Basic Books,2005.参考资料。P. 138 & various.
  • Easterling,Keller,“ Walter Pitts”,Cabinet,Issue 5 Winter 5 Winter 2001/02
  • Piccinini,Gualtiero,“ The First 心灵计算理论与大脑: a Close Look at McCulloch and Pitts’s‘ Logical Calculus of Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity’,Synthese 141:175-215,2004。2016年,《用逻辑拯救世界的施普林格科学+商业媒体》美国最佳科学与自然写作

External links

  • "Walter Pitts", website of Professor Charles Wallis, Department of Cognitive Science, California State University at Long Beach, accessed 30 Jan. 2009 (archived 2009)
  • "The Man who Tried to Redeem the World with Logic", Nautilus Magazine issue 21, 5 February 2015

= 外部链接 =

  • “ Walter Pitts”,长滩加利福尼亚州立大学认知科学系 Charles Wallis 教授的网站,2009年1月30日(2009年存档)
  • ”试图用逻辑拯救世界的人”,Nautilus 杂志2015年2月21日第5期

模板:Cybernetics

模板:Authority control


Category:1923 births Category:1969 deaths Category:American logicians Category:American psychologists Category:Cognitive scientists Category:Cognitive neuroscientists Category:History of artificial intelligence Category:Philosophers from Michigan Category:20th-century psychologists

分类: 1923年出生分类: 1969年死亡分类: 美国逻辑学家分类: 美国心理学家分类: 认知科学家分类: 认知神经科学家分类: 人工智能历史分类: 密歇根哲学家分类: 20世纪的心理学家


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Walter Pitts. Its edit history can be viewed at 沃尔特·皮茨/edithistory