来自集智百科 - 复杂系统|人工智能|复杂科学|复杂网络|自组织
跳到导航 跳到搜索


文件:Climate Change Schematic.svg
Greenhouse gases allow sunlight to pass through the atmosphere, heating the planet, but then absorb and re-radiate the infrared radiation (heat) the planet emits【图1温室气体允许阳光通过大气层,加热地球,但是随后吸收并且重新辐射地球发出的红外辐射(热量)】
文件:Greenhouse Effect.svg
Quantitative analysis: Energy flows between space, the atmosphere, and Earth's surface, with greenhouse gases in the atmosphere capturing a substantial portion of the heat reflected from the earth's surface.【图2 定量分析:能量在空间、大气和地球表面之间流动,伴随着大气中的温室气体捕获了从地球表面反射出来的大部分热量。】

Greenhouse gases allow sunlight to pass through the atmosphere, heating the planet, but then absorb and re-radiate the infrared radiation (heat) the planet emits

Quantitative analysis: Energy flows between space, the atmosphere, and Earth's surface, with greenhouse gases in the atmosphere capturing a substantial portion of the heat reflected from the earth's surface.



The greenhouse effect is a process that occurs when a planet's atmosphere allows unhindered radiant energy from its sun to heat the planet's surface, but then hinders the radiant heat from the surface from passing to space until the surface warms more than it would have done without the atmosphere. More specifically, most sunlight passes through the atmosphere to reach Earth's surface, heating it. The same amount of energy must then radiate back into space, but this lower frequency radiant heat is absorbed by radiatively active components which make up a small proportion of the atmosphere (greenhouse gases, aerosols and clouds), and these then radiate heat in all directions so the surface warms until a higher layer of the atmosphere radiates enough outwards to balance the energy flow.[1][2]

【初步翻译】温室效应是一个过程:行星的大气层允许来自太阳的不受阻碍的辐射能加热行星的表面,但随后阻止来自表面的辐射热传递到太空,直到表面比没有大气层时更加热。更具体地说,大多数阳光穿过大气层达到地球表面,,加热地球表面。相同数量的能量然后必须辐射回太空,但这种低频辐射热被辐射活跃的成分吸收,这些成分构成了大气的一小部分(温室气体、气溶胶和云) ,然后这些成分向各个方向辐射热量,使地表变暖,直到更高的大气层向外辐射足以平衡能量流。[1][2]

Without Earth's natural greenhouse effect the Earth would be more than 模板:Convert colder. Greenhouse gas emissions due to humans, mainly from burning fossil fuels and clearcutting forests, have increased the greenhouse effect and caused global warming.[3] This is because the intensity of downward radiation – that is, the strength of the greenhouse effect – depends on the amount of greenhouse gases that the atmosphere contains. The temperature of the sea, land surface, and lower atmosphere will continue to rise until the intensity of radiation from below, thus cooling, balances the downward energy flow.[4]

【初步翻译】如果没有地球的自然温室效应,地球将会更加寒冷。人类排放的温室气体,主要是由于燃烧化石燃料和砍伐森林,增加了温室效应,并导致了全球变暖。[3] 这是因为向下辐射的强度——即温室效应的强度——取决于大气中所含的温室气体的数量。海洋、陆地表面和低层大气的温度将继续上升,直到来自下面的辐射强度冷却,从而平衡了向下的能量流。[4]

The term greenhouse effect is a misnomer, because actual greenhouses retain heat via a different mechanism. The greenhouse effect as an atmospheric mechanism blocks radiative heat loss, while a greenhouse blocks convective heat loss. The result, however, is an increase in temperature in both cases.


A runaway greenhouse effect occurs if positive feedbacks lead to the evaporation of all greenhouse gases into the atmosphere,[5] as happened with carbon dioxide and water vapor on Venus.[6]


History 历史


文件:191203 Furnaces of the world - Popular Mechanics - Global warming.jpg
The greenhouse effect and its impact on climate were succinctly described in this 1912 Popular Mechanics article meant for reading by the general public.【图3 这篇1912年的通俗力学文章简明扼要地描述了温室效应及其对气候的影响,供公众阅读。 】

The existence of the greenhouse effect, while not named as such, was proposed by Joseph Fourier in 1824.[7] The argument and the evidence were further strengthened by Claude Pouillet in 1827 and 1838. John Tyndall was the first to measure the infrared absorption and emission of various gases and vapors. From 1859 onwards, he showed that the effect was due to a very small proportion of the atmosphere, with the main gases having no effect, and was largely due to water vapor, though small percentages of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide had a significant effect.[8] The effect was more fully quantified by Svante Arrhenius in 1896, who made the first quantitative prediction of global warming due to a hypothetical doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide.[9] However, the term "greenhouse" was not used to refer to this effect by any of these scientists; the term was first used in this way by Nils Gustaf Ekholm in 1901.[10][11]

【初步翻译】温室效应由约瑟夫·傅里叶在1824年提出的,当时虽然没有这样命名。1827年和1838年,克劳德·普伊莱进一步加强了这个论点和证据。约翰·廷德尔是第一个测量各种气体和蒸汽的红外吸收和发射的人。从1859年起,他指出,这种影响是由于大气中很小的比例,主要气体没有影响,主要是由于水蒸气,尽管少量的碳氢化合物和二氧化碳有显著的影响。约翰·廷德尔,《热被认为是一种运动模式》(500页; 1863年,1873年) 斯万特·阿伦尼乌斯在1896年对这种影响进行了更充分的量化,他假设大气中的二氧化碳增加了一倍,对全球变暖进行了第一个定量预测。然而,“温室”一词并没有被这些科学家用来指这种效应;1901年,尼尔斯·古斯塔夫·埃克霍尔姆首次以这种方式使用了这个词。

Description 描述

文件:Solar spectrum en.svg
The solar radiation spectrum for direct light at both the top of Earth's atmosphere and at sea level【图4 地球大气层顶部和海平面直射光的太阳辐射光谱 】

The IPCC Sixth Assessment Report working group 1 defines the greenhouse effect as:

The infrared radiative effect of all infrared-absorbing constituents in the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases (GHGs), clouds, and some aerosols absorb terrestrial radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and elsewhere in the atmosphere. These substances emit infrared radiation in all directions, but, everything else being equal, the net amount emitted to space is normally less than would have been emitted in the absence of these absorbers because of the decline of temperature with altitude in the troposphere and the consequent weakening of emission. An increase in the concentration of GHGs increases the magnitude of this effect; the difference is sometimes called the enhanced greenhouse effect. The change in a GHG concentration because of anthropogenic emissions contributes to an instantaneous radiative forcing. Earth's surface temperature and troposphere warm in response to this forcing, gradually restoring the radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere.[12](pAVII-28)

Earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared radiation. About 26% of the incoming solar energy is reflected back to space by the atmosphere and clouds, and 19% is absorbed by the atmosphere and clouds. Most of the remaining energy is absorbed at the surface of Earth. Because the Earth's surface is colder than the Sun, it radiates at wavelengths that are much longer than the wavelengths that were absorbed. Most of this thermal radiation is absorbed by the atmosphere and warms it. The atmosphere also gains heat by sensible and latent heat fluxes from the surface. The atmosphere radiates energy both upwards and downwards; the part radiated downwards is absorbed by the surface of Earth. This leads to a higher equilibrium temperature than if the atmosphere did not radiate.




An ideal thermally conductive blackbody at the same distance from the Sun as Earth would have a temperature of about . However, because Earth reflects about 30%[13][14] of the incoming sunlight, this idealized planet's effective temperature (the temperature of a blackbody that would emit the same amount of radiation) would be about .[15][16] The surface temperature of this hypothetical planet is below Earth's actual surface temperature of approximately .[17] The greenhouse effect is the contribution of greenhouse gases and aerosols to this difference, with imperfect modelling of clouds being the main uncertainty.[18](p7-61)

【初步翻译】一个与太阳距离相同的理想导热黑体的温度约为 。然而,由于地球反射了大约30% [13][14] 的入射太阳光,这颗理想化的行星的有效温度(发射同等量辐射的黑体的温度)大约是[15][16]。政府间气候变化专门委员会第四次评估报告。第一章:气候变化科学的历史概述第97页这个假设的行星的表面温度大约低于地球的实际表面温度。难以捉摸的“地表空气绝对温度”,见GISS的讨论。[17] 温室效应是温室气体和气溶胶对这种差异的贡献,而不完善的云模型是主要的不确定性。[18]

Details 细节

The idealized greenhouse model is a simplification. In reality, the atmosphere near the Earth's surface is largely opaque to thermal radiation and most heat loss from the surface is by convection. However radiative energy losses become increasingly important higher in the atmosphere, largely because of the decreasing concentration of water vapor, an important greenhouse gas. Rather than the surface itself, it is more realistic to think of the greenhouse effect as applying to a layer in the mid-troposphere, which is effectively coupled to the surface by a lapse rate. A simple picture also assumes a steady state, but in the real world, the diurnal cycle, as well as the seasonal cycle and weather disturbances, complicate matters. Solar heating applies only during daytime. During the night, the atmosphere cools somewhat, but not greatly, because its emissivity is low. Diurnal temperature changes decrease with height in the atmosphere.


Within the region where radiative effects are important, the description given by the idealized greenhouse model becomes realistic. Earth's surface, warmed to an "effective temperature" around, radiates long-wavelength, infrared heat in the range of 4–100 μm.[19] At these wavelengths, greenhouse gases that were largely transparent to incoming solar radiation are more absorbent.[19] Each layer of the atmosphere with greenhouse gases absorbs some of the heat being radiated upwards from lower layers. It reradiates in all directions, both upwards and downwards; in equilibrium (by definition) the same amount as it has absorbed. This results in more warmth below. Increasing the concentration of the gases increases the amount of absorption and re-radiation, and thereby further warms the layers and ultimately the surface below.[16]


Greenhouse gases—including most diatomic gases with two different atoms (such as carbon monoxide, CO) and all gases with three or more atoms—are able to absorb and emit infrared radiation. Though more than 99% of the dry atmosphere is IR transparent (because the main constituents—, and Ar—are not able to directly absorb or emit infrared radiation), intermolecular collisions cause the energy absorbed and emitted by the greenhouse gases to be shared with the other, non-IR-active, gases.


Greenhouse gases 温室气体

By their percentage contribution to the greenhouse effect on Earth the four major gases are:[20][21]

文件:CO2 H2O absorption atmospheric gases unique pattern energy wavelengths of energy transparent to others.png
Atmospheric gases only absorb some wavelengths of energy but are transparent to others. The absorption patterns of water vapor (blue peaks) and carbon dioxide (pink peaks) overlap in some wavelengths. Carbon dioxide is not as strong a greenhouse gas as water vapor, but it absorbs energy in longer wavelengths (12–15 micrometers) that water vapor does not, partially closing the "window" through which heat radiated by the surface would normally escape to space. (Illustration NASA, Robert Rohde)[22]【图5 大气气体只吸收某些波长的能量,但对其他气体是透明的。水蒸气(蓝色峰)和二氧化碳(粉红色峰)的吸收模式在某些波长上重叠。二氧化碳的温室气体不如水蒸气强,但它吸收更长波长(12-15微米)的能量,部分关闭“窗口”,表面辐射的热量通常会通过它逸到太空。(插图NASA,罗伯特Rohde)】[22]






It is not possible to assign a specific percentage to each gas because the absorption and emission bands of the gases overlap (hence the ranges given above). Also a water molecule only stays in the atmosphere for an average 8 to 10 days, which corresponds with high variability in the contribution from clouds and humidity at any particular time and location.[18](p1-41)


The other most important are nitrous oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).[18](pAVII-60)

The other most important are nitrous oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).

其他最重要的是一氧化二氮(N2O)、全氟化碳(PFCs)、氯氟烃(CFCs)、 Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)、六氟化硫(SF6)。


Clouds 云层

模板:Expand section

Clouds also absorb and emit infrared radiation and thus affect the radiative properties of the atmosphere.[21] Higher clouds usually have a larger greenhouse effect,[18](p7-65) and there is tropical high-cloud altitude feedback.[18](p7-66)

Clouds also absorb and emit infrared radiation and thus affect the radiative properties of the atmosphere. Higher clouds usually have a larger greenhouse effect, and there is tropical high-cloud altitude feedback.




Aerosols 气溶胶

A few aerosols absorb solar radiation,[24] the most important being black carbon, on which research is ongoing as it causes several effects, not just the greenhouse effect.[25]


一些气溶胶吸收太阳辐射[24] ,最重要的是黑碳,其研究正在进行中,因为它会产生几种效应,而不仅仅是温室效应。[25]

Role in climate change 在气候变化中的角色

文件:Mauna Loa CO2 monthly mean concentration.svg
The Keeling Curve of atmospheric CO2 concentrations measured at Mauna Loa Observatory. 【图6 在莫纳罗亚天文台测量的大气二氧化碳浓度的基林曲线。】

Strengthening of the greenhouse effect through human activities is known as the enhanced (or anthropogenic) greenhouse effect.[26] As well as being inferred from measurements by the CERES satellite throughout the 21st century,[18](p7-17) this increase in radiative forcing from human activity has been observed directly,[27][28] and is attributable mainly to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.[29] According to the 2014 Assessment Report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, "atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are unprecedented in at least the last 800,000 years. Their effects, together with those of other anthropogenic drivers, have been detected throughout the climate system and are extremely likely to have been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century'".[30]

【初步翻译】通过人类活动加强温室效应被称为增强(或人为)温室效应。[26] 从整个21世纪卫星的测量中推断出[18],人类活动的辐射强迫的增加被直接观察到[27],主要归因于大气中二氧化碳水平的增加。[29]根据政府间气候变化专门委员会2014年的评估报告,“大气中二氧化碳、甲烷和一氧化二氮的浓度至少在过去80万年里是前所未有的。”它们的影响以及其他人为驱动因素的影响,已经在整个气候系统中被发现,并且极有可能是自20世纪中期以来观察到的气候变暖的主要原因。”[30]

CO2 is produced by fossil fuel burning and other activities such as cement production and tropical deforestation.[31] Measurements of CO2 from the Mauna Loa observatory show that concentrations have increased from about 313 parts per million (ppm)[32] in 1960, passing the 400 ppm milestone in 2013.[33] The current observed amount of CO2 exceeds the geological record maxima (≈300 ppm) from ice core data.[34] The effect of combustion-produced carbon dioxide on the global climate, a special case of the greenhouse effect first described in 1896 by Svante Arrhenius, has also been called the Callendar effect.

【初步翻译】二氧化碳是由化石燃料燃烧和其他活动,如水泥生产和热带森林砍伐。[31]IPCC第四次评估报告,第一工作组报告“物理科学基础”第7章从莫纳罗亚天文台的测量显示,浓度已经从1960年的约313百万分之一(ppm)[32]增加,超过了2013年的400ppm的里程碑。[33]目前观测到的冰核数据超过了地质记录最大值(≈300ppm)[34] 。燃烧产生的二氧化碳对全球气候的影响,是阿伦尼乌斯在1896年首次描述的温室效应的一个特例,也被称为卡伦达效应。

Over the past 800,000 years,[35] ice core data shows that carbon dioxide has varied from values as low as 180 ppm to the pre-industrial level of 270 ppm.[36] Paleoclimatologists consider variations in carbon dioxide concentration to be a fundamental factor influencing climate variations over this time scale.[37][38]

【初步翻译】在过去的80万年里,[35]冰芯数据显示,二氧化碳的值从低至180ppm到工业化前的270ppm。[36] 古气候学家认为,二氧化碳浓度的变化是影响这个时间尺度上气候变化的一个基本因素。温度的变化和二氧化碳的变化,美国国家海洋和大气管理局。[37][38]

Real greenhouses 真正的温室

A modern greenhouse in RHS Wisley【图7 RHS Wisley的现代温室 】

The "greenhouse effect" of the atmosphere is named by analogy to greenhouses which become warmer in sunlight. However, a greenhouse is not primarily warmed by the "greenhouse effect".[39] "Greenhouse effect" is actually a misnomer since heating in the usual greenhouse is due to the reduction of convection,[40][41] while the "greenhouse effect" works by preventing absorbed heat from leaving the structure through radiative transfer.[1]


A greenhouse is built of any material that passes sunlight: usually glass or plastic. The sun warms the ground and contents inside just like the outside, and these then warm the air. Outside, the warm air near the surface rises and mixes with cooler air aloft, keeping the temperature lower than inside, where the air continues to heat up because it is confined within the greenhouse. This can be demonstrated by opening a small window near the roof of a greenhouse: the temperature will drop considerably. It was demonstrated experimentally (R. W. Wood, 1909) that a (not heated) "greenhouse" with a cover of rock salt (which is transparent to infrared) heats up an enclosure similarly to one with a glass cover.[42] Thus greenhouses work primarily by preventing convective cooling.[41]

【初步翻译】温室是由任何能通过阳光照射的材料建造的:通常是玻璃或塑料。太阳温暖了地面,里面的东西就像外面一样,然后这些就温暖了空气。室外,靠近地表的暖空气上升,并与高空较冷的空气混合,保持温度低于内部,那里的空气继续升温,因为它被限制在温室内。这可以通过在温室屋顶附近的一个小窗户来证明:温度会大幅下降。实验证明(R.W.Wood,1909),一个(不加热)覆盖岩盐的“温室”(对红外线是透明的)加热一个类似于一个玻璃盖的外壳。[42] 因此,温室主要通过防止对流冷却来工作。[41]

Heated greenhouses are yet another matter: as they have an internal source of heating, it is desirable to minimize the amount of heat leaking out by radiative cooling. This can be done through the use of adequate glazing.[43]


It is possible in theory to build a greenhouse that lowers its thermal emissivity during dark hours;[44] such a greenhouse would trap heat by two different physical mechanisms, combining multiple greenhouse effects, one of which more closely resembles the atmospheric mechanism, rendering the misnomer debate moot.


Related effects 相关效应

Anti-greenhouse effect

The anti-greenhouse effect is a mechanism similar and symmetrical to the greenhouse effect: in the greenhouse effect, the atmosphere lets radiation in while not letting thermal radiation out, thus warming the body surface; in the anti-greenhouse effect, the atmosphere keeps radiation out while letting thermal radiation out, which lowers the equilibrium surface temperature. Such an effect has been proposed for Saturn's moon Titan.[45]


Runaway greenhouse effect

A runaway greenhouse effect occurs if positive feedbacks lead to the evaporation of all greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.[5] A runaway greenhouse effect involving carbon dioxide and water vapor has long ago been hypothesized to have occurred on Venus,[46] this idea is still largely accepted.[6] The planet Venus experienced a runaway greenhouse effect, resulting in an atmosphere which is 96% carbon dioxide, and a surface atmospheric pressure roughly the same as found underwater on Earth. Venus may have had water oceans, but they would have boiled off as the mean surface temperature rose to the current .[47][48][49]


Bodies other than Earth 地球以外的天体

The 'greenhouse effect' on Venus is particularly large for several reasons:

  1. It is nearer to the Sun than Earth by about 30%.
  2. Its very dense atmosphere consists mainly of carbon dioxide.[50]

"Venus experienced a runaway greenhouse in the past, and we expect that Earth will in about 2 billion years as solar luminosity increases".[51]





Titan is a body with both a greenhouse effect and an anti-greenhouse effect. The presence of N2, CH4, and H2 in the atmosphere contribute to a greenhouse effect, increasing the surface temperature by 21K over the expected temperature of the body with no atmosphere. The existence of a high-altitude haze, which absorbs wavelengths of solar radiation but is transparent to infrared, contribute to an anti-greenhouse effect of approximately 9K. The net effect of these two phenomena result is a net warming of 21K- 9K= 12K, so Titan is 12 K warmer than it would be if there were no atmosphere.[52][53]


See also 另见

  • 温室气体排放的主要贡献者
  • 气候临界点




References 参考文献

引用错误:Closing tag missing for <references>

Further reading 进一步阅读

External links 外部链接


模板:Global warming

  • 罗格斯大学: 地球辐射平衡

Category:Atmosphere Category:Atmospheric radiation Category:Greenhouse gases Category:Climate forcing

类别: 大气类别: 大气辐射类别: 温室气体类别: 气候强迫

This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Greenhouse effect. Its edit history can be viewed at 温室效应/edithistory