碳中和

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本词条由刘芮源初步翻译

此词条暂由彩云小译翻译,翻译字数共5566,未经人工整理和审校,带来阅读不便,请见谅。

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Carbon neutrality is a state of net-zero carbon dioxide emissions. This can be achieved by balancing emissions of carbon dioxide with its removal (often through carbon offsetting) or by eliminating emissions from society (the transition to the "post-carbon economy").[1] The term is used in the context of carbon dioxide-releasing processes associated with transportation, energy production, agriculture, and industry.

碳中和是指二氧化碳净排放为零的状态。这可以通过平衡二氧化碳排放量与去除量(通常通过碳补偿)或通过消除社会排放量(向”后碳经济”转型)来实现。[1] 该概念用于与交通、能源生产、农业和工业有关的二氧化碳释放过程。

Although the term "carbon neutral" is used, a carbon footprint also includes other greenhouse gases, measured in terms of their carbon dioxide equivalence. The term climate-neutral reflects the broader inclusiveness of other greenhouse gases in climate change, even if CO2 is the most abundant.

虽然使用了“碳中和”一词,但是碳足迹还包括其他温室气体,以它们的二氧化碳当量来衡量。虽然二氧化碳是最丰富的温室气体,但“气候友好”一词反映了气候变化中其他温室气体的广泛。

The term "net zero" is increasingly used to describe a broader and more comprehensive commitment to decarbonization and climate action, moving beyond carbon neutrality by including more activities under the scope of indirect emissions, and often including a science-based target on emissions reduction, as opposed to relying solely on offsetting. Some climate scientists have stated that “the idea of net zero has licensed a recklessly cavalier 'burn now, pay later' approach which has seen carbon emissions continue to soar.”[2] (See Criticism)

“净零排放”一词越来越多地被用来描述对脱碳和气候行动的更广泛、更全面的承诺,通过将更多的活动纳入间接排放的范畴以实现碳中和,通常包括一个基于科学的减排目标,而不是仅仅依靠碳补偿。一些气候学家表示,“净零排放的提出默许了一些导致碳排放量持续上升的‘先排放,后中和’的行为。”[2] (见批评)

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History 历史沿革

文件:They did it! (23692333176).jpg
Plenary session of the COP21 adopting the Paris Agreement in 2015. 2015年,COP21全体会议通过了《巴黎协定》。

In 2016, the Oxford Dictionaries made the term carbon-neutral word of the year in the United States.[3]

2016年,《牛津词典》将“碳中和”一词评为美国年度词汇。[3]

In December 2020, five years after the Paris Agreement, the Secretary-General of the United Nations António Guterres warned that the commitments made by countries in Paris were not sufficient and were not respected. He has urged all other countries to declare climate emergencies until carbon neutrality is reached.[4]

2020年12月,也就是《巴黎协定》签署五年之后,联合国安东尼奥·古特雷斯秘书长警告说,“各国在巴黎作出的承诺不够充分,也没有得到遵守”。他敦促所有其他国家宣布气候紧急状态,直到2010年碳中和到来。[4]

Method 方法

Carbon-neutral status can be achieved in two ways,[5] although a combination of the two is most likely required:

碳中和的实现可以通过两种方式,[5] 并且可能需要两种方法相结合:

Carbon offsetting 碳补偿

Balancing carbon dioxide emissions with carbon offsets — the process of reducing or avoiding greenhouse gas emissions or removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to make up for emissions elsewhere.[6] If the total greenhouse gases emitted is equal to the total amount avoided or removed, then the two effects cancel each other out and the net emissions are 'neutral'.

= = 碳补偿 = = 二氧化碳排放量与碳补偿量的平衡——减少或避免温室气体排放量或从大气中去除二氧化碳以补偿其他地方的排放过程。[6] 如果温室气体排放总量等于去除的总量,那么这两种效应相互抵消,净排放量为“中性”。

Reducing emissions 减少排放

Reducing carbon emissions can be done by moving towards energy sources and industry processes that produce less greenhouse gases, thereby transitioning to a low-carbon economy. Shifting towards the use of renewable energy such as wind, geothermal, and solar power,[7] as well as nuclear power reduces greenhouse gas emissions.[8] Although both renewable and non-renewable energy production produce carbon emissions in some form, renewable sources produce negligible to almost zero carbon emissions.[9] Transitioning to a low-carbon economy would also mean making changes to current industrial and agricultural processes to reduce carbon emissions, for example, diet changes to livestock such as cattle can potentially reduce methane production by 40%.[10] Carbon projects and emissions trading are often used to reduce carbon emissions, and carbon dioxide can even sometimes be prevented from entering the atmosphere entirely (such as by carbon scrubbing).

= = = 减少排放 = = 减少碳排放可以通过向产生较少温室气体的能源和工业产业转型,从而向低碳经济过度来实现。向可再生能源,如风能、地热能、太阳能[7] 以及核能转型,可以减少温室气体的排放。[8] 尽管可再生能源和不可再生能源的生产都会产生某种形式的碳排放,但可再生能源的碳排放量几乎为零,可以忽略不计。[9] 向低碳经济过渡还意味着改变现有的工业和农业生产过程以减少碳排放,例如,改变牛等牲畜的饮食可以潜在地减少40%的甲烷排放。[10] 碳项目和排放交易往往被用来减少碳排放,甚至可以完全阻止二氧化碳进入大气层(例如通过碳捕获)。

One way to implement carbon-neutral products is by making these products cheaper and more cost effective than carbon positive fuels.[11] Various companies have pledged to become carbon neutral or negative by 2050, some of which include: Microsoft,[12] Delta Air Lines,[13] BP,模板:R IKEA,[14] and BlackRock.[15] However, without cheaper carbon-neutral products, companies are less likely to switch over to renewable sources.[16]

实现碳中和产品的一种方法是使这些产品比正碳燃料更廉价、更具成本效益。[11] 不同公司都承诺到2050年实现碳中和或碳负排放,其中包括微软、达美航空公司、英国石油公司、宜家和贝莱德。然而,如果没有廉价的碳中和产品,企业不太可能转向可再生能源。

Process 过程

Carbon neutrality is usually achieved by combining the following steps, although these may vary depending whether the strategy is being implemented by individuals, companies, organizations, cities, regions, or countries:

碳中和通常是通过结合以下步骤来实现的,尽管这些步骤可能因个人、企业、组织、城市、地区或国家实施的战略而有所不同:

Commitment 责任

In the case of individuals, decision-making is likely to be straightforward, but for more complex institutions it usually requires political leadership and popular agreement that the effort is worth making.

就个人而言,决策可能是较为直接的,但对于更复杂的机构而言,决策通常需要领导者和普通民众一致决定。

Commitment from countries and the organizations within is critical to the forward movement of Carbon Neutrality. The Net Zero Challenge Report states that “commitments made by governments so far are far from sufficient.”[17] One way to obtain more commitment would be to set carbon-neutral goals but allow flexibility for the organizations and governments to decide how to achieve these goals.[18] Large well-known companies like Apple are laying out roadmaps to help these commitments become a reality.[19] Then lesser well-known companies like Kinaxis, a supply chain management company, met their net-zero goal in 2020 by fully committing to their carbon emission objectives.[20]

各国和组织的承诺对于碳中和的实现进程至关重要。净零排放挑战报告指出,“各国政府迄今所作的承诺远远不够。”[17] 获得更多承诺的一个方法是设定碳中和目标,但允许各组织和政府灵活决定如何实现这些目标。[18] 知名度较高的企业,如苹果正在制定相关路线,以帮助这些承诺成为现实。[19] 而知名度较低的企业,如Kinaxis通过全面致力于实现碳排放目标,在2020年实现了零排放目标。[20]

Counting and analyzing 计算和分析

Counting and analyzing the emissions that need to be eliminated, and how it can be done, is an important step in the process of achieving carbon neutrality, as it establishes the priorities for where action needs to be taken and progress can begin being monitored. This can be achieved through a greenhouse gas inventory that aims to answer questions such as:

计算和分析需要去除的排放量,以及如何减少排放量,是实现碳中和目标过程中的一个重要步骤,因为它确定了需要采取行动和开始监测进展的优先顺序。这可以通过温室气体清单来实现,该清单旨在回答以下问题:

  • Which operations, activities and units should be targeted?
  • Which sources should be included (see section Direct and indirect emissions)?
  • Who is responsible for which emissions?
  • Which gases should be included?
  • 应针对哪些行动、活动和单位?
  • 应包括哪些来源(直接和间接排放) ?
  • 谁对哪些排放负责?
  • 应包括哪些气体?

For individuals, carbon calculators simplify compiling an inventory. Typically they measure electricity consumption in kWh, the amount and type of fuel used to heat water and warm the house, and how many kilometers an individual drives, flies and rides in different vehicles. Individuals may also set the limits of the system they are concerned with, for example, whether they want to balance out their personal greenhouse gas emissions, their household emissions, or their company's.

对个人而言,碳结算简化了制定清单的工作。他们通常用千瓦时来衡量耗电量,用于加热水和温暖房屋的燃料的消耗量和类型,以及驾驶、飞行和乘坐不同车辆的公里数。个人也可以设定他们所关心的系统的限制,例如,他们是否想要平衡他们个人的温室气体排放,他们家庭的排放,或者他们公司的排放。

There are plenty of carbon calculators available online, which vary significantly in the parameters they measure. Some, for example, factor in only cars, aircraft and household energy use. Others cover household waste or leisure interests as well. In some circumstances, going beyond carbon neutral and becoming carbon negative (usually after a certain length of time taken to reach carbon breakeven) is an objective.

互联网上有很多碳结算工具,它们测量的参数差别很大。例如,有些只考虑了汽车、飞机和家庭能源使用。其他的还包括家庭浪费和休闲爱好。在某些情况下,实现碳中和碳负排放(通常在达到碳排放与消耗平衡所需的一定时间之后)是一个目标。

Action 行动

In starting to work towards climate neutrality, businesses and local administrations can make use of an environmental (or sustainability) management system or EMS established by the international standard ISO 14001 (developed by the International Organization for Standardization). Another EMS framework is EMAS, the European Eco Management and Audit Scheme, used by numerous companies throughout the EU.[citation needed] Many local authorities apply the management system to certain sectors of their administration or certify their whole operations.

= = = 行动 = = = 在实现气候中性的工作开始时,企业和地方行政部门可以利用国际标准 ISO 14001(由国际标准化组织制定)建立的环境(或可持续性)管理系统或环境管理体系。另一个环境管理体系框架是欧盟各地许多公司都在使用的 EMAS,即欧洲生态管理和审计计划。[citation needed] 许多地方对其管理的某些部门实行管理制度或核证其整个业务。

Reduction 减排

One of the strongest arguments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions is that it will often save money. Examples of possible actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions are:

= = 减排 = = 减少温室气体排放最有力的论据之一就是它往往可以节省资金。减少温室气体排放的可能行动例子如下:

  • 限制能源使用和交通(步行、使用自行车或公共交通工具、避免飞行、使用低能耗车辆、拼车)、以及建筑物、设施、动物和生产过程的能源使用和排放。
  • 从零碳或低碳能源获取电能和其他形式的能源。
  • 电气化: 使用电能,最好来自非排放源,而不是火电。例如,交通运输(例如,电动车和电力火车)和取暖(例如,热泵和电热)。[21]


Wind power, nuclear power, hydropower, solar power, and geothermal are the energy sources with the lowest life-cycle emissions, which includes deployment and operations.[7][8]

风能、核能、水电、太阳能和地热是包括部署和操作在内的周期内排放量最低的能源。[7][8]

Offsetting 补偿

The use of Carbon offsets aims to neutralize a certain volume of greenhouse gas emissions by funding projects which should cause an equivalent reduction of greenhouse gas emissions somewhere else, such as tree planting. Under the premise “First reduce what you can, then offset the remainder”, offsetting can be done by supporting a responsible carbon project, or by buying carbon offsets or carbon credits.

= = 补偿 = = 碳补偿旨在通过资助植树等使其他地方温室气体排放等量减少的项目,中和一定数量的温室气体排放。在“首先在可行范围内实现减少,然后补偿剩余范围”的前提下,补偿可以通过支持一个负责任的碳项目,或者通过购买碳补偿或碳信用来实现。

Carbon offsetting is also a tool for several local authorities in the world.[22]

碳补偿也是世界上一些地方政府所采用的方法。[22]

In 2015, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), following the mandate of the CDM Executive board, launched a dedicated website where organizations, companies, but also private person are able to offset their footprint (https://offset.climateneutralnow.org/) with the aim of facilitating everyone's participation in the process of promoting sustainability.

2015年,《联合国气候变化框架公约》(UNFCCC)根据CDM执行理事会的授权,启动了一个专门的网站,让各组织、公司以及个人能够补偿他们的足迹,目的是便于每个人参与促进可持续发展的进程。

Offsetting is sometimes seen as a charged and contentious issue. For example, James Hansen describes offsets as "modern day indulgences, sold to an increasingly carbon-conscious public to absolve their climate sins." This may also be interpreted as greenwashing,[23] especially in the case of most company commitments, which do not include actionable goals and schedules that implicate that the 'net-zero' emission goals are more than good publicity.[24]

补偿有时被视为一个有争议的问题。例如,詹姆斯 · 汉森将补偿描述为“出售给越来越有碳意识的公众的现代赎罪券,以免除他们在气候问题上的责任。”[23]尤其是在大多数公司不包括可行的目标和时间表的承诺下,实现零净排放目标仅仅成为了一种宣传,这也可能被解释为“绿色清洗”。[24]

Evaluation and repeating 评价和重复

This phase includes evaluation of the results and compilation of a list of suggested improvements, with results documented and reported, so that experience gained of what does (and does not) work is shared with those who can put it to good use. Science and technology move on, regulations become tighter, the standards people demand go up. So the second cycle will go further than the first, and the process will continue, each successive phase building on and improving on what went before.

= = = 评价和重复 = = = 这一阶段包括评价结果和汇编建议的改进清单,并将结果记录和报告,以便与那些能够很好地利用这些工作的人分享从中获得的经验。科学技术不断进步,规章制度越来越严格,人们对标准的要求越来越高。因此,第二个周期将比第一个周期走得更远,这个过程将继续下去,每一个相继的阶段都会在之前的基础上进一步发展和完善。

Being carbon neutral is increasingly seen as good corporate or state social responsibility and a growing list of corporations and states are announcing dates for when they intend to become fully neutral. Events such as the G8 Summit[25] and organizations like the World Bank[26] are also using offset schemes to become carbon neutral. Artists like The Rolling Stones[27] and Pink Floyd[28] have made albums or tours carbon neutral.

越来越多的企业和国家认为实现碳中和是一种良好的企业或国家社会责任,因此他们正在公布计划实现完全中和的具体时间。例如八国集团峰会[25] 和世界银行等组织[26] 也在使用补偿计划来实现碳中和,滚石乐队[27] 和平克 · 弗洛伊德等艺术家[28] 也制作了专辑或巡演。

Direct and indirect emissions 直接和间接排放

To be considered carbon neutral, an organization must reduce its carbon footprint to zero. Determining what to include in the carbon footprint depends upon the organization and the standards they are following.

= = = 直接和间接排放 = = 一个组织必须将其碳足迹减少到零才能被认定为是实现了碳中和。决定哪些部分包括在碳足迹中取决于组织自身所遵循的标准。

Generally, direct emissions sources must be reduced and offset completely, while indirect emissions from purchased electricity can be reduced with renewable energy purchases.

一般来说,必须减少和完全补偿直接排放源,而购买电力的间接排放可以通过购买可再生能源来减少。

Direct emissions include all pollution from manufacturing, company owned vehicles and reimbursed travel, livestock and any other source that is directly controlled by the owner. Indirect emissions include all emissions that result from the use or purchase of a product. For instance, the direct emissions of an airline are all the jet fuel that is burned, while the indirect emissions include manufacture and disposal of airplanes, all the electricity used to operate the airline's office, and the daily emissions from employee travel to and from work. In another example, the power company has a direct emission of greenhouse gas, while the office that purchases it considers it an indirect emission.

直接排放包括制造业、公司拥有的车辆和补偿的旅行、牲畜和任何其他由所有者直接控制的污染源。间接排放量包括使用或购买某种产品所产生的排放量。例如,一家航空公司的直接排放是所有消耗的飞机燃料,而间接排放包括飞机的制造和处理、所有用于运营航空公司办公室的电力,以及员工往返工作的日常排放。在另一个例子中,电力公司直接排放温室气体,而购买电力的办公室认为是间接排放。

Carbon is used as both a source of electricity and a feedstock in energy-intensive industries, making decarbonization impossible. If CO2 emissions and sources are to be captured and stopped from entering the atmosphere, an alternate chemical solution must be formulated that achieves the desired output while not releasing 模板:CO2 as a by-product.[29][30]

碳既是电力的来源,又是能源密集型工业的原料,这使得脱碳成为不可能。如果要捕获和阻止二氧化碳的排放进入大气层,就必须配制另一种既能达到理想的产量,又不会作为副产品排放的替代化学溶液。[29][30]

Simplification of standards and definitions 标准和定义的简化

Carbon neutral fuels are those that neither contribute to nor reduce the amount of carbon into the atmosphere. Before an agency can certify an organization or individual as carbon neutral, it is important to specify whether indirect emissions are included in the Carbon Footprint calculation.[31] Most Voluntary Carbon neutral certifiers in the US, require both direct and indirect sources to be reduced and offset. As an example, for an organization to be certified carbon neutral, it must offset all direct and indirect emissions from travel by 1 lb CO2e per passenger mile, and all non-electricity direct emissions 100%.[32] Indirect electrical purchases must be equalized either with offsets, or renewable energy purchases. This standard differs slightly from the widely used World Resources Institute and may be easier to calculate and apply.[citation needed]

= = = 标准和定义的简化 = = 碳中性燃料既不增加也不减少大气中的碳含量。在能够证明某个组织或个人是碳中性之前,重要的是要明确间接排放是否包括在碳足迹的计算中。大多数美国的碳中和认证机构,要求减少和补偿直接和间接碳源。例如,一个组织要获得碳中和认证,就必须补偿旅行产生的所有直接和间接排放,即每位乘客每英里减少1磅二氧化碳排放量,以及所有非电力直接排放量的总和 。间接的电力采购必须通过补偿或可再生能源来实现平衡。这个标准与广泛使用的世界资源研究所稍有不同,可能更容易计算和应用。

Much of the confusion in carbon neutral standards can be attributed to the number of voluntary carbon standards which are available. For organizations looking at which carbon offsets to purchase, knowing which standards are robust, credible and permanent is vital in choosing the right carbon offsets and projects to get involved in. Some of the main standards in the voluntary market include Verified Carbon Standard, Gold Standard and The American Carbon Registry. In addition companies can purchase Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) which result from mitigated carbon emissions from United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change approved projects for voluntary purposes. The concept of shared resources also reduces the volume of carbon a particular organization has to offset, with all upstream and downstream emissions the responsibility of other organizations or individuals. If all organizations and individuals were involved then this would not result in any double accounting.

碳中和标准的混乱很大程度上可归因于现有的自愿性碳标准的数量。对于关注购买哪些碳补偿的组织来说,了解哪些标准是健全的、可信的和永久的对于选择正确的碳补偿和参与项目至关重要。自愿性市场的一些主要标准包括认证碳标准、黄金标准和美国碳注册。此外,企业可以为自愿购买《联合国气候变化框架公约》核准项目中减少碳排放量所产生的核证排减量。共享资源的概念也减少了特定组织必须补偿的碳排放量,所有的上游或下游排放都是其他组织或个人的责任。如果所有的组织和个人都参与其中,那么就不会导致任何重复计算。

Regarding terminology in UK, in December 2011 the Advertising Standards Authority (in an ASA decision which was upheld by its Independent Reviewer, Sir Hayden Phillips) controversially ruled that no manufactured product can be marketed as "zero-carbon", because carbon was inevitably emitted during its manufacture. This decision was made in relation to a solar panel system whose embodied carbon was repaid during 1.2 years of use and it appears to mean that no buildings or manufactured products can legitimately be described as zero carbon in its jurisdiction.[33]

2011年12月,广告标准管理局(Advertising Standards Authority)(在其独立审查员海登•菲利普斯爵士(Sir Hayden Phillips)支持的美国广告标准局(ASA)的一项决定中)充满争议地裁定,任何人造产品都不能作为“零碳”销售,因为碳在生产过程中不可避免地会排放。这一决定是针对一个太阳能电池板系统作出的,该太阳能电池板系统的碳含量在使用1.2年期间得到了偿还,这似乎意味着在其管辖范围内,任何建筑物或制成品都不能合法地被描述为零碳排放。[33]

Pledges 承诺

Being carbon neutral is increasingly seen as good corporate or state social responsibility, and a growing list of corporations, cities and states are announcing dates for when they intend to become fully neutral. Many countries have also announced dates by which they want to be carbon neutral, with many of them targeting the year 2050. However, setting an earlier date (i.e. 2025,[34] 2030,[35] or 2045[36]) may be considered to send out a stronger signal internationally,[37][38] and is recommended by the Climate Crisis Advisory Group.[39] Also, delaying significant action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is increasingly being considered to not be a financially sound idea.[40][41]

= = = 承诺 = = 实现碳中和越来越被视为良好的企业或国家社会责任,因此,越来越多的企业、城市和国家正在宣布计划实现完全中和的时间。许多国家还宣布了实现碳中和的具体时间,其中多数国家的目标是2050年。然而,设定一个较早的日期(即2025年[34] 、2030年[35] 或2045年[36])可能被认为是向国际社会发出了一个更强烈的信号,[37][38] 并得到了气候危机咨询小组的建议。此外,推迟采取重大行动来减少温室气体排放也越来越被认为不是一个财政上可靠的方法。[40][41]

Companies and organizations 公司和组织

模板:Update sectionThe original Climate Neutral Network was an Oregon-based non-profit organization founded by Sue Hall and incorporated in 1999 to persuade companies that being climate neutral was potentially cost saving as well as environmentally sustainable. It developed both the Climate Neutral Certification and Climate Cool brand name with key stakeholders such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency, The Nature Conservancy, the Rocky Mountain Institute, Conservation International, and the World Resources Institute and succeeded in enrolling the 2002 Winter Olympics to compensate for its associated greenhouse gas emissions.[42]

最初的气候中性网络是由 Sue Hall 在俄勒冈州建立的一个非营利组织建立的,成立于1999年,目的是说服企业相信保持气候中性不仅可以节省成本,而且可以环保。它与主要的利益相关者,如美国环境保护署、美国自然保育协会、落基山研究所、国际保护组织和世界资源研究所,一起发展了气候中性认证和Climate Cool品牌,并成功地注册了2002年冬季奥运会,以补偿其相关的温室气体排放。[42]

Few companies have actually attained Climate Neutral Certification, applying to a rigorous review process and establishing that they have achieved absolute net zero or better impact on the world's climate. Another reason that companies have difficulty in attaining the Climate Neutral Certification is due the lack clear guidelines on what it means to make a carbon neutral development.[43] Shaklee Corporation became the first Climate Neutral certified company in April 2000. The company employs a variety of investments, and offset activities, including tree-planting, use of solar energy, methane capture in abandoned mines and its manufacturing processes.[44] Climate Neutral Business Network states that it certified Dave Matthews Band's concert tour as Climate Neutral. The Christian Science Monitor criticized the use of NativeEnergy, a for-profit company that sells offset credits to businesses and celebrities like Dave Matthews.[45]

实际上,由于严格的审查程序,很少有公司能够获得气候中性认证,并确认它们对世界气候的影响达到了净零或更好的程度。企业难以获得气候中性认证的另一个原因是缺乏明确的指导方针。[43] 2000年4月,Shaklee 公司成为第一家获得气候中性认证的公司。该公司进行了各种各样的投资和补偿活动,包括植树、利用太阳能、在废弃矿井中收集甲烷及其制造工艺。[44] 气候中性商业网络表示,它认证戴夫·马修斯乐队的巡回演唱会是气候中性的。《基督教科学箴言报》(Christian Science Monitor)对 NativeEnergy 的使用提出了批评。 NativeEnergy 是一家向戴夫•马修斯(Dave Matthews)等企业和名人出售补偿信贷的营利性公司。

Salt Spring Coffee became carbon neutral by lowering emissions through reducing long-range trucking and using bio-diesel fuel in delivery trucks,[46] upgrading to energy efficient equipment and purchasing carbon offsets from its offset provider, Offsetters. The company claims to the first carbon neutral coffee sold in Canada.[47] Salt Spring Coffee was recognized by the David Suzuki Foundation in their 2010 report Doing Business in a New Climate.[48]

Salt Spring Coffee 通过减少长途卡车运输和在运货卡车上使用生物柴油燃料、升级节能设备以及从补偿供应商 Offsetters 购买碳补偿,实现了碳中和。[46] 该公司声称是加拿大第一家销售碳中和咖啡的公司。[47] 在2010年的报告《新气候下的营商环境》中得到了大卫·铃木基金会的认可。

Some corporate examples of self-proclaimed carbon neutral and climate neutral initiatives include Dell,[49] Google,[50] HSBC,[51] ING Group,[52] PepsiCo, Sky Group,[53][54] Tesco,[55][56] Toronto-Dominion Bank,[57] Asos[58] and Bank of Montreal.[59]

戴尔(Dell)[49]、谷歌(Google)[50]、汇丰(HSBC)[51]、荷兰国际集团(ING Group)[52]、百事可乐(PepsiCo)、天空集团(Sky Group)[53][54]、特易购(Tesco)[55][56]、多伦多道明银行金融集团[57]、 Asos[58] 和蒙特利尔银行(Bank of Montreal)[59]等企业都自称是碳中和和气候中性的。

Under the leadership of Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, the United Nations pledged to work towards climate neutrality in December 2007. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) announced it was becoming climate neutral in 2008 and established a Climate Neutral Network to promote the idea in February 2008.

在秘书长潘基文的领导下,联合国于2007年12月承诺努力实现气候中和。联合国环境规划署于2008年宣布它将实现气候中和,并于2008年2月建立了一个气候中性网络来推广这一想法。

Events such as the G8 Summit and organizations like the World Bank are also using offset schemes to become carbon neutral. Artists like The Rolling Stones and Pink Floyd have made albums or tours carbon neutral, while Live Earth says that its seven concerts held on 7 July 2007 were the largest carbon neutral public event in history.

八国集团峰会和世界银行等组织也在使用补偿计划来实现碳中和。滚石乐队和平克 · 弗洛伊德等艺术家已经制作了专辑或巡回演出,而 Live Earth 表示,2007年7月7日举行的7场演唱会是历史上最大的碳中和公开活动。

The Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games were the first carbon neutral Games in history[60] through a large partnership with the carbon offset provider, Offsetters.

2010年温哥华冬季奥运会和残疾人冬季奥运会[60]通过与碳补偿供应商 offsetter 的大型合作伙伴关系实现了历史上第一届碳中和运动会。

Buildings are the largest single contributor to the production of greenhouse gases.[citation needed] The American Institute of Architects 2030 Commitment is a voluntary program for AIA member firms and other entities in the built environment that asks these organizations to pledge to design all their buildings to be carbon neutral by 2030.[61]

建筑物是温室气体排放的最大来源。美国建筑师协会2030承诺是 AIA 成员公司和其他建筑环境实体的一个自愿项目,要求这些组织承诺在2030年前设计他们的建筑物达到碳中和。[61]

In 2010, architectural firm HOK worked with energy and daylighting consultant The Weidt Group to design a 模板:Convert net zero carbon emissions Class A office building prototype in St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.[62]

2010年,HOK 建筑事务所与能源和采光顾问公司 Weidt 集团合作,在美国密苏里州圣路易斯市设计了一个A 级办公楼原型。[62]

Goodvalley became a carbon neutral company as the first pork meat producer. It was possible by lowering greenhouse gases emission at every stage of production. In addition to reducing its primary carbon footprint, the company achieves carbon neutrality by producing green energy from its agricultural biogas plants. The sum of 模板:CO2 emissions and reductions are calculated by NIRAS and since 2018, the calculation has labelled Goodvalley Group Corporate Carbon Neutral. The certification is done according to ISO-14064 and verified by TÜV Rheinland.[63]

,Goodvalley 成为了第一家实现碳中和的猪肉生产商。通过在生产的每个阶段降低温室气体排放量。除了减少其主要的碳足迹,该公司通过利用农业沼气厂生产绿色能源实现了碳中和。排放量和减排量的总和由 NIRAS 计算,自2018年以来,计算结果被认定为Goodvalley 集团公司碳中和,该认证是根据 ISO-14064进行,并由 TÜV Rheinland 进行了验证。[63]

Since 2019, an increasing number of business organisations have committed to attaining carbon neutrality by, or before, 2050,[64] such as Microsoft (2030), Amazon (2040), and L'Oreal (2050).[65]

自2019年以来,越来越多的商业组织致力于在2050年或之前实现碳中和目标,比如微软(Microsoft)(2030)、亚马逊(Amazon)(2040)和欧莱雅(l’oreal)(2050)。[65]

In 2020, BlackRock, the world's largest investment firm, announced that it would begin making decisions with climate change and sustainability in mind, and begin exiting assets that it believed represented a "high sustainablilty-related risk".[66] Activists have accused the company of greenwashing, as it still has a considerable amount of money invested in coal companies.[67] In CEO Larry Fink's 2021 annual letter, however, he further pushed for businesses to begin laying out explicit plans on how they will be carbon neutral by 2050.[68]

2020年,全球最大的投资公司贝莱德(BlackRock)宣布,将开始考虑气候变化和可持续性做出决策,并开始退出它认为代表着“高可持续相关风险”的资产。[66] 活动人士指责该公司“绿色清洗”,因为该公司仍有大量资金投资于煤炭公司。[67] 然而,在首席执行官拉里 · 芬克2021年的年度信函中,他进一步推动企业开始制定到2050年将如何实现碳中和的明确计划,。[68]

Countries and nations 国家和民族

Three countries have achieved or surpassed carbon neutrality:

= = = 国家和民族 = = = 3个国家已经取得或超过碳中和:

  • (碳负排放)[69]
  • (至少自2014年起为碳负排放)[70][71]
  • 到2021年可能为碳负排放,认证预计到来。[72]

The 3 countries formed a small coalition at the 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference and asked for help so that other countries will join it.[72]

这三个国家在2021年联合国气候变化大会上组成了一个小型联盟,并请求帮助以便其他国家也能加入。[72]

模板:As of, numerous countries/nations have pledged carbon neutrality, including:[73][74]

Country/nation Target Source(s)
Year Status
模板:Country data Andorra 2050 Submission to UNFCCC [75]
模板:Country data Argentina 2050 Submission to UNFCCC [76]
模板:Country data Australia 2050 Policy position [77]
模板:Country data Austria 2040 Coalition agreement [74][78][79][80]
模板:Country data Bahrain 2060 Statement of intent [81]
模板:Country data Bangladesh 2050 Under discussion [82]
模板:Country data Belgium 2050 Policy position [83]
模板:Country data Brazil 2050 Submission to UNFCCC [84]
模板:Country data Canada 2050 Law [74]
模板:Country data China 2060 Policy position [85]
模板:Country data Chile 2050 Under discussion [74]
模板:Country data Colombia 2050 Statement of intent [86][87]
模板:Country data Costa Rica 2050 Policy position [74]
模板:Country data Croatia 2050 Statement of intent [88]
模板:Country data Denmark 2050 Law [74]
模板:Country data Ethiopia 2025 or 2030 Policy position [89][90]
模板:Country data European Union 2050 Political agreement [91][92]
模板:Country data Fiji 2050 Pledged towards the Paris agreement [74]
模板:Country data Finland 2035 Coalition agreement [74]
模板:Country data France 2050 Law [74]
模板:Country data Hungary 2050 Law [74]
模板:Country data Iceland 2040 Policy position [74]
模板:Country data India 2070 Pledge [93]
模板:Country data Indonesia 2060 Policy position [82]
模板:Country data Germany 2045 Law [94]
模板:Country data Grenada 2050 Submission to UNFCCC [74]
模板:Country data Greece 2050 Under discussion [82]
模板:Country data Ireland 2050 Coalition agreement [74]
模板:Country data Israel 2050 Policy position [95]
模板:Country data Japan 2050 Law [96]
模板:Country data Kazakhstan 2060 Submission to UNFCCC [97]
模板:Country data Luxembourg 2050 Law [98][82]
模板:Country data Maldives 2030 Submission to UNFCCC [98]
模板:Country data Marshall Islands 2050 Pledged towards the Paris agreement [74]
模板:Country data Mexico [99]
模板:Country data Nauru 2050 Policy position [82]
模板:Country data Nepal 2050 Pledged towards the Paris agreement [74]
模板:Country data Netherlands [100]
模板:Country data New Zealand 2050 Law [101]
模板:Country data Niue 2050 Under discussion [82]
模板:Country data Norway 2050 (actual) Policy position [74]
2030 (offsets)
模板:Country data Pakistan 2050 Under discussion [82]
模板:Country data Panama 2050 Submission to UNFCCC [74]
模板:Country data Paraguay 2050 Policy position [102]
模板:Country data Peru 2050 Policy position [103]
模板:Country data Portugal 2050 Policy position [74]
模板:Country data Russia 2060 Pledge [104]
模板:Country data Saudi Arabia 2060 Pledge [105]
模板:Country data Scotland 2045 Law [106]
模板:Country data Singapore 2060 Submission to UNFCCC [74]
模板:Country data Slovakia 2050 Policy position [74]
模板:Country data Slovenia 2050 Policy position [107]
模板:Country data South Africa 2050 Policy position [74]
模板:Country data South Korea 2050 Law [74][108]
模板:Country data Sri Lanka 2060 Policy position [82]
模板:Country data Spain 2050 Law (draft) [74]
模板:Country data Sweden 2045 Law [74][109]
模板:Country data Switzerland 2050 Policy position [74]
模板:Country data Timor-Leste [110]
模板:Country data Turkey 2053 Policy position [111]
模板:Country data Ukraine 2060 Statement of intent [112][113]
模板:Country data United Arab Emirates 2050 Statement of intent [114]
模板:Country data United States 2050 Statement of intent [74]
模板:Country data United Kingdom 2050 Law [74]
模板:Country data Uruguay 2030 Pledged towards the Paris agreement [74]
模板:Country data Uzbekistan 2050 [115]
模板:Country data Vatican City 2050 Submission to UNFCCC [76]
模板:Country data Vietnam 2050 Pledge [116]

多数国家已经宣布了碳中和的计划,包括:[73][74]

Country/nation Target Source(s)
Year Status
安道尔 2050 Submission to UNFCCC
阿根廷 2050 Submission to UNFCCC
澳大利亚 2050 Policy position
奥地利 2040 Coalition agreement
巴林 2060 Statement of intent
孟加拉国 2050 Under discussion
比利时 2050 Policy position
巴西 2050 Submission to UNFCCC
加拿大 2050 Law
中国 2060 Policy position
智利 2050 Under discussion
哥伦比亚 2050 Statement of intent
哥斯达黎加 2050 Policy position
克罗地亚 2050 Statement of intent
丹麦 2050 Law
埃塞俄比亚 2025 or 2030 Policy position
欧盟 2050 Political agreement
斐济 2050 Pledged towards the Paris agreement
芬兰 2035 Coalition agreement
法国 2050 Law
匈牙利 2050 Law
冰岛 2040 Policy position
印度 2070 Pledge
印度尼西亚 2060 Policy position
德国 2045 Law
格林纳达 2050 Submission to UNFCCC
希腊 2050 Under discussion
爱尔兰 2050 Coalition agreement
以色列 2050 Policy position
日本 2050 Law
哈萨克斯坦 2060 Submission to UNFCCC
卢森堡 2050 Law
马尔代夫 2030 Submission to UNFCCC
马绍尔群岛 2050 Pledged towards the Paris agreement
墨西哥
瑙鲁 2050 Policy position
尼泊尔 2050 Pledged towards the Paris agreement
荷兰
新西兰 2050 Law
纽埃 2050 Under discussion
挪威 2050 (actual) Policy position
2030 (offsets)
巴基斯坦 2050 Under discussion
巴拿马 2050 Submission to UNFCCC
巴拉圭 2050 Policy position
秘鲁 2050 Policy position
葡萄牙 2050 Policy position
俄罗斯 2060 Pledge
沙特阿拉伯 2060 Pledge
苏格兰 2045 Law
新加坡 2060 Submission to UNFCCC
斯洛伐克 2050 Policy position
斯洛文尼亚 2050 Policy position
南非 2050 Policy position
韩国 2050 Law
斯里兰卡 2060 Policy position
西班牙 2050 Law (draft)
瑞典 2045 Law
瑞士 2050 Policy position
东帝汶
土耳其 2053 Policy position
乌克兰 2060 Statement of intent
阿拉伯联合酋长国 2050 Statement of intent
美国 2050 Statement of intent
英国 2050 Law
乌拉圭 2030 Pledged towards the Paris agreement
乌兹别克斯坦 2050
梵蒂冈 2050 Submission to UNFCCC
越南 2050 Pledge

许多国家/地区都承诺提供碳中和,其中包括: { | class = “可维护的”!Rowspan = “2”| Country/nation!colspan="2" |Target !Rowspan = “2”| Source (s) |-!一年!状态 | - | |2050 | 提交《气候公约》 | |- | |2050 | 提交《气候公约》 | |- | |2050 | 政策立场 | |- | |2040 | 联盟协议 | |- | |2060 | 意向声明 | |- | |2050 | 讨论中 | |- | |2050 | 政策立场 | |- | |2050 | 提交《气候公约》 | |- | |2050 | 法律 | |- | |2060 | 政策立场 | |- | |2050 | 讨论中 | |- | |2050 | 意向声明 | |- | |2050 | 政策立场 | |- | |2050 | 意向声明 | |- | |2050 | 法律 | |- | |2025或2030 | 政策立场 | |- | |2050 | 政治协议 | |- | |2050 | 对巴黎协定的承诺 | |- | |2035 | 联盟协议 | |- | |2050 | 法律 | |- | |2050 | 法律 | |- | |2040 | 政策立场 | |- | |2070 | 承诺 | |- | |2060 | 政策立场 | |- | |2045 | 法律 | |- | |2050 | 向联合国气候变化框架公约提交材料 | |- | |2050 | 讨论中 | |- | |2050 | 联盟协议 | |- | |2050 | 政策立场 | |- | |2050 | 法律 | |- | |2060 | 向联合国气候变化框架公约提交材料 | |- | |2050 | 法律 | |- | |2030 | 向联合国气候变化框架公约提交材料 | |- | |2050 | 对巴黎协定的承诺 | |- | | | | |- | |2050 | 政策立场 | |- | |2050 | 对巴黎协定的承诺 | |- | | | | |- | |2050 | 法律 | |- | |2050 | 讨论中 | |- |Rowspan = “2”| |2050(实际) | Rowspan = “2”| 政策立场 | Rowspan = “2”| |- |2030 | - | |2050 | 讨论中 | |- | |2050 | 向联合国气候变化框架公约提交材料 | |- | |2050 | 政策立场 | |- | |2050 | 政策立场 | |- | |2050 | 政策立场 | |- | |2060 | 承诺 | |- | |2060 | 承诺 | |- | |2045 | 法律 | |- | |2060 | 向联合国气候变化框架公约提交材料 | |- | |2050 | 政策立场 | |- | |2050 | 政策立场 | |- | |2050 | 政策立场 | |- | |2050 | 法律 | |- | |2060 | 政策立场 | |- | |2050 | 法律(草案) | |- | |2045 | 法律 | |- | |2050 | 政策立场 | |- | | | | |- | |2053 | 政策立场 | |- | |2060 | 意向声明 | |- | |2050 | 意向声明 | |- | |2050 | 意向声明 | |- | |2050 | 法律 | |- | |2030 | 对巴黎协定的承诺 | |- | |2050 | | |- | |2050 | 提交《气候公约》 | |- | |2050 | 承诺 | |}

Canada 加拿大

In June 2011, the Canadian Province of British Columbia announced they had officially become the first provincial/state jurisdiction in North America to achieve carbon neutrality in public sector operations:[117] Every school, hospital, university, Crown corporation, and government office measured, reported, and purchased carbon offsets on all of their 2010 Greenhouse Gas emissions as required under legislation.[118] Local Governments across B.C. are also beginning to declare Carbon Neutrality,[119] including the Regional District of Mount Waddington on Vancouver Island, whose indoor ice arena, the Chilton Regional Arena, is now carbon neutral and rely on solely on electricity from flooding their ice to mowing the grass.[120] The province intends to accelerate the deployment of natural gas vehicles.[121] Under the LiveSmart BC initiative, natural gas furnaces and water heaters receive cash back thereby promoting the burning of fossil fuel in the province.[122] The province states that an important part of new natural gas production will come from the Horn River basin where about 500 million tonnes of 模板:CO2 will be released into the atmosphere.[123][124]

2011年6月,加拿大不列颠哥伦比亚省宣布,他们已正式成为北美第一个在公共部门运作方面实现碳中和的省/州: [117] 每所学校、医院、大学、国有企业和政府部门都按照法律要求对其2010年的所有温室气体排放进行了测量、报告和购买碳补偿。[118] 不列颠哥伦比亚各地的地方政府同时也开始宣布实现碳中和,[119]其中包括沃丁顿山温哥华岛地区,他们的室内冰场——Chilton地区竞技场现在已经是碳中和了,浇冰和刮冰过程完全依靠电力驱动。[120] 该省计划加快天然气车辆的部署,[121]在 LiveSmart BC 的倡议下,天然气和热水器可以收到现金回报,从而促进了化石燃料的燃烧。[122] 该省表示,新天然气生产的一个重要部分将来自合恩河盆地,那里约有5亿吨 http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/environment/climate-change/policy-legislation-and-responses/climateaction_plan_web.pdf 将被释放到大气中。[123][124]Http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/environment/climate-change/policy-legislation-and-responses/2012-progress-to-targets.pdf

On September 24, 2019, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau pledged to make Canada carbon neutral by 2050 if re-elected.[125] On October 21, 2019, Trudeau was re-elected, and in December 2019, the Canadian government formally announced its goal for Canada to be carbon neutral by 2050.[126] In its speech from the throne, which was delivered on September 23, 2020, the federal government pledged to legislate its goal of making Canada carbon neutral by 2050.[127]

2019年9月24日,加拿大总理贾斯汀 · 特鲁多承诺,如果再次当选,加拿大将在2050年实现碳中和。[125] 2019年10月21日,特鲁多再次当选,2019年12月,加拿大政府正式宣布加拿大到2050年实现碳中和的目标。[126] 在2020年9月23日发布的就职演说中,联邦政府承诺通过立法实现加拿大到2050年实现碳中和的目标。[127]

The city of Edmonton, Alberta is currently developing a carbon neutral community called Blatchford, on the grounds of its former City Centre Airport.[128]

阿尔伯塔省埃德蒙顿市目前正在原市中心机场的基础上发展一个名为布拉奇福德的碳中和社区。[128]

Costa Rica 哥斯达黎加

Costa Rica aims to be fully carbon neutral by at least 2050.[129] There are plans to do it even faster, namely by 2021 (the 200th anniversary of its independence)[130] In 2004, 46.7% of Costa Rica's primary energy came from renewable sources,[131] while 94% of its electricity was generated from hydroelectric power, wind farms and geothermal energy in 2006.[132] A 3.5% tax on gasoline in the country is used for payments to compensate landowners for growing trees and protecting forests and its government is making further plans for reducing emissions from transport, farming and industry.

= = = = 哥斯达黎加 = = = 哥斯达黎加的目标是至少在2050年实现完全碳中和。[129] 2004年,哥斯达黎加46.7% 的主要能源来自可再生能源[130] ,国际能源组织2006年公布的主要能源总供应份额表显示,哥斯达黎加94% 的电力来自水力发电、风力发电和地热能。[132] 政府正在制定进一步的计划,将3.5% 的汽油税用于支付补偿土地所有者种植树木和保护森林的费用,以减少来自交通、农业和工业的排放。

European Union 欧盟

模板:SeeThe EU has intermediate targets and in 2019 the bloc, with the exception of Poland, agreed to set a 2050 target for carbon neutrality.[133]

欧盟的中期目标,2019年,除了波兰,欧盟同意为2050年碳中和制定一个中期目标。[133]

The European Union has become the first area to embrace climate neutrality by 2050 through the European Green Deal, being committed to forming Green Alliances with partner nations and regions across the world.[134][135][136]

通过欧洲绿色协议,欧盟成为到2050年第一个实现气候中和的地区,致力于与世界各地的伙伴国家和地区建立绿色联盟。[134][135][136]

Denmark 丹麦

Samsø island in Denmark, with a population of 4200, based on wind-generated electricity and biomass-based district heating currently generate extra wind power and export the electricity to compensate for petro-fueled vehicles. There are future hopes of using electric or biofuel vehicles.[137][138][139]

= =丹麦 = = 人口仅4200的丹麦萨姆索岛,基于风力发电和生物质区域供暖,目前产生额外的风力发电和出口电力,以补偿汽车的化石燃料,并未来有希望使用电动或生物燃料机动车。[137][138][139]

France 法国

On 27 June 2019, the French National Assembly voted into law the first article in a climate and energy package that sets goals for France to cut its greenhouse gas emissions and go carbon-neutral by 2050 in line with the 2015 Paris climate agreement.[140] This was approved by the French Senate on 18 July 2019.[141]

= = = = = = = = = = 2019年6月27日,法国国民议会投票通过了气候和能源一揽子计划中的第一项条款,该条款为法国设定了目标,要求法国按照2015年巴黎气候协定的承诺,在2050年前削减温室气体排放,实现碳中和。[140] 2019年7月18日,法国参议院批准了这一提案。[141]

Iceland 爱尔兰

模板:Update sectionIceland is also moving towards climate neutrality. Iceland generates over 99% of its electricity from renewable sources, namely hydroelectricity (approximately 80%) and geothermal (approximately 20%). No other nation uses such a high proportion of renewable energy resources.模板:Dubious[142] Over 99% of electricity production and almost 80% of total energy production comes from hydropower and geothermal. In February 2008, Costa Rica, Iceland, New Zealand and Norway were the first four countries to join the Climate Neutral Network, an initiative led by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to catalyze global action towards low carbon economies and societies.[143]

= = = 冰岛也在朝着气候中和的方向前进。冰岛99% 的电力来自可再生能源,即水力发电(约80%)和地热能(约20%)。目前,还没有其他国家使用如此高比例的可再生能源。[142] 超过99% 的电力生产和近80% 的能源生产来自水电和地热。2008年2月,哥斯达黎加、冰岛、新西兰和挪威是首批加入气候中性网络的四个国家,该网络是由联合国环境规划署领导的一项倡议,旨在促进采取全球行动,实现低碳经济和社会。[143]

Reykjavík aims to be carbon neutral by 2040.[144][145]

雷克雅未克的目标是到2040年实现碳中和。[144][145]

Japan 日本

In October 2020, Japan announced its plans to reach carbon neutrality in real terms by 2050, this passed the National Diet and was codified in law on 26 May 2021.[146]

2020年10月,日本宣布计划到2050年实际达到碳中和,这一计划在国会获得通过,并于2021年5月26日被编入法律。[146]

Maldives 马尔代夫

In March 2009, Mohamed Nasheed, then president of the Maldives, pledged to make his country carbon-neutral within a decade by moving to wind and solar power.[147] After he left the office, successive administrations abandoned the plan.[148]

马尔代夫2009年3月,时任总统 Mohamed Nasheed 承诺在十年内实现国家的碳中和,向风能和太阳能发电转型。[147] 但他离任后,历届政府都放弃了这个计划。[148]

New Zealand 新西兰

On November 7, 2019, New Zealand passed a bill requiring the country to be net zero for all greenhouse gases by 2050 (with the exception of biogenic methane, with plans to reduce that by 24模板:En dash47% below 2017 levels by 2050).[149][150][151]

= = = = = = = = = = 2019年11月7日,新西兰通过了一项法案,要求该国到2050年对所有温室气体实现零排放(除生物甲烷外,并计划到2050年将其排放量比2017年的水平减少2447%)。[149][150][151]

Norway 挪威

模板:Update sectionOn April 19, 2007, Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg announced to the Labour Party annual congress that Norway's greenhouse gas emissions would be cut by 10 percent more than its Kyoto commitment by 2012, and that the government had agreed to achieve emission cuts of 30% by 2020. He also proposed that Norway should become carbon neutral by 2050, and called upon other rich countries to do likewise.[152] This carbon neutrality would be achieved partly by carbon offsetting, a proposal criticized by Greenpeace, who also called on Norway to take responsibility for the 500m tonnes of emissions caused by its exports of oil and gas.[153] World Wildlife Fund Norway also believes that the purchase of carbon offsets is unacceptable, saying 'it is a political stillbirth to believe that China will quietly accept that Norway will buy climate quotas abroad'.[154] The Norwegian environmental activist Bellona Foundation believes that the prime minister was forced to act due to pressure from anti-European Union members of the coalition government, and called the announcement 'visions without content'.[154] In January 2008, the Norwegian government went a step further and declared a goal of being carbon neutral by 2030. But the government has not been specific about any plans to reduce emissions at home; the plan is based on buying carbon offsets from other countries, and very little has actually been done to reduce Norway's emissions, apart from a very successful policy for electric vehicles[155]

2007年4月19日,挪威首相延斯·斯托尔滕贝格在工党年度代表大会上宣布,挪威的温室气体排放量将比京都议定书承诺的到2012年减少10% ,而且挪威政府已经同意到2020年减排30% 。他还提议挪威到2050年实现碳中和,并呼吁其他富裕国家也共同参与。[152] 绿色和平组织批评了该项提案中将部分排放量通过碳补偿实现的做法,并呼吁挪威为其石油和天然气出口造成的5亿吨排放承担责任。[153] 世界野生动物基金会挪威也认为购买碳补偿是不可接受的,他们说,相信中国会默许挪威在国外购买气候配额的做法。[154] 挪威环保活动家贝娄娜基金会认为,首相是迫于来自联合政府中反欧盟成员国的压力而采取行动的,并称这份声明是“没有内容的愿景”。[154] 2008年1月,挪威政府更进一步,宣布到2030年实现碳中和的目标。但是挪威政府并没有具体说明任何在国内减少排放的计划; 该计划是基于从其他国家购买碳补偿,除了一项电动汽车政策之外,实际上在减少挪威的碳排放方面并未有实质行动。[155]

Spain 西班牙

In Spain, in 2014, the island of El Hierro became carbon neutral (for its power production).[156][157] Also, the city of Logroño Montecorvo in La Rioja will be carbon neutral once completed.[158][159]

= = = 西班牙 = = = 在西班牙,2014年,El Hierro 岛实现了碳中和(因为它的电力生产)。[156][157] 此外,一旦建成,拉里奥哈的金融城(Logroño Montecorvo)将实现碳中和。[158][159]

Sweden 瑞典

Sweden aims to become carbon neutral by 2045.[160] The vision is that net greenhouse gas emissions should be zero. The overall objective is that the increase in global temperature should be limited to two degrees, and that the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere stabilizes at a maximum of 400 ppm.[161]

瑞典的目标是到2045年实现碳中和。[160] 我们的愿景是,温室气体净排放量应该为零。总体目标是,全球气温的增加应限制在2摄氏度以内,大气中温室气体的浓度稳定在最高400ppm。[161]

South Korea 韩国

South Korea aims to be carbon neutral by 2050,[162] and enacted, on August 31, 2021, the enactment of the Carbon Neutral and Green Growth Basic Act, which stipulates the achievement of greenhouse gas reduction.[108] This bill, also called the 'Climate Crisis Response Act', mandates, by 2030, a 35% greenhouse gas reduction in the country compared to 2018.[108]

韩国的目标是到2050年实现碳中和,[162] 并于2021年8月31日颁布了《碳中和和绿色增长基本法案》 ,该法案规定实现温室气体减排。[108] 这项法案,也被称为气候危机应对法案,要求到2030年,该国的温室与2018年相比气体减少35% 。[161]

Vatican City 梵蒂冈

In July 2007, Vatican City announced a plan to become the first carbon-neutral state in the world, following the politics of the Pope to eliminate global warming. The goal would have been reached through a forest donated by a carbon offsetting company, which would have been located in the Bükk National Park, Hungary.[163] Eventually no trees were planted under the project and the carbon offsets did not materialise.[164][165]

2007年7月,梵蒂冈宣布计划成为世界上第一个实现碳中和的国家,仿效教皇为缓解全球变暖而采取的政治手段。这个目标可以通过一个碳补偿公司捐赠的一片森林来实现,该公司位于匈牙利的比克国家公园。[163] 最终,该项目没有种植树木,碳补偿也没有实现。[164][165]

In November 2008, the city state also installed and put into operation 2,400 solar panels on the roof of the Paul VI Centre audience hall.[166]

2008年11月,这个城市国家还在保罗六世中心观众大厅的屋顶安装并投入使用了2400块太阳能电池板。[166]

United Kingdom 英国

As recommended by the Committee on Climate Change (CCC) the government has legally committed to net zero greenhouse gas emissions by the United Kingdom by 2050[167] and the Energy and Climate Intelligence Unit (ECIU) has said it would be affordable. A range of techniques will be required including carbon sinks (greenhouse gas removal) in order to counterbalance emissions from agriculture and aviation. These carbon sinks might include reforestation, habitat restoration, soil carbon sequestration, bioenergy with carbon capture and storage and even direct air capture.[168] The UK government has recently linked attainment of net zero targets as a potential mechanism for improved air quality as a co-benefit.[169] In 2020 the UK government estimated that eliminating fossil fuels for home heating and transportation could lead to a tripling of demand for electricity.[170]

根据气候变化委员会(CCC)的建议,英国政府已经依法承诺到2050年实现温室气体净零排放,[167] 能源和气候情报单位(ECIU)表示,这是可以负担的。需要包括碳汇(温室气体清除) 在内的一系列技术,以补偿农业和航空业的排放。这些碳汇可能包括重新造林、栖息地恢复、土壤碳固存、碳捕获和储存生物能,甚至直接捕获空气。[168] 英国政府最近将实现零排放目标作为改善空气质量的潜在机制。[169] 2020年,英国政府估计,完全代替家庭取暖和交通所需的化石燃料,可能导致电力需求增长三倍。[170]

Scotland 苏格兰

Scotland has set a 2045 target.[171] The islands of Orkney have significant wind and marine energy resources, and renewable energy has recently come into prominence. Although Orkney is connected to the mainland, it generates over 100% of its net power from renewables.[172]模板:Unreliable source? This comes mainly from wind turbines situated right across Orkney

苏格兰计划在2045年实现碳中和。[171] 奥克尼群岛拥有丰富的风能和海洋能源资源,而可再生能源最近已成为人们关注的焦点。尽管奥克尼与陆地相连,但主要来自横跨奥克尼群岛的风力发电机可实现其100% 的净电力来自可再生能源。[172]

Carbon neutral initiatives 碳中和倡议

Many initiatives seek to assist individuals, businesses and states in reducing their carbon footprint or achieving climate neutrality. These include:

= = 碳中和倡议 = = 许多倡议寻求协助个人、企业和国家减少碳足印或实现气候中和。其中包括:

  • 澳大利亚政府气候活动碳中和认证;
  • 气候中性网络;
  • 关爱气候;
  • 碳中和联盟;
  • 企业实现碳中和的 Pathzero-Smart 排放管理平台;
  • 气候行动领导者;
  • GreenWise-为企业实现碳中和提供完整和简单的 SaaS 平台和咨询服务;
  • GreenLife-个人实现碳中和的可持续性每日指南;
  • The Greater Green Project: 由 Forestry & Citrus Research 发起的到2030年在津巴布韦种植10亿棵树的倡议。这个项目激励了全球南部地区迈向21碳中和;
  • 英国皇家学会 # 2050挑战-科学家共享研究关于到2050年实现净零排放。

Certification 认证

Although there is currently no international certification scheme for carbon or climate neutrality, some countries have established national certification schemes. Examples include Norwegian Eco-Lighthouse Program and the Australian government's Climate Active certification. In the private sector, organizations such as ClimatePartner can, for a fee, allow companies from many sectors to offset their carbon emissions using techniques like reforestation. These companies can then claim climate neutral status and even use the title online. However, there is no international clarity around these certifications and their validity.

= = 认证 = = 虽然目前没有碳或气候中和的国际认证制度,但一些国家已经建立了国家认证制度。例如,挪威生态灯塔计划和澳大利亚政府的气候活动认证。在私营部门, ClimatePartner 等组织可以有偿的允许企业使用重新造林等方式来补偿其碳排放。相关企业可以声明自己是气候中性的,甚至可以在互联网上使用这个头衔。然而,这些认证及其有效性在国际上并不明确。

Certifications are also available from the CEB,[173] BSI (PAS 2060) and The CarbonNeutral Company (CarbonNeutral).[174]

认证也可从CEB、[173]B SI (2060)和碳中和公司(CarbonNeutral)获取。[174]

Criticism 质疑

Tracing the history of certain illusions in climate policy from 1988 to 2021, climate scientists James Dyke, Robert Watson, and Wolfgang Knorr "[arrive] at the painful realisation that the idea of net zero has licensed a recklessly cavalier 'burn now, pay later' approach which has seen carbon emissions continue to soar... Current net zero policies will not keep warming to within 1.5°C because they were never intended to. They were and still are driven by a need to protect business as usual, not the climate. If we want to keep people safe then large and sustained cuts to carbon emissions need to happen now.…The time for wishful thinking is over.”[2]

= = 质疑 = = 追溯1988年至2021年气候政策中某些错误的历史,气候学家詹姆斯 · 戴克、罗伯特 · 沃森和沃尔夫冈 · 克诺尔痛苦地认识到,净零排放的想法已经默许了一种粗放的‘先排放,后买单’的做法,碳排放量继续上升... ... 目前的净零排放政策不会将气温保持在1.5摄氏度以内,因为它们从来没有计划这样做。它们过去和现在都是出于保护一切照旧的需要,而不是出于保护气候的需要。如果我们想保证人们的安全,那么现在就需要大规模、持续地削减碳排放... ... 一厢情愿的时代已经结束。”[2]

In March 2021, Tzeporah Berman, chair of the Fossil Fuel Non-Proliferation Treaty Initiative, argued that the Treaty would be a more genuine and realistic way to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement than the "Net zero" approach which, she claimed, is "delusional and based on bad science."[175]

2021年3月,化石燃料不扩散条约倡议组织(Fossil Fuel Non-Proliferation Treaty Initiative)主席泽波拉 · 伯曼(Tzeporah Berman)认为,与“净零”方法相比,该条约将是实现《巴黎协定》目标的一种更真实、更现实的方式。她声称,“净零”方法是“不切实际、基于错误的科学”[175]

Eric Reguly, of the Globe and Mail states that, “The net-zero pledges are both welcome and dubious. Most are back-end loaded, meaning the majority of the cuts are to come well after 2030...Most of these targets also assume...steady technological advances and outright breakthroughs...Fossil fuel exports will not figure into the national accounting for the net-zero goal.”[176]

《环球邮报》的埃里克 · 雷格利表示: “零排放承诺既受欢迎,又令人生疑。这些目标中的大多数还处于假设阶段... ... 稳定的技术进步和彻底的突破... ... 化石燃料出口将不会计入国家净零目标的核算。”[176]

In his 16-page report, Dangerous Distractions, economist Marc Lee states that, “‘Net zero’ has the potential to be a dangerous distraction that reduces the political pressure to achieve actual emission reductions…”[177][178] "A net zero target means less incentive to get to 'real zero' emissions from fossil fuels, an escape hatch that perpetuates business as usual and delays more meaningful climate action...Rather than gambling on carbon removal technologies of the future, Canada should plan for a managed wind down of fossil fuel production and invest public resources in bona fide solutions like renewables and a just transition from fossil fuels.”[177][178]

经济学家马克 · 李在他16页的报告《危险的干扰》中指出,“净零排放有可能成为一种危险的干扰,减少实现实际减排的政治压力... ...”[177][178]“净零排放目标意味着减少化石燃料实现‘真正零’排放的动力,延续一切照旧并推迟更有意义的气候行动的实施... ... 与其在未来的碳去除技术上赌博,加拿大应该计划有管理地逐步减少化石燃料的生产,并将公共资源投资于真正的解决方案,比如化石燃料的转型。”[177][178]

See also 其他


  • 2000-watt society
  • Kardashev scale
  • Carbon cycle
  • Carbon emission trading
  • Carbon fee and dividend
  • Carbon-neutral fuel
  • Carbon offset
  • Carbon sequestration
  • Cellulosic ethanol
  • Climate change mitigation
  • Climate Clock
  • Emissions trading
  • Live Earth
  • Low-carbon diet
  • Low Carbon Innovation Centre
  • Low-carbon economy
  • Zero-energy building


= = =

  • 2000瓦特社会
  • 卡尔达肖夫(Kardashev)量表
  • 碳循环
  • 碳污染减排计划
  • 碳收费和股息
  • 碳中性燃料
  • 碳抵消
  • 纤维素乙醇
  • 碳吸收
  • 减缓气候变化
  • 气候时钟
  • 排放交易
  • 活的地球
  • 低碳饮食
  • 低碳创新中心
  • 低碳经济
  • 零碳建筑

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  • 气候中立,《联合国气候变化框架公约》气候中立的三步法
  • 气候锁: 达到1.5摄氏度门槛的时间
  • 戒掉习惯: 联合国气候中立指南联合国环境规划署出版物
  • 如何计算碳足印


Category:Greenhouse gas emissions Category:Carbon dioxide Category:Renewable energy

类别: 温室气体排放类别: 二氧化碳类别: 可再生能源


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Carbon neutrality. Its edit history can be viewed at 碳中和/edithistory