社交网络

来自集智百科
跳到导航 跳到搜索

该词条由ZQ正在翻译.

该词条由Miyasaki审校

模板:Sociology

A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors. The social network perspective provides a set of methods for analyzing the structure of whole social entities as well as a variety of theories explaining the patterns observed in these structures.[1] The study of these structures uses social network analysis to identify local and global patterns, locate influential entities, and examine network dynamics.

A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors. The social network perspective provides a set of methods for analyzing the structure of whole social entities as well as a variety of theories explaining the patterns observed in these structures. The study of these structures uses social network analysis to identify local and global patterns, locate influential entities, and examine network dynamics.

社会网络是一种社会结构,由一组社会行为者(如个人或组织)、数组二元关系以及行为者之间的其他社会互动组成。社会网络视角为分析整个社会实体的结构提供了一套方法,也为解释这些结构中所观察到的模式提供了各种理论。这些结构的研究使用社会网络分析,以确定当地的和全球的模式,定位有影响力的实体,并考察网络动态。


Social networks and the analysis of them is an inherently interdisciplinary academic field which emerged from social psychology, sociology, statistics, and graph theory. Georg Simmel authored early structural theories in sociology emphasizing the dynamics of triads and "web of group affiliations".[2] Jacob Moreno is credited with developing the first sociograms in the 1930s to study interpersonal relationships. These approaches were mathematically formalized in the 1950s and theories and methods of social networks became pervasive in the social and behavioral sciences by the 1980s.[1][3] Social network analysis is now one of the major paradigms in contemporary sociology, and is also employed in a number of other social and formal sciences. Together with other complex networks, it forms part of the nascent field of network science.[4][5]

Social networks and the analysis of them is an inherently interdisciplinary academic field which emerged from social psychology, sociology, statistics, and graph theory. Georg Simmel authored early structural theories in sociology emphasizing the dynamics of triads and "web of group affiliations". Jacob Moreno is credited with developing the first sociograms in the 1930s to study interpersonal relationships. These approaches were mathematically formalized in the 1950s and theories and methods of social networks became pervasive in the social and behavioral sciences by the 1980s. Social network analysis is now one of the major paradigms in contemporary sociology, and is also employed in a number of other social and formal sciences. Together with other complex networks, it forms part of the nascent field of network science.

社会网络及其分析本质上就是一个跨学科的学术领域,源自社会心理学、社会学、统计学和图论。Georg Simmel是早期社会学结构主义理论的作者,他的理论强调三合会和“群体关系网”的动态。雅各布 · 莫雷诺被认为是在20世纪30年代开发了第一个社会关系网状图来研究人际关系的社会学家。这些方法在20世纪50年代被数学化,到20世纪80年代,社会网络的理论和方法在社会和行为科学中已变得很普遍了。社会网络分析现在是当代社会学的主要范式之一,也被用于许多其他社会科学和正规科学。与其他复杂网络一起,它构成了新兴的网络科学领域的一部分。


Overview

文件:Barabasi Albert model.gif
Evolution graph of a social network: Barabási model.

Barabási model.]]

Barabási model.]]


The social network is a theoretical construct useful in the social sciences to study relationships between individuals, groups, organizations, or even entire societies (social units, see differentiation). The term is used to describe a social structure determined by such interactions. The ties through which any given social unit connects represent the convergence of the various social contacts of that unit. This theoretical approach is, necessarily, relational. An axiom of the social network approach to understanding social interaction is that social phenomena should be primarily conceived and investigated through the properties of relations between and within units, instead of the properties of these units themselves. Thus, one common criticism of social network theory is that individual agency is often ignored[6] although this may not be the case in practice (see agent-based modeling). Precisely because many different types of relations, singular or in combination, form these network configurations, network analytics are useful to a broad range of research enterprises. In social science, these fields of study include, but are not limited to anthropology, biology, communication studies, economics, geography, information science, organizational studies, social psychology, sociology, and sociolinguistics.

The social network is a theoretical construct useful in the social sciences to study relationships between individuals, groups, organizations, or even entire societies (social units, see differentiation). The term is used to describe a social structure determined by such interactions. The ties through which any given social unit connects represent the convergence of the various social contacts of that unit. This theoretical approach is, necessarily, relational. An axiom of the social network approach to understanding social interaction is that social phenomena should be primarily conceived and investigated through the properties of relations between and within units, instead of the properties of these units themselves. Thus, one common criticism of social network theory is that individual agency is often ignored although this may not be the case in practice (see agent-based modeling). Precisely because many different types of relations, singular or in combination, form these network configurations, network analytics are useful to a broad range of research enterprises. In social science, these fields of study include, but are not limited to anthropology, biology, communication studies, economics, geography, information science, organizational studies, social psychology, sociology, and sociolinguistics.

社会网络是在社会科学中研究个人、团体、组织甚至整个社会(社会单位,见分化)之间关系的有用的理论构造。这个术语用来描述由这种相互作用决定的社会结构。任何一个特定的社会单元中联系的纽带都代表着这个单元内各种社会联系的汇聚。这种理论方法必然是相关的。理解社会互动的社会网络方法的一个公理是,社会现象应该主要从单元之间和单元内部关系的性质入手来构思和研究,而不是这些单元本身的性质。因此,对社会网络理论的一个常见批评是,个人能动性常常被忽视,尽管在实践中可能并非如此(见基于动因的建模)。正是因为许多不同类型的关系,单独或组合,形成这些网络配置,网络分析对各种各样的研究企业都有用。在社会科学中,这些研究领域包括但不限于人类学、生物学、传播学、经济学、地理学、信息科学、组织学、社会心理学、社会学和社会语言学。


History

In the late 1890s, both Émile Durkheim and Ferdinand Tönnies foreshadowed the idea of social networks in their theories and research of social groups. Tönnies argued that social groups can exist as personal and direct social ties that either link individuals who share values and belief (Gemeinschaft, German, commonly translated as "community") or impersonal, formal, and instrumental social links (Gesellschaft, German, commonly translated as "society").[7] Durkheim gave a non-individualistic explanation of social facts, arguing that social phenomena arise when interacting individuals constitute a reality that can no longer be accounted for in terms of the properties of individual actors.[8] Georg Simmel, writing at the turn of the twentieth century, pointed to the nature of networks and the effect of network size on interaction and examined the likelihood of interaction in loosely knit networks rather than groups.[9]

In the late 1890s, both Émile Durkheim and Ferdinand Tönnies foreshadowed the idea of social networks in their theories and research of social groups. Tönnies argued that social groups can exist as personal and direct social ties that either link individuals who share values and belief (Gemeinschaft, German, commonly translated as "community") or impersonal, formal, and instrumental social links (Gesellschaft, German, commonly translated as "society"). Durkheim gave a non-individualistic explanation of social facts, arguing that social phenomena arise when interacting individuals constitute a reality that can no longer be accounted for in terms of the properties of individual actors. Georg Simmel, writing at the turn of the twentieth century, pointed to the nature of networks and the effect of network size on interaction and examined the likelihood of interaction in loosely knit networks rather than groups.

在19世纪90年代晚期, Émile Durkheim和Ferdinand Tönnies在他们关于社会群体的理论和研究中都预示了社会网络的概念。Tönnies认为,社会群体可以作为个人和直接的社会关系存在,这种关系或者将具有共同价值观和信仰的个人联系在一起(德语 Gemeinschaft,通常翻译为“社区”) ,或者作为非个人的、正式的、重要的社会联系存在(德语 Gesellschaft,通常翻译为“社会”)。涂尔干对社会事实作了非个人主义的解释,认为当相互作用的个体们构成一种不能被个体行为者自身的特质解释的现实时,社会现象就产生了,而这种现实再也不能用个体行为者的特性来解释。Georg Simmel在20世纪之交的著作中指出了网络的本质和网络规模对互动的影响,并研究了在松散的网络而非群体中互动的可能性。


Moreno's sociogram of a 2nd grade class

Moreno's sociogram of a 2nd grade class

莫雷诺对一个二年级班级制作的社会关系网状图

Major developments in the field can be seen in the 1930s by several groups in psychology, anthropology, and mathematics working independently.[6][10][11] In psychology, in the 1930s, Jacob L. Moreno began systematic recording and analysis of social interaction in small groups, especially classrooms and work groups (see sociometry). In anthropology, the foundation for social network theory is the theoretical and ethnographic work of Bronislaw Malinowski,[12] Alfred Radcliffe-Brown,[13][14] and Claude Lévi-Strauss.[15] A group of social anthropologists associated with Max Gluckman and the Manchester School, including John A. Barnes,[16] J. Clyde Mitchell and Elizabeth Bott Spillius,[17][18] often are credited with performing some of the first fieldwork from which network analyses were performed, investigating community networks in southern Africa, India and the United Kingdom.[6] Concomitantly, British anthropologist S. F. Nadel codified a theory of social structure that was influential in later network analysis.[19] In sociology, the early (1930s) work of Talcott Parsons set the stage for taking a relational approach to understanding social structure.[20][21] Later, drawing upon Parsons' theory, the work of sociologist Peter Blau provides a strong impetus for analyzing the relational ties of social units with his work on social exchange theory.[22][23][24]

Major developments in the field can be seen in the 1930s by several groups in psychology, anthropology, and mathematics working independently. In psychology, in the 1930s, Jacob L. Moreno began systematic recording and analysis of social interaction in small groups, especially classrooms and work groups (see sociometry). In anthropology, the foundation for social network theory is the theoretical and ethnographic work of Bronislaw Malinowski, Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, and Claude Lévi-Strauss. A group of social anthropologists associated with Max Gluckman and the Manchester School, including John A. Barnes, J. Clyde Mitchell and Elizabeth Bott Spillius, often are credited with performing some of the first fieldwork from which network analyses were performed, investigating community networks in southern Africa, India and the United Kingdom. In sociology, the early (1930s) work of Talcott Parsons set the stage for taking a relational approach to understanding social structure. Later, drawing upon Parsons' theory, the work of sociologist Peter Blau provides a strong impetus for analyzing the relational ties of social units with his work on social exchange theory.

20世纪30年代,心理学、人类学和数学的几个小组各自工作,带来了这一领域的重大发展。在心理学方面,在20世纪30年代,Jacob L. Moreno开始系统地记录和分析小团体中的社会互动,尤其是课堂和工作团体中的社会互动(见社会人际学)。在人类学中,社会网络理论的基础是 Bronislaw Malinowski,Alfred Radcliffe-Brown, 和 Claude Lévi-Strauss的理论性和人种学著作。包括John a. Barnes、j. Clyde Mitchell和Elizabeth Bott Spillius在内的一群与Max Gluckman和曼彻斯特学院(Manchester School)有关的社会人类学家,经常被认为是进行了一些最早的田野研究,他们运用了社会网络分析调查了南非、印度和英国的社区网络。在社会学方面,Talcott Parsons早期(1930年代)的著作为采用关系方法理解社会结构奠定了基础。后来,社会学家Peter Blau的工作汲取了Parsons的理论,以他关于社会交换理论的著作为分析社会单位之间的关系提供了强大的动力。


By the 1970s, a growing number of scholars worked to combine the different tracks and traditions. One group consisted of sociologist Harrison White and his students at the Harvard University Department of Social Relations. Also independently active in the Harvard Social Relations department at the time were Charles Tilly, who focused on networks in political and community sociology and social movements, and Stanley Milgram, who developed the "six degrees of separation" thesis.[25] Mark Granovetter[26] and Barry Wellman[27] are among the former students of White who elaborated and championed the analysis of social networks.[26][28][29][30]

By the 1970s, a growing number of scholars worked to combine the different tracks and traditions. One group consisted of sociologist Harrison White and his students at the Harvard University Department of Social Relations. Also independently active in the Harvard Social Relations department at the time were Charles Tilly, who focused on networks in political and community sociology and social movements, and Stanley Milgram, who developed the "six degrees of separation" thesis. Mark Granovetter and Barry Wellman are among the former students of White who elaborated and championed the analysis of social networks.

到了20世纪70年代,越来越多的学者致力于将不同的轨迹和传统结合起来。其中一组由社会学家Harrison White和他在哈佛大学社会关系系的学生组成。当时在哈佛大学社会关系系独立活动的还有 Charles Tilly,他专注于政治和社区社会学和社会运动中的网络,以及 Stanley Milgram,他提出了六度分隔理论的论文。Mark Granovetter和 Barry Wellman 是 White 以前的学生,他们进一步发展并拥护社交网络的分析。


Beginning in the late 1990s, social network analysis experienced work by sociologists, political scientists, and physicists such as Duncan J. Watts, Albert-László Barabási, Peter Bearman, Nicholas A. Christakis, James H. Fowler, and others, developing and applying new models and methods to emerging data available about online social networks, as well as "digital traces" regarding face-to-face networks.

Beginning in the late 1990s, social network analysis experienced work by sociologists, political scientists, and physicists such as Duncan J. Watts, Albert-László Barabási, Peter Bearman, Nicholas A. Christakis, James H. Fowler, and others, developing and applying new models and methods to emerging data available about online social networks, as well as "digital traces" regarding face-to-face networks.

从20世纪90年代后期开始,社会网络分析经历了社会学家、政治学家和物理学家的工作,如Duncan J. Watts, Albert-László Barabási, Peter Bearman, Nicholas A. Christakis, James H. Fowler等人,开发并应用新的模型和方法来分析关于线上社会网络的最新可用数据,以及有关面对面网络的“数字痕迹”。


Levels of analysis

文件:Network self-organization stages.png
Self-organization of a network, based on Nagler, Levina, & Timme, (2011)[31]

Self-organization of a network, based on Nagler, Levina, & Timme, (2011)

网络的自我组织,基于 Nagler,Levina,& Timme,(2011)

Centrality

中心性

In general, social networks are self-organizing, emergent, and complex, such that a globally coherent pattern appears from the local interaction of the elements that make up the system.[32][33] These patterns become more apparent as network size increases. However, a global network analysis[34] of, for example, all interpersonal relationships in the world is not feasible and is likely to contain so much information as to be uninformative. Practical limitations of computing power, ethics and participant recruitment and payment also limit the scope of a social network analysis.[35][36] The nuances of a local system may be lost in a large network analysis, hence the quality of information may be more important than its scale for understanding network properties. Thus, social networks are analyzed at the scale relevant to the researcher's theoretical question. Although levels of analysis are not necessarily mutually exclusive, there are three general levels into which networks may fall: micro-level, meso-level, and macro-level.

In general, social networks are self-organizing, emergent, and complex, such that a globally coherent pattern appears from the local interaction of the elements that make up the system. These patterns become more apparent as network size increases. However, a global network analysis of, for example, all interpersonal relationships in the world is not feasible and is likely to contain so much information as to be uninformative. Practical limitations of computing power, ethics and participant recruitment and payment also limit the scope of a social network analysis. The nuances of a local system may be lost in a large network analysis, hence the quality of information may be more important than its scale for understanding network properties. Thus, social networks are analyzed at the scale relevant to the researcher's theoretical question. Although levels of analysis are not necessarily mutually exclusive, there are three general levels into which networks may fall: micro-level, meso-level, and macro-level.

一般来说,社会网络是自行组织的、新兴的、复杂的,以至于从组成系统的元素的局部相互作用中出现了一个整体一致的模式。随着网络规模的增大,这些模式变得更加明显。然而,一个整体的网络分析,例如,世界上所有的人际关系是不可行的,可能包含太多的信息,以至于没有提供信息。计算能力的实际限制、道德规范以及参与者的招募和酬劳也限制了社会网络分析的范围。本地系统的细微差别在大型网络分析中可能会丢失,因此对于理解网络属性来说,信息的质量可能比其规模更重要。因此,社会网络在与研究者的理论问题相关的尺度上被分析。虽然分析层次不一定相互排斥,但网络可以分为三个一般层次: 微观层次、中观层次和宏观层次。

 --Miyasaki讨论)此段第一行的global与local不知是全球/当地的意思还是整体/局部,暂时保留原译者的译法。

Micro level

At the micro-level, social network research typically begins with an individual, snowballing as social relationships are traced, or may begin with a small group of individuals in a particular social context.

At the micro-level, social network research typically begins with an individual, snowballing as social relationships are traced, or may begin with a small group of individuals in a particular social context.

在微观层面上,社会网络研究通常从个人开始,随着社会关系的追溯而像滚雪球一样扩大,或者可能从特定社会背景下的一小群人开始。


Dyadic level: A dyad is a social relationship between two individuals. Network research on dyads may concentrate on structure of the relationship (e.g. multiplexity, strength), social equality, and tendencies toward reciprocity/mutuality.

Dyadic level: A dyad is a social relationship between two individuals. Network research on dyads may concentrate on structure of the relationship (e.g. multiplexity, strength), social equality, and tendencies toward reciprocity/mutuality.

二元层次: 二元是两个人之间的社会关系。网络对二元关系的研究可以集中在关系的结构上(例如:。多样性,强度) ,社会平等,以及互惠互利的倾向。


Triadic level: Add one individual to a dyad, and you have a triad. Research at this level may concentrate on factors such as balance and transitivity, as well as social equality and tendencies toward reciprocity/mutuality.[35] In the balance theory of Fritz Heider the triad is the key to social dynamics. The discord in a rivalrous love triangle is an example of an unbalanced triad, likely to change to a balanced triad by a change in one of the relations. The dynamics of social friendships in society has been modeled by balancing triads. The study is carried forward with the theory of signed graphs.

Triadic level: Add one individual to a dyad, and you have a triad. Research at this level may concentrate on factors such as balance and transitivity, as well as social equality and tendencies toward reciprocity/mutuality. In the balance theory of Fritz Heider the triad is the key to social dynamics. The discord in a rivalrous love triangle is an example of an unbalanced triad, likely to change to a balanced triad by a change in one of the relations. The dynamics of social friendships in society has been modeled by balancing triads. The study is carried forward with the theory of signed graphs.

三元等级: 把一个人加到一个二元组中,你就有了一个三元组。这一层次的研究可能集中在诸如平衡和传递性等因素,以及社会平等和互惠 / 互惠的倾向。在 Fritz Heider的平衡理论中,三元组是社会动态的关键。一场竞争性的三角恋中的不和谐是不平衡的三角关系的一个例子,很可能通过其中一种关系的改变而变成平衡的三角关系。社会中社会友谊的动态模型是通过平衡三合会来建立的。研究通过符号图理论进行。


Actor level: The smallest unit of analysis in a social network is an individual in their social setting, i.e., an "actor" or "ego". Ego network analysis focuses on network characteristics such as size, relationship strength, density, centrality, prestige and roles such as isolates, liaisons, and bridges.[37] Such analyses, are most commonly used in the fields of psychology or social psychology, ethnographic kinship analysis or other genealogical studies of relationships between individuals.

Actor level: The smallest unit of analysis in a social network is an individual in their social setting, i.e., an "actor" or "ego". Ego network analysis focuses on network characteristics such as size, relationship strength, density, centrality, prestige and roles such as isolates, liaisons, and bridges. Such analyses, are most commonly used in the fields of psychology or social psychology, ethnographic kinship analysis or other genealogical studies of relationships between individuals.

行为者层面: 社会网络中最小的分析单位是社会环境中的个体,即“行为者”或“自我”。自我网络分析主要关注网络特征,如大小、关系强度、密度、中心性、声望和角色,如被孤立者、联络和联系纽带。这种分析最常用于心理学或社会心理学领域,民族志亲属关系分析或其他个人关系的系谱研究。


Subset level: Subset levels of network research problems begin at the micro-level, but may cross over into the meso-level of analysis. Subset level research may focus on distance and reachability, cliques, cohesive subgroups, or other group actions or behavior.[38]

Subset level: Subset levels of network research problems begin at the micro-level, but may cross over into the meso-level of analysis. Subset level research may focus on distance and reachability, cliques, cohesive subgroups, or other group actions or behavior.

子集级别: 网络研究问题的子集级别开始于微观级别,但可能跨越到中观级别的分析。子集级别的研究可能集中在距离和可达性、派系、凝聚子群或其他群体行为或行为。


Meso level

In general, meso-level theories begin with a population size that falls between the micro- and macro-levels. However, meso-level may also refer to analyses that are specifically designed to reveal connections between micro- and macro-levels. Meso-level networks are low density and may exhibit causal processes distinct from interpersonal micro-level networks.[39]

In general, meso-level theories begin with a population size that falls between the micro- and macro-levels. However, meso-level may also refer to analyses that are specifically designed to reveal connections between micro- and macro-levels. Meso-level networks are low density and may exhibit causal processes distinct from interpersonal micro-level networks.

一般来说,中观层面的理论始于介于微观和宏观层面之间的人口规模。然而,中观层面也可以指专门为揭示微观和宏观层面之间的联系而设计的分析。中观层次的网络是低密度的,可能表现出不同于人际微观层次网络的因果过程。


文件:Social Red.jpg
Social network diagram, meso-level

Social network diagram, meso-level

中层社会网络图


Organizations: Formal organizations are social groups that distribute tasks for a collective goal.[40] Network research on organizations may focus on either intra-organizational or inter-organizational ties in terms of formal or informal relationships. Intra-organizational networks themselves often contain multiple levels of analysis, especially in larger organizations with multiple branches, franchises or semi-autonomous departments. In these cases, research is often conducted at a work group level and organization level, focusing on the interplay between the two structures.[40] Experiments with networked groups online have documented ways to optimize group-level coordination through diverse interventions, including the addition of autonomous agents to the groups.[41]

Organizations: Formal organizations are social groups that distribute tasks for a collective goal. Network research on organizations may focus on either intra-organizational or inter-organizational ties in terms of formal or informal relationships. Intra-organizational networks themselves often contain multiple levels of analysis, especially in larger organizations with multiple branches, franchises or semi-autonomous departments. In these cases, research is often conducted at a work group level and organization level, focusing on the interplay between the two structures.

组织: 正式组织是为共同目标分配任务的社会团体。关于组织的网络研究可以侧重于正式或非正式关系方面的组织内或组织间联系。组织内网络本身往往包含多层次的分析,特别是在具有多个分支机构、特许经营权或半自治部门的大型组织中。在这些情况下,研究通常在工作组和组织层面进行,重点放在两个结构之间的相互作用。


Randomly distributed networks: Exponential random graph models of social networks became state-of-the-art methods of social network analysis in the 1980s. This framework has the capacity to represent social-structural effects commonly observed in many human social networks, including general degree-based structural effects commonly observed in many human social networks as well as reciprocity and transitivity, and at the node-level, homophily and attribute-based activity and popularity effects, as derived from explicit hypotheses about dependencies among network ties. Parameters are given in terms of the prevalence of small subgraph configurations in the network and can be interpreted as describing the combinations of local social processes from which a given network emerges. These probability models for networks on a given set of actors allow generalization beyond the restrictive dyadic independence assumption of micro-networks, allowing models to be built from theoretical structural foundations of social behavior.[42]

Randomly distributed networks: Exponential random graph models of social networks became state-of-the-art methods of social network analysis in the 1980s. This framework has the capacity to represent social-structural effects commonly observed in many human social networks, including general degree-based structural effects commonly observed in many human social networks as well as reciprocity and transitivity, and at the node-level, homophily and attribute-based activity and popularity effects, as derived from explicit hypotheses about dependencies among network ties. Parameters are given in terms of the prevalence of small subgraph configurations in the network and can be interpreted as describing the combinations of local social processes from which a given network emerges. These probability models for networks on a given set of actors allow generalization beyond the restrictive dyadic independence assumption of micro-networks, allowing models to be built from theoretical structural foundations of social behavior.

随机分布的网络: 社会网络的指数随机图模型在20世纪80年代成为最先进的社会网络分析方法。这个框架能够代表在许多人类社会网络中普遍观察到的社会结构效应,包括在许多人类社会网络中普遍观察到的基于程度的一般性结构效应以及互惠性和传递性,以及在节点一级、同质性和基于属性的活动和流行性效应,这些效应源于关于网络关系之间依赖性的明确假设。参数是根据网络中小型子图配置的流行程度给出的,可以解释为描述一个给定网络出现的局部社会过程的组合。这些关于给定的参与者的网络的概率模型让超越微型网络的限制性并元独立性假设的泛化成为可能,允许模型从社会行为的理论结构基础上建立。


Examples of a random network and a scale-free network. Each graph has 32 nodes and 32 links. Note the "hubs" (shaded) in the scale-free diagram (on the right).

Examples of a random network and a scale-free network. Each graph has 32 nodes and 32 links. Note the "hubs" (shaded) in the scale-free diagram (on the right).

一个随机网络和一个无尺度网络的例子。每个图有32个节点和32个链接。注意无标度图中的“集线器”(阴影部分)(右侧)。


Scale-free networks: A scale-free network is a network whose degree distribution follows a power law, at least asymptotically. In network theory a scale-free ideal network is a random network with a degree distribution that unravels the size distribution of social groups.[43] Specific characteristics of scale-free networks vary with the theories and analytical tools used to create them, however, in general, scale-free networks have some common characteristics. One notable characteristic in a scale-free network is the relative commonness of vertices with a degree that greatly exceeds the average. The highest-degree nodes are often called "hubs", and may serve specific purposes in their networks, although this depends greatly on the social context. Another general characteristic of scale-free networks is the clustering coefficient distribution, which decreases as the node degree increases. This distribution also follows a power law.[44] The Barabási model of network evolution shown above is an example of a scale-free network.

Scale-free networks: A scale-free network is a network whose degree distribution follows a power law, at least asymptotically. In network theory a scale-free ideal network is a random network with a degree distribution that unravels the size distribution of social groups. Specific characteristics of scale-free networks vary with the theories and analytical tools used to create them, however, in general, scale-free networks have some common characteristics. One notable characteristic in a scale-free network is the relative commonness of vertices with a degree that greatly exceeds the average. The highest-degree nodes are often called "hubs", and may serve specific purposes in their networks, although this depends greatly on the social context. Another general characteristic of scale-free networks is the clustering coefficient distribution, which decreases as the node degree increases. This distribution also follows a power law. The Barabási model of network evolution shown above is an example of a scale-free network.

无标度网络: 无尺度网络网络是一个度分布遵循幂律的网络,至少是渐近的。在网络理论中,无标度理想网络是一个具有度分布的随机网络,它揭示了社会群体的规模分布。无标度网络的具体特征随创建无标度网络的理论和分析工具的不同而不同,然而,一般来说,无标度网络具有一些共同的特征。无尺度网络的一个显著特征是,度大大超过平均值的顶点具有相对的共性。最高度的节点通常被称为“枢纽” ,并且可能在其网络中服务于特定的目的,尽管这在很大程度上取决于社会环境。无标度网络的另一个普遍特征是集聚系数分布,它随着节点度的增加而减少。这个分布也遵循一个幂定律。上面显示的网络演化的 Barabási 模型就是无尺度网络的一个例子。


Macro level

Rather than tracing interpersonal interactions, macro-level analyses generally trace the outcomes of interactions, such as economic or other resource transfer interactions over a large population.

Rather than tracing interpersonal interactions, macro-level analyses generally trace the outcomes of interactions, such as economic or other resource transfer interactions over a large population.

宏观层面的分析通常追踪相互作用的结果,例如经济或其他资源转移在一大群体中的相互作用,而不是追踪人与人之间的相互作用。


文件:Diagram of a social network.jpg
Diagram: section of a large-scale social network

Diagram: section of a large-scale social network

图: 一个大型社交网络的一部分


Large-scale networks: Large-scale network is a term somewhat synonymous with "macro-level" as used, primarily, in social and behavioral sciences, in economics. Originally, the term was used extensively in the computer sciences (see large-scale network mapping).

Large-scale networks: Large-scale network is a term somewhat synonymous with "macro-level" as used, primarily, in social and behavioral sciences, in economics. Originally, the term was used extensively in the computer sciences (see large-scale network mapping).

大规模网络: 大规模网络是一个与“宏观层面”同义的术语,主要用于社会和行为科学,经济学。最初,这个术语在计算机科学中被广泛使用(见大比例尺网络地图)。


Complex networks: Most larger social networks display features of social complexity, which involves substantial non-trivial features of network topology, with patterns of complex connections between elements that are neither purely regular nor purely random (see, complexity science, dynamical system and chaos theory), as do biological, and technological networks. Such complex network features include a heavy tail in the degree distribution, a high clustering coefficient, assortativity or disassortativity among vertices, community structure (see stochastic block model), and hierarchical structure. In the case of agency-directed networks these features also include reciprocity, triad significance profile (TSP, see network motif), and other features. In contrast, many of the mathematical models of networks that have been studied in the past, such as lattices and random graphs, do not show these features.[45]

Complex networks: Most larger social networks display features of social complexity, which involves substantial non-trivial features of network topology, with patterns of complex connections between elements that are neither purely regular nor purely random (see, complexity science, dynamical system and chaos theory), as do biological, and technological networks. Such complex network features include a heavy tail in the degree distribution, a high clustering coefficient, assortativity or disassortativity among vertices, community structure (see stochastic block model), and hierarchical structure. In the case of agency-directed networks these features also include reciprocity, triad significance profile (TSP, see network motif), and other features. In contrast, many of the mathematical models of networks that have been studied in the past, such as lattices and random graphs, do not show these features.

复杂网络: 大多数较大的社会网络呈现出社会复杂性的特征,包括网络拓扑的大量非琐碎特征,以及元素之间的复杂连接模式,这些元素既不是纯规则的也不是纯随机的(见复杂性科学、动力系统和混沌理论) ,生物学和技术网络也是如此。这些复杂的网络特征包括程度分布的重尾、高集聚系数、顶点之间的协调性或不协调性、社区结构(见随机块模型)和层次结构。在代理导向网络的情况下,这些特征还包括互惠性、三重显著性特征(TSP,见网络主题)和其他特征。相比之下,许多过去研究过的网络数学模型,如点阵和随机图,并没有表现出这些特征。


Theoretical links

Imported theories

Various theoretical frameworks have been imported for the use of social network analysis. The most prominent of these are Graph theory, Balance theory, Social comparison theory, and more recently, the Social identity approach.[46]

Various theoretical frameworks have been imported for the use of social network analysis. The most prominent of these are Graph theory, Balance theory, Social comparison theory, and more recently, the Social identity approach.

为了使用社会网络分析,已经引入了各种理论框架。其中最突出的是图论、平衡论、社会比较论,以及最近的社会认同方法。


Indigenous theories

Few complete theories have been produced from social network analysis. Two that have are structural role theory and heterophily theory.

Few complete theories have been produced from social network analysis. Two that have are structural role theory and heterophily theory.

很少有完整的理论产生于社会网络分析。不过有两完整理论是例外,即结构角色理论和异质性理论。


The basis of Heterophily Theory was the finding in one study that more numerous weak ties can be important in seeking information and innovation, as cliques have a tendency to have more homogeneous opinions as well as share many common traits. This homophilic tendency was the reason for the members of the cliques to be attracted together in the first place. However, being similar, each member of the clique would also know more or less what the other members knew. To find new information or insights, members of the clique will have to look beyond the clique to its other friends and acquaintances. This is what Granovetter called "the strength of weak ties".[47]

The basis of Heterophily Theory was the finding in one study that more numerous weak ties can be important in seeking information and innovation, as cliques have a tendency to have more homogeneous opinions as well as share many common traits. This homophilic tendency was the reason for the members of the cliques to be attracted together in the first place. However, being similar, each member of the clique would also know more or less what the other members knew. To find new information or insights, members of the clique will have to look beyond the clique to its other friends and acquaintances. This is what Granovetter called "the strength of weak ties".

异质性理论的基础是在一项研究中发现,弱关系更多可以在寻求信息和创新方面发挥重要作用,因为小团体不仅有许多共同特征,也倾向于有更同质化的观点。这种同质化倾向是小团体成员被吸引到一起的首要原因。然而,由于相似,小圈子里的每一个成员或多或少都知道其他成员所知道的事情。为了找到新的信息或见解,小圈子里的成员将不得不超越小圈子,关注其他的朋友和熟人。这就是Granovetter所说的“弱关系的力量”。


Structural holes

In the context of networks, social capital exists where people have an advantage because of their location in a network. Contacts in a network provide information, opportunities and perspectives that can be beneficial to the central player in the network. Most social structures tend to be characterized by dense clusters of strong connections.[48] Information within these clusters tends to be rather homogeneous and redundant. Non-redundant information is most often obtained through contacts in different clusters.[49] When two separate clusters possess non-redundant information, there is said to be a structural hole between them.[49] Thus, a network that bridges structural holes will provide network benefits that are in some degree additive, rather than overlapping. An ideal network structure has a vine and cluster structure, providing access to many different clusters and structural holes.[49]

In the context of networks, social capital exists where people have an advantage because of their location in a network. Contacts in a network provide information, opportunities and perspectives that can be beneficial to the central player in the network. Most social structures tend to be characterized by dense clusters of strong connections. Information within these clusters tends to be rather homogeneous and redundant. Non-redundant information is most often obtained through contacts in different clusters. When two separate clusters possess non-redundant information, there is said to be a structural hole between them. Thus, a network that bridges structural holes will provide network benefits that are in some degree additive, rather than overlapping. An ideal network structure has a vine and cluster structure, providing access to many different clusters and structural holes.

在网络的背景下,社会资本存在于人们在网络中具有结构性优势的地方。网络中的联系人提供的信息、机会和观点可能有利于网络中的核心参与者。大多数社会结构的特色倾向于由高密度集群的强关系定义。这些集群中的信息往往是相当均匀和冗余的。非冗余信息通常是通过不同集群中的联系人获得的。当两个独立的集群拥有非冗余信息时,我们称它们之间存在一个结构洞。因此,一个填补结构洞的网络将提供在某种程度上具有附加性的网络效益,而不是重叠的。理想的网络结构具有蔓生结构和集群结构,提供达到许多不同集群和结构洞的途径。


Networks rich in structural holes are a form of social capital in that they offer information benefits. The main player in a network that bridges structural holes is able to access information from diverse sources and clusters.[49] For example, in business networks, this is beneficial to an individual's career because he is more likely to hear of job openings and opportunities if his network spans a wide range of contacts in different industries/sectors. This concept is similar to Mark Granovetter's theory of weak ties, which rests on the basis that having a broad range of contacts is most effective for job attainment.

Networks rich in structural holes are a form of social capital in that they offer information benefits. The main player in a network that bridges structural holes is able to access information from diverse sources and clusters. For example, in business networks, this is beneficial to an individual's career because he is more likely to hear of job openings and opportunities if his network spans a wide range of contacts in different industries/sectors. This concept is similar to Mark Granovetter's theory of weak ties, which rests on the basis that having a broad range of contacts is most effective for job attainment.

富含结构洞的网络是社会资本的一种形式,因为它们提供信息利益。填补结构洞的网络中的主要参与者能够访问来自不同来源和集群的信息。例如,在商业网络中,这对个人的职业生涯是有益的,因为如果他的关系网涵盖不同行业/部门的广泛联系,他更有可能了解空缺职位和机会。这个概念类似于Mark Granovetter的弱关系理论,该理论的基础是拥有广泛的联系对于获得工作是最有效的。


Research clusters

Communication

Communication Studies are often considered a part of both the social sciences and the humanities, drawing heavily on fields such as sociology, psychology, anthropology, information science, biology, political science, and economics as well as rhetoric, literary studies, and semiotics. Many communication concepts describe the transfer of information from one source to another, and can thus be conceived of in terms of a network.

Communication Studies are often considered a part of both the social sciences and the humanities, drawing heavily on fields such as sociology, psychology, anthropology, information science, biology, political science, and economics as well as rhetoric, literary studies, and semiotics. Many communication concepts describe the transfer of information from one source to another, and can thus be conceived of in terms of a network.

传播学通常被认为是社会科学和人文科学的一部分,主要集中在社会学、心理学、人类学、信息科学、生物学、政治学、经济学以及修辞学、文学研究和符号学等领域。许多通信概念描述了信息从一个来源到另一个来源的转移,因此可以从网络的角度来考虑。


Community

In J.A. Barnes' day, a "community" referred to a specific geographic location and studies of community ties had to do with who talked, associated, traded, and attended church with whom. Today, however, there are extended "online" communities developed through telecommunications devices and social network services. Such devices and services require extensive and ongoing maintenance and analysis, often using network science methods. Community development studies, today, also make extensive use of such methods.

In J.A. Barnes' day, a "community" referred to a specific geographic location and studies of community ties had to do with who talked, associated, traded, and attended church with whom. Today, however, there are extended "online" communities developed through telecommunications devices and social network services. Such devices and services require extensive and ongoing maintenance and analysis, often using network science methods. Community development studies, today, also make extensive use of such methods.

在J.A. Barnes的时代,一个“社区”指的是一个特定的地理位置和社区关系的研究与谁交谈,联系,贸易;与谁一起去教堂。然而,今天,通过电信设备和社交网络服务,有了扩展的“在线”社区。这样的设备和服务需要广泛和持续的维护和分析,通常使用网络科学的方法。今天的社区发展研究也广泛使用这些方法。


Complex networks

Complex networks require methods specific to modelling and interpreting social complexity and complex adaptive systems, including techniques of dynamic network analysis.

Complex networks require methods specific to modelling and interpreting social complexity and complex adaptive systems, including techniques of dynamic network analysis.

复杂网络需要建模和解释社会复杂性和复杂适应系统的特定方法,包括动态网络分析技术。

Mechanisms such as Dual-phase evolution explain how temporal changes in connectivity contribute to the formation of structure in social networks.

Mechanisms such as Dual-phase evolution explain how temporal changes in connectivity contribute to the formation of structure in social networks.

双阶段进化等机制解释了连接性中的短暂变化如何促进社会网络结构的形成。


Criminal networks

In criminology and urban sociology, much attention has been paid to the social networks among criminal actors. For example, Andrew Papachristos[50] has studied gang murders as a series of exchanges between gangs. Murders can be seen to diffuse outwards from a single source, because weaker gangs cannot afford to kill members of stronger gangs in retaliation, but must commit other violent acts to maintain their reputation for strength.

In criminology and urban sociology, much attention has been paid to the social networks among criminal actors. For example, Andrew Papachristos has studied gang murders as a series of exchanges between gangs. Murders can be seen to diffuse outwards from a single source, because weaker gangs cannot afford to kill members of stronger gangs in retaliation, but must commit other violent acts to maintain their reputation for strength.

在犯罪学和城市社会学中,犯罪行为人之间的社会网络问题受到了广泛的关注。例如,Andrew Papachristos将帮派谋杀作为帮派之间的一系列交换来研究。谋杀可以被视为从单一来源向外扩散,因为较弱的帮派无法承担杀死较强帮派成员进行报复的代价,但必须采取其他暴力行动来维护他们强硬的声誉。


Diffusion of innovations

Diffusion of ideas and innovations studies focus on the spread and use of ideas from one actor to another or one culture and another. This line of research seeks to explain why some become "early adopters" of ideas and innovations, and links social network structure with facilitating or impeding the spread of an innovation.

Diffusion of ideas and innovations studies focus on the spread and use of ideas from one actor to another or one culture and another. This line of research seeks to explain why some become "early adopters" of ideas and innovations, and links social network structure with facilitating or impeding the spread of an innovation.

思想和创新的传播研究的重点是思想从一个行动者传播到另一个行动者或一种文化和另一种文化。这一系列的研究试图解释为什么有些人成为创意和创新的“早期接受者” ,并将社交网络结构与促进或阻碍创新的传播联系起来。


Demography

In demography, the study of social networks has led to new sampling methods for estimating and reaching populations that are hard to enumerate (for example, homeless people or intravenous drug users.) For example, respondent driven sampling is a network-based sampling technique that relies on respondents to a survey recommending further respondents.

In demography, the study of social networks has led to new sampling methods for estimating and reaching populations that are hard to enumerate (for example, homeless people or intravenous drug users.) For example, respondent driven sampling is a network-based sampling technique that relies on respondents to a survey recommending further respondents.

在人口统计学方面,对社会网络的研究导致了新的抽样方法,用于估计和接触难以统计的人口(例如,无家可归的人或静脉注射毒品的人)例如,受访者驱动的抽样是一种基于网络的抽样技术,依赖于调查的受访者推荐进一步的受访者。


Economic sociology

The field of sociology focuses almost entirely on networks of outcomes of social interactions. More narrowly, economic sociology considers behavioral interactions of individuals and groups through social capital and social "markets". Sociologists, such as Mark Granovetter, have developed core principles about the interactions of social structure, information, ability to punish or reward, and trust that frequently recur in their analyses of political, economic and other institutions. Granovetter examines how social structures and social networks can affect economic outcomes like hiring, price, productivity and innovation and describes sociologists' contributions to analyzing the impact of social structure and networks on the economy.[51]

The field of sociology focuses almost entirely on networks of outcomes of social interactions. More narrowly, economic sociology considers behavioral interactions of individuals and groups through social capital and social "markets". Sociologists, such as Mark Granovetter, have developed core principles about the interactions of social structure, information, ability to punish or reward, and trust that frequently recur in their analyses of political, economic and other institutions. Granovetter examines how social structures and social networks can affect economic outcomes like hiring, price, productivity and innovation and describes sociologists' contributions to analyzing the impact of social structure and networks on the economy.

社会学领域几乎完全关注社会互动的结果网络。更狭义地说,经济社会学通过社会资本和社会“市场”考虑个人和群体的行为互动。社会学家,如马克·格兰诺维特,已经发展出关于社会结构、信息、惩罚或奖励能力和信任相互作用的核心原则,这些原则在他们对政治、经济和其他制度的分析中经常出现。格兰诺维特研究了社会结构和社会网络如何影响经济结果,如雇佣、价格、生产力和创新,并描述了社会学家对分析社会结构和网络对经济的影响的贡献。


Health care

Analysis of social networks is increasingly incorporated into health care analytics, not only in epidemiological studies but also in models of patient communication and education, disease prevention, mental health diagnosis and treatment, and in the study of health care organizations and systems.[52]

Analysis of social networks is increasingly incorporated into health care analytics, not only in epidemiological studies but also in models of patient communication and education, disease prevention, mental health diagnosis and treatment, and in the study of health care organizations and systems.

社会网络分析不仅在流行病学研究中,而且在病人沟通和教育模型、疾病预防、心理健康诊断和治疗以及卫生保健组织和系统的研究中,越来越多地被纳入卫生保健分析中。


Human ecology

Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural, social, and built environments. The scientific philosophy of human ecology has a diffuse history with connections to geography, sociology, psychology, anthropology, zoology, and natural ecology.[53][54]

Human ecology is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary study of the relationship between humans and their natural, social, and built environments. The scientific philosophy of human ecology has a diffuse history with connections to geography, sociology, psychology, anthropology, zoology, and natural ecology.

人类生态学是一门跨学科、跨学科的学科,研究人类与自然、社会和人造环境之间的关系。人类生态学的科学哲学与地理学、社会学、心理学、人类学、动物学和自然生态学有着密切的联系。


Language and linguistics

Studies of language and linguistics, particularly evolutionary linguistics, focus on the development of linguistic forms and transfer of changes, sounds or words, from one language system to another through networks of social interaction. Social networks are also important in language shift, as groups of people add and/or abandon languages to their repertoire.

Studies of language and linguistics, particularly evolutionary linguistics, focus on the development of linguistic forms and transfer of changes, sounds or words, from one language system to another through networks of social interaction. Social networks are also important in language shift, as groups of people add and/or abandon languages to their repertoire.

语言学和语言学的研究,特别是演化语言学,集中在语言形式的发展和变化,声音或词汇的转移,从一个语言系统到另一个通过社会互动的网络。社交网络在语言转换中也很重要,因为一群人增加或者放弃了他们的语言。


Literary networks

In the study of literary systems, network analysis has been applied by Anheier, Gerhards and Romo,[55] De Nooy,[56] and Senekal,[57] to study various aspects of how literature functions. The basic premise is that polysystem theory, which has been around since the writings of Even-Zohar, can be integrated with network theory and the relationships between different actors in the literary network, e.g. writers, critics, publishers, literary histories, etc., can be mapped using visualization from SNA.

In the study of literary systems, network analysis has been applied by Anheier, Gerhards and Romo, De Nooy, and Senekal, to study various aspects of how literature functions. The basic premise is that polysystem theory, which has been around since the writings of Even-Zohar, can be integrated with network theory and the relationships between different actors in the literary network, e.g. writers, critics, publishers, literary histories, etc., can be mapped using visualization from SNA.

在文学体系的研究中,网络分析被Anheier,Gerhards 和 Romo,De Nooy和Senekal应用于研究文学功能的各个方面。其基本前提是多元系统理论可以与网络理论以及文学网络中不同行为者之间的关系相结合。作家、评论家、出版商、文学史等等,都可以通过使用 SNA 的可视化来绘制地图。


Organizational studies

Research studies of formal or informal organization relationships, organizational communication, economics, economic sociology, and other resource transfers. Social networks have also been used to examine how organizations interact with each other, characterizing the many informal connections that link executives together, as well as associations and connections between individual employees at different organizations.[58] Intra-organizational networks have been found to affect organizational commitment,[59] organizational identification,[37] interpersonal citizenship behaviour.[60]

Research studies of formal or informal organization relationships, organizational communication, economics, economic sociology, and other resource transfers. Social networks have also been used to examine how organizations interact with each other, characterizing the many informal connections that link executives together, as well as associations and connections between individual employees at different organizations. Intra-organizational networks have been found to affect organizational commitment, organizational identification, interpersonal citizenship behaviour.

研究正式或非正式的组织关系,组织沟通,经济,经济社会学和其他资源转移。社交网络也被用来研究组织之间如何相互作用,描述了许多非正式的联系,以及不同组织的个别雇员之间的联系和联系。研究发现,组织内网络对组织承诺、组织认同、人际公民行为有显著影响。


Social capital

Social capital is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central, transactions are marked by reciprocity, trust, and cooperation, and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good. Social capital is split into three dimensions: the structural, the relational and the cognitive dimension. The structural dimension describes how partners interact with each other and which specific partners meet in a social network. Also The structural dimension of social capital indicates the level of ties among organizations.[61]. This dimension is highly connected to the relational dimension which refers to trustworthiness, norms, expectations and idenfications of the bonds between partners.The relational dimension explains the nature of these ties which is mainly illustrated by the level of trust accorded to the network of organizations. [62] The cognitive dimension analyses the extent to which organizations share common goals and objectives as a result of their ties and interactions. [63]

Social capital is a form of economic and cultural capital in which social networks are central, transactions are marked by reciprocity, trust, and cooperation, and market agents produce goods and services not mainly for themselves, but for a common good. Social capital is split into three dimensions: the structural, the relational and the cognitive dimension. The structural dimension describes how partners interact with each other and which specific partners meet in a social network. Also The structural dimension of social capital indicates the level of ties among organizations.. This dimension is highly connected to the relational dimension which refers to trustworthiness, norms, expectations and idenfications of the bonds between partners.The relational dimension explains the nature of these ties which is mainly illustrated by the level of trust accorded to the network of organizations. The cognitive dimension analyses the extent to which organizations share common goals and objectives as a result of their ties and interactions.

社会资本是一种经济和文化资本,其中社会网络是中心,交易以互惠、信任和合作为特征,市场代理人生产的商品和服务不主要是为他们自己,而是为了共同的利益。社会资本分为三个维度: 结构维度、关系维度和认知维度。结构维度描述了合作伙伴之间如何相互作用,以及哪些特定的合作伙伴在社交网络中相遇。社会资本的结构维度反映了组织之间的关系水平。这个维度与关系维度高度相关,关系维度指的是伴侣之间关系的可信度、规范、期望和相同性。 关系维度解释了这些联系的本质,主要表现在对组织网络的信任程度上。认知维度分析组织因其联系和相互作用而在多大程度上共享共同的目标和目的。


Social capital is a sociological concept about the value of social relations and the role of cooperation and confidence to achieve positive outcomes. The term refers to the value one can get from their social ties. For example, newly arrived immigrants can make use of their social ties to established migrants to acquire jobs they may otherwise have trouble getting (e.g., because of unfamiliarity with the local language). A positive relationship exists between social capital and the intensity of social network use.[64][65] In a dynamic framework, higher activity in a network feeds into higher social capital which itself encourages more activity.[66]

Social capital is a sociological concept about the value of social relations and the role of cooperation and confidence to achieve positive outcomes. The term refers to the value one can get from their social ties. For example, newly arrived immigrants can make use of their social ties to established migrants to acquire jobs they may otherwise have trouble getting (e.g., because of unfamiliarity with the local language). A positive relationship exists between social capital and the intensity of social network use. In a dynamic framework, higher activity in a network feeds into higher social capital which itself encourages more activity.

社会资本是一个关于社会关系的价值和合作与信心在实现正面结果时的作用的社会学概念。这个术语指的是一个人可以从他们的社会关系中获得的价值。例如,新来的移民可以利用他们与老移民的社会关系,获得他们在其他情况下可能难以获得的工作(例如,因为不熟悉当地语言)。社会资本与社会网络使用强度存在正相关关系。在一个动态的框架中,网络中更高的活动会产生更高的社会资本,而社会资本本身又会鼓励更多的活动。




Br /


Advertising

This particular cluster focuses on brand-image and promotional strategy effectiveness, taking into account the impact of customer participation on sales and brand-image. This is gauged through techniques such as sentiment analysis which rely on mathematical areas of study such as data mining and analytics. This area of research produces vast numbers of commercial applications as the main goal of any study is to understand consumer behaviour and drive sales.

This particular cluster focuses on brand-image and promotional strategy effectiveness, taking into account the impact of customer participation on sales and brand-image. This is gauged through techniques such as sentiment analysis which rely on mathematical areas of study such as data mining and analytics. This area of research produces vast numbers of commercial applications as the main goal of any study is to understand consumer behaviour and drive sales.

这个集群侧重于品牌形象和促销策略的有效性,同时考虑到顾客参与对销售和品牌形象的影响。这是通过诸如情感分析等技术来衡量的,而这些技术依赖于数学领域的研究,如数据挖掘和分析。因为任何研究的主要目标都是了解消费者行为并推动销售,这一研究领域产生了大量的商业应用。


Network position and benefits

In many organizations, members tend to focus their activities inside their own groups, which stifles creativity and restricts opportunities. A player whose network bridges structural holes has an advantage in detecting and developing rewarding opportunities.[48] Such a player can mobilize social capital by acting as a "broker" of information between two clusters that otherwise would not have been in contact, thus providing access to new ideas, opinions and opportunities. British philosopher and political economist John Stuart Mill, writes, "it is hardly possible to overrate the value ... of placing human beings in contact with persons dissimilar to themselves.... Such communication [is] one of the primary sources of progress."[67] Thus, a player with a network rich in structural holes can add value to an organization through new ideas and opportunities. This in turn, helps an individual's career development and advancement.

In many organizations, members tend to focus their activities inside their own groups, which stifles creativity and restricts opportunities. A player whose network bridges structural holes has an advantage in detecting and developing rewarding opportunities. Thus, a player with a network rich in structural holes can add value to an organization through new ideas and opportunities. This in turn, helps an individual's career development and advancement.

在许多组织中,成员倾向于把他们的活动集中在他们自己的团队中,这抑制了创造力和限制了机会。一个自己的网络能填补结构洞的人能在发现和发展有回报的机会时占据优势。因此,一个拥有丰富结构洞的网络的玩家可以用新的想法和机会为组织增加价值。这反过来又有助于个人的职业发展和晋升。


A social capital broker also reaps control benefits of being the facilitator of information flow between contacts. In the case of consulting firm Eden McCallum, the founders were able to advance their careers by bridging their connections with former big three consulting firm consultants and mid-size industry firms.[68] By bridging structural holes and mobilizing social capital, players can advance their careers by executing new opportunities between contacts.

A social capital broker also reaps control benefits of being the facilitator of information flow between contacts. In the case of consulting firm Eden McCallum, the founders were able to advance their careers by bridging their connections with former big three consulting firm consultants and mid-size industry firms. By bridging structural holes and mobilizing social capital, players can advance their careers by executing new opportunities between contacts.

作为联系人之间信息流动的促进者,社会资本经纪人还能获得控制权益。在咨询公司 Eden McCallum 的例子中,创始人能够通过与前三大咨询公司咨询师和中等规模的行业公司建立联系来促进自己的职业生涯。通过填补结构洞并调动社会资本,参与者可以通过在联系人之间创造新的机会来促进自己的职业生涯。


There has been research that both substantiates and refutes the benefits of information brokerage. A study of high tech Chinese firms by Zhixing Xiao found that the control benefits of structural holes are "dissonant to the dominant firm-wide spirit of cooperation and the information benefits cannot materialize due to the communal sharing values" of such organizations.[69] However, this study only analyzed Chinese firms, which tend to have strong communal sharing values. Information and control benefits of structural holes are still valuable in firms that are not quite as inclusive and cooperative on the firm-wide level. In 2004, Ronald Burt studied 673 managers who ran the supply chain for one of America's largest electronics companies. He found that managers who often discussed issues with other groups were better paid, received more positive job evaluations and were more likely to be promoted.[48] Thus, bridging structural holes can be beneficial to an organization, and in turn, to an individual's career.

There has been research that both substantiates and refutes the benefits of information brokerage. A study of high tech Chinese firms by Zhixing Xiao found that the control benefits of structural holes are "dissonant to the dominant firm-wide spirit of cooperation and the information benefits cannot materialize due to the communal sharing values" of such organizations. However, this study only analyzed Chinese firms, which tend to have strong communal sharing values. Information and control benefits of structural holes are still valuable in firms that are not quite as inclusive and cooperative on the firm-wide level. In 2004, Ronald Burt studied 673 managers who ran the supply chain for one of America's largest electronics companies. He found that managers who often discussed issues with other groups were better paid, received more positive job evaluations and were more likely to be promoted. Thus, bridging structural holes can be beneficial to an organization, and in turn, to an individual's career.

研究既证实又反驳了信息经纪的好处。知行晓对中国高科技企业的一项研究发现,结构性漏洞的控制效益“与占主导地位的企业合作精神不协调,由于共享的强调分享的价值,信息效益不能具现化”。然而,这项研究只分析了中国企业,这些企业往往有很强的共享的强调分享的价值观。结构性漏洞的信息和控制效益对于那些在整个公司层面上不那么具有包容性和合作性的公司来说仍然是有价值的。在2004年,Ronald Burt研究了673名管理者,他们管理美国最大的电子公司之一的供应链。他发现,那些经常与其他团体讨论问题的管理人员收入更高,得到的工作评价更积极,也更有可能获得晋升。因此,填补结构洞对组织有益,因此对个人的职业生涯也有益。


Social media

模板:Main article

Computer networks combined with social networking software produces a new medium for social interaction.[70] A relationship over a computerized social networking service can be characterized by context, direction, and strength. The content of a relation refers to the resource that is exchanged. In a computer mediated communication context, social pairs exchange different kinds of information, including sending a data file or a computer program as well as providing emotional support or arranging a meeting. With the rise of electronic commerce, information exchanged may also correspond to exchanges of money, goods or services in the "real" world.[71] Social network analysis methods have become essential to examining these types of computer mediated communication.

Computer networks combined with social networking software produces a new medium for social interaction. A relationship over a computerized social networking service can be characterized by context, direction, and strength. The content of a relation refers to the resource that is exchanged. In a computer mediated communication context, social pairs exchange different kinds of information, including sending a data file or a computer program as well as providing emotional support or arranging a meeting. With the rise of electronic commerce, information exchanged may also correspond to exchanges of money, goods or services in the "real" world. Social network analysis methods have become essential to examining these types of computer mediated communication.

计算机网络与社交网络软件的结合为社交互动提供了一种新的媒介。通过计算机化的社交网络服务建立起来的关系可以用背景、方向和强度来描述。关系的内容指的是交换的资源。在计算机中介的交流环境中,社会对交换不同种类的信息,包括发送数据文件或计算机程序,以及提供情感支持或安排会议。随着电子商务的兴起,交换的信息也可能对应于“现实”世界中的货币、商品或服务的交换。社会网络分析方法已经成为考察这些类型的计算机中介交流的必要手段。


In addition, the sheer size and the volatile nature of social media has given rise to new network metrics. A key concern with networks extracted from social media is the lack of robustness of network metrics given missing data.[72]

In addition, the sheer size and the volatile nature of social media has given rise to new network metrics. A key concern with networks extracted from social media is the lack of robustness of network metrics given missing data.

此外,社交媒体的庞大规模和不稳定性也催生了新的网络指标。从社交媒体中提取网络的一个关键问题是,在缺失数据的情况下,网络指标缺乏健壮性。


See also

模板:Cmn

}}


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Wasserman, Stanley; Faust, Katherine (1994). "Social Network Analysis in the Social and Behavioral Sciences". Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–27. ISBN 9780521387071. 
  2. Scott, W. Richard; Davis, Gerald F. (2003). "Networks In and Around Organizations". Organizations and Organizing. Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-195893-7. 
  3. Freeman, Linton (2004). The Development of Social Network Analysis: A Study in the Sociology of Science. Empirical Press. ISBN 978-1-59457-714-7. 
  4. Borgatti, Stephen P.; Mehra, Ajay; Brass, Daniel J.; Labianca, Giuseppe (2009). "Network Analysis in the Social Sciences". Science. 323 (5916): 892–895. Bibcode:2009Sci...323..892B. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.536.5568. doi:10.1126/science.1165821. PMID 19213908.
  5. Easley, David; Kleinberg, Jon (2010). "Overview". Networks, Crowds, and Markets: Reasoning about a Highly Connected World. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–20. ISBN 978-0-521-19533-1. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Scott, John P. (2000). Social Network Analysis: A Handbook (2nd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
  7. Tönnies, Ferdinand (1887). Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft, Leipzig: Fues's Verlag. (Translated, 1957 by Charles Price Loomis as Community and Society, East Lansing: Michigan State University Press.)
  8. Durkheim, Emile (1893). De la division du travail social: étude sur l'organisation des sociétés supérieures, Paris: F. Alcan. (Translated, 1964, by Lewis A. Coser as The Division of Labor in Society, New York: Free Press.)
  9. Simmel, Georg (1908). Soziologie, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot.
  10. For a historical overview of the development of social network analysis, see: Carrington, Peter J.; Scott, John (2011). "Introduction". The Sage Handbook of Social Network Analysis. Sage. p. 1. ISBN 978-1-84787-395-8. https://books.google.com/books?id=2chSmLzClXgC&pg=PA1. 
  11. See also the diagram in Scott, John (2000). Social Network Analysis: A Handbook. Sage. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7619-6339-4. https://books.google.com/books?id=Ww3_bKcz6kgC&pg=PA8. 
  12. Malinowski, Bronislaw (1913). The Family Among the Australian Aborigines: A Sociological Study. London: University of London Press.
  13. Radcliffe-Brown, Alfred Reginald (1930) The social organization of Australian tribes. Sydney, Australia: University of Sydney Oceania monographs, No.1.
  14. Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. (1940). "On social structure". Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. 70 (1): 1–12. doi:10.2307/2844197. JSTOR 2844197.
  15. Lévi-Strauss, Claude ([1947]1967). Les structures élémentaires de la parenté. Paris: La Haye, Mouton et Co. (Translated, 1969 by J. H. Bell, J. R. von Sturmer, and R. Needham, 1969, as The Elementary Structures of Kinship, Boston: Beacon Press.)
  16. Barnes, John (1954). "Class and Committees in a Norwegian Island Parish". Human Relations, (7): 39–58.
  17. Freeman, Linton C.; Wellman, Barry (1995). "A note on the ancestoral Toronto home of social network analysis". Connections. 18 (2): 15–19.
  18. Savage, Mike (2008). "Elizabeth Bott and the formation of modern British sociology". The Sociological Review. 56 (4): 579–605. doi:10.1111/j.1467-954x.2008.00806.x.
  19. Nadel, S. F. 1957. The Theory of Social Structure. London: Cohen and West.
  20. Parsons, Talcott ([1937] 1949). The Structure of Social Action: A Study in Social Theory with Special Reference to a Group of European Writers. New York: The Free Press.
  21. Parsons, Talcott (1951). The Social System. New York: The Free Press.
  22. Blau, Peter (1956). Bureaucracy in Modern Society. New York: Random House, Inc.
  23. Blau, Peter (1960). "A Theory of Social Integration". The American Journal of Sociology, (65)6: 545–556, (May).
  24. Blau, Peter (1964). Exchange and Power in Social Life.
  25. Bernie Hogan. "The Networked Individual: A Profile of Barry Wellman".
  26. 26.0 26.1 Granovetter, Mark (2007). "Introduction for the French Reader". Sociologica. 2: 1–8.
  27. Wellman, Barry (1988). "Structural analysis: From method and metaphor to theory and substance". pp. 19–61 in B. Wellman and S. D. Berkowitz (eds.) Social Structures: A Network Approach, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  28. Mullins, Nicholas. Theories and Theory Groups in Contemporary American Sociology. New York: Harper and Row, 1973.
  29. Tilly, Charles, ed. An Urban World. Boston: Little Brown, 1974.
  30. Wellman, Barry. 1988. "Structural Analysis: From Method and Metaphor to Theory and Substance". pp. 19–61 in Social Structures: A Network Approach, edited by Barry Wellman and S. D. Berkowitz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  31. Nagler, Jan; Anna Levina; Marc Timme (2011). "Impact of single links in competitive percolation". Nature Physics. 7 (3): 265–270. arXiv:1103.0922. Bibcode:2011NatPh...7..265N. doi:10.1038/nphys1860.
  32. Newman, Mark, Albert-László Barabási and Duncan J. Watts (2006). The Structure and Dynamics of Networks (Princeton Studies in Complexity). Oxford: Princeton University Press.
  33. Wellman, Barry (2008). "Review: The development of social network analysis: A study in the sociology of science". Contemporary Sociology. 37 (3): 221–222. doi:10.1177/009430610803700308.
  34. Faust, Stanley Wasserman; Katherine (1998). Social network analysis : methods and applications (Reprint. ed.). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0521382694. 
  35. 35.0 35.1 Kadushin, C. (2012). Understanding social networks: Theories, concepts, and findings. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  36. Granovetter, M. (1976). "Network sampling: Some first steps". American Journal of Sociology. 81 (6): 1287–1303. doi:10.1086/226224.
  37. 37.0 37.1 Jones, C.; Volpe, E.H. (2011). "Organizational identification: Extending our understanding of social identities through social networks". Journal of Organizational Behavior. 32 (3): 413–434. doi:10.1002/job.694.
  38. de Nooy, Wouter (2012). "Social Network Analysis, Graph Theoretical Approaches to". "Graph Theoretical Approaches to Social Network Analysis". in Computational Complexity: Theory, Techniques, and Applications (Robert A. Meyers, ed.). Springer. pp. 2864–2877. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-1800-9_176. ISBN 978-1-4614-1800-9. 
  39. Hedström, Peter; Sandell, Rickard; Stern, Charlotta (2000). "Mesolevel Networks and the Diffusion of Social Movements: The Case of the Swedish Social Democratic Party" (PDF). American Journal of Sociology. 106 (1): 145–172. doi:10.1086/303109.
  40. 40.0 40.1 Riketta, M.; Nienber, S. (2007). "Multiple identities and work motivation: The role of perceived compatibility between nested organizational units". British Journal of Management. 18: S61–77. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8551.2007.00526.x.
  41. Shirado, Hirokazu; Christakis, Nicholas A (2017). "Locally noisy autonomous agents improve global human coordination in network experiments". Nature. 545 (7654): 370–374. Bibcode:2017Natur.545..370S. doi:10.1038/nature22332. PMC 5912653. PMID 28516927.
  42. Cranmer, Skyler J.; Desmarais, Bruce A. (2011). "Inferential Network Analysis with Exponential Random Graph Models". Political Analysis. 19 (1): 66–86. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.623.751. doi:10.1093/pan/mpq037.
  43. Moreira, André A.; Demétrius R. Paula; Raimundo N. Costa Filho; José S. Andrade, Jr. (2006). "Competitive cluster growth in complex networks". Physical Review E. 73 (6): 065101. arXiv:cond-mat/0603272. Bibcode:2006PhRvE..73f5101M. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.73.065101. PMID 16906890.
  44. Barabási, Albert-László (2003). Linked: how everything is connected to everything else and what it means for business, science, and everyday life. New York: Plum.
  45. Strogatz, Steven H. (2001). "Exploring complex networks". Nature. 410 (6825): 268–276. Bibcode:2001Natur.410..268S. doi:10.1038/35065725. PMID 11258382.
  46. Kilduff, M.; Tsai, W. (2003). Social networks and organisations. Sage Publications. 
  47. Granovetter, M. (1973). "The strength of weak ties". American Journal of Sociology. 78 (6): 1360–1380. doi:10.1086/225469.
  48. 48.0 48.1 48.2 Burt, Ronald (2004). "Structural Holes and Good Ideas". American Journal of Sociology. 110 (2): 349–399. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.388.2251. doi:10.1086/421787.
  49. 49.0 49.1 49.2 49.3 Burt, Ronald (1992). Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 
  50. Papachristos, Andrew (2009). "Murder by Structure: Dominance Relations and the Social Structure of Gang Homicide" (PDF). American Journal of Sociology. 115 (1): 74–128. doi:10.2139/ssrn.855304. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  51. Granovetter, Mark (2005). "The Impact of Social Structure on Economic Outcomes". The Journal of Economic Perspectives. 19 (1): 33–50. doi:10.1257/0895330053147958. JSTOR 4134991.
  52. Levy, Judith and Bernice Pescosolido (2002). Social Networks and Health. Boston, MA: JAI Press.
  53. Crona, Beatrice and Klaus Hubacek (eds.) (2010). "Special Issue: Social network analysis in natural resource governance". Ecology and Society, 48.
  54. Ernstson, Henrich (2010). "Reading list: Using social network analysis (SNA) in social-ecological studies". Resilience Science
  55. Anheier, H. K.; Romo, F. P. (1995). "Forms of capital and social structure of fields: examining Bourdieu's social topography". American Journal of Sociology. 100 (4): 859–903. doi:10.1086/230603.
  56. De Nooy, W (2003). "Fields and networks: Correspondence analysis and social network analysis in the framework of Field Theory". Poetics. 31 (5–6): 305–327. doi:10.1016/S0304-422X(03)00035-4.
  57. Senekal, B. A. (2012). "Die Afrikaanse literêre sisteem: ʼn Eksperimentele benadering met behulp van Sosiale-netwerk-analise (SNA)". LitNet Akademies. 9: 3.
  58. Podolny, J. M.; Baron, J. N. (1997). "Resources and relationships: Social networks and mobility in the workplace". American Sociological Review. 62 (5): 673–693. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.114.6822. doi:10.2307/2657354. JSTOR 2657354.
  59. Lee, J.; Kim, S. (2011). "Exploring the role of social networks in affective organizational commitment: Network centrality, strength of ties, and structural holes". The American Review of Public Administration. 41 (2): 205–223. doi:10.1177/0275074010373803.
  60. Bowler, W. M.; Brass, D. J. (2011). "Relational correlates of interpersonal citizenship behaviour: A social network perspective". Journal of Applied Psychology. 91 (1): 70–82. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.516.8746. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.91.1.70. PMID 16435939.
  61. (Claridge, 2018).
  62. (Claridge, 2018).
  63. (Claridge, 2018).
  64. Sebastián, Valenzuela; Namsu Park; Kerk F. Kee (2009). "Is There Social Capital in a Social Network Site? Facebook Use and College Students' Life Satisfaction, Trust, and Participation". Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 14 (4): 875–901. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2009.01474.x.
  65. Wang, Hua & Barry Wellman (2010). "Social Connectivity in America: Changes in Adult Friendship Network Size from 2002 to 2007". American Behavioral Scientist. 53 (8): 1148–1169. doi:10.1177/0002764209356247.
  66. Gaudeul, Alexia; Giannetti, Caterina (2013). "The role of reciprocation in social network formation, with an application to LiveJournal". Social Networks. 35 (3): 317–330. doi:10.1016/j.socnet.2013.03.003. ISSN 0378-8733.
  67. Mill, John (1909). Principles of Political Economy. Library of Economics and Liberty: William J Ashley. 
  68. Gardner, Heidi; Eccles, Robert (2011). "Eden McCallum: A Network Based Consulting Firm". Harvard Business School Review.
  69. Xiao, Zhixing; Tsui, Anne (2007). "When Brokers May Not Work: The Cultural Contingency of Social Capital in Chinese High-tech Firms". Administrative Science Quarterly.
  70. Amichai-Hamburger, Yair; Hayat, Tsahi (2017) (in en). The International Encyclopedia of Media Effects. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. doi:10.1002/9781118783764.wbieme0170. ISBN 9781118783764. 
  71. Garton, Laura; Haythornthwaite, Caroline; Wellman, Barry (23 June 2006). "Studying Online Social Networks". Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 3 (1): 0. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.1997.tb00062.x.
  72. Wei, Wei; Joseph, Kenneth; Liu, Huan; Carley, Kathleen M. (2016). "Exploring Characteristics of Suspended Users and Network Stability on Twitter". Social Network Analysis and Mining. 6: 51. doi:10.1007/s13278-016-0358-5.


Further reading

  • Estrada, E (2011). The Structure of Complex Networks: Theory and Applications. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-199-59175-6. 
  • Ferguson, Niall (2018). The Square and the Tower: Networks and Power, from the Freemasons to Facebook. Penguin Press. ISBN 978-0735222915. 
  • Freeman, Linton C. (2004). The Development of Social Network Analysis: A Study in the Sociology of Science. Empirical Press. ISBN 978-1-59457-714-7. 
  • Kadushin, Charles (2012). Understanding Social Networks: Theories, Concepts, and Findings. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-537946-4. 
  • Mauro, Rios; Petrella, Carlos (2014) (in Spanish). La Quimera de las Redes Sociales. Bubok España. ISBN 978-9974-99-637-3. 
  • Wasserman, Stanley; Faust, Katherine (1994). Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-38269-4. 
  • Wellman, Barry; Berkowitz, S. D. (1988). Social Structures: A Network Approach. Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24441-1. 


External links

模板:Commons category


Organizations


Peer-reviewed journals


Textbooks and educational resources


Data sets


模板:Social networking

模板:Social sciences

模板:Online social networking

Category:Communication theory

范畴: 传播理论

Category:Community building

类别: 社区建设

Category:Complex systems theory

范畴: 复杂系统理论

Category:Network theory

范畴: 网络理论

Category:Organizational theory

类别: 组织行为学

Category:Self-organization

类别: 自我组织

Category:Social information processing

类别: 社会信息处理

Category:Social systems

类别: 社会系统

Category:Sociological terminology

类别: 社会学术语

Category:Sociological theories

范畴: 社会学理论

Category:Systems theory

范畴: 系统论


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Social network. Its edit history can be viewed at 社交网络/edithistory