社会科学

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Archaeology is one of the social sciences.

Archaeology is one of the social sciences.

考古学是一门社会科学。

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Social science is the branch of science devoted to the study of societies and the relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to refer to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. In addition to sociology, it now encompasses a wide array of academic disciplines, including anthropology, archaeology, economics, human geography, linguistics, management science, media studies, political science, psychology, and social history. (For a more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences see: Outline of social science.)

Social science is the branch of science devoted to the study of societies and the relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to refer to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. In addition to sociology, it now encompasses a wide array of academic disciplines, including anthropology, archaeology, economics, human geography, linguistics, management science, media studies, political science, psychology, and social history. (For a more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences see: Outline of social science.)

社会科学是致力于研究社会和社会中个人之间关系的科学分支。这个术语以前用来指社会学领域,最初的“社会科学”建立于19世纪。除了社会学之外,它现在还包括了一系列广泛的学科,包括人类学、考古学、经济学、人文地理学、语言学、管理学、媒体研究、政治学、心理学和社会历史。(更详细的社会科学分支清单见: 社会科学大纲。)


Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, and thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are often eclectic, using multiple methodologies (for instance, by combining both quantitative and qualitative research). The term "social research" has also acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods.

Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, and thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are often eclectic, using multiple methodologies (for instance, by combining both quantitative and qualitative research). The term "social research" has also acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods.

实证主义的社会科学家使用的方法类似于那些自然科学的工具来理解社会,因此定义科学在其更严格的现代意义。相比之下,解释主义社会科学家可能使用社会批判或符号解释,而不是构建可以凭经验证伪的理论,因此在更广泛的意义上对待科学。在现代学术实践中,研究人员通常是折衷主义的,使用多种方法学(例如,将定量和质性研究相结合)。”社会研究”一词也获得了一定程度的自主权,因为来自不同学科的从业人员共享其目标和方法。


History

Early censuses and surveys provided demographic data.

早期人口普查和调查提供了人口数据。

The history of the social sciences begins in the Age of Enlightenment after 1650,[1] which saw a revolution within natural philosophy, changing the basic framework by which individuals understood what was "scientific". Social sciences came forth from the moral philosophy of the time and were influenced by the Age of Revolutions, such as the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution.[2] The social sciences developed from the sciences (experimental and applied), or the systematic knowledge-bases or prescriptive practices, relating to the social improvement of a group of interacting entities.[3][4]

The history of the social sciences begins in the Age of Enlightenment after 1650, which saw a revolution within natural philosophy, changing the basic framework by which individuals understood what was "scientific". Social sciences came forth from the moral philosophy of the time and were influenced by the Age of Revolutions, such as the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution. Social science was influenced by positivism,

社会科学的历史始于1650年以后的启蒙时代,自然哲学发生了革命,改变了个人理解什么是“科学”的基本框架。社会科学发端于当时的道德哲学,并受到革命时代的影响,如工业革命和法国大革命。社会科学受到实证主义的影响,


The beginnings of the social sciences in the 18th century are reflected in the grand encyclopedia of Diderot, with articles from Jean-Jacques Rousseau and other pioneers. The growth of the social sciences is also reflected in other specialized encyclopedias. The modern period saw "social science" first used as a distinct conceptual field.[5] Social science was influenced by positivism,[2] focusing on knowledge based on actual positive sense experience and avoiding the negative; metaphysical speculation was avoided. Auguste Comte used the term "science sociale" to describe the field, taken from the ideas of Charles Fourier; Comte also referred to the field as social physics.[2][6]

Following this period, five paths of development sprang forth in the social sciences, influenced by Comte in other fields. Examples of boundary blurring include emerging disciplines like social research of medicine, sociobiology, neuropsychology, bioeconomics and the history and sociology of science. Increasingly, quantitative research and qualitative methods are being integrated in the study of human action and its implications and consequences. In the first half of the 20th century, statistics became a free-standing discipline of applied mathematics. Statistical methods were used confidently.

这一时期以后,在孔德的影响下,社会科学出现了五条发展道路。界限模糊的例子包括新兴学科,如医学的社会研究、社会生物学、神经心理学、生物经济学和科学的历史和社会学。越来越多的定量研究和定性方法被纳入人类行为及其影响和后果的研究中。20世纪上半叶,统计学成为一门独立的应用数学学科。统计方法使用自信。


Following this period, five paths of development sprang forth in the social sciences, influenced by Comte in other fields.[2] One route that was taken was the rise of social research. Large statistical surveys were undertaken in various parts of the United States and Europe. Another route undertaken was initiated by Émile Durkheim, studying "social facts", and Vilfredo Pareto, opening metatheoretical ideas and individual theories. A third means developed, arising from the methodological dichotomy present, in which social phenomena were identified with and understood; this was championed by figures such as Max Weber. The fourth route taken, based in economics, was developed and furthered economic knowledge as a hard science. The last path was the correlation of knowledge and social values; the antipositivism and verstehen sociology of Max Weber firmly demanded this distinction. In this route, theory (description) and prescription were non-overlapping formal discussions of a subject.

In the contemporary period, Karl Popper and Talcott Parsons influenced the furtherance of the social sciences. Within the United States, anthropology is divided into four sub-fields: archaeology, physical or biological anthropology, anthropological linguistics, and cultural anthropology. It is an area that is offered at most undergraduate institutions. The word anthropos (ἄνθρωπος) in Ancient Greek means "human being" or "person". Eric Wolf described sociocultural anthropology as "the most scientific of the humanities, and the most humanistic of the sciences".

在当代,波普尔和帕森斯影响了社会科学的进一步发展。在美国,人类学分为4个子领域: 考古学、体质人类学、人类语言学和文化人类学。这是一个在大多数本科院校提供的领域。古希腊语中的 anthropology 意为“人”或“人”。埃里克 · 沃尔夫将社会文化人类学描述为“最科学的人文学科,最人文的科学”。


The foundation of social sciences in the West implies conditioned relationships between progressive and traditional spheres of knowledge. In some contexts, such as the Italian one, sociology slowly affirms itself and experiences the difficulty of affirming a strategic knowledge beyond philosophy and theology (Cfr. Guglielmo Rinzivillo, La scienza e l'oggetto. Autocritica del sapere strategico, Milan, Franco Angeli editor, 2010, p. 51 e sg.

).

The goal of anthropology is to provide a holistic account of humans and human nature. This means that, though anthropologists generally specialize in only one sub-field, they always keep in mind the biological, linguistic, historic and cultural aspects of any problem. Since anthropology arose as a science in Western societies that were complex and industrial, a major trend within anthropology has been a methodological drive to study peoples in societies with more simple social organization, sometimes called "primitive" in anthropological literature, but without any connotation of "inferior". Today, anthropologists use terms such as "less complex" societies or refer to specific modes of subsistence or production, such as "pastoralist" or "forager" or "horticulturalist" to refer to humans living in non-industrial, non-Western cultures, such people or folk (ethnos) remaining of great interest within anthropology.

人类学的目标是对人和人的本性进行整体性的描述。这意味着,尽管人类学家通常只专注于一个子领域,但他们始终牢记任何问题的生物学、语言学、历史和文化方面。自从人类学作为一门科学在复杂和工业化的西方社会中兴起以来,人类学中的一个主要趋势就是一种方法论驱动力,即研究社会组织较为简单的社会中的人民,在人类学文献中有时被称为”原始” ,但没有任何”下等”的。今天,人类学家使用”不太复杂”的社会等术语,或提及特定的生存或生产模式,例如”牧民”或”采摘者”或”园艺家” ,来指生活在非工业化、非西方文化中的人类,这些人或民族在人类学中仍然具有极大的兴趣。


Around the start of the 20th century, Enlightenment philosophy was challenged in various quarters. After the use of classical theories since the end of the scientific revolution, various fields substituted mathematics studies for experimental studies and examining equations to build a theoretical structure. The development of social science subfields became very quantitative in methodology. The interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary nature of scientific inquiry into human behaviour, social and environmental factors affecting it, made many of the natural sciences interested in some aspects of social science methodology.[7] Examples of boundary blurring include emerging disciplines like social research of medicine, sociobiology, neuropsychology, bioeconomics and the history and sociology of science. Increasingly, quantitative research and qualitative methods are being integrated in the study of human action and its implications and consequences. In the first half of the 20th century, statistics became a free-standing discipline of applied mathematics. Statistical methods were used confidently.

The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a people in detail, using biogenetic, archaeological, and linguistic data alongside direct observation of contemporary customs. In the 1990s and 2000s, calls for clarification of what constitutes a culture, of how an observer knows where his or her own culture ends and another begins, and other crucial topics in writing anthropology were heard. It is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large, evolving global culture. These dynamic relationships, between what can be observed on the ground, as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology, whether cultural, biological, linguistic or archaeological.

对整体论的追求使得大多数人类学家利用生物遗传学、考古学和语言学的数据,以及对当代习俗的直接观察,对一个民族进行详细的研究。在20世纪90年代和21世纪初,人们呼吁澄清什么是文化,观察者如何知道自己的文化在哪里结束,另一种文化在哪里开始,以及其他人类学写作中的关键话题。我们可以把所有的人类文化看作是一个庞大的、不断发展的全球文化的一部分。这些动态的关系,存在于可以在实地观察到的事物与可以通过汇编许多当地观察到的事物之间,这些动态的关系在任何类型的人类学中,无论是文化的、生物的、语言的还是考古学的,都是基本的。


In the contemporary period, Karl Popper and Talcott Parsons influenced the furtherance of the social sciences.[2] Researchers continue to search for a unified consensus on what methodology might have the power and refinement to connect a proposed "grand theory" with the various midrange theories that, with considerable success, continue to provide usable frameworks for massive, growing data banks; for more, see consilience. The social sciences will for the foreseeable future be composed of different zones in the research of, and sometime distinct in approach toward, the field.[2]


The term "social science" may refer either to the specific sciences of society established by thinkers such as Comte, Durkheim, Marx, and Weber, or more generally to all disciplines outside of "noble science" and arts. By the late 19th century, the academic social sciences were constituted of five fields: jurisprudence and amendment of the law, education, health, economy and trade, and art.[3]

Communication studies deals with processes of human communication, commonly defined as the sharing of symbols to create meaning. The discipline encompasses a range of topics, from face-to-face conversation to mass media outlets such as television broadcasting. Communication studies also examines how messages are interpreted through the political, cultural, economic, and social dimensions of their contexts. Communication is institutionalized under many different names at different universities, including "communication", "communication studies", "speech communication", "rhetorical studies", "communication science", "media studies", "communication arts", "mass communication", "media ecology", and "communication and media science".

传播学研究人类的传播过程,通常定义为共享符号来创造意义。这个学科包括一系列的话题,从面对面的谈话到电视广播等大众媒体。传播学研究也检查如何解释信息通过政治,文化,经济和社会维度的背景。传播学在不同的大学被冠以不同的名称,包括“传播学”、“传播学”、“言语传播学”、“修辞学”、“传播学”、“传播艺术”、“大众传播学”、“媒介生态学”和“传播与媒介学”。


Around the start of the 21st century, the expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.[8]

Communication studies integrates aspects of both social sciences and the humanities. As a social science, the discipline often overlaps with sociology, psychology, anthropology, biology, political science, economics, and public policy, among others. From a humanities perspective, communication is concerned with rhetoric and persuasion (traditional graduate programs in communication studies trace their history to the rhetoricians of Ancient Greece). The field applies to outside disciplines as well, including engineering, architecture, mathematics, and information science.

传播学融合了社会科学和人文学科的各个方面。作为一门社会科学,这门学科经常与社会学、心理学、人类学、生物学、政治学、经济学和公共政策等等相互重叠。从人文学科的角度来看,传播学涉及修辞和说服(传统的传播学研究生课程的历史可以追溯到古希腊的修辞学家)。该领域也适用于外部学科,包括工程学、建筑学、数学和信息科学。


Branches

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Economics is a social science that seeks to analyze and describe the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth. The word "economics" is from the Ancient Greek oikos, "family, household, estate", and νόμος nomos, "custom, law", and hence means "household management" or "management of the state". An economist is a person using economic concepts and data in the course of employment, or someone who has earned a degree in the subject. The classic brief definition of economics, set out by Lionel Robbins in 1932, is "the science which studies human behavior as a relation between scarce means having alternative uses". Without scarcity and alternative uses, there is no economic problem. Briefer yet is "the study of how people seek to satisfy needs and wants" and "the study of the financial aspects of human behavior".

经济学是一门社会科学,旨在分析和描述财富的生产、分配和消费。“经济”这个词来自古希腊的 oikos,“家庭,家庭,财产” ,以及 νμónomos,“风俗,法律” ,因此意味着“家庭管理”或“国家管理”。经济学家是在就业过程中使用经济学概念和数据的人,或者是在这个学科中获得学位的人。莱昂内尔•罗宾斯(Lionel Robbins)在1932年提出的经济学的经典简要定义是: “研究人类行为的科学,是将稀缺意味着拥有替代用途之间的关系”。如果没有稀缺性和替代用途,就不存在经济问题。更简短的是“关于人们如何寻求满足需求和欲望的研究”和“关于人类行为的金融方面的研究”。

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Buyers bargain for good prices while sellers put forth their best front in Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala.

买家为好价格讨价还价,而卖家在[[危地马拉奇奇卡斯特南戈市场]展示他们最好的前锋。]

Social science areas

Economics has two broad branches: microeconomics, where the unit of analysis is the individual agent, such as a household or firm, and macroeconomics, where the unit of analysis is an economy as a whole. Another division of the subject distinguishes positive economics, which seeks to predict and explain economic phenomena, from normative economics, which orders choices and actions by some criterion; such orderings necessarily involve subjective value judgments. Since the early part of the 20th century, economics has focused largely on measurable quantities, employing both theoretical models and empirical analysis. Quantitative models, however, can be traced as far back as the physiocratic school. Economic reasoning has been increasingly applied in recent decades to other social situations such as politics, law, psychology, history, religion, marriage and family life, and other social interactions.

经济学有两个广泛的分支: 微观经济学,其中分析单位是个人的代理人,如家庭或企业,和宏观经济学,其中分析单位是一个整体的经济。主体的另一种划分区分了实证经济学,它试图预测和解释经济现象,与规范价值经济学经济学不同,后者以某种标准命令选择和行动; 这种命令必然涉及主观价值判断。自20世纪早期以来,经济学主要集中在可测量的数量上,运用了理论模型和实证分析。然而,定量模型可以追溯到重农主义学派。近几十年来,经济推理已经越来越多地应用于其他社会情境,如政治、法律、心理学、历史、宗教、婚姻和家庭生活,以及其他社会互动。

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This paradigm crucially assumes (1) that resources are scarce because they are not sufficient to satisfy all wants, and (2) that "economic value" is willingness to pay as revealed for instance by market (arms' length) transactions. Rival heterodox schools of thought, such as institutional economics, green economics, Marxist economics, and economic sociology, make other grounding assumptions. For example, Marxist economics assumes that economics primarily deals with the investigation of exchange value, of which human labour is the source.

这一范式的关键假设是: (1)资源是稀缺的,因为它们不足以满足所有的需求; (2)“经济价值”是指支付意愿,例如通过市场(正常距离)交易所显示的意愿。与之竞争的非正统思想流派,如制度经济学、绿色经济学、马克思主义政治经济学经济学和经济社会学经济学,都提出了其他基于假设的观点。例如,马克思主义政治经济学认为经济学主要研究交换价值,而人类劳动是交换价值的来源。


|The following are problem areas and discipline branches within the social sciences.[2]

The expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.

社会科学中经济学领域的扩张被描述为经济帝国主义。

A depiction of world's oldest university, the University of Bologna, in Italy

图为世界上最古老的大学,意大利的博洛尼亚大学

Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, positive judgement and well-developed wisdom. Education has as one of its fundamental aspects the imparting of culture from generation to generation (see socialization). To educate means 'to draw out', from the Latin educare, or to facilitate the realization of an individual's potential and talents. It is an application of pedagogy, a body of theoretical and applied research relating to teaching and learning and draws on many disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, sociology and anthropology.

教育包括教授和学习特定的技能,也包括一些不那么有形但更深刻的东西: 传授知识、正面判断和发展良好的智慧。教育的基本方面之一是世代相传的文化(见社会化)。教育意味着从拉丁教育中“抽出” ,或者促进个人潜能和才能的实现。它是教育学的一个应用,是一个与教学有关的理论和应用研究的主体,并借鉴了许多学科,如心理学、哲学、计算机科学、语言学、神经科学、社会学和人类学。

The education of an individual human begins at birth and continues throughout life. (Some believe that education begins even before birth, as evidenced by some parents' playing music or reading to the baby in the womb in the hope it will influence the child's development.) For some, the struggles and triumphs of daily life provide far more instruction than does formal schooling (thus Mark Twain's admonition to "never let school interfere with your education").

个人的教育始于出生,并贯穿一生。(有些人认为教育甚至在孩子出生前就开始了,有些父母在子宫里给孩子放音乐或读书,希望能影响孩子的发育。)对于一些人来说,日常生活中的挣扎和成功比正规学校教育提供了更多的教育(因此马克 · 吐温告诫“永远不要让学校干扰你的教育”)。

Map of the Earth

地球地图

Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main sub fields: human geography and physical geography. The former focuses largely on the built environment and how space is created, viewed and managed by humans as well as the influence humans have on the space they occupy. This may involve cultural geography, transportation, health, military operations, and cities. The latter examines the natural environment and how the climate, vegetation and life, soil, oceans, water and landforms are produced and interact. However, the National Research Council classifies history as a social science. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. The Social Science History Association, formed in 1976, brings together scholars from numerous disciplines interested in social history.

地理学作为一门学科,可以大致分为人文地理学和自然地理学两大子学科。前者主要关注建筑环境和人类如何创造、观察和管理空间,以及人类对他们所占据的空间的影响。这可能涉及文化地理、交通、卫生、军事行动和城市。后者研究自然环境以及气候、植被和生命、土壤、海洋、水和地貌是如何产生和相互作用的。然而,国家研究委员会将历史归类为社会科学。历史学方法包括历史学家利用原始资料和其他证据进行研究,然后撰写历史的技巧和指导方针。成立于1976年的社会科学史协会,汇集了对社会史感兴趣的众多学科的学者。

A trial at a criminal court, the Old Bailey in London

刑事法庭的审判,[伦敦的老贝利法庭]

The social science of law, jurisprudence, in common parlance, means a rule that (unlike a rule of ethics) is capable of enforcement through institutions. and the adjective legal comes from the Latin word lex.

社会科学的法律,法理学,在通常的说法,意味着规则,(不像一个道德规则)是能够通过机构执行。形容词 legal 来自拉丁词 lex。

Ferdinand de Saussure, recognized as the father of modern linguistics

[被公认为现代语言学之父的弗迪南·德·索绪尔]

Linguistics investigates the cognitive and social aspects of human language. The field is divided into areas that focus on aspects of the linguistic signal, such as syntax (the study of the rules that govern the structure of sentences), semantics (the study of meaning), morphology (the study of the structure of words), phonetics (the study of speech sounds) and phonology (the study of the abstract sound system of a particular language); however, work in areas like evolutionary linguistics (the study of the origins and evolution of language) and psycholinguistics (the study of psychological factors in human language) cut across these divisions.

语言学研究人类语言的认知和社会方面。这个领域被划分为一些关注语言信号方面的领域,例如句法(研究句子结构的规则)、语义(研究意义)、形态学(研究词的结构)、语音学(研究语音)和音系学(研究特定语言的抽象声音系统) ; 然而,像演化语言学(研究语言的起源和进化)和心理语言学(研究人类语言中的心理因素)这样的领域的工作跨越了这些区域。

The overwhelming majority of modern research in linguistics takes a predominantly synchronic perspective (focusing on language at a particular point in time), and a great deal of it—partly owing to the influence of Noam Chomsky—aims at formulating theories of the cognitive processing of language. However, language does not exist in a vacuum, or only in the brain, and approaches like contact linguistics, creole studies, discourse analysis, social interactional linguistics, and sociolinguistics explore language in its social context. Sociolinguistics often makes use of traditional quantitative analysis and statistics in investigating the frequency of features, while some disciplines, like contact linguistics, focus on qualitative analysis. While certain areas of linguistics can thus be understood as clearly falling within the social sciences, other areas, like acoustic phonetics and neurolinguistics, draw on the natural sciences. Linguistics draws only secondarily on the humanities, which played a rather greater role in linguistic inquiry in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Ferdinand Saussure is considered the father of modern linguistics.

现代语言学的绝大多数研究主要是从共时的角度(着眼于特定时间点的语言)进行研究,其中很大一部分是受诺姆 · 乔姆斯基(Noam chomsky)的影响,旨在形成语言认知加工的理论。然而,语言并不存在于真空中,或者只存在于大脑中,而是像接触语言学、克里奥尔语言研究、篇章分析语言学、社会互动语言学和社会语言学语言学这样的方法在其社会背景中探索语言。社会语言学经常使用传统的定量分析和统计来调查特征出现的频率,而一些学科,如接触语言学,则侧重于定性分析。虽然语言学的某些领域可以被理解为明显属于社会科学的范畴,但是其他领域,如声学语音学和神经语言学语言学,则利用了自然科学。语言学仅次于人文学科,人文学科在19世纪和20世纪早期的语言学研究中发挥了更大的作用。索绪尔被认为是现代语言学之父。

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Aristotle asserted that man is a political animal in his Politics.

亚里士多德断言,在他的《政治学》中,人是一种政治动物

The social science disciplines are branches of knowledge taught and researched at the college or university level. Social science disciplines are defined and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned social science societies and academic departments or faculties to which their practitioners belong. Social science fields of study usually have several sub-disciplines or branches, and the distinguishing lines between these are often both arbitrary and ambiguous.

Political science is an academic and research discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. Fields and subfields of political science include political economy, political theory and philosophy, civics and comparative politics, theory of direct democracy, apolitical governance, participatory direct democracy, national systems, cross-national political analysis, political development, international relations, foreign policy, international law, politics, public administration, administrative behaviour, public law, judicial behaviour, and public policy. Political science also studies power in international relations and the theory of great powers and superpowers.

政治学是一门研究政治理论和政治实践,描述和分析政治制度和政治行为的学术和研究学科。政治学的领域和分支包括政治经济学、政治理论和哲学、公民学和比较政治学、直接民主理论、非政治治理、参与式直接民主、国家体系、跨国政治分析、政治发展、国际关系、外交政策、国际法、政治、公共行政、行政行为、公法、司法行为和公共政策。政治学还研究国际关系中的权力以及大国和超级大国理论。


Anthropology

Political science is methodologically diverse, although recent years have witnessed an upsurge in the use of the scientific method, that is, the proliferation of formal-deductive model building and quantitative hypothesis testing. Approaches to the discipline include rational choice, classical political philosophy, interpretivism, structuralism, and behaviouralism, realism, pluralism, and institutionalism. Political science, as one of the social sciences, uses methods and techniques that relate to the kinds of inquiries sought: primary sources such as historical documents, interviews, and official records, as well as secondary sources such as scholarly articles are used in building and testing theories. Empirical methods include survey research, statistical analysis or econometrics, case studies, experiments, and model building. Herbert Baxter Adams is credited with coining the phrase "political science" while teaching history at Johns Hopkins University.

政治科学在方法上是多种多样的,尽管近年来科学方法的使用急剧增加,即形式演绎模型的建立和定量假设检验的扩散。学科研究方法主要有理性选择论、古典政治哲学、解释主义、结构主义、行为主义、实在论、多元论和制度主义。政治科学,作为社会科学之一,使用的方法和技术与寻求的各种查询相关: 主要来源,如历史文件,访谈,和官方记录,以及学术来源,如文章,用于建设和测试理论。实证方法包括调查研究、统计分析或计量经济学、案例研究、实验和模型建立。赫伯特 · 巴克斯特 · 亚当斯在约翰·霍普金斯大学教授历史时创造了“政治科学”这个短语。


Anthropology is the holistic "science of man", a science of the totality of human existence. The discipline deals with the integration of different aspects of the social sciences, humanities, and human biology. In the twentieth century, academic disciplines have often been institutionally divided into three broad domains. The natural sciences seek to derive general laws through reproducible and verifiable experiments. The humanities generally study local traditions, through their history, literature, music, and arts, with an emphasis on understanding particular individuals, events, or eras. The social sciences have generally attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way, though usually with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences.


Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt was the founder of experimental psychology.

[威廉 · 马克西米利安 · 冯特是实验心理学的创始人]

The anthropological social sciences often develop nuanced descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry, or they may explain individual cases through more general principles, as in many fields of psychology. Anthropology (like some fields of history) does not easily fit into one of these categories, and different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains.[9] Within the United States, anthropology is divided into four sub-fields: archaeology, physical or biological anthropology, anthropological linguistics, and cultural anthropology. It is an area that is offered at most undergraduate institutions. The word anthropos (ἄνθρωπος) in Ancient Greek means "human being" or "person". Eric Wolf described sociocultural anthropology as "the most scientific of the humanities, and the most humanistic of the sciences".

Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of behaviour and mental processes. Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including problems of individuals' daily lives and the treatment of mental illness. The word psychology comes from the Ancient Greek ψυχή psyche ("soul", "mind") and logy ("study").

心理学是一门学术和应用领域,涉及行为和心理过程的研究。心理学还指将这种知识应用于人类活动的各个领域,包括个人的日常生活问题和精神疾病的治疗。“心理学”一词来源于古希腊语 ψpsyche (“ soul” ,“ mind”)和 logy (“ study”)。


The goal of anthropology is to provide a holistic account of humans and human nature. This means that, though anthropologists generally specialize in only one sub-field, they always keep in mind the biological, linguistic, historic and cultural aspects of any problem. Since anthropology arose as a science in Western societies that were complex and industrial, a major trend within anthropology has been a methodological drive to study peoples in societies with more simple social organization, sometimes called "primitive" in anthropological literature, but without any connotation of "inferior".[10] Today, anthropologists use terms such as "less complex" societies or refer to specific modes of subsistence or production, such as "pastoralist" or "forager" or "horticulturalist" to refer to humans living in non-industrial, non-Western cultures, such people or folk (ethnos) remaining of great interest within anthropology.

Psychology differs from anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology in seeking to capture explanatory generalizations about the mental function and overt behaviour of individuals, while the other disciplines focus on creating descriptive generalizations about the functioning of social groups or situation-specific human behaviour. In practice, however, there is quite a lot of cross-fertilization that takes place among the various fields. Psychology differs from biology and neuroscience in that it is primarily concerned with the interaction of mental processes and behaviour, and of the overall processes of a system, and not simply the biological or neural processes themselves, though the subfield of neuropsychology combines the study of the actual neural processes with the study of the mental effects they have subjectively produced.

心理学不同于人类学、经济学、政治学和社会学,它试图捕捉关于个人心理功能和显性行为的解释性概括,而其他学科则侧重于对社会群体的功能或具体情况下的人类行为创造描述性概括。然而,在实践中,各个领域之间存在着大量的相互影响。心理学与生物学和神经科学的不同之处在于,它主要关注心理过程和行为的相互作用,以及一个系统的整体过程,而不仅仅是生物学或神经过程本身,尽管神经心理学的子领域将对实际神经过程的研究与对它们主观产生的心理效应的研究结合起来。


Many people associate psychology with clinical psychology, which focuses on assessment and treatment of problems in living and psychopathology. In reality, psychology has myriad specialties including social psychology, developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, educational psychology, industrial-organizational psychology, mathematical psychology, neuropsychology, and quantitative analysis of behaviour.

许多人把心理学和临床心理学联系在一起,临床心理学的重点是评估和治疗生活和精神病理学方面的问题。事实上,心理学有无数的专业领域,包括社会心理学、发展心理学心理学、认知心理学、教育心理学、工业与组织心理学心理学、数学心理学、神经心理学和行为定量分析。

The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a people in detail, using biogenetic, archaeological, and linguistic data alongside direct observation of contemporary customs.[11] In the 1990s and 2000s, calls for clarification of what constitutes a culture, of how an observer knows where his or her own culture ends and another begins, and other crucial topics in writing anthropology were heard. It is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large, evolving global culture. These dynamic relationships, between what can be observed on the ground, as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology, whether cultural, biological, linguistic or archaeological.[12]


Psychology is a very broad science that is rarely tackled as a whole, major block. Although some subfields encompass a natural science base and a social science application, others can be clearly distinguished as having little to do with the social sciences or having a lot to do with the social sciences. For example, biological psychology is considered a natural science with a social scientific application (as is clinical medicine), social and occupational psychology are, generally speaking, purely social sciences, whereas neuropsychology is a natural science that lacks application out of the scientific tradition entirely. In British universities, emphasis on what tenet of psychology a student has studied and/or concentrated is communicated through the degree conferred: B.Psy. indicates a balance between natural and social sciences, B.Sc. indicates a strong (or entire) scientific concentration, whereas a B.A. underlines a majority of social science credits. This is not always necessarily the case however, and in many UK institutions students studying the B.Psy, B.Sc, and B.A. follow the same curriculum as outlined by The British Psychological Society and have the same options of specialism open to them regardless of whether they choose a balance, a heavy science basis, or heavy social science basis to their degree. If they applied to read the B.A. for example, but specialized in heavily science-based modules, then they will still generally be awarded the B.A.

心理学是一门非常广泛的科学,很少被作为一个整体来处理,主要的障碍。虽然有些子领域包括自然科学基础和社会科学应用,但其他一些领域可以明确区分为与社会科学无关或与社会科学有很大关系。例如,生物心理学被认为是一门具有社会科学应用的自然科学(就像临床医学一样) ,社会心理学和职业心理学一般来说是纯粹的社会科学,而神经心理学是一门自然科学,完全脱离了科学传统,缺乏应用。在英国的大学里,学生学习和/或专注的心理学的重点是通过授予的学位来传达的: B.Psy。表明自然科学和社会科学之间的平衡。显示出很强的(或整个)科学专注度,而文学学士则表示出很强的科学专注度。大部分社会科学学分。然而,情况并非总是如此,在许多英国机构中,学习 B.Psy,B.Sc,和 b.a. 的学生并不总是如此。无论他们选择的是平衡的、重科学基础还是重社会科学基础,他们都可以选择英国心理学会提出的相同的课程,选择相同的专业。如果他们申请阅读学士学位。例如,如果他们专攻高度基于科学的模块,那么他们通常仍然会被授予学士学位。

Communication studies

Communication studies deals with processes of human communication, commonly defined as the sharing of symbols to create meaning. The discipline encompasses a range of topics, from face-to-face conversation to mass media outlets such as television broadcasting. Communication studies also examines how messages are interpreted through the political, cultural, economic, and social dimensions of their contexts. Communication is institutionalized under many different names at different universities, including "communication", "communication studies", "speech communication", "rhetorical studies", "communication science", "media studies", "communication arts", "mass communication", "media ecology", and "communication and media science".


Émile Durkheim is considered one of the founding fathers of sociology.

[埃米尔 · 涂尔干被认为是社会学的奠基人之一]

Communication studies integrates aspects of both social sciences and the humanities. As a social science, the discipline often overlaps with sociology, psychology, anthropology, biology, political science, economics, and public policy, among others. From a humanities perspective, communication is concerned with rhetoric and persuasion (traditional graduate programs in communication studies trace their history to the rhetoricians of Ancient Greece). The field applies to outside disciplines as well, including engineering, architecture, mathematics, and information science.

Sociology is the systematic study of society, individuals' relationship to their societies, the consequences of difference, and other aspects of human social action. The meaning of the word comes from the suffix "-logy", which means "study of", derived from Ancient Greek, and the stem "soci-", which is from the Latin word socius, meaning "companion", or society in general.

社会学是对社会、个人与社会的关系、差异的后果以及人类社会行为的其他方面的系统研究。这个词的意思来源于后缀“-logy” ,意思是“研究” ,来源于古希腊语,词干“ soci-” ,来源于拉丁语单词 socius,意思是“伙伴” ,或者一般的社会。


Economics

Auguste Comte (1798–1857) coined the term, Sociology, as a way to apply natural science principles and techniques to the social world in 1838. Comte endeavoured to unify history, psychology and economics through the descriptive understanding of the social realm. He proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy [1830–1842] and A General View of Positivism (1844). Though Comte is generally regarded as the "Father of Sociology", the discipline was formally established by another French thinker, Émile Durkheim (1858–1917), who developed positivism as a foundation to practical social research. Durkheim set up the first European department of sociology at the University of Bordeaux in 1895, publishing his Rules of the Sociological Method. In 1896, he established the journal L'Année Sociologique. Durkheim's seminal monograph, Suicide (1897), a case study of suicide rates among Catholic and Protestant populations, distinguished sociological analysis from psychology or philosophy.

1838年,奥古斯特 · 孔德(1798-1857)创造了社会学这个术语,作为将自然科学原理和技术应用于社会世界的一种方式。孔德努力通过对社会领域的描述性理解来统一历史、心理学和经济学。他提出,社会弊病可以通过社会学实证主义,一个认识论方法概述的课程在实证哲学[1830-1842]和实证主义的一般观点(1844年)。虽然孔德被公认为“社会学之父” ,但另一位法国思想家埃米尔 · 涂尔干(1858-1917)正式确立了孔德的社会学学科,他将实证主义发展为实践社会研究的基础。1895年,涂尔干在波尔多大学设立了第一个欧洲社会学系,出版了他的《社会学方法规则》。1896年,他创办了 l’ année Sociologique 杂志。涂尔干的开创性专著,自杀(1897年) ,一个案例研究的自杀率在天主教和新教人口,区别于社会学分析从心理学或哲学。

Economics is a social science that seeks to analyze and describe the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth.[13] The word "economics" is from the Ancient Greek 脚本错误:没有“lang”这个模块。 oikos, "family, household, estate", and νόμος nomos, "custom, law", and hence means "household management" or "management of the state". An economist is a person using economic concepts and data in the course of employment, or someone who has earned a degree in the subject. The classic brief definition of economics, set out by Lionel Robbins in 1932, is "the science which studies human behavior as a relation between scarce means having alternative uses". Without scarcity and alternative uses, there is no economic problem. Briefer yet is "the study of how people seek to satisfy needs and wants" and "the study of the financial aspects of human behavior".

Karl Marx rejected Comte's positivism but nevertheless aimed to establish a science of society based on historical materialism, becoming recognized as a founding figure of sociology posthumously as the term gained broader meaning. Around the start of the 20th century, the first wave of German sociologists, including Max Weber and Georg Simmel, developed sociological antipositivism. The field may be broadly recognized as an amalgam of three modes of social thought in particular: Durkheimian positivism and structural functionalism; Marxist historical materialism and conflict theory; and Weberian antipositivism and verstehen analysis. American sociology broadly arose on a separate trajectory, with little Marxist influence, an emphasis on rigorous experimental methodology, and a closer association with pragmatism and social psychology. In the 1920s, the Chicago school developed symbolic interactionism. Meanwhile, in the 1930s, the Frankfurt School pioneered the idea of critical theory, an interdisciplinary form of Marxist sociology drawing upon thinkers as diverse as Sigmund Freud and Friedrich Nietzsche. Critical theory would take on something of a life of its own after World War II, influencing literary criticism and the Birmingham School establishment of cultural studies.

拒绝了孔德的实证主义,但是仍然致力于建立一个以历史唯物主义为基础的社会科学,随着这个术语获得更广泛的意义,他被后人认为是社会学的奠基人。20世纪初,包括马克斯 · 韦伯和格奥尔格 · 西梅尔在内的第一批德国社会学家发展了社会学反实证主义。这个领域可以被广泛地认为是特别是三种社会思想模式的混合体: Durkheimian 实证主义和结构功能主义; 马克思主义历史唯物主义与冲突理论; 以及 Weberian 反实证主义和 verstehen 分析。美国社会学基本上是沿着一条独立的轨迹发展起来的,没有受到马克思主义的影响,强调严谨的实验方法论,并与实用主义和社会心理学有着更密切的联系。20世纪20年代,芝加哥商学院开发了 symbolic interactionism。与此同时,在20世纪30年代,法兰克福学派开创了批判理论的先河,这是一种跨学科形式的马克思主义社会学学派,吸收了诸如西格蒙德 · 弗洛伊德和弗里德里希·尼采 · 马丁等各种各样的思想家。第二次世界大战后,批评理论有了自己的生命,影响了文学批评和伯明翰学派的文化研究。

文件:Market-Chichicastenango.jpg
Buyers bargain for good prices while sellers put forth their best front in Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala.

Sociology evolved as an academic response to the challenges of modernity, such as industrialization, urbanization, secularization, and a perceived process of enveloping rationalization. The field generally concerns the social rules and processes that bind and separate people not only as individuals, but as members of associations, groups, communities and institutions, and includes the examination of the organization and development of human social life. The sociological field of interest ranges from the analysis of short contacts between anonymous individuals on the street to the study of global social processes. In the terms of sociologists Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann, social scientists seek an understanding of the Social Construction of Reality. Most sociologists work in one or more subfields. One useful way to describe the discipline is as a cluster of sub-fields that examine different dimensions of society. For example, social stratification studies inequality and class structure; demography studies changes in a population size or type; criminology examines criminal behaviour and deviance; and political sociology studies the interaction between society and state.

社会学是作为对现代性挑战的学术回应而发展起来的,这些挑战包括工业化、城市化、世俗化,以及一种包围着理性化的感知过程。这一领域通常涉及将人们不仅作为个人而且作为协会、团体、社区和机构的成员联系在一起并使之分离的社会规则和进程,并包括审查人类社会生活的组织和发展。社会学的兴趣领域从街头匿名个人之间的短期接触的分析到全球社会进程的研究。用社会学家彼得 · l · 伯格和托马斯 · 卢克曼的话来说,社会科学家们寻求对现实的社会建构的理解。大多数社会学家从事一个或多个子领域的工作。描述这门学科的一个有用的方法是将其作为一组子领域来研究社会的不同维度。例如,社会阶层研究不平等和阶级结构; 人口统计学研究人口规模或类型的变化; 犯罪学研究犯罪行为和越轨行为; 政治社会学研究社会和国家之间的相互作用。

Economics has two broad branches: microeconomics, where the unit of analysis is the individual agent, such as a household or firm, and macroeconomics, where the unit of analysis is an economy as a whole. Another division of the subject distinguishes positive economics, which seeks to predict and explain economic phenomena, from normative economics, which orders choices and actions by some criterion; such orderings necessarily involve subjective value judgments. Since the early part of the 20th century, economics has focused largely on measurable quantities, employing both theoretical models and empirical analysis. Quantitative models, however, can be traced as far back as the physiocratic school. Economic reasoning has been increasingly applied in recent decades to other social situations such as politics, law, psychology, history, religion, marriage and family life, and other social interactions.

Since its inception, sociological epistemologies, methods, and frames of enquiry, have significantly expanded and diverged. In 1969, feminist sociologists challenged the discipline's androcentrism at the American Sociological Association's annual conference. This led to the founding of the organization Sociologists for Women in Society, and, eventually, a new sociology journal, Gender & Society. Today, the sociology of gender is considered to be one of the most prominent sub-fields in the discipline.

自从它诞生以来,社会学的认识论、方法和研究的框架都有了很大的扩展和分歧。1969年,女权主义社会学家在美国美国社会学协会协会的年度会议上挑战了该学科的男性中心主义。这导致了社会中女性社会学家组织的成立,并最终成立了一本新的社会学杂志,《性别与社会》。今天,性别社会学被认为是该学科最突出的分支领域之一。


This paradigm crucially assumes (1) that resources are scarce because they are not sufficient to satisfy all wants, and (2) that "economic value" is willingness to pay as revealed for instance by market (arms' length) transactions. Rival heterodox schools of thought, such as institutional economics, green economics, Marxist economics, and economic sociology, make other grounding assumptions. For example, Marxist economics assumes that economics primarily deals with the investigation of exchange value, of which human labour is the source.

New sociological sub-fields continue to appear — such as community studies, computational sociology, environmental sociology, network analysis, actor-network theory, gender studies, and a growing list, many of which are cross-disciplinary in nature.

新的社会学子领域不断出现,例如社区研究、计算社会学学、环境社会学、网络分析、行动者网络理论、性别研究以及一个不断扩大的名单,其中许多都是跨学科性质的。


The expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.[8][14]


Education

Additional applied or interdisciplinary fields related to the social sciences include:

与社会科学有关的其他应用或跨学科领域包括:

文件:Laurentius de Voltolina 001.jpg
A depiction of world's oldest university, the University of Bologna, in Italy

Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, positive judgement and well-developed wisdom. Education has as one of its fundamental aspects the imparting of culture from generation to generation (see socialization). To educate means 'to draw out', from the Latin educare, or to facilitate the realization of an individual's potential and talents. It is an application of pedagogy, a body of theoretical and applied research relating to teaching and learning and draws on many disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, sociology and anthropology.[15]


The education of an individual human begins at birth and continues throughout life. (Some believe that education begins even before birth, as evidenced by some parents' playing music or reading to the baby in the womb in the hope it will influence the child's development.) For some, the struggles and triumphs of daily life provide far more instruction than does formal schooling (thus Mark Twain's admonition to "never let school interfere with your education").


Geography

文件:Physical world.jpg
Map of the Earth

Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main sub fields: human geography and physical geography. The former focuses largely on the built environment and how space is created, viewed and managed by humans as well as the influence humans have on the space they occupy. This may involve cultural geography, transportation, health, military operations, and cities. The latter examines the natural environment and how the climate, vegetation and life, soil, oceans, water and landforms are produced and interact.[16] Physical geography examines phenomena related to the measurement of earth. As a result of the two subfields using different approaches a third field has emerged, which is environmental geography. Environmental geography combines physical and human geography and looks at the interactions between the environment and humans.[17] Other branches of geography include social geography, regional geography, and geomatics.


Geographers attempt to understand the Earth in terms of physical and spatial relationships. The first geographers focused on the science of mapmaking and finding ways to precisely project the surface of the earth. In this sense, geography bridges some gaps between the natural sciences and social sciences. Historical geography is often taught in a college in a unified Department of Geography.


Modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline, closely related to GISc, that seeks to understand humanity and its natural environment. The fields of urban planning, regional science, and planetology are closely related to geography. Practitioners of geography use many technologies and methods to collect data such as GIS, remote sensing, aerial photography, statistics, and global positioning systems (GPS).


History


History is the continuous, systematic narrative and research into past human events as interpreted through historiographical paradigms or theories.


History has a base in both the social sciences and the humanities. In the United States the National Endowment for the Humanities includes history in its definition of humanities (as it does for applied linguistics).[18] However, the National Research Council classifies history as a social science.[19] The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. The Social Science History Association, formed in 1976, brings together scholars from numerous disciplines interested in social history.[20]


Law

The origin of the survey can be traced back at least early as the Domesday Book in 1086, while some scholars pinpoint the origin of demography to 1663 with the publication of John Graunt's Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality. Social research began most intentionally, however, with the positivist philosophy of science in the 19th century.

调查的起源至少可以追溯到1086年的末日审判书,而一些学者将人口统计学的起源定位于1663年,当时约翰 · 格兰特出版了《死亡法案的自然和政治观察》。然而,社会研究是从19世纪的实证主义科学哲学开始的。

文件:Old Bailey Microcosm edited.jpg
A trial at a criminal court, the Old Bailey in London

The social science of law, jurisprudence, in common parlance, means a rule that (unlike a rule of ethics) is capable of enforcement through institutions.[21] However, many laws are based on norms accepted by a community and thus have an ethical foundation. The study of law crosses the boundaries between the social sciences and humanities, depending on one's view of research into its objectives and effects. Law is not always enforceable, especially in the international relations context. It has been defined as a "system of rules",[22] as an "interpretive concept"[23] to achieve justice, as an "authority"[24] to mediate people's interests, and even as "the command of a sovereign, backed by the threat of a sanction".[25] However one likes to think of law, it is a completely central social institution. Legal policy incorporates the practical manifestation of thinking from almost every social science and the humanities. Laws are politics, because politicians create them. Law is philosophy, because moral and ethical persuasions shape their ideas. Law tells many of history's stories, because statutes, case law and codifications build up over time. And law is economics, because any rule about contract, tort, property law, labour law, company law and many more can have long-lasting effects on the distribution of wealth. The noun law derives from the late Old English lagu, meaning something laid down or fixed[26] and the adjective legal comes from the Latin word lex.[27]

In contemporary usage, "social research" is a relatively autonomous term, encompassing the work of practitioners from various disciplines that share in its aims and methods. Social scientists employ a range of methods in order to analyse a vast breadth of social phenomena; from census survey data derived from millions of individuals, to the in-depth analysis of a single agent's social experiences; from monitoring what is happening on contemporary streets, to the investigation of ancient historical documents. The methods originally rooted in classical sociology and statistical mathematics have formed the basis for research in other disciplines, such as political science, media studies, and marketing and market research.

在当代用法中,”社会研究”是一个相对独立的术语,包括来自不同学科、目标和方法相同的从业人员的工作。社会科学家使用一系列方法来分析广泛的社会现象; 从数百万个人的普查调查数据,到深入分析单一行为者的社会经历; 从监测当代街头发生的事情,到调查古代历史文献。最初植根于经典社会学和统计数学的方法已经形成了其他学科研究的基础,如政治科学、媒体研究、市场营销和市场研究。


Linguistics

Social research methods may be divided into two broad schools:

社会研究方法可分为两大流派:

Linguistics investigates the cognitive and social aspects of human language. The field is divided into areas that focus on aspects of the linguistic signal, such as syntax (the study of the rules that govern the structure of sentences), semantics (the study of meaning), morphology (the study of the structure of words), phonetics (the study of speech sounds) and phonology (the study of the abstract sound system of a particular language); however, work in areas like evolutionary linguistics (the study of the origins and evolution of language) and psycholinguistics (the study of psychological factors in human language) cut across these divisions.


Social scientists will commonly combine quantitative and qualitative approaches as part of a multi-strategy design. Questionnaires, field-based data collection, archival database information and laboratory-based data collections are some of the measurement techniques used. It is noted the importance of measurement and analysis, focusing on the (difficult to achieve) goal of objective research or statistical hypothesis testing. A mathematical model uses mathematical language to describe a system. The process of developing a mathematical model is termed 'mathematical modelling' (also modeling). Eykhoff (1974) defined a mathematical model as 'a representation of the essential aspects of an existing system (or a system to be constructed) that presents knowledge of that system in usable form'. Mathematical models can take many forms, including but not limited to dynamical systems, statistical models, differential equations, or game theoretic models.

社会科学家通常会将定量和定性方法结合起来,作为多策略设计的一部分。使用的一些测量技术包括问卷调查、实地数据收集、档案数据库信息和实验室数据收集。它指出了衡量和分析的重要性,重点是(难以实现的)目标的客观研究或统计假设检验。数学模型用数学语言来描述一个系统。建立数学模型的过程称为“数学建模”(也称为建模)。艾克霍夫(1974)将数学模型定义为“一个现存系统(或将要构建的系统)的基本方面的表示,以可用的形式表示该系统的知识”。数学模型可以采取许多形式,包括但不限于动态系统,统计模型,微分方程,或博弈论模型。

The overwhelming majority of modern research in linguistics takes a predominantly synchronic perspective (focusing on language at a particular point in time), and a great deal of it—partly owing to the influence of Noam Chomsky—aims at formulating theories of the cognitive processing of language. However, language does not exist in a vacuum, or only in the brain, and approaches like contact linguistics, creole studies, discourse analysis, social interactional linguistics, and sociolinguistics explore language in its social context. Sociolinguistics often makes use of traditional quantitative analysis and statistics in investigating the frequency of features, while some disciplines, like contact linguistics, focus on qualitative analysis. While certain areas of linguistics can thus be understood as clearly falling within the social sciences, other areas, like acoustic phonetics and neurolinguistics, draw on the natural sciences. Linguistics draws only secondarily on the humanities, which played a rather greater role in linguistic inquiry in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Ferdinand Saussure is considered the father of modern linguistics.


These and other types of models can overlap, with a given model involving a variety of abstract structures. The system is a set of interacting or interdependent entities, real or abstract, forming an integrated whole. The concept of an integrated whole can also be stated in terms of a system embodying a set of relationships that are differentiated from relationships of the set to other elements, and from relationships between an element of the set and elements not a part of the relational regime. A dynamical system modeled as a mathematical formalization has a fixed "rule" that describes the time dependence of a point's position in its ambient space. Small changes in the state of the system correspond to small changes in the numbers. The evolution rule of the dynamical system is a fixed rule that describes what future states follow from the current state. The rule is deterministic: for a given time interval only one future state follows from the current state.

这些模型和其他类型的模型可以重叠,给定的模型涉及各种抽象结构。系统是一组相互作用或相互依存的实体,真实的或抽象的,形成一个完整的整体。一个综合整体的概念也可以用这样一个系统来说明,这个系统包含一系列关系,这些关系不同于集合与其他要素之间的关系,也不同于集合的一个要素与不属于关系制度的要素之间的关系。用数学形式化建模的动力系统有一个固定的“规则”来描述一个点在其环境空间中位置的时间依赖性。系统状态的微小变化对应于数字的微小变化。动力系统的演变规则是一个固定的规则,描述了当前状态下的未来状态。该规则是确定性的: 在给定的时间间隔内,当前状态只跟随一个未来状态。

Political science

Social scientists often conduct program evaluation, which is a systematic method for collecting, analyzing, and using information to answer questions about projects, policies and programs, particularly about their effectiveness and efficiency. In both the public and private sectors, stakeholders often want to know whether the programs they are funding, implementing, voting for, receiving or objecting to are producing the intended effect. While program evaluation first focuses around this definition, important considerations often include how much the program costs per participant, how the program could be improved, whether the program is worthwhile, whether there are better alternatives, if there are unintended outcomes, and whether the program goals are appropriate and useful.

社会科学家经常进行项目评估,这是一种收集、分析和使用信息来回答有关项目、政策和项目的问题的系统方法,特别是关于它们的有效性和效率。在公共和私营部门,利益相关者经常想知道他们资助、实施、投票、接受或反对的项目是否正在产生预期的效果。虽然项目评估首先关注的是这个定义,但重要的考虑往往包括每个参与者的项目成本,项目如何改进,项目是否值得,是否有更好的替代方案,是否有意外的结果,以及项目目标是否适当和有用。

文件:Aristoteles Louvre.jpg
Aristotle asserted that man is a political animal in his Politics.[28]

Political science is an academic and research discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. Fields and subfields of political science include political economy, political theory and philosophy, civics and comparative politics, theory of direct democracy, apolitical governance, participatory direct democracy, national systems, cross-national political analysis, political development, international relations, foreign policy, international law, politics, public administration, administrative behaviour, public law, judicial behaviour, and public policy. Political science also studies power in international relations and the theory of great powers and superpowers.


Political science is methodologically diverse, although recent years have witnessed an upsurge in the use of the scientific method,[29]模板:Page needed that is, the proliferation of formal-deductive model building and quantitative hypothesis testing. Approaches to the discipline include rational choice, classical political philosophy, interpretivism, structuralism, and behaviouralism, realism, pluralism, and institutionalism. Political science, as one of the social sciences, uses methods and techniques that relate to the kinds of inquiries sought: primary sources such as historical documents, interviews, and official records, as well as secondary sources such as scholarly articles are used in building and testing theories. Empirical methods include survey research, statistical analysis or econometrics, case studies, experiments, and model building. Herbert Baxter Adams is credited with coining the phrase "political science" while teaching history at Johns Hopkins University.

Some social theorists emphasize the subjective nature of research. These writers espouse social theory perspectives that include various types of the following:

一些社会理论家强调研究的主观性。这些作家支持社会理论观点,包括以下各种类型:


Psychology

Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of behaviour and mental processes. Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including problems of individuals' daily lives and the treatment of mental illness. The word psychology comes from the Ancient Greek ψυχή psyche ("soul", "mind") and logy ("study").


Psychology differs from anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology in seeking to capture explanatory generalizations about the mental function and overt behaviour of individuals, while the other disciplines focus on creating descriptive generalizations about the functioning of social groups or situation-specific human behaviour. In practice, however, there is quite a lot of cross-fertilization that takes place among the various fields. Psychology differs from biology and neuroscience in that it is primarily concerned with the interaction of mental processes and behaviour, and of the overall processes of a system, and not simply the biological or neural processes themselves, though the subfield of neuropsychology combines the study of the actual neural processes with the study of the mental effects they have subjectively produced.

Many people associate psychology with clinical psychology, which focuses on assessment and treatment of problems in living and psychopathology. In reality, psychology has myriad specialties including social psychology, developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, educational psychology, industrial-organizational psychology, mathematical psychology, neuropsychology, and quantitative analysis of behaviour.


Psychology is a very broad science that is rarely tackled as a whole, major block. Although some subfields encompass a natural science base and a social science application, others can be clearly distinguished as having little to do with the social sciences or having a lot to do with the social sciences. For example, biological psychology is considered a natural science with a social scientific application (as is clinical medicine), social and occupational psychology are, generally speaking, purely social sciences, whereas neuropsychology is a natural science that lacks application out of the scientific tradition entirely. In British universities, emphasis on what tenet of psychology a student has studied and/or concentrated is communicated through the degree conferred: B.Psy. indicates a balance between natural and social sciences, B.Sc. indicates a strong (or entire) scientific concentration, whereas a B.A. underlines a majority of social science credits. This is not always necessarily the case however, and in many UK institutions students studying the B.Psy, B.Sc, and B.A. follow the same curriculum as outlined by The British Psychological Society and have the same options of specialism open to them regardless of whether they choose a balance, a heavy science basis, or heavy social science basis to their degree. If they applied to read the B.A. for example, but specialized in heavily science-based modules, then they will still generally be awarded the B.A.


Sociology

Other fringe social theorists delve in alternative nature of research. These writers share social theory perspectives that include various types of the following:

其他边缘社会理论家则深入研究另类本质的研究。这些作者分享社会理论观点,其中包括以下各种类型:

文件:Emile Durkheim.jpg
Émile Durkheim is considered one of the founding fathers of sociology.

Sociology is the systematic study of society, individuals' relationship to their societies, the consequences of difference, and other aspects of human social action.[30] The meaning of the word comes from the suffix "-logy", which means "study of", derived from Ancient Greek, and the stem "soci-", which is from the Latin word socius, meaning "companion", or society in general.


Auguste Comte (1798–1857) coined the term, Sociology, as a way to apply natural science principles and techniques to the social world in 1838.[31][32] Comte endeavoured to unify history, psychology and economics through the descriptive understanding of the social realm. He proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy [1830–1842] and A General View of Positivism (1844). Though Comte is generally regarded as the "Father of Sociology", the discipline was formally established by another French thinker, Émile Durkheim (1858–1917), who developed positivism as a foundation to practical social research. Durkheim set up the first European department of sociology at the University of Bordeaux in 1895, publishing his Rules of the Sociological Method. In 1896, he established the journal L'Année Sociologique. Durkheim's seminal monograph, Suicide (1897), a case study of suicide rates among Catholic and Protestant populations, distinguished sociological analysis from psychology or philosophy.[33]


Most universities offer degrees in social science fields. The Bachelor of Social Science is a degree targeted at the social sciences in particular, it is often more flexible and in-depth than other degrees that include social science subjects.

大多数大学都提供社会科学领域的学位。社会科学学士是一个特别针对社会科学的学位,它通常比其他包括社会科学学科的学位更加灵活和深入。

Karl Marx rejected Comte's positivism but nevertheless aimed to establish a science of society based on historical materialism, becoming recognized as a founding figure of sociology posthumously as the term gained broader meaning. Around the start of the 20th century, the first wave of German sociologists, including Max Weber and Georg Simmel, developed sociological antipositivism. The field may be broadly recognized as an amalgam of three modes of social thought in particular: Durkheimian positivism and structural functionalism; Marxist historical materialism and conflict theory; and Weberian antipositivism and verstehen analysis. American sociology broadly arose on a separate trajectory, with little Marxist influence, an emphasis on rigorous experimental methodology, and a closer association with pragmatism and social psychology. In the 1920s, the Chicago school developed symbolic interactionism. Meanwhile, in the 1930s, the Frankfurt School pioneered the idea of critical theory, an interdisciplinary form of Marxist sociology drawing upon thinkers as diverse as Sigmund Freud and Friedrich Nietzsche. Critical theory would take on something of a life of its own after World War II, influencing literary criticism and the Birmingham School establishment of cultural studies.


In the United States, a university may offer a student who studies a social sciences field a Bachelor of Arts degree, particularly if the field is within one of the traditional liberal arts such as history, or a BSc: Bachelor of Science degree such as those given by the London School of Economics, as the social sciences constitute one of the two main branches of science (the other being the natural sciences). In addition, some institutions have degrees for a particular social science, such as the Bachelor of Economics degree, though such specialized degrees are relatively rare in the United States.

在美国,一所大学可以为研究社会科学领域的学生提供一个哲学硕士的学位,特别是如果该领域属于传统的人文学科如历史,或者一个理学士学位: 理学士学位如伦敦经济学院授予的学位,因为社会科学构成两个主要科学分支之一(另一个是自然科学)。此外,一些机构拥有特定社会科学的学位,比如经济学学士学位,尽管这样的专业学位在美国相对较少。

Sociology evolved as an academic response to the challenges of modernity, such as industrialization, urbanization, secularization, and a perceived process of enveloping rationalization.[34] The field generally concerns the social rules and processes that bind and separate people not only as individuals, but as members of associations, groups, communities and institutions, and includes the examination of the organization and development of human social life. The sociological field of interest ranges from the analysis of short contacts between anonymous individuals on the street to the study of global social processes. In the terms of sociologists Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann, social scientists seek an understanding of the Social Construction of Reality. Most sociologists work in one or more subfields. One useful way to describe the discipline is as a cluster of sub-fields that examine different dimensions of society. For example, social stratification studies inequality and class structure; demography studies changes in a population size or type; criminology examines criminal behaviour and deviance; and political sociology studies the interaction between society and state.


Graduate students may get a Master's degree (Master of Arts, Master of Science or a field-specific degree such as Master of Public Administration) or Ph.D.

研究生可以获得硕士学位(文学硕士,理学硕士或特定领域的学位,如公共管理硕士)或博士学位。

Since its inception, sociological epistemologies, methods, and frames of enquiry, have significantly expanded and diverged.[35] Sociologists use a diversity of research methods, collect both quantitative and qualitative data, draw upon empirical techniques, and engage critical theory.[32] Common modern methods include case studies, historical research, interviewing, participant observation, social network analysis, survey research, statistical analysis, and model building, among other approaches. Since the late 1970s, many sociologists have tried to make the discipline useful for purposes beyond the academy. The results of sociological research aid educators, lawmakers, administrators, developers, and others interested in resolving social problems and formulating public policy, through subdisciplinary areas such as evaluation research, methodological assessment, and public sociology.


In the early 1970s, women sociologists began to question sociological paradigms and the invisibility of women in sociological studies, analysis, and courses.[36] In 1969, feminist sociologists challenged the discipline's androcentrism at the American Sociological Association's annual conference.[37] This led to the founding of the organization Sociologists for Women in Society, and, eventually, a new sociology journal, Gender & Society. Today, the sociology of gender is considered to be one of the most prominent sub-fields in the discipline.

The social sciences receive less funding than the natural sciences. It has been estimated that only 0.12% of all funding for climate-related research is spent on the social science of climate change mitigation. Vastly more funding is spent on natural science studies of climate change and considerable sums are also spent on studies of impact of and adaptation to climate change. It has been argued that this is a misallocation of resources, as the most urgent puzzle at the current juncture is to work out how to change human behavior to mitigate climate change, whereas the natural science of climate change is already well established and there will be decades and centuries to handle adaptation.

社会科学得到的资助比自然科学少。据估计,用于气候相关研究的资金中,只有0.12% 用于减缓气候变化的社会科学。更多的资金用于气候变化的自然科学研究,相当多的资金也用于研究气候变化的影响和适应。有人认为这是资源的错误配置,因为目前最紧迫的难题是如何改变人类行为以减缓气候变化,而气候变化的自然科学已经建立,将有几十年甚至几个世纪来处理适应。


New sociological sub-fields continue to appear — such as community studies, computational sociology, environmental sociology, network analysis, actor-network theory, gender studies, and a growing list, many of which are cross-disciplinary in nature.[38]


Additional fields of study

Additional applied or interdisciplinary fields related to the social sciences include:

  • Archaeology is the science that studies human cultures through the recovery, documentation, analysis, and interpretation of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, features, biofacts, and landscapes.
  • Area studies are interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship pertaining to particular geographical, national/federal, or cultural regions.
  • Behavioural science is a term that encompasses all the disciplines that explore the activities of and interactions among organisms in the natural world.
  • Demography is the statistical study of all human populations.
  • Environmental studies integrate social, humanistic, and natural science perspectives on the relation between humans and the natural environment.
  • Gender studies integrates several social and natural sciences to study gender identity, masculinity, femininity, transgender issues, and sexuality.
  • Information science is an interdisciplinary science primarily concerned with the collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information.


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  • Management consists of various levels of leadership and administration of an organization in all business and human organizations. It is the effective execution of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives through adequate planning, executing and controlling activities.
  • Marketing the identification of human needs and wants, defines and measures their magnitude for demand and understanding the process of consumer buying behaviour to formulate products and services, pricing, promotion and distribution to satisfy these needs and wants through exchange processes and building long-term relationships.
  • Political economy is the study of production, buying and selling, and their relations with law, custom, and government.
  • Public administration is one of the main branches of political science, and can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of branches of government policy. The pursuit of the public good by enhancing civil society and social justice is the ultimate goal of the field. Though public administration has been historically referred to as government management,[39] it increasingly encompasses non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that also operate with a similar, primary dedication to the betterment of humanity.
  • Religious studies and Western esoteric studies incorporate and inform social-scientific research on phenomena broadly deemed religious. Religious studies, Western esoteric studies, and the social sciences developed in dialogue with one another.[40]


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Methodology

Social research

The origin of the survey can be traced back at least early as the Domesday Book in 1086,[41][42] while some scholars pinpoint the origin of demography to 1663 with the publication of John Graunt's Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality.[43] Social research began most intentionally, however, with the positivist philosophy of science in the 19th century.



< ! ! -- 按日期列出; 从最新到最老 -- >

In contemporary usage, "social research" is a relatively autonomous term, encompassing the work of practitioners from various disciplines that share in its aims and methods. Social scientists employ a range of methods in order to analyse a vast breadth of social phenomena; from census survey data derived from millions of individuals, to the in-depth analysis of a single agent's social experiences; from monitoring what is happening on contemporary streets, to the investigation of ancient historical documents. The methods originally rooted in classical sociology and statistical mathematics have formed the basis for research in other disciplines, such as political science, media studies, and marketing and market research.


Social research methods may be divided into two broad schools:

  • Quantitative designs approach social phenomena through quantifiable evidence, and often rely on statistical analysis of many cases (or across intentionally designed treatments in an experiment) to create valid and reliable general claims.
  • Qualitative designs emphasize understanding of social phenomena through direct observation, communication with participants, or analysis of texts, and may stress contextual and subjective accuracy over generality.


Social scientists will commonly combine quantitative and qualitative approaches as part of a multi-strategy design. Questionnaires, field-based data collection, archival database information and laboratory-based data collections are some of the measurement techniques used. It is noted the importance of measurement and analysis, focusing on the (difficult to achieve) goal of objective research or statistical hypothesis testing. A mathematical model uses mathematical language to describe a system. The process of developing a mathematical model is termed 'mathematical modelling' (also modeling). Eykhoff (1974) defined a mathematical model as 'a representation of the essential aspects of an existing system (or a system to be constructed) that presents knowledge of that system in usable form'.[44] Mathematical models can take many forms, including but not limited to dynamical systems, statistical models, differential equations, or game theoretic models.


These and other types of models can overlap, with a given model involving a variety of abstract structures. The system is a set of interacting or interdependent entities, real or abstract, forming an integrated whole. The concept of an integrated whole can also be stated in terms of a system embodying a set of relationships that are differentiated from relationships of the set to other elements, and from relationships between an element of the set and elements not a part of the relational regime. A dynamical system modeled as a mathematical formalization has a fixed "rule" that describes the time dependence of a point's position in its ambient space. Small changes in the state of the system correspond to small changes in the numbers. The evolution rule of the dynamical system is a fixed rule that describes what future states follow from the current state. The rule is deterministic: for a given time interval only one future state follows from the current state.


Social scientists often conduct program evaluation, which is a systematic method for collecting, analyzing, and using information to answer questions about projects, policies and programs,[45] particularly about their effectiveness and efficiency. In both the public and private sectors, stakeholders often want to know whether the programs they are funding, implementing, voting for, receiving or objecting to are producing the intended effect. While program evaluation first focuses around this definition, important considerations often include how much the program costs per participant, how the program could be improved, whether the program is worthwhile, whether there are better alternatives, if there are unintended outcomes, and whether the program goals are appropriate and useful.[46]


Theory

Some social theorists emphasize the subjective nature of research. These writers espouse social theory perspectives that include various types of the following:


< ! ! -- 按日期列出; 从最新到最老 -- >

  • Critical theory is the examination and critique of society and culture, drawing from knowledge across social sciences and humanities disciplines.
  • Dialectical materialism is the philosophy of Karl Marx, which he formulated by taking the dialectic of Hegel and joining it to the materialism of Feuerbach.
  • Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical discourse; it aims to understand the nature of gender inequality.
  • Phronetic social science is a theory and methodology for doing social science focusing on ethics and political power, based on a contemporary interpretation of Aristotelian phronesis.
  • Postmodernism refers to a point of departure for works of literature, drama, architecture, cinema, and design, as well as in marketing and business and in the interpretation of history, law, culture and religion in the late 20th century.
  • Rational choice theory is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behaviour.
  • Structuralism is an approach to the human sciences that attempts to analyze a specific field (for instance, mythology) as a complex system of interrelated parts.
  • Structural functionalism is a sociological paradigm that addresses what social functions various elements of the social system perform in regard to the entire system.


Other fringe social theorists delve in alternative nature of research. These writers share social theory perspectives that include various types of the following:

  • Anti-intellectualism describes a sentiment of critique towards, or evaluation of, intellectuals and intellectual pursuits.
  • Antiscience is a position critical of science and the scientific method.


Education and degrees

Most universities offer degrees in social science fields.[47] The Bachelor of Social Science is a degree targeted at the social sciences in particular, it is often more flexible and in-depth than other degrees that include social science subjects.模板:Efn


In the United States, a university may offer a student who studies a social sciences field a Bachelor of Arts degree, particularly if the field is within one of the traditional liberal arts such as history, or a BSc: Bachelor of Science degree such as those given by the London School of Economics, as the social sciences constitute one of the two main branches of science (the other being the natural sciences). In addition, some institutions have degrees for a particular social science, such as the Bachelor of Economics degree, though such specialized degrees are relatively rare in the United States.


Graduate students may get a Master's degree (Master of Arts, Master of Science or a field-specific degree such as Master of Public Administration) or Ph.D.


Low priority of social science

The social sciences receive less funding than the natural sciences. It has been estimated that only 0.12% of all funding for climate-related research is spent on the social science of climate change mitigation. Vastly more funding is spent on natural science studies of climate change and considerable sums are also spent on studies of impact of and adaptation to climate change.[48] It has been argued that this is a misallocation of resources, as the most urgent puzzle at the current juncture is to work out how to change human behavior to mitigate climate change, whereas the natural science of climate change is already well established and there will be decades and centuries to handle adaptation.[48]


See also

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General


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Methods


Areas


History


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People

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Category:Academic disciplines

类别: 学科

Category:Branches of science

类别: 科学分支


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Social science. Its edit history can be viewed at 社会科学/edithistory

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