社会结构

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In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of individuals.[1] Likewise, society is believed to be grouped into structurally-related groups or sets of roles, with different functions, meanings, or purposes. Examples of social structure include family, religion, law, economy, and class. It contrasts with "social system", which refers to the parent structure in which these various structures are embedded. Thus, social structures significantly influence larger systems, such as economic systems, legal systems, political systems, cultural systems, etc.

In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergent from and determinant of the actions of individuals. Likewise, society is believed to be grouped into structurally-related groups or sets of roles, with different functions, meanings, or purposes. Examples of social structure include family, religion, law, economy, and class. It contrasts with "social system", which refers to the parent structure in which these various structures are embedded. Thus, social structures significantly influence larger systems, such as economic systems, legal systems, political systems, cultural systems, etc.

在社会科学中,社会结构是社会中的一种模式化的社会安排,它既是个体行为的产物,又是个体行为的决定因素。同样地,人们认为社会被分为具有不同功能、意义或目的的结构相关的群体或角色集合。社会结构的例子包括家庭、宗教、法律、经济和阶级。它与“社会系统”形成了鲜明的对比,“社会系统”指的是将各种结构嵌入其中的母系结构。因此,社会结构显著影响较大的制度,如经济制度、法律制度、政治制度、文化制度等。


Since the 1920s, the term has been in general use in social science,[2] especially as a variable whose sub-components needed to be distinguished in relationship to other sociological variables, as well as in academic literature, as result of the rising influence of structuralism. The concept of "social stratification", for instance, uses the idea of social structure to explain that most societies are separated into different strata (levels), guided (if only partially) by the underlying structures in the social system. It is also important in the modern study of organizations, as an organization's structure may determine its flexibility, capacity to change, etc. In this sense, structure is an important issue for management.

Since the 1920s, the term has been in general use in social science, especially as a variable whose sub-components needed to be distinguished in relationship to other sociological variables, as well as in academic literature, as result of the rising influence of structuralism. The concept of "social stratification", for instance, uses the idea of social structure to explain that most societies are separated into different strata (levels), guided (if only partially) by the underlying structures in the social system. It is also important in the modern study of organizations, as an organization's structure may determine its flexibility, capacity to change, etc. In this sense, structure is an important issue for management.

自20世纪20年代以来,由于结构主义的影响力不断上升,这一术语在社会科学中得到了广泛的应用,尤其是作为一个变量,其子成分需要在与其他社会学变量的关系中加以区分,在学术文献中也是如此。例如,“社会阶层”的概念使用社会结构的概念来解释大多数社会被分成不同的阶层(层次) ,由社会系统的基本结构引导(如果只是部分)。它在现代组织研究中也很重要,因为一个组织的结构可能决定其灵活性、变化能力等。从这个意义上说,组织结构是管理的一个重要问题。


On the macro scale, social structure pertains to the system of socioeconomic stratification (most notably the class structure), social institutions, or other patterned relations between large social groups. On the meso scale, it concerns the structure of social networks between individuals or organizations. On the micro scale, "social structure" includes the ways in which 'norms' shape the behavior of individuals within the social system. These scales are not always kept separate. For example, John Levi Martin has theorized that certain macro-scale structures are the emergent properties of micro-scale cultural institutions (i.e., "structure" resembles that used by anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss). Likewise, in ethnography, a recent study describes how indigenous social structure in the Republic of Panama changed macro social structures and impeded a planned Panama Canal expansion.[3] Marxist sociology has also historically mixed different meanings of social structure, though doing so by simply treating the cultural aspects of social structure as phenomenal of its economic ones.

On the macro scale, social structure pertains to the system of socioeconomic stratification (most notably the class structure), social institutions, or other patterned relations between large social groups. On the meso scale, it concerns the structure of social networks between individuals or organizations. On the micro scale, "social structure" includes the ways in which 'norms' shape the behavior of individuals within the social system. These scales are not always kept separate. For example, John Levi Martin has theorized that certain macro-scale structures are the emergent properties of micro-scale cultural institutions (i.e., "structure" resembles that used by anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss). Likewise, in ethnography, a recent study describes how indigenous social structure in the Republic of Panama changed macro social structures and impeded a planned Panama Canal expansion. Marxist sociology has also historically mixed different meanings of social structure, though doing so by simply treating the cultural aspects of social structure as phenomenal of its economic ones.

在宏观尺度上,社会结构与社会经济分层系统(尤其是阶级结构)、社会制度或大型社会群体之间的其他形式关系有关。在中观尺度上,它涉及到个人或组织之间的社会网络结构。在微观尺度上,“社会结构”包括“规范”在社会系统内塑造个人行为的方式。这些天平并不总是分开的。例如,约翰 · 列维 · 马丁认为,某些宏观尺度结构是微观尺度文化机构的突现特性(即,“结构”类似于人类学家克劳德 · 列维 · 施特劳斯使用的结构)。同样,在人种学方面,最近的一项研究描述了巴拿马共和国的土著社会结构如何改变了宏观社会结构,阻碍了有计划的巴拿马运河扩建。马克思主义社会学历史上也混合了社会结构的不同含义,尽管这样做只是简单地把社会结构的文化方面看作是其经济结构的现象。


Social norms are believed to influence social structure through relations between the majority and the minority. As those who align with the majority are considered 'normal', and those who align with the minority are considered 'abnormal', majority-minority relations create a hierarchical stratification within social structures that favors the majority in all aspects of society.

Social norms are believed to influence social structure through relations between the majority and the minority. As those who align with the majority are considered 'normal', and those who align with the minority are considered 'abnormal', majority-minority relations create a hierarchical stratification within social structures that favors the majority in all aspects of society.

人们认为社会规范通过多数人和少数人之间的关系影响社会结构。由于与多数派结盟的人被认为是”正常的” ,而与少数派结盟的人被认为是”不正常的” ,多数派与少数派之间的关系在社会结构中造成了等级分层,在社会的各个方面都有利于多数派。


History

Early history

The early study of social structures has considerably informed the study of institutions, culture and agency, social interaction, and history.

The early study of social structures has considerably informed the study of institutions, culture and agency, social interaction, and history.

早期对社会结构的研究在很大程度上丰富了对制度、文化与行为、社会互动和历史的研究。


Alexis de Tocqueville was supposedly the first to use the term "social structure". Later, Karl Marx, Herbert Spencer, Ferdinand Tönnies, Émile Durkheim, and Max Weber would all contribute to structural concepts in sociology. The latter, for example, investigated and analyzed the institutions of modern society: market, bureaucracy (private enterprise and public administration), and politics (e.g. democracy).

Alexis de Tocqueville was supposedly the first to use the term "social structure". Later, Karl Marx, Herbert Spencer, Ferdinand Tönnies, Émile Durkheim, and Max Weber would all contribute to structural concepts in sociology. The latter, for example, investigated and analyzed the institutions of modern society: market, bureaucracy (private enterprise and public administration), and politics (e.g. democracy).

亚历西斯·德·托克维尔被认为是第一个使用“社会结构”这个词的人。后来,Karl Marx,Herbert Spencer,斐迪南·滕尼斯,é mile Durkheim,和 Max Weber 都对社会学中的结构概念做出了贡献。后者,例如,调查和分析了现代社会的制度: 市场,官僚制度(私营企业和公共管理) ,和政治(例如:。民主)。


One of the earliest and most comprehensive accounts of social structure was provided by Karl Marx, who related political, cultural, and religious life to the mode of production (an underlying economic structure). Marx argued that the economic base substantially determined the cultural and political superstructure of a society. Subsequent Marxist accounts, such as that of Louis Althusser, proposed a more complex relationship that asserted the relative autonomy of cultural and political institutions, and a general determination by economic factors only "in the last instance."[4]

One of the earliest and most comprehensive accounts of social structure was provided by Karl Marx, who related political, cultural, and religious life to the mode of production (an underlying economic structure). Marx argued that the economic base substantially determined the cultural and political superstructure of a society. Subsequent Marxist accounts, such as that of Louis Althusser, proposed a more complex relationship that asserted the relative autonomy of cultural and political institutions, and a general determination by economic factors only "in the last instance."

对社会结构最早和最全面的描述之一是由卡尔 · 马克思提供的,他把政治、文化和宗教生活与生产方式(一种基本的经济结构)联系起来。马克思认为,经济基础实质上决定了一个社会的文化和政治上层建筑。后来的马克思主义者,比如路易 · 阿尔都塞(Louis Althusser) ,提出了一种更为复杂的关系,主张文化和政治制度的相对自主性,以及“最终”由经济因素决定的普遍性


In 1905, German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies published his study The Present Problems of Social Structure,[5] in which argues that only the constitution of a multitude into a unity creates a "social structure", basing his approach on his concept of social will.

In 1905, German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies published his study The Present Problems of Social Structure, in which argues that only the constitution of a multitude into a unity creates a "social structure", basing his approach on his concept of social will.

1905年,德国社会学家斐迪南·滕尼斯发表了他的研究《当前的社会结构问题》 ,在这本书中,他认为只有把多数人组成一个整体才能创造一个“社会结构” ,他的方法是基于他的社会意志的概念。


Émile Durkheim, drawing on the analogies between biological and social systems popularized by Herbert Spencer and others, introduced the idea that diverse social institutions and practices played a role in assuring the functional integration of society through assimilation of diverse parts into a unified and self-reproducing whole. In this context, Durkheim distinguished two forms of structural relationship: mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity. The former describes structures that unite similar parts through a shared culture, while the latter describes differentiated parts united through social exchange and material interdependence.[4]

Émile Durkheim, drawing on the analogies between biological and social systems popularized by Herbert Spencer and others, introduced the idea that diverse social institutions and practices played a role in assuring the functional integration of society through assimilation of diverse parts into a unified and self-reproducing whole. In this context, Durkheim distinguished two forms of structural relationship: mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity. The former describes structures that unite similar parts through a shared culture, while the latter describes differentiated parts united through social exchange and material interdependence.

埃米尔 · 涂尔干借鉴了赫伯特 · 斯宾塞等人推广的生物系统和社会系统之间的类比,提出了这样一个观点: 通过将不同的部分同化为一个统一的、自我复制的整体,不同的社会制度和实践在确保社会功能一体化方面发挥了作用。在这方面,涂尔干区分了两种结构关系形式: 机械团结和有机团结。前者描述了通过共同文化将相似部分联合起来的结构,而后者描述了通过社会交换和物质相互依存而联合起来的不同部分。


As did Marx and Weber, Georg Simmel, more generally, developed a wide-ranging approach that provided observations and insights into domination and subordination; competition; division of labor; formation of parties; representation; inner solidarity and external exclusiveness; and many similar features of the state, religious communities, economic associations, art schools, and of family and kinship networks. However diverse the interests that give rise to these associations, the forms in which interests are realized may yet be identical.[6]


The notion of social structure was extensively developed in the 20th century with key contributions from structuralist perspectives drawing on theories of Claude Lévi-Strauss, as well as feminist, marxist, functionalist (e.g. those developed by Talcott Parsons and followers), and a variety of other analytic perspectives. Some follow Marx in trying to identify the basic dimensions of society that explain the other dimensions, most emphasizing either economic production or political power. Others follow Lévi-Strauss in seeking logical order in cultural structures. Still others, notably Peter Blau, follow Simmel in attempting to base a formal theory of social structure on numerical patterns in relationships—analyzing, for example, the ways in which factors like group size shape intergroup relations. Tom R. Burns and Helena Flam (actor-system dynamics theory and social rule system theory), and Immanuel Wallerstein (World Systems Theory) provide elaborations and applications of the sociological classics in structural sociology.

社会结构的概念在20世纪得到了广泛的发展,主要的贡献来自结构主义的观点,借鉴了克洛德·列维-斯特劳斯的理论,以及女性主义、马克思主义、功能主义(例如:。那些开发的塔尔科特帕森斯和追随者) ,以及各种其他分析视角。一些人追随马克思,试图确定解释其他维度的社会基本维度,大多数强调经济生产或政治权力。其他人追随列维-斯特劳斯,在文化结构中寻求逻辑秩序。还有一些人,特别是彼得 · 布劳,追随西美尔,试图将社会结构的正式理论建立在人际关系的数字模式上ーー例如,分析群体大小等因素如何影响群体间关系。社会学经典理论在结构社会学中的阐述和应用,可以归纳为: 社会学经典理论是社会学经典理论的伊曼纽·华勒斯坦。

Later developments

The notion of social structure was extensively developed in the 20th century with key contributions from structuralist perspectives drawing on theories of Claude Lévi-Strauss, as well as feminist, marxist, functionalist (e.g. those developed by Talcott Parsons and followers), and a variety of other analytic perspectives.[7][8] Some follow Marx in trying to identify the basic dimensions of society that explain the other dimensions, most emphasizing either economic production or political power. Others follow Lévi-Strauss in seeking logical order in cultural structures. Still others, notably Peter Blau, follow Simmel in attempting to base a formal theory of social structure on numerical patterns in relationships—analyzing, for example, the ways in which factors like group size shape intergroup relations.[4]


As noted above, social structure has been identified as:

如上所述,社会结构被确定为:

The notion of social structure is intimately related to a variety of central topics in social science, including the relation of structure and agency. The most influential attempts to combine the concept of social structure with agency are Anthony Giddens' theory of structuration and Pierre Bourdieu's practice theory. Giddens emphasizes the duality of structure and agency, in the sense that structures and agency cannot be conceived apart from one another. This permits him to argue that structures are neither independent of actors nor determining of their behavior, but rather sets of rules and competencies on which actors draw, and which, in the aggregate, they reproduce. Giddens's analysis, in this respect, closely parallels Jacques Derrida's deconstruction of the binaries that underlie classic sociological and anthropological reasoning (notably the universalizing tendencies of Lévi-Strauss's structuralism). Bourdieu's practice theory also seeks a more subtle account of social structure as embedded in, rather than determinative of, individual behavior.[4]


Other recent work by Margaret Archer (morphogenesis theory),[9] Tom R. Burns and Helena Flam (actor-system dynamics theory and social rule system theory),[10][11] and Immanuel Wallerstein (World Systems Theory)[12] provide elaborations and applications of the sociological classics in structural sociology.


Definitions and concepts

As noted above, social structure has been identified as:

Furthermore, Lopez and Scott (2000) distinguish between two types of structure:

此外,Lopez 和 Scott (2000)区分了两种类型的结构:

  • the relationship of definite entities or groups to each other;
  • the enduring patterns of behaviour by participants in a social system in relation to each other; and
  • the institutionalised norms or cognitive frameworks that structure the actions of actors in the social system.


Institutional vs Relational

Furthermore, Lopez and Scott (2000) distinguish between two types of structure:[8]


  • Institutional structure: "social structure is seen as comprising those cultural or normative patterns that define the expectations of agents hold about each other's behaviour and that organize their enduring relations with each other."
  • Relational structure: "social structure is seen as comprising the relationships themselves, understood as patterns of causal interconnection and interdependence among agents and their actions, as well as the positions that they occupy."


Micro vs Macro

Social structure can also be divided into microstructure and macrostructure:


  • Microstructure: The pattern of relations between most basic elements of social life, that cannot be further divided and have no social structure of their own (e.g. pattern of relations between individuals in a group composed of individuals, where individuals have no social structure; or a structure of organizations as a pattern of relations between social positions or social roles, where those positions and roles have no structure by themselves).
  • Macrostructure: The pattern of relations between objects that have their own structure (e.g. a political social structure between political parties, as political parties have their own social structure).


Other types

Sociologists also distinguish between:


  • Normative structures: pattern of relations in a given structure (organisation) between norms and modes of operations of people of varying social positions
  • Ideal structures: pattern of relations between beliefs and views of people of varying social positions
  • Interest structures: pattern of relations between goals and desires of people of varying social positions
  • Interaction structures: forms of communications of people of varying social positions


Modern sociologist sometimes differentiate between three types of social structures:


  • Relation structures: family or larger family-like clan structures
  • Communication structures: structures in which information is passed (e.g. in organizations)


Social rule system theory reduces the structures of (3) to particular rule system arrangements, i.e. the types of basic structures of (1 and 2). It shares with role theory, organizational and institutional sociology, and network analysis the concern with structural properties and developments and at the same time provides detailed conceptual tools needed to generate interesting, fruitful propositions and models and analyses.


Origin and development of structures

Some believe that social structure is naturally developed, caused by larger systemic needs (e.g. the need for labour, management, professional, and military classes), or by conflicts between groups (e.g. competition among political parties or elites and masses). Others believe that this structuring is not a result of natural processes, but of social construction. In this sense, it may be created by the power of elites who seek to retain their power, or by economic systems that place emphasis upon competition or cooperation.


Ethnography has contributed to understandings about social structure by revealing local practices and customs that differ from Western practices of hierarchy and economic power in its construction.[3]


The most thorough account of the evolution of social structure is perhaps provided by structure and agency accounts that allow for a sophisticated analysis of the co-evolution of social structure and human agency, where socialised agents with a degree of autonomy take action in social systems where their action is on the one hand mediated by existing institutional structure and expectations but may, on the other hand, influence or transform that institutional structure.


Critical implications

The notion of social structure may mask systematic biases, as it involves many identifiable sub-variables (e.g. gender). Some argue that men and women who have otherwise equal qualifications receive different treatment in the workplace because of their gender, which would be termed a "social structural" bias, but other variables (such as time on the job or hours worked) might be masked. Modern social structural analysis takes this into account through multivariate analysis and other techniques, but the analytic problem of how to combine various aspects of social life into a whole remains.[13][14]


See also

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Related concepts

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Structure

结构

Category:Sociological terminology

类别: 社会学术语

Category:Structure

类别: 结构

Category:Emergence

类别: 涌现

Category:Structural functionalism

类别: 结构功能主义


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Social structure. Its edit history can be viewed at 社会结构/edithistory

  1. Olanike, Deji (2011). Gender and Rural Development By. pp. 71. ISBN 9783643901033. https://books.google.com/books?id=Friw38mN7-kC&q=as+relationships+between+different+entities+or+groups+or+as+enduring+and+relatively+stable+patterns+of+relationship+emphasises&pg=PA71. 
  2. Merton, Robert. 1938. "Social Structure and Nominate." American Sociological Review 3(5):672–82.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Muller-Schwarz, Nina K. (2015). The Blood of Victoria no Lorenzo: An Ethnography of the Solos of Northern Coco Province.. Jefferson, NC: McFarland Press. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Calhoun, Craig. 2002. "Social Structure." Dictionary of the Social Sciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  5. Tönnies, Ferdinand. 1905. "The Present Problems of Social Structure." American Journal of Sociology 10(5):569–88.
  6. Crothers, Charles. 1996. Social Structure. London: Routledge.
  7. Blau, Peter M., ed. 1975. Approaches to the Study of Social Structure. New York: The Free Press.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Lopez, J. and J. Scott. 2000. Social Structure. Buckingham: Open University Press. . OCLC 43708597. p. 3.
  9. Archer, Margaret S. 1995. Realist Social Theory: The Morphogenetic Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  10. Burns, Tom R., and H. Flam. 1987. The Shaping of Social Organization: Social Rule System Theory with Applications. London: SAGE.
  11. Flam, Helena, and Marcus Carson, eds. 2008. Rule System Theory: Applications and Explorations. Frankfurt: Peter Lang Publishers. .
  12. Wallerstein, Immanuel. 2004. World-Systems Analysis: An Introduction. Durham: Duke University Press.
  13. Aberration, et al. 2000
  14. Jary, D., and J. Jary, eds. 1991. "Social structure." The Harper Collins Dictionary of Sociology. New York: Harper Collins.