空间组织

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Spatial organization can be observed when components of an abiotic or biological group are arranged non-randomly in space. Abiotic patterns, such as the ripple formations in sand dunes or the oscillating wave patterns of the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction[1] emerge after thousands of particles interact millions of times. On the other hand, individuals in biological groups may be arranged non-randomly due to selfish behavior, dominance interactions, or cooperative behavior. W. D. Hamilton (1971) proposed that in a non-related "herd" of animals, spatial organization is likely a result of the selfish interests of individuals trying to acquire food or avoid predation.[2] On the other hand, spatial arrangements have also been observed among highly related members of eusocial groups, suggesting that the arrangement of individuals may provide some advantage for the group.[3]

Spatial organization can be observed when components of an abiotic or biological group are arranged non-randomly in space. Abiotic patterns, such as the ripple formations in sand dunes or the oscillating wave patterns of the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction emerge after thousands of particles interact millions of times. On the other hand, individuals in biological groups may be arranged non-randomly due to selfish behavior, dominance interactions, or cooperative behavior. W. D. Hamilton (1971) proposed that in a non-related "herd" of animals, spatial organization is likely a result of the selfish interests of individuals trying to acquire food or avoid predation. On the other hand, spatial arrangements have also been observed among highly related members of eusocial groups, suggesting that the arrangement of individuals may provide some advantage for the group.

当非生物或生物群组成部分在空间中非随机排列时,可以观察到空间组织。非生物模式,如沙丘上的波纹形成或贝洛索夫-扎博廷斯基反应的振荡波模式,在数千个粒子相互作用数百万次之后出现。另一方面,生物群体中的个体可能由于自私的行为、支配的相互作用或合作的行为而被非随机地排列。汉密尔顿(1971)提出,在一个非相关的“群”的动物,空间组织可能是个人的自私利益试图获得食物或避免掠夺的结果。另一方面,在群体中高度相关的成员之间也观察到空间安排,这表明个体的安排可能为群体提供一些优势。


Spatial organization in eusocial insects

文件:Paint marked ants.JPG
Spatial patterns exhibited by ants (Temnothorax rugatulus) can be determined after each individual is painted with a distinguishing mark.
Spatial patterns exhibited by ants (Temnothorax rugatulus) can be determined after each individual is painted with a distinguishing mark.

蚂蚁在每个个体身上涂上一个明显的标记后,就可以确定其所表现出来的空间图案。

Individuals in a social insect colony can be spatially organized, or arranged non-randomly inside the nest. These miniature territories, or spatial fidelity zones have been described in honey bees (Apis mellifera[4]), ants (Odontomachus brunneus;[5] Temnothorax albipennis;[6] Pheidole dentata[3]), and paper wasps (Polistes dominulus,[7] Ropalidia revolutionalis[8]). While residing in these zones, workers perform the task appropriate to the area they reside. For example, individuals that remain in the center of an ant nest are more likely to feed larvae, whereas individuals found at the periphery of the nest are more likely to forage.[5][6] E. O. Wilson proposed that by remaining in small, non-random areas inside the nest, the distance an individual moves between tasks may be minimized, and overall colony efficiency would increase.[3]

Individuals in a social insect colony can be spatially organized, or arranged non-randomly inside the nest. These miniature territories, or spatial fidelity zones have been described in honey bees (Apis mellifera), ants (Odontomachus brunneus; Temnothorax albipennis; Pheidole dentata Ropalidia revolutionalis). While residing in these zones, workers perform the task appropriate to the area they reside. For example, individuals that remain in the center of an ant nest are more likely to feed larvae, whereas individuals found at the periphery of the nest are more likely to forage. Individuals can remain in an area for an extended period of time, as long as tasks need to be performed there. Over time, an individual's zone may shift as tasks are accomplished and workers search for other areas where tasks need to be performed. Honey bees, for example, begin their adult life caring for brood located in the area near where they emerged (i.e. nurse bees). Eventually, workers move away from the brood rearing area and begin to perform other tasks, such as food storage, guarding, or foraging. When multiple inseminated females found a colony together, the colony grows quickly, yet only one individual will become the primary egg-layer. Through a series of dominance interactions, the most aggressive wasp will emerge as the dominant individual and will become the primary egg-layer for the group (the prime role for ensuring your genes are passed on to subsequent generations), whereas the remaining subordinate wasps will perform other tasks, such as nest construction or foraging. These zones can expand and contract when neighboring foragers are removed or introduced, respectively. By dividing foraging patches into miniature ‘foraging territories’, individuals can maximize the number of flowers visited with minimal interruptions or competition between foragers. These ‘foraging territories’ divided among individuals from the same colony are the result of self-organization among the foragers; that is, there is no lead forager dictating where the bees will forage. Instead, the maintenance of these foraging zones is due to simple rules followed by each individual forager. Studies to determine these “rules” are an important area of research in computer science, basic biology, behavioral ecology, and mathematic modeling.

群居昆虫群落中的个体可以在巢内进行空间组织或非随机排列。这些微型领地,或空间保真区域已经在蜜蜂(意大利蜜蜂)、蚂蚁(褐色齿蜂、白鳍金枪鱼、革命性齿小蜂)中被描述过。当工人居住在这些区域时,他们执行适合于他们所在区域的任务。例如,留在蚁巢中心的个体更有可能喂养幼虫,而在蚁巢周围的个体则更有可能觅食。个人可以在一个地区停留较长时间,只要有任务需要在那里执行。随着时间的推移,随着任务的完成和员工寻找其他需要完成任务的区域,个人的区域可能会发生变化。例如,蜜蜂开始它们的成年生活照顾它们出现的地方附近的幼蜂。护士蜜蜂)。最终,工蚁离开育雏区,开始执行其他任务,如储存食物,看守,或觅食。当多个受精的雌性一起发现一个群落,群落生长迅速,但只有一个个体将成为主要的卵层。通过一系列的优势互动,最具攻击性的黄蜂将成为优势个体,并成为群体的主要产卵层(确保你的基因传递给下一代的主要角色) ,而其余的下属黄蜂将执行其他任务,如筑巢或觅食。当邻近的采食者被移除或引入时,这些区域可以扩大或收缩。通过将觅食区域划分为小型的觅食区域,个体可以最大限度地利用鲜花数量,同时尽量减少觅食者之间的干扰或竞争。来自同一群体的个体之间的这些觅食区域是觅食者之间自我组织的结果; 也就是说,没有领头觅食者指示蜜蜂将在哪里觅食。取而代之的是,这些觅食区域的维持是由于每个觅食者遵循的简单规则。确定这些“规则”的研究是计算机科学、基础生物学、行为生态学和数学建模研究的一个重要领域。


Spatial organization in the nest

"Foraging-for-work"

The self-organization observed in foraging territories is a microcosm for the self-organization seen in the entire colony. Spatial organization observed across social insect colonies can be considered an emergent property of a self-organized complex system. It is self-organized because there is no leader dictating where each individual will reside, nor which task an individual will perform once they get there. Instead, zones may be a by-product of division of labor, whereby individuals end up in a particular location for a period of time based on the task they perform, or dominance interactions, whereby dominant individuals are granted access to the most desirable places inside the nest. Spatial patterns exhibited by individuals of social insect colonies are not obvious, because it is difficult to observe and differentiate among individuals inside a nest cavity or flying across a foraging patch. However, when careful attention is given to the individual worker, the spatial organization of workers in the nest becomes apparent.

在觅食区域观察到的自我组织是整个蚁群中自我组织的一个缩影。社会昆虫群落的空间组织可以看作是一个自组织复杂系统的突现特征。它是自我组织的,因为没有领导者决定每个人将居住在哪里,也没有任何个人将执行的任务一旦他们到达那里。相反,区域可能是劳动分工的副产品,即个体根据自己的任务在某个特定地点停留一段时间,或者是支配地位的相互作用,即主导个体被允许进入巢穴内最理想的地方。群居昆虫群体个体的空间格局不明显,因为很难观察和区分巢穴内个体和飞越觅食斑块的个体。然而,当仔细注意到个别工蜂时,巢中工蜂的空间组织就变得明显了。

There are a variety of ways in which individuals can divide space inside a nest. According to the “foraging-for-work” hypothesis, adult workers begin performing tasks in the area of the nest where they emerged, and gradually move towards the periphery of the nest as demands to perform particular tasks change. This hypothesis is based on two observations: "(1) that there is spatial structure in the layout of tasks in social insect colonies and (2) that workers first become adults in or around the center of the nest".[9] Individuals can remain in an area for an extended period of time, as long as tasks need to be performed there. Over time, an individual's zone may shift as tasks are accomplished and workers search for other areas where tasks need to be performed. Honey bees, for example, begin their adult life caring for brood located in the area near where they emerged (i.e. nurse bees). Eventually, workers move away from the brood rearing area and begin to perform other tasks, such as food storage, guarding, or foraging.[4]


Dominance hierarchy

文件:Polistes flavus on the nest.JPG
The dominant paper wasp (Polistes flavus) remains in the center of the nest while subordinate wasps are often at the edge or off the nest.

Space inside the nest may also be divided as a result of dominance interactions. For example, in paper wasp colonies, a single inseminated queen may found (initiate) a colony after waking up from hibernation (overwintering). However, it is common in many species that multiple inseminated females join these foundresses instead of founding their own nest.[10] When multiple inseminated females found a colony together, the colony grows quickly, yet only one individual will become the primary egg-layer.[11] Through a series of dominance interactions, the most aggressive wasp will emerge as the dominant individual and will become the primary egg-layer for the group (the prime role for ensuring your genes are passed on to subsequent generations), whereas the remaining subordinate wasps will perform other tasks, such as nest construction or foraging.[8] There is evidence that these dominance interactions affect the spatial zones individuals occupy as well. In paper wasps (Ropalidia revolutionalis), as well as in the ant species Odontomachus brunneus,[5] dominant individuals are more likely to reside in the central areas of the nest, where they take care of brood, while the subordinate individuals are pushed towards the edge, where they are more likely to forage. It is unknown whether division of space or establishment of dominance occurs first and if the other is a result of it.


Spatial organization outside the nest

文件:Marked Bumble bees.jpg
Bumble bees, Bombus impatiens individually marked with plastic number tags

There is also evidence that foragers, which are the insects that leave the nest to collect the valuable resources for the developing colony, can divide space outside the nest. Makino & Sakai showed that bumble bee foragers maintain foraging zones in flower patches, which means that bees consistently return to the same areas within a patch and there is little overlap between individuals.[12] These zones can expand and contract when neighboring foragers are removed or introduced, respectively.[13] By dividing foraging patches into miniature ‘foraging territories’, individuals can maximize the number of flowers visited with minimal interruptions or competition between foragers. These ‘foraging territories’ divided among individuals from the same colony are the result of self-organization among the foragers; that is, there is no lead forager dictating where the bees will forage. Instead, the maintenance of these foraging zones is due to simple rules followed by each individual forager. Studies to determine these “rules” are an important area of research in computer science, basic biology, behavioral ecology, and mathematic modeling.


Spatial organization as an emergent property of a self-organized system

Category:Self-organization

类别: 自我组织


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Spatial organization. Its edit history can be viewed at 空间组织/edithistory

  1. Ball, P. The Self-Made Tapestry: Pattern formation in nature. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850244-3. https://archive.org/details/selfmadetapestry00ball_0. 
  2. Hamilton, W.D. (1971). "Geometry for the selfish herd". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 31 (2): 295–311. doi:10.1016/0022-5193(71)90189-5. PMID 5104951.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Wilson, E. O. (1976). "Behavioral discretization and the number of castes in an ant species". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 1 (2): 141–154. doi:10.1007/BF00299195.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Seeley, T. D. (1982). "Adaptive significance of the age polyethism schedule in honeybee colonies". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 11 (4): 287–293. doi:10.1007/BF00299306.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Powell, S.; Tschinkel, W. R. (1999). "Ritualized conflict in Odontomachus brunneus and the generation of interaction-based task allocation: a new organizational mechanism in ants". Animal Behaviour. 58 (5): 965–972. doi:10.1006/anbe.1999.1238. PMID 10564598.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Sendova-Franks, A. B.; Franks, N. R. (1995). "Spatial relationships within nests of the ant Leptothorax unifasciatus (Latr.) and their implications for the division of labour". Animal Behaviour. 50: 121–136. doi:10.1006/anbe.1995.0226.
  7. Baracchi, D; Zaccaroni, M; Cervo, R; Turillazzi, S (2010). "Home Range Analysis in the Study of Spatial Organization on the Comb in the Paper Wasp Polistes Dominulus". Ethology. 116 (7): 579–587. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.2010.01770.x.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Robson, SKA; Bean, K; Hansen, J; Norling, K; Rowe, RJ; White, D (2000). "Social and spatial organization in colonies of a primitively eusocial wasp Ropalidia revolutionalis (de Saussure) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)". Australian Journal of Entomology. 39: 20–24. doi:10.1046/j.1440-6055.2000.00135.x.
  9. Franks, NR; Tofts, C. (1994). "Foraging for work: how tasks allocate workers". Animal Behaviour. 48 (2): 470–472. doi:10.1006/anbe.1994.1261.
  10. Wilson, E. O. (1971). The Insect Societies. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. https://archive.org/details/insectsocieties00edwa. 
  11. West-Eberhard, M. J. (1969). "The social biology of Polistine wasps". Miscellaneous Publications Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan. 140: 1–101.
  12. Makino, TT; Sakai, S (2004). "Findings on spatial foraging patterns of bumblebees (Bombus ignitus) from a bee-tracking experiment in a net cage". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 56 (2): 155–163. doi:10.1007/s00265-004-0773-x.
  13. Makino, TT; Sakai, S. (2005). "Does interaction between bumblebees (Bombus ignitus) reduce their foraging area?: Bee-removal experiments in a net cage". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 57 (6): 617–622. doi:10.1007/s00265-004-0877-3.