自然地理学

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文件:Land ocean ice cloud 1024.jpg
NASA true-color image of the Earth's surface and atmosphere.



thumb|300px|NASA true-color image of the Earth's surface and atmosphere.

拇指 | 300px | NASA 地球表面和大气的真彩色图像。

Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography.[1][2][3] Physical geography is the branch of natural science which deals with the processes and patterns in the natural environment such as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere, as opposed to the cultural or built environment, the domain of human geography.

Physical geography (also known as physiography) is one of the two fields of geography. Physical geography is the branch of natural science which deals with the processes and patterns in the natural environment such as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere, as opposed to the cultural or built environment, the domain of human geography.

自然地理学(又称地文学)是地理学的两个领域之一。自然地理学是自然科学的一个分支,它研究自然环境的过程和模式,如大气层、水圈、生物圈和地圈,而不是文化或建筑环境,即人文地理学的领域。

Sub-branches

Physical geography can be divided into several branches or related fields, as follows:


Physical geography can be divided into several branches or related fields, as follows:

自然地理学可分为以下几个分支或相关领域:

  • Geomorphology[4][5] is concerned with understanding the surface of the Earth and the processes by which it is shaped, both at the present as well as in the past. Geomorphology as a field has several sub-fields that deal with the specific landforms of various environments e.g. desert geomorphology and fluvial geomorphology; however, these sub-fields are united by the core processes which cause them, mainly tectonic or climatic processes. Geomorphology seeks to understand landform history and dynamics, and predict future changes through a combination of field observation, physical experiment, and numerical modeling (Geomorphometry). Early studies in geomorphology are the foundation for pedology, one of two main branches of soil science.
  • Geomorphology is concerned with understanding the surface of the Earth and the processes by which it is shaped, both at the present as well as in the past. Geomorphology as a field has several sub-fields that deal with the specific landforms of various environments e.g. desert geomorphology and fluvial geomorphology; however, these sub-fields are united by the core processes which cause them, mainly tectonic or climatic processes. Geomorphology seeks to understand landform history and dynamics, and predict future changes through a combination of field observation, physical experiment, and numerical modeling (Geomorphometry). Early studies in geomorphology are the foundation for pedology, one of two main branches of soil science.


  • 地貌学研究的是了解地球表面及其形成过程,包括现在和过去。地貌学作为一个领域有几个子领域,处理各种环境的特定地貌。沙漠地貌学和河流地貌学,然而,这些亚域是由导致它们的核心过程联合起来的,主要是构造或气候过程。地貌学旨在通过野外观察、物理实验和数值模拟(地貌测量学)相结合的方式来了解地貌的历史和动态,并预测未来的变化。土壤学是土壤学的两个主要分支之一,早期的地貌学研究是土壤学的基础。
  • Hydrology[4][5] is predominantly concerned with the amounts and quality of water moving and accumulating on the land surface and in the soils and rocks near the surface and is typified by the hydrological cycle. Thus the field encompasses water in rivers, lakes, aquifers and to an extent glaciers, in which the field examines the process and dynamics involved in these bodies of water. Hydrology has historically had an important connection with engineering and has thus developed a largely quantitative method in its research; however, it does have an earth science side that embraces the systems approach. Similar to most fields of physical geography it has sub-fields that examine the specific bodies of water or their interaction with other spheres e.g. limnology and ecohydrology.
  • Glaciology is the study of glaciers and ice sheets, or more commonly the cryosphere or ice and phenomena that involve ice. Glaciology groups the latter (ice sheets) as continental glaciers and the former (glaciers) as alpine glaciers. Although research in the areas is similar to research undertaken into both the dynamics of ice sheets and glaciers, the former tends to be concerned with the interaction of ice sheets with the present climate and the latter with the impact of glaciers on the landscape. Glaciology also has a vast array of sub-fields examining the factors and processes involved in ice sheets and glaciers e.g. snow hydrology and glacial geology.
  • Biogeography[4][5] is the science which deals with geographic patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in these patterns. Biogeography emerged as a field of study as a result of the work of Alfred Russel Wallace, although the field prior to the late twentieth century had largely been viewed as historic in its outlook and descriptive in its approach. The main stimulus for the field since its founding has been that of evolution, plate tectonics and the theory of island biogeography. The field can largely be divided into five sub-fields: island biogeography, paleobiogeography, phylogeography, zoogeography and phytogeography.
  • Climatology[4][5] is the study of the climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a long period of time. Climatology examines both the nature of micro (local) and macro (global) climates and the natural and anthropogenic influences on them. The field is also sub-divided largely into the climates of various regions and the study of specific phenomena or time periods e.g. tropical cyclone rainfall climatology and paleoclimatology.
  • Soil geography deals with the distribution of soils across the terrain. This discipline is fundamental to both physical geography and pedology.[6][7][8] Pedology is the study of soils in their natural environment. It deals with pedogenesis, soil morphology, soil classification. Soil geography studies the spatial distribution of soils as it relates to topography, climate (water, air, temperature), soil life (micro-organisms, plants, animals) and mineral materials within soils (biogeochemical cycles).
  • Palaeogeography[4] is a cross-disciplinary study that examines the preserved material in the stratigraphic record to determine the distribution of the continents through geologic time. Almost all the evidence for the positions of the continents comes from geology in the form of fossils or paleomagnetism. The use of these data has resulted in evidence for continental drift, plate tectonics, and supercontinents. This, in turn, has supported palaeogeographic theories such as the Wilson cycle.
  • Coastal geography is the study of the dynamic interface between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography (i.e. coastal geomorphology, geology, and oceanography) and the human geography of the coast. It involves an understanding of coastal weathering processes, particularly wave action, sediment movement and weathering, and also the ways in which humans interact with the coast. Coastal geography, although predominantly geomorphological in its research, is not just concerned with coastal landforms, but also the causes and influences of sea level change.
  • Oceanography[4] is the branch of physical geography that studies the Earth's oceans and seas. It covers a wide range of topics, including marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics (biological oceanography); ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics (physical oceanography); plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor (geological oceanography); and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries (chemical oceanography). These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean and understanding of processes within it.
  • Quaternary science[5] is an interdisciplinary field of study focusing on the Quaternary period, which encompasses the last 2.6 million years. The field studies the last ice age and the recent interstadial the Holocene and uses proxy evidence to reconstruct the past environments during this period to infer the climatic and environmental changes that have occurred.
  • Landscape ecology is a sub-discipline of ecology and geography that address how spatial variation in the landscape affects ecological processes such as the distribution and flow of energy, materials, and individuals in the environment (which, in turn, may influence the distribution of landscape "elements" themselves such as hedgerows). The field was largely funded by the German geographer Carl Troll. Landscape ecology typically deals with problems in an applied and holistic context. The main difference between biogeography and landscape ecology is that the latter is concerned with how flows or energy and material are changed and their impacts on the landscape whereas the former is concerned with the spatial patterns of species and chemical cycles.
  • Geomatics is the field of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering geographic information, or spatially referenced information. Geomatics includes geodesy (scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the earth, its gravitational field, and other geodynamic phenomena, such as crustal motion, oceanic tides, and polar motion), geographical information science (GIS) and remote sensing (the short or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the use of either recording or real-time sensing devices that are not in physical or intimate contact with the object).
  • Environmental geography is a branch of geography that analyzes the spatial aspects of interactions between humans and the natural world. The branch bridges the divide between human and physical geography and thus requires an understanding of the dynamics of geology, meteorology, hydrology, biogeography, and geomorphology, as well as the ways in which human societies conceptualize the environment. Although the branch was previously more visible in research than at present with theories such as environmental determinism linking society with the environment. It has largely become the domain of the study of environmental management or anthropogenic influences.
  • Hydrology is predominantly concerned with the amounts and quality of water moving and accumulating on the land surface and in the soils and rocks near the surface and is typified by the hydrological cycle. Thus the field encompasses water in rivers, lakes, aquifers and to an extent glaciers, in which the field examines the process and dynamics involved in these bodies of water. Hydrology has historically had an important connection with engineering and has thus developed a largely quantitative method in its research; however, it does have an earth science side that embraces the systems approach. Similar to most fields of physical geography it has sub-fields that examine the specific bodies of water or their interaction with other spheres e.g. limnology and ecohydrology.
  • Glaciology is the study of glaciers and ice sheets, or more commonly the cryosphere or ice and phenomena that involve ice. Glaciology groups the latter (ice sheets) as continental glaciers and the former (glaciers) as alpine glaciers. Although research in the areas is similar to research undertaken into both the dynamics of ice sheets and glaciers, the former tends to be concerned with the interaction of ice sheets with the present climate and the latter with the impact of glaciers on the landscape. Glaciology also has a vast array of sub-fields examining the factors and processes involved in ice sheets and glaciers e.g. snow hydrology and glacial geology.
  • Biogeography is the science which deals with geographic patterns of species distribution and the processes that result in these patterns. Biogeography emerged as a field of study as a result of the work of Alfred Russel Wallace, although the field prior to the late twentieth century had largely been viewed as historic in its outlook and descriptive in its approach. The main stimulus for the field since its founding has been that of evolution, plate tectonics and the theory of island biogeography. The field can largely be divided into five sub-fields: island biogeography, paleobiogeography, phylogeography, zoogeography and phytogeography.
  • Climatology is the study of the climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a long period of time. Climatology examines both the nature of micro (local) and macro (global) climates and the natural and anthropogenic influences on them. The field is also sub-divided largely into the climates of various regions and the study of specific phenomena or time periods e.g. tropical cyclone rainfall climatology and paleoclimatology.
  • Soil geography deals with the distribution of soils across the terrain. This discipline is fundamental to both physical geography and pedology. Pedology is the study of soils in their natural environment. It deals with pedogenesis, soil morphology, soil classification. Soil geography studies the spatial distribution of soils as it relates to topography, climate (water, air, temperature), soil life (micro-organisms, plants, animals) and mineral materials within soils (biogeochemical cycles).
  • Palaeogeography is a cross-disciplinary study that examines the preserved material in the stratigraphic record to determine the distribution of the continents through geologic time. Almost all the evidence for the positions of the continents comes from geology in the form of fossils or paleomagnetism. The use of these data has resulted in evidence for continental drift, plate tectonics, and supercontinents. This, in turn, has supported palaeogeographic theories such as the Wilson cycle.
  • Coastal geography is the study of the dynamic interface between the ocean and the land, incorporating both the physical geography (i.e. coastal geomorphology, geology, and oceanography) and the human geography of the coast. It involves an understanding of coastal weathering processes, particularly wave action, sediment movement and weathering, and also the ways in which humans interact with the coast. Coastal geography, although predominantly geomorphological in its research, is not just concerned with coastal landforms, but also the causes and influences of sea level change.
  • Oceanography is the branch of physical geography that studies the Earth's oceans and seas. It covers a wide range of topics, including marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics (biological oceanography); ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics (physical oceanography); plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor (geological oceanography); and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries (chemical oceanography). These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean and understanding of processes within it.
  • Quaternary science is an interdisciplinary field of study focusing on the Quaternary period, which encompasses the last 2.6 million years. The field studies the last ice age and the recent interstadial the Holocene and uses proxy evidence to reconstruct the past environments during this period to infer the climatic and environmental changes that have occurred.
  • Landscape ecology is a sub-discipline of ecology and geography that address how spatial variation in the landscape affects ecological processes such as the distribution and flow of energy, materials, and individuals in the environment (which, in turn, may influence the distribution of landscape "elements" themselves such as hedgerows). The field was largely funded by the German geographer Carl Troll. Landscape ecology typically deals with problems in an applied and holistic context. The main difference between biogeography and landscape ecology is that the latter is concerned with how flows or energy and material are changed and their impacts on the landscape whereas the former is concerned with the spatial patterns of species and chemical cycles.
  • Geomatics is the field of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering geographic information, or spatially referenced information. Geomatics includes geodesy (scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the earth, its gravitational field, and other geodynamic phenomena, such as crustal motion, oceanic tides, and polar motion), geographical information science (GIS) and remote sensing (the short or large-scale acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the use of either recording or real-time sensing devices that are not in physical or intimate contact with the object).
  • Environmental geography is a branch of geography that analyzes the spatial aspects of interactions between humans and the natural world. The branch bridges the divide between human and physical geography and thus requires an understanding of the dynamics of geology, meteorology, hydrology, biogeography, and geomorphology, as well as the ways in which human societies conceptualize the environment. Although the branch was previously more visible in research than at present with theories such as environmental determinism linking society with the environment. It has largely become the domain of the study of environmental management or anthropogenic influences.


  • 水文学主要研究水在陆地表面和近地表的土壤和岩石中流动和积累的数量和质量,以水文循环为典型。因此,该领域包括河流、湖泊、蓄水层和一定程度的冰川中的水,在这个领域中,该领域研究这些水体所涉及的过程和动态。水文学在历史上与工程学有着重要的联系,因此在它的研究中发展了一种大量的定量方法; 然而,它确实有地球科学的一面,包括系统方法。与自然地理学的大多数领域类似,它也有子领域研究特定的水体或它们与其他领域的相互作用。湖沼学与生态水文学。
  • 冰川学是研究冰川和冰盖,或更常见的冰冻圈或冰和涉及冰的现象。冰川学把后者(冰原)归类为大陆冰川,把前者(冰川)归类为阿尔卑斯冰川。虽然这些地区的研究类似于对冰盖和冰川动态的研究,但前者往往关注冰盖与当前气候的相互作用,后者则关注冰川对景观的影响。冰川学也有大量的子领域研究涉及冰盖和冰川的因素和过程。雪水文学和冰川地质学。
  • 生物地理学是研究物种分布的地理格局和形成这些格局的过程的科学。生物地理学作为一个研究领域出现的结果,阿尔弗雷德·拉塞尔·华莱士的工作,虽然该领域在20世纪晚期之前基本上被视为历史的前景和描述的方法。该领域自成立以来的主要推动力是进化论、板块构造学和岛屿生物地理学理论。该领域大致可分为5个子领域: 岛屿生物地理学地理学、古生物地理学、系统地理学、动物地理学和植物地理学。
  • 气候学是研究气候的学科,科学定义为长期平均的天气状况。气候学研究微观(地方)和宏观(全球)气候的本质以及自然和人为因素对它们的影响。该领域也主要分为不同地区的气候和特定现象或时间周期的研究。热带气旋雨量气候学及古气候学。
  • 土壤地理学研究土壤在地形上的分布。这门学科是自然地理学和土壤学的基础。土壤学是研究土壤在其自然环境中的状况。它涉及土壤发生,土壤形态,土壤分类。土壤地理学研究土壤的空间分布,因为它与地形、气候(水、空气、温度)、土壤生命(微生物、植物、动物)和土壤中的矿物质(生物地球化学循环)有关。
  • 古地理学是一门跨学科的研究,它研究地层记录中保存的材料,以确定各大陆在地质时期的分布。几乎所有关于大陆位置的证据都来自地质学的化石或古磁学的形式。这些数据的使用为大陆漂移学说、板块构造和超级大陆提供了证据。这反过来又支持了威尔逊旋回等古地理学理论。
  • 海岸地理学是研究海洋与陆地之间的动态界面,结合自然地理学(即。海岸地貌学、地质学和海洋学)和海岸人文地理学。它涉及对海岸风化过程的理解,特别是波浪作用、沉积物运动和风化,以及人类与海岸相互作用的方式。海岸地理学虽然主要研究地貌,但它不仅涉及海岸地貌,而且还涉及海平面变化的原因和影响。
  • 海洋学是自然地理学的一个分支,研究地球的海洋。它涵盖了广泛的主题,包括海洋生物和生态系统动力学(生物海洋学) ; 洋流,海浪和地球物理流体动力学(物理海洋学) ; 板块构造和海底地质学(地质海洋学) ; 以及各种化学物质和海洋及其边界内的物理特性的通量(化学海洋学)。这些不同的主题反映了海洋学家融合了多种学科,以进一步了解世界海洋和了解其中的过程。
  • 第四纪科学是一个跨学科研究领域,重点研究第四纪,包括过去260万年。该领域研究的是上一个冰期和最近的全新世冰期之间,并利用代理证据重建这一时期的过去环境,推断已经发生的气候和环境变化。
  • 景观生态学是生态学和地理学的一个分支学科,研究景观的空间变化如何影响生态过程,例如能量、物质和个体在环境中的分布和流动(这反过来又可能影响景观”要素”本身的分布,例如绿篱)。这个领域主要是由德国地理学家卡尔 · 索尔资助的。景观生态学通常在应用和整体的背景下处理问题。生物地理学和景观生态学地理学的主要区别在于后者关注的是流动或能量和物质如何改变以及它们对景观的影响,而前者关注的是物种的空间格局和化学循环。
  • 地理信息学是收集、存储、处理和传递地理信息或空间参考信息的领域。地理信息学包括大地测量(测量和表示地球及其引力场的科学学科,以及其他地球动力学现象,如地壳运动、海洋潮汐和极地运动)、地理信息科学(GIS)和遥感(通过使用记录或实时感应装置,对物体或现象进行短期或大规模的信息获取,这些装置与物体不存在物理接触或亲密接触)。
  • 环境地理学是地理学的一个分支,分析人类与自然界相互作用的空间方面。该分支在人文地理学和自然地理学之间架起了桥梁,因此需要了解地质学、气象学、水文学、生物地理学和地貌学的动力学,以及人类社会概念化环境的方式。尽管这个分支在以前的研究中比现在更加引人注目,比如环境决定论将社会与环境联系起来的理论。它在很大程度上已成为环境管理或人为影响研究的领域。

Journals and literature

Physical geography and earth science journals communicate and document the results of research carried out in universities and various other research institutions. Most journals cover a specific field and publish the research within that field, however unlike human geographers, physical geographers tend to publish in inter-disciplinary journals rather than predominantly geography journal; the research is normally expressed in the form of a scientific paper. Additionally, textbooks, books, and magazines on geography communicate research to laypeople, although these tend to focus on environmental issues or cultural dilemmas. Examples of journals that publish articles from physical geographers are:

Physical geography and earth science journals communicate and document the results of research carried out in universities and various other research institutions. Most journals cover a specific field and publish the research within that field, however unlike human geographers, physical geographers tend to publish in inter-disciplinary journals rather than predominantly geography journal; the research is normally expressed in the form of a scientific paper. Additionally, textbooks, books, and magazines on geography communicate research to laypeople, although these tend to focus on environmental issues or cultural dilemmas. Examples of journals that publish articles from physical geographers are:


自然地理学和地球科学杂志交流和记录在大学和其他各种研究机构进行的研究成果。大多数期刊涉及某一特定领域并发表该领域的研究,但与人类地理学家不同的是,自然地理学家倾向于在跨学科期刊上发表研究成果,而不是主要在地理学期刊上发表研究成果; 研究成果通常以科学论文的形式表达。此外,关于地理的教科书、书籍和杂志向外行人传达研究信息,尽管这些往往侧重于环境问题或文化困境。发表自然地理学家论文的期刊如下:

Historical evolution of the discipline

From the birth of geography as a science during the Greek classical period and until the late nineteenth century with the birth of anthropogeography (human geography), geography was almost exclusively a natural science: the study of location and descriptive gazetteer of all places of the known world. Several works among the best known during this long period could be cited as an example, from Strabo (Geography), Eratosthenes (Geographika) or Dionysius Periegetes (Periegesis Oiceumene) in the Ancient Age. In more modern times, these works include the Alexander von Humboldt (Kosmos) in the nineteenth century, in which geography is regarded as a physical and natural science through the work Summa de Geografía of Martín Fernández de Enciso from the early sixteenth century, which indicated for the first time the New World.

From the birth of geography as a science during the Greek classical period and until the late nineteenth century with the birth of anthropogeography (human geography), geography was almost exclusively a natural science: the study of location and descriptive gazetteer of all places of the known world. Several works among the best known during this long period could be cited as an example, from Strabo (Geography), Eratosthenes (Geographika) or Dionysius Periegetes (Periegesis Oiceumene) in the Ancient Age. In more modern times, these works include the Alexander von Humboldt (Kosmos) in the nineteenth century, in which geography is regarded as a physical and natural science through the work Summa de Geografía of Martín Fernández de Enciso from the early sixteenth century, which indicated for the first time the New World.

从希腊古典时期地理学作为一门科学的诞生,到19世纪末人类地理学(人文地理学)的诞生,地理学几乎完全是一门自然科学: 研究已知世界所有地方的位置和描述性地名录。在这个漫长的时期里,一些最著名的作品可以作为例子,从斯特拉波(地理学) ,埃拉托色尼(地理学)或狄奥尼修斯(佩里西奥)在古代时期。在更为现代的时代,这些著作包括19世纪的《亚历山大·冯·洪堡,其中地理学被认为是一门自然和自然科学,这是通过16世纪早期的马丁· 费尔南德斯·德·恩西索地理学的著作,第一次指出了新世界。

During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a controversy exported from geology, between supporters of James Hutton (uniformitarianism thesis) and Georges Cuvier (catastrophism) strongly influenced the field of geography, because geography at this time was a natural science.

During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a controversy exported from geology, between supporters of James Hutton (uniformitarianism thesis) and Georges Cuvier (catastrophism) strongly influenced the field of geography, because geography at this time was a natural science.

在18世纪和19世纪,James Hutton (均变论论文)和 Georges Cuvier (灾变论文)的支持者之间从地质学引出的一场争论强烈地影响了地理学领域,因为地理学在当时是一门自然科学。

Two historical events during the nineteenth century had a great effect on the further development of physical geography. The first was the European colonial expansion in Asia, Africa, Australia and even America in search of raw materials required by industries during the Industrial Revolution. This fostered the creation of geography departments in the universities of the colonial powers and the birth and development of national geographical societies, thus giving rise to the process identified by Horacio Capel as the institutionalization of geography.

Two historical events during the nineteenth century had a great effect on the further development of physical geography. The first was the European colonial expansion in Asia, Africa, Australia and even America in search of raw materials required by industries during the Industrial Revolution. This fostered the creation of geography departments in the universities of the colonial powers and the birth and development of national geographical societies, thus giving rise to the process identified by Horacio Capel as the institutionalization of geography.

十九世纪的两个历史事件对自然地理学的进一步发展产生了重大影响。第一次是欧洲在亚洲、非洲、澳大利亚甚至美国的殖民扩张,以寻找工业革命期间所需要的原材料。这促进了殖民国家大学地理系的设立以及各国地理学会的诞生和发展,从而导致了被 Horacio Capel 确定为地理学体制化的进程。

The exploration of Siberia is an example. In the mid-eighteenth century, many geographers were sent to perform geographical surveys in the area of Arctic Siberia. Among these is who is considered the patriarch of Russian geography, Mikhail Lomonosov. In the mid-1750s Lomonosov began working in the Department of Geography, Academy of Sciences to conduct research in Siberia. They showed the organic origin of soil and developed a comprehensive law on the movement of the ice, thereby founding a new branch of geography: glaciology. In 1755 on his initiative was founded Moscow University where he promoted the study of geography and the training of geographers. In 1758 he was appointed director of the Department of Geography, Academy of Sciences, a post from which would develop a working methodology for geographical survey guided by the most important long expeditions and geographical studies in Russia.

The exploration of Siberia is an example. In the mid-eighteenth century, many geographers were sent to perform geographical surveys in the area of Arctic Siberia. Among these is who is considered the patriarch of Russian geography, Mikhail Lomonosov. In the mid-1750s Lomonosov began working in the Department of Geography, Academy of Sciences to conduct research in Siberia. They showed the organic origin of soil and developed a comprehensive law on the movement of the ice, thereby founding a new branch of geography: glaciology. In 1755 on his initiative was founded Moscow University where he promoted the study of geography and the training of geographers. In 1758 he was appointed director of the Department of Geography, Academy of Sciences, a post from which would develop a working methodology for geographical survey guided by the most important long expeditions and geographical studies in Russia.

西伯利亚的探险就是一个例子。十八世纪中叶,许多地理学家被派往西伯利亚北极地区进行地理测量。在这些人中,有人被认为是俄罗斯地理学的米哈伊尔·瓦西里耶维奇·罗蒙诺索夫。18世纪50年代中期,罗蒙诺索夫开始在科学院地理系工作,在西伯利亚进行研究。他们揭示了土壤的有机起源,发展了一套关于冰运动的综合规律,从而创立了地理学的一个新分支: 冰川学。1755年,在他的倡议下,成立了莫斯科大学,在那里他促进了地理学的研究和地理学家的培训。1758年,他被任命为科学院地理系主任,从这个职位出发,将在俄罗斯最重要的长期考察和地理研究的指导下,制定地理调查的工作方法。

The contributions of the Russian school became more frequent through his disciples, and in the nineteenth century we have great geographers such as Vasily Dokuchaev who performed works of great importance as a "principle of comprehensive analysis of the territory" and "Russian Chernozem". In the latter, he introduced the geographical concept of soil, as distinct from a simple geological stratum, and thus found a new geographic area of study: pedology. Climatology also received a strong boost from the Russian school by Wladimir Köppen whose main contribution, climate classification, is still valid today. However, this great geographer also contributed to the paleogeography through his work "The climates of the geological past" which is considered the father of paleoclimatology. Russian geographers who made great contributions to the discipline in this period were: NM Sibirtsev, Pyotr Semyonov, K.D. Glinka, Neustrayev, among others.

The contributions of the Russian school became more frequent through his disciples, and in the nineteenth century we have great geographers such as Vasily Dokuchaev who performed works of great importance as a "principle of comprehensive analysis of the territory" and "Russian Chernozem". In the latter, he introduced the geographical concept of soil, as distinct from a simple geological stratum, and thus found a new geographic area of study: pedology. Climatology also received a strong boost from the Russian school by Wladimir Köppen whose main contribution, climate classification, is still valid today. However, this great geographer also contributed to the paleogeography through his work "The climates of the geological past" which is considered the father of paleoclimatology. Russian geographers who made great contributions to the discipline in this period were: NM Sibirtsev, Pyotr Semyonov, K.D. Glinka, Neustrayev, among others.

19世纪,瓦西里 · 多库恰耶夫等伟大的地理学家作为”领土综合分析原则”和”俄罗斯黑土”进行了非常重要的工作。在后者中,他引入了土壤的地理概念,区别于一个简单的地质层,从而发现了一个新的地理研究领域: 土壤学。俄罗斯学校 Wladimir Köppen 对气候学也有很大的推动作用,他的主要贡献《气候分类至今仍然有效。然而,这位伟大的地理学家也通过他被认为是古气候学之父的著作《过去地质气候》对古地理学做出了贡献。在这一时期对这一学科做出重大贡献的俄国地理学家有: 西伯采夫、塞米诺夫、克达尔。格林卡、内斯特拉耶夫等人。

The second important process is the theory of evolution by Darwin in mid-century (which decisively influenced the work of Friedrich Ratzel, who had academic training as a zoologist and was a follower of Darwin's ideas) which meant an important impetus in the development of Biogeography.

The second important process is the theory of evolution by Darwin in mid-century (which decisively influenced the work of Friedrich Ratzel, who had academic training as a zoologist and was a follower of Darwin's ideas) which meant an important impetus in the development of Biogeography.

第二个重要的过程是本世纪中叶达尔文的进化论(这对弗里德里希·拉采尔的工作产生了决定性的影响,他受过动物学家的学术训练,是达尔文思想的追随者) ,这对生物地理学的发展起到了重要的推动作用。

Another major event in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries took place in the United States. William Morris Davis not only made important contributions to the establishment of discipline in his country but revolutionized the field to develop cycle of erosion theory which he proposed as a paradigm for geography in general, although in actually served as a paradigm for physical geography. His theory explained that mountains and other landforms are shaped by factors that are manifested cyclically. He explained that the cycle begins with the lifting of the relief by geological processes (faults, volcanism, tectonic upheaval, etc.). Factors such as rivers and runoff begin to create V-shaped valleys between the mountains (the stage called "youth"). During this first stage, the terrain is steeper and more irregular. Over time, the currents can carve wider valleys ("maturity") and then start to wind, towering hills only ("senescence"). Finally, everything comes to what is a plain flat plain at the lowest elevation possible (called "baseline") This plain was called by Davis' "peneplain" meaning "almost plain" Then river rejuvenation occurs and there is another mountain lift and the cycle continues.

Another major event in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries took place in the United States. William Morris Davis not only made important contributions to the establishment of discipline in his country but revolutionized the field to develop cycle of erosion theory which he proposed as a paradigm for geography in general, although in actually served as a paradigm for physical geography. His theory explained that mountains and other landforms are shaped by factors that are manifested cyclically. He explained that the cycle begins with the lifting of the relief by geological processes (faults, volcanism, tectonic upheaval, etc.). Factors such as rivers and runoff begin to create V-shaped valleys between the mountains (the stage called "youth"). During this first stage, the terrain is steeper and more irregular. Over time, the currents can carve wider valleys ("maturity") and then start to wind, towering hills only ("senescence"). Finally, everything comes to what is a plain flat plain at the lowest elevation possible (called "baseline") This plain was called by Davis' "peneplain" meaning "almost plain" Then river rejuvenation occurs and there is another mountain lift and the cycle continues.

十九世纪末和二十世纪初的另一个重大事件发生在美国。威廉·莫里斯·戴维斯不仅对他的国家的学科建设做出了重要贡献,而且彻底改变了这个领域,发展了他提出的侵蚀轮回说理论,作为一般地理学的范式,尽管它实际上是自然地理学的范式。他的理论解释说,山脉和其他地形是由周期性表现的因素塑造的。他解释说,这个循环开始于地质过程(断层、火山活动、构造隆起等)对地形的抬升。诸如河流和径流等因素开始在山脉之间形成 v 形山谷(这个阶段被称为“青春期”)。在第一阶段,地形更陡更不规则。随着时间的推移,洋流可以切割出更宽的山谷(“成熟”) ,然后开始刮风,只有高耸的山丘(“衰老”)。最后,所有的一切都变成了一个尽可能低的平原平原(称为“基线”)。这个平原被戴维斯的“准平原”称为“几乎平原”,意思是“几乎平原”。

Although Davis's theory is not entirely accurate, it was absolutely revolutionary and unique in its time and helped to modernize and create a geography subfield of geomorphology. Its implications prompted a myriad of research in various branches of physical geography. In the case of the Paleogeography, this theory provided a model for understanding the evolution of the landscape. For hydrology, glaciology, and climatology as a boost investigated as studying geographic factors shape the landscape and affect the cycle. The bulk of the work of William Morris Davis led to the development of a new branch of physical geography: Geomorphology whose contents until then did not differ from the rest of geography. Shortly after this branch would present a major development. Some of his disciples made significant contributions to various branches of physical geography such as Curtis Marbut and his invaluable legacy for Pedology, Mark Jefferson, Isaiah Bowman, among others.

Although Davis's theory is not entirely accurate, it was absolutely revolutionary and unique in its time and helped to modernize and create a geography subfield of geomorphology. Its implications prompted a myriad of research in various branches of physical geography. In the case of the Paleogeography, this theory provided a model for understanding the evolution of the landscape. For hydrology, glaciology, and climatology as a boost investigated as studying geographic factors shape the landscape and affect the cycle. The bulk of the work of William Morris Davis led to the development of a new branch of physical geography: Geomorphology whose contents until then did not differ from the rest of geography. Shortly after this branch would present a major development. Some of his disciples made significant contributions to various branches of physical geography such as Curtis Marbut and his invaluable legacy for Pedology, Mark Jefferson, Isaiah Bowman, among others.

尽管戴维斯的理论并不完全准确,但它在当时绝对具有革命性和独特性,并有助于现代化和创建地貌学的地理子领域。它的影响促进了自然地理学各个分支的大量研究。以古地理学为例,这一理论为理解景观演化提供了一个模型。对于水文学、冰川学和气候学来说,作为研究地理因素塑造地貌和影响循环的推动力而被调查。威廉·莫里斯·戴维斯的大部分工作导致了一个新的自然地理学分支的发展: 地貌学,其内容在此之前与地理学的其余部分没有什么不同。不久之后,这个分支将呈现一个重大发展。他的一些弟子对自然地理学的各个分支做出了重大贡献,比如柯蒂斯 · 马布特和他对土壤学、马克 · 杰斐逊、以赛亚 · 鲍曼等人的宝贵遗产。

Notable physical geographers

模板:Main list

文件:Alexander von Humboldt-selfportrait.jpg
Alexander von Humboldt, considered to be the founding father of physical geography.
  • Eratosthenes (276194 BC) who invented the discipline of geography. He made the first known reliable estimation of the Earth's size. He is considered the father of mathematical geography and geodesy.Avraham Ariel, Nora Ariel Berger (2006)."Plotting the globe: stories of meridians, parallels, and the international". Greenwood Publishing Group. p.12.

Jennifer Fandel (2006)."The Metric System". The Creative Company. p. 4.

  • Ptolemy (c. 90c. 168), who compiled Greek and Roman knowledge to produce the book Geographia.
  • Abū Rayhān Bīrūnī (9731048 AD), considered the father of geodesy.Akbar S. Ahmed (1984). "Al-Beruni: The First Anthropologist", RAIN 60, pp. 9–10.H. Mowlana (2001). "Information in the Arab World", Cooperation South Journal 1.
  • Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980–1037), who formulated the law of superposition and concept of uniformitarianism in Kitāb al-Šifāʾ (also called The Book of Healing).
  • Muhammad al-Idrisi (Dreses, 1100), who drew the Tabula Rogeriana, the most accurate world map in pre-modern times.S. P. Scott (1904), History of the Moorish Empire, pp. 461–2:
  • Piri Reis (1465c. 1554), whose Piri Reis map is the oldest surviving world map to include the Americas and possibly Antarctica
  • Gerardus Mercator (1512–1594), an innovative cartographer and originator of the Mercator projection.
  • Bernhardus Varenius (1622–1650), Wrote his important work "General Geography" (1650), first overview of the geography, the foundation of modern geography.
  • Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765), father of Russian geography and founded the study of glaciology.
  • Alexander von Humboldt (1769–1859), considered the father of modern geography. Published Cosmos and founded the study of biogeography.
  • Arnold Henry Guyot (1807–1884), who noted the structure of glaciers and advanced the understanding of glacial motion, especially in fast ice flow.
  • Louis Agassiz (1807–1873), the author of a glacial theory which disputed the notion of a steady-cooling Earth.
  • Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913), founder of modern biogeography and the Wallace line.
  • Vasily Dokuchaev (1840–1903), patriarch of Russian geography and founder of pedology.
  • Wladimir Peter Köppen (1846–1940), developer of most important climate classification and founder of Paleoclimatology.
  • William Morris Davis (1850–1934), father of American geography, founder of Geomorphology and developer of the geographical cycle theory.
  • John Francon Williams FRGS (1854-1911), wrote his seminal work Geography of the Oceans published in 1881.
  • Walther Penck (1888–1923), proponent of the cycle of erosion and the simultaneous occurrence of uplift and denudation.
  • Sir Ernest Shackleton (1874–1922), Antarctic explorer during the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.
  • Robert E. Horton (1875–1945), founder of modern hydrology and concepts such as infiltration capacity and overland flow.
  • J Harlen Bretz (1882–1981), pioneer of research into the shaping of landscapes by catastrophic floods, most notably the Bretz (Missoula) floods.
  • Luis García Sáinz (1894–1965), pioneer of physical geography in Spain.
  • Willi Dansgaard (1922–2011), palaeoclimatologist and quaternary scientist, instrumental in the use of oxygen-isotope dating and co-identifier of Dansgaard-Oeschger events.
  • Hans Oeschger (1927–1998), palaeoclimatologist and pioneer in ice core research, co-identifier of Dansgaard-Orschger events.
  • Richard Chorley (1927–2002), a key contributor to the quantitative revolution and the use of systems theory in geography.
  • Sir Nicholas Shackleton (1937–2006), who demonstrated that oscillations in climate over the past few million years could be correlated with variations in the orbital and positional relationship between the Earth and the Sun.


  • 埃拉托色尼(公元前276194年) ,他发明了地理学。他首次对地球的大小做出了可靠的估计。他被认为是数学地理学和大地测量学之父。“绘制全球: 经络,平行线和国际的故事”。格林伍德出版集团。3月12日。Jennifer Fandel (2006).「公制」。The Creative Company.p. 4.
  • 托勒密(c. 90 c)。168) ,他收集了希腊和罗马的知识,并出版了《地理学》一书。
  • ab rayh n b r n (9731048 AD) ,大地测量学之父 Akbar s. Ahmed (1984)。“ Al-Beruni: 第一位人类学家”,RAIN 60,pp。9-10. h.Mowlana (2001).”阿拉伯世界的信息”,合作南方杂志1。
  • Ibn sina (Avicenna,980-1037) ,在 kit b al- if (也称为叠覆律治疗论)中提出了均变论的概念。
  • 穆罕默德·伊德里西(dresses,1100) ,绘制了 Tabula Rogeriana,这是前现代时期最精确的世界地图。斯科特(1904) ,《摩尔帝国历史》 ,页。461–2:
  • Piri Reis (1465c.1554) ,他的皮里雷斯地图是现存最古老的世界地图,包括美洲,可能还有南极洲
  • 杰拉杜斯·麦卡托地图(1512-1594) ,一个创新的制图师和麦卡托投影法的创始人。
  • bernhardusvarennius (1622-1650) ,著有重要著作《通用地理学》(1650) ,首次概述地理学,现代地理学的基础。
  • 米哈伊尔·瓦西里耶维奇·罗蒙诺索夫(1711-1765) ,俄罗斯地理学之父,冰川学研究的创始人。
  • 亚历山大·冯·洪堡(1769-1859) ,被誉为现代地理学之父。发表了《宇宙》 ,创立了生物地理学研究。
  • 阿诺德·亨利·居约(1807-1884) ,他注意到冰川的结构,并加深了对冰川运动,特别是快速冰流的认识。
  • 路易斯 · 阿加西(1807-1873) ,他提出了一个冰川理论,该理论驳斥了地球持续冷却的观念。
  • 阿尔弗雷德·拉塞尔·华莱士(1823-1913) ,现代生物地理学和华莱士系的奠基人。
  • Vasily Dokuchaev (1840-1903) ,俄罗斯地理学家,土壤学创始人。
  • Wladimir Peter Köppen (1846-1940) ,最重要的气候分类的开发者和古气候学的创始人。
  • 威廉·莫里斯·戴维斯(1850-1934) ,美国地理学之父,地貌学创始人,地理循环理论发展者。
  • 约翰 · 弗朗 · 威廉姆斯 FRGS (1854-1911) ,他的开创性著作《海洋地理学》于1881年出版。
  • 瓦尔特 · 彭克(1888-1923) ,侵蚀轮回说的支持者,提升和剥蚀同时发生。
  • 南极探险英雄时代的南极探险家,欧内斯特·沙克尔顿 · 马丁爵士(1874-1922)。
  • 罗伯特·霍顿(1875-1945) ,现代水文学及渗透量和地表水流等概念的奠基人。
  • j Harlen Bretz (1882-1981) ,通过特大洪水(最著名的是密苏拉洪水)塑造地貌研究的先驱。
  • 西班牙自然地理学先驱路易斯 · 加西亚 · 萨因斯(1894-1965)。
  • Willi Dansgaard (1922-2011) ,古气候学家和第四纪科学家,在使用氧同位素测年和 Dansgaard-Oeschger 事件共同标识方面发挥了重要作用。
  • Hans Oeschger (1927-1998) ,古气候学家,冰芯研究先驱,Dansgaard-Orschger 事件共同标识符。
  • Richard Chorley (1927-2002) ,数量革命和系统论在地理学中的应用的关键贡献者。
  • 尼可拉斯·沙克顿爵士(1937-2006) ,他论证了过去几百万年气候变化可能与地球和太阳之间轨道和位置关系的变化有关。

See also

  • Atmosphere of Earth
  • Earth system science
  • Ecology
  • Environmental science
  • Environmental studies
  • Human geography
  • Geostatistics
  • Oceanography
  • Weathering
  • Physiographic regions of the world


  • 地球大气层
  • 地球系统科学
  • 生态学
  • 环境科学
  • 环境研究
  • 人文地理学
  • 地质统计学
  • 海洋学
  • 风化
  • 世界地文地区

References

  1. "1(b). Elements of Geography". www.physicalgeography.net.
  2. Pidwirny, Michael; Jones, Scott (1999–2015). "Physical Geography".
  3. Marsh, William M.; Kaufman, Martin M. (2013). Physical Geography: Great Systems and Global Environments. Cambridege University Press. ISBN 9780521764285. https://books.google.com/books?id=uF3aJSC20yMC&q=physical+geography+system. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 "Physical Geography: Defining Physical Geography". Dartmouth College Library. Retrieved 2019-11-18.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 "Physical Geography". University of Nevada, Reno.
  6. "Subdisciplines of Geography". Civil Service India (PNG). Soils Geography lies between Physical Geography and Pedology
  7. Bridges, E. M. (1981). "Soil geography: a subject transformed". Progress in Physical Geography: Earth and Environment. 5 (3): 398–407. doi:10.1177/030913338100500303. S2CID 131268490. (Soil geography) is a branch of study which lies between geography and soil science and is to be found as a fundamental part of both subjects (Bridges and Davidson, 1981)
  8. Degórski, Marek (2004). "Geografia gleb jako dyscyplina flzycznogeograficzna" [Soil geography as a physical geography discipline] (PDF). Przeglad Geograficzny (in polski). Warsaw: Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization PAS. 76: 271–288. ISSN 0033-2143 – via RCIN. Lay summary. soil geography may be defined as a scientific discipline - within both geography and soil science - that deals with the distribution of soils across the Earth’s surface {{cite journal}}: Cite uses deprecated parameter |lay-url= (help)
  9. Eratosthenes (2010). Eratosthenes' "Geography". Fragments collected and translated, with commentary and additional material by Duane W. Roller. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-14267-8. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Avraham Ariel, Nora Ariel Berger (2006)."Plotting the globe: stories of meridians, parallels, and the international". Greenwood Publishing Group. p.12.
  11. Jennifer Fandel (2006)."The Metric System". The Creative Company. p. 4.
  12. Akbar S. Ahmed (1984). "Al-Beruni: The First Anthropologist", RAIN 60, pp. 9–10.
  13. H. Mowlana (2001). "Information in the Arab World", Cooperation South Journal 1.
  14. S. P. Scott (1904), History of the Moorish Empire, pp. 461–2: /* Styling for Template:Quote */ .templatequote { overflow: hidden; margin: 1em 0; padding: 0 40px; } .templatequote .templatequotecite { line-height: 1.5em; /* @noflip */ text-align: left; /* @noflip */ padding-left: 1.6em; margin-top: 0; }

Further reading

Further reading

= 进一步阅读 =