信息新陈代谢

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信息新陈代谢informational metabolism ,有时也称为信息代谢或能量代谢,是波兰精神病学家安东尼·皮斯基 Antoni Kępiński 提出的关于生物有机体与其环境相互作用的心理学理论。[1][2][3]



概述

皮斯基在几本书中都介绍了他的心理学理论[4][5][6][7][8][9]。但最详细的描述在他1974年出版的《忧郁症》Melancholy(波兰语: 《Melancholia》)一书中。[7]


前两个层次是在潜意识中处理的。而第三个层次则与意识有关。从生物学的角度来看,在生物体及其物理环境中同时发生的过程数量几乎是无限的。还有无数种方式可以构建这些进程。这种复杂性必须降低,因为只有选定的信号才可能在神经系统中被感知和处理。此外,这些信号必须根据其现在和将来的相关性进行排序。身体的结构和各种受体的位置经过进化调整,以保证将最相关的信号从周围环境中分离出来。身体的内部结构经过调整,以确保信息的适当整合。在所有由感受器收集的信号中,只有最重要的信号才能达到主观经验的水平。在到达主观经验领域的信号层面,注意力被主动地引导(在情绪的帮助下)到那些与两种生物规律有关的信号上。知觉不是被动的、包容的,而是预期性的、选择性的。由于人们对他的作品很感兴趣,他最重要的著作已多次再版(最近由 Wydawictwo Literackie 于2012-2015年出版)。

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but the most detailed description is given in his 1974 book Melancholy (in Polish: "Melancholia")

.[7]

为了解释人类所遇到的心理现象,他从考虑最基本的有机体以及它们与无生命物质的区别开始。首先,任何生物体都可以被视为一个自主的但开放系统,通过边界(皮肤细胞膜)与环境分离。作为一个开放系统,它与周围环境进行着持续的交换。这种交换可以被认为是两方面的,即能量信息。为了便于分析,我们可以把能量代谢和信息代谢看作是两个不同的过程。Kępiński假设,如果这两种新陈代谢都在发生,生命就会持续,如果其中一种新陈代谢停止,生命就会停止。[3]


能量新陈代谢的概念比较容易理解。人体的分子在不断被替换,即通过细胞中发生分解代谢合成代谢过程。信息代谢是同一过程的另一面,但它涉及结构方面(即物质和能量的组织方式)以及控制的执行方式。在能量交换过程中,生物体努力维持其特有的有序order(负熵 negentropy),并将这种有序 order传递到周围环境中。因此,周围环境的秩序被破坏了。相比之下,非生命物质没有能力维持或降低其负熵,因为自发的自然过程总是伴随着热力学第二定律,即熵产生。


两条生物学定律

信息代谢一般可以看作是生物体与其环境之间的信号交换,但也可以看作是生物体对信号的处理,这些信号必须根据某些目标来加以解释。对于所有的生物体来说,这些目标都是以两条生物学定律为前提的:第一条定律指出,生物体必须以自身的生存为导向。第二条法则指出,物种的保存同样重要。[7]


Kępiński注意到,这些目标是相互冲突的。这两条生物学定律之间的冲突往往是伦理困境ethical dilemmas的根源。有的时候,生物体需要牺牲自己的生命来拯救自己的后代。有时,为了保护自己,它被迫与自己的物种代表进行斗争。第一条生物定律是利己主义的,与从现实中退出(逃避、破坏现实等)有关。第二条生物定律是利他主义的,要求转向现实(性繁殖要求与伴侣结合)。


就人类而言,各种日常行为的目标与这两条生物学定律之间的联系并不那么直接,然而这些规律仍然激励影响着我们。人类能够将自己投射到未来,思考抽象和意识,因此他们的目标可能具有“超越transcendence”(哲学)和“象征symbol”的特征,比如人们通常表现出对上帝或来世的信仰。[7][5]



The hierarchy of value

It is impossible to keep track of all information generated by various processes occurring in reality. As organisms strive to fulfill two biological laws, proper selection of signals becomes a central problem.[7] According to Kępiński, a hierarchy of value is necessary in order to integrate information. In humans, that hierarchy comprises three levels i.e. biological, emotional and sociocultural.[10] The first two levels are handled subconsciously. The third level, by contrast, is associated with consciousness. From the biological perspective, the number of processes occurring simultaneously in the organism and its physical surroundings is virtually infinite. There is also infinite number of ways in which these processes may be framed. That complexity must be reduced, as only selected signals may be sensed and processed in the nervous system. Moreover, the signals must be ordered according to their present and future relevance. The structure of the body and locations of various receptors are evolutionally adapted to assure isolation of the most relevant signals from the surrounding environment. The internal structure of the body is adjusted to ensure proper integration of information. Of all signals collected by the receptors, only the most important ones reach the level of subjective experience. At the level of signals reaching the field of subjective experience, attention is actively directed (with the help of emotions) towards those related with two biological laws. Perception is not passive and inclusive, but anticipatory and selective.[7] Above biological and emotional levels of signal interpretation, there is the frame of social and cultural norms of the community, which serves as reference for conscious decisions. The sociocultural background plays significant role in people's lives.[8]


It is impossible to keep track of all information generated by various processes occurring in reality. As organisms strive to fulfill two biological laws, proper selection of signals becomes a central problem.[7] According to Kępiński, a hierarchy of value is necessary in order to integrate information. In humans, that hierarchy comprises three levels i.e. biological, emotional and sociocultural.[10] The first two levels are handled subconsciously. The third level, by contrast, is associated with consciousness. From the biological perspective, the number of processes occurring simultaneously in the organism and its physical surroundings is virtually infinite. There is also infinite number of ways in which these processes may be framed. That complexity must be reduced, as only selected signals may be sensed and processed in the nervous system. Moreover, the signals must be ordered according to their present and future relevance. The structure of the body and locations of various receptors are evolutionally adapted to assure isolation of the most relevant signals from the surrounding environment. The internal structure of the body is adjusted to ensure proper integration of information. Of all signals collected by the receptors, only the most important ones reach the level of subjective experience. At the level of signals reaching the field of subjective experience, attention is actively directed (with the help of emotions) towards those related with two biological laws. Perception is not passive and inclusive, but anticipatory and selective.[7] Above biological and emotional levels of signal interpretation, there is the frame of social and cultural norms of the community, which serves as reference for conscious decisions. The sociocultural background plays significant role in people's lives.[8]



Two phases of information metabolism

The division of information metabolism into two phases is loosely based on the analysis of the orienting response. Information metabolism is initiated by the perception of a change in the internal or external environment of the organism. In the first phase, the organism seeks to obtain direct information about the perceived phenomenon. Because of that, it must turn its attention 'outside' to the reality. The perceived phenomenon is then subconsciously evaluated. The result of that evaluation manifests itself as an emotion. The sign of the invoked emotion may be positive or negative. This emotion, arising quickly and automatically, serves as the background for the second phase of information metabolism.[7]

In the second phase, the organism executes a locomotor reaction to the phenomenon. Motion towards the source of the stimulus is performed if the stimulus signifies a positive possibility. If the stimulus was evaluated negatively in the first phase, then it is likely that the executed reaction will take the form of escape, fight or immobilization. During the second phase, the organism is primarily occupied by its own actions. It observes their effect and makes adjustments (which forms a feedback loop). Despite the feedback, its connection with reality is less intensive than during the first phase. The separation from reality in the second phase of information metabolism is greater in complex animals and reaches its maximum in humans.[7]


The division of information metabolism into two phases is loosely based on the analysis of the orienting response. Information metabolism is initiated by the perception of a change in the internal or external environment of the organism. In the first phase, the organism seeks to obtain direct information about the perceived phenomenon. Because of that, it must turn its attention 'outside' to the reality. The perceived phenomenon is then subconsciously evaluated. The result of that evaluation manifests itself as an emotion. The sign of the invoked emotion may be positive or negative. This emotion, arising quickly and automatically, serves as the background for the second phase of information metabolism.[7]

In the second phase, the organism executes a locomotor reaction to the phenomenon. Motion towards the source of the stimulus is performed if the stimulus signifies a positive possibility. If the stimulus was evaluated negatively in the first phase, then it is likely that the executed reaction will take the form of escape, fight or immobilization. During the second phase, the organism is primarily occupied by its own actions. It observes their effect and makes adjustments (which forms a feedback loop). Despite the feedback, its connection with reality is less intensive than during the first phase. The separation from reality in the second phase of information metabolism is greater in complex animals and reaches its maximum in humans.[7]

Functional structures

The term functional structure was used by Kępiński to denote two phenomena. Firstly, the term was used to denote the reaction of an organism to a stimulus. Secondly, it denoted the model of reality generated in the mind in the second phase of the information metabolism.[7] In the case of humans, the number of possible functional structures associated with the first phase of information metabolism is limited. These include, for example, endocrine reactions of the autonomous nervous system and basic locomotor patterns.

The range and complexity of functional structures generated in the second phase is much broader. Humans possess the ability to generate many possible models of reality in response to a newly perceived phenomenon. Functional structures can be relatively complex. They include predictions regarding the behavior of objects in the environment as well as the planned sequence of actions of the individual. Typically, multiple functional structures are generated in the second phase of information metabolism, but only one is embodied (executed). The ones that were generated but rejected, gradually fall into the unconscious and form the Jungian shadow. If particular structure is embodied, the probability of its selection in the future increases. Forgotten structures may manifest themselves in the least expected moment. That situation is known as the possession by the Shadow. Kępiński mentioned that the embodied reaction is a signal to other organisms. It always takes the form of motion (or lack of it).[7] In case of humans, it may be speech (according to Kępiński, speech is the highest form of motion [7][5]).


The term functional structure was used by Kępiński to denote two phenomena. Firstly, the term was used to denote the reaction of an organism to a stimulus. Secondly, it denoted the model of reality generated in the mind in the second phase of the information metabolism.[7] In the case of humans, the number of possible functional structures associated with the first phase of information metabolism is limited. These include, for example, endocrine reactions of the autonomous nervous system and basic locomotor patterns.

The range and complexity of functional structures generated in the second phase is much broader. Humans possess the ability to generate many possible models of reality in response to a newly perceived phenomenon. Functional structures can be relatively complex. They include predictions regarding the behavior of objects in the environment as well as the planned sequence of actions of the individual. Typically, multiple functional structures are generated in the second phase of information metabolism, but only one is embodied (executed). The ones that were generated but rejected, gradually fall into the unconscious and form the Jungian shadow. If particular structure is embodied, the probability of its selection in the future increases. Forgotten structures may manifest themselves in the least expected moment. That situation is known as the possession by the Shadow. Kępiński mentioned that the embodied reaction is a signal to other organisms. It always takes the form of motion (or lack of it).[7] In case of humans, it may be speech (according to Kępiński, speech is the highest form of motion [7][5]).

Emotional coloration

Emotional coloration manifests in the first phase of information metabolism.[7] It signifies the general attitude of the organism towards the stimulus. This attitude may be either positive or negative. It depends on the nature of the stimulus and on the physical condition of the organism in the moment of perception. The individual has very little conscious control over the feeling that arises. It is selected at lower levels of neurophysiological operation. Selection of an attitude in the first phase (positive or negative) limits the character of functional structures generated in the second phase. Although typically there are many possible ways of reacting, they are limited by the emotional background appearing in the first phase.

The reality is not static but it always evolves, even though some regularities and laws may be identified. Due to that, the effort associated with organizing the world adequately to our own needs continues through the whole life. It cannot be ceased because of the second law of thermodynamics.[7] In order to decrease its own entropy and the entropy of its immediate surroundings, the organism must expend energy. This is subjectively experienced as the feeling of difficulty, effort or burden. Integrative effort is inherent to life. This effort is rewarded by positive emotional state – the feeling of satisfaction associated with the overcoming of obstacles and advancing towards important goals. By contrast, negative feelings, such as anxiety or fear, signify danger. In case of anxiety, this danger is typically distant in time and space and not known precisely. Fear, on the contrary, signifies close and specified threat to the integrity of the organism.[8]

In healthy individuals, the balance between negative and positive emotions is on the side of the positive. They are more willing to engage in the exchange of information with the environment and to undertake tasks associated with the integrative effort. By contrast, depressive patients withdraw from reality, which lowers their rate of information metabolism. In many cases, the predisposition to depression is caused by the lack of warm and friendly maternal environment during childhood.[7] The presence of friendly and safe maternal environment during childhood is crucial for the development of the general positive attitude towards the environment. If the childhood environment is hostile, the attitude of withdrawal is reinforced and becomes automated.[7]


Emotional coloration manifests in the first phase of information metabolism.[7] It signifies the general attitude of the organism towards the stimulus. This attitude may be either positive or negative. It depends on the nature of the stimulus and on the physical condition of the organism in the moment of perception. The individual has very little conscious control over the feeling that arises. It is selected at lower levels of neurophysiological operation. Selection of an attitude in the first phase (positive or negative) limits the character of functional structures generated in the second phase. Although typically there are many possible ways of reacting, they are limited by the emotional background appearing in the first phase.

The reality is not static but it always evolves, even though some regularities and laws may be identified. Due to that, the effort associated with organizing the world adequately to our own needs continues through the whole life. It cannot be ceased because of the second law of thermodynamics.[7] In order to decrease its own entropy and the entropy of its immediate surroundings, the organism must expend energy. This is subjectively experienced as the feeling of difficulty, effort or burden. Integrative effort is inherent to life. This effort is rewarded by positive emotional state – the feeling of satisfaction associated with the overcoming of obstacles and advancing towards important goals. By contrast, negative feelings, such as anxiety or fear, signify danger. In case of anxiety, this danger is typically distant in time and space and not known precisely. Fear, on the contrary, signifies close and specified threat to the integrity of the organism.[8]

In healthy individuals, the balance between negative and positive emotions is on the side of the positive. They are more willing to engage in the exchange of information with the environment and to undertake tasks associated with the integrative effort. By contrast, depressive patients withdraw from reality, which lowers their rate of information metabolism. In many cases, the predisposition to depression is caused by the lack of warm and friendly maternal environment during childhood.[7] The presence of friendly and safe maternal environment during childhood is crucial for the development of the general positive attitude towards the environment. If the childhood environment is hostile, the attitude of withdrawal is reinforced and becomes automated.[7]

The problem of authority

Life may be seen as conflict between two orders – the order of the individual and the order of the environment. As a process placed between these two orders, information metabolism becomes the tool for establishing the right balance of authority ("I am in control" versus "I am controlled").[7] In pathological cases, the individual may aim to gain absolute control over their environment, or quite contrarily, to fully submit to some external power (i.e. their partner, a political group etc.). The need for an absolute control cannot be fulfilled, therefore it frequently takes the form of fantasy, which sometimes becomes indistinguishable from reality (e.g. in schizophrenia).[5] Many individuals submit to revolutionary movements, promising a utopian future, and to social ideologies which offer simple answers to complex life problems. They give up their individual responsibility to find relief from the burdens of life. In his reflections on information metabolism, Kępiński tried to explain psychological mechanisms which made the atrocities of the Second World War possible.[5][9]


Life may be seen as conflict between two orders – the order of the individual and the order of the environment. As a process placed between these two orders, information metabolism becomes the tool for establishing the right balance of authority ("I am in control" versus "I am controlled").[7] In pathological cases, the individual may aim to gain absolute control over their environment, or quite contrarily, to fully submit to some external power (i.e. their partner, a political group etc.). The need for an absolute control cannot be fulfilled, therefore it frequently takes the form of fantasy, which sometimes becomes indistinguishable from reality (e.g. in schizophrenia).[5] Many individuals submit to revolutionary movements, promising a utopian future, and to social ideologies which offer simple answers to complex life problems. They give up their individual responsibility to find relief from the burdens of life. In his reflections on information metabolism, Kępiński tried to explain psychological mechanisms which made the atrocities of the Second World War possible.[5][9]

The anatomical basis of information metabolism

It is traditionally assumed that functional structures associated with the subjective experience of emotions and moods (the first phase of information metabolism) are controlled by phylogenetically older parts of the brain (diencephalon and rhinencephalon), while those generated in the second phase of information metabolism, subjectively experienced as thoughts, are associated with the neocortex.[7]


It is traditionally assumed that functional structures associated with the subjective experience of emotions and moods (the first phase of information metabolism) are controlled by phylogenetically older parts of the brain (diencephalon and rhinencephalon), while those generated in the second phase of information metabolism, subjectively experienced as thoughts, are associated with the neocortex.[7]

The mathematical character of information metabolism

The mathematical character of information metabolism is twofold. Receptors, acting as inputs for the metabolized signals, operate analogically to analog electronic devices. The processing of signals in the remaining part of the nervous system is binary (the response of a neuron may be twofold: null – no response, or 1 – when the action potential is released). Due to these characteristics, organisms may be considered analogous to digital systems.[4][7]


The mathematical character of information metabolism is twofold. Receptors, acting as inputs for the metabolized signals, operate analogically to analog electronic devices. The processing of signals in the remaining part of the nervous system is binary (the response of a neuron may be twofold: null – no response, or 1 – when the action potential is released). Due to these characteristics, organisms may be considered analogous to digital systems.[4][7]

Reception

Kępiński's books are regarded as classics of Polish psychiatric and philosophical literature.[11] Because of the interest in his work, his most important books have been reissued several times (recently in 2012-2015 by Wydawictwo Literackie [12]). Kępiński's work was evaluated by the reviewers as insightful, comprehensive and unique.[13] Nevertheless, his concept of information metabolism has been criticized as controversial by some scholars.[14] The controversy was related with the fact that some elements of the theory cannot be verified by the scientific method because it is hard to design appropriate experiments.[14] In response to these objections, psychiatrist Jacek Bomba pointed out that information metabolism was never meant to be a scientific theory, but rather an anthropological model, which accurately integrates the findings of neurophysiology, psychology, social science and medicine.[14]

Philosopher Jakub Zawiła-Niedźwiecki noted that current reading of Kępiński has to correct for his work mostly being pre-scientific from before the evidence-based medicine, modern philosophy of the mind and cognitive psychology era.[15] He enlisted two Kępiński's propositions that are currently considered incorrect i.e. the proposition that information metabolism has its control center (the homunculus argument) and the view that brain is only used in 30%. Nevertheless, as noted by Zawiła-Niedźwiecki, these concepts were not central in Kępiński's theory and can be safely rejected. He also reminded that Kępiński was sceptical about methods that lacked strong scientific basis, e.g. psychoanalysis, and rejected magical thinking in general.[15]

During his life, Kępiński mentioned that his model of information metabolism is not complete.[16] The work upon it was interrupted by his illness and death. Some researchers took his work and developed their own theories based on it. Kokoszka used the conception of information metabolism as the basis of his model of the states of consciousness.[1] Struzik proposed that information metabolism theory may be used as an extension to Brillouin's negentropy principle of information.[16] Inspired by Kępiński's work and Jungian typology, Augustinavičiūtė proposed her theory of information metabolism in human mind and society, known as Socionics.[3]



See also




参考文献

  1. 1.0 1.1 Kokoszka, Andrzej (2007). States of Consciousness: Models for Psychology and Psychotherapy. New York: Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-0-387-32758-7. 
  2. Bielecki, Andrzej (2015). "The general entity of life: a cybernetic approach". Biological Cybernetics. 109 (3): 401–419. doi:10.1007/s00422-015-0652-8. PMID 25985758.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Pietrak, Karol (2018). "The foundations of socionics - a review". Cognitive Systems Research. 47: 1–11. doi:10.1016/J.COGSYS.2017.07.001.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Kępiński, Antoni (1972). Psychopatology of neuroses (in Polish). Warszawa: Państwowy Zakład Wydawnictw Lekarskich. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Kępiński, Antoni (1972). Schizophrenia (in Polish). Warszawa: Państwowy Zakład Wydawnictw Lekarskich.  引用错误:无效<ref>标签;name属性“kepinski1972b”使用不同内容定义了多次
  6. 6.0 6.1 Kępiński, Antoni (1972). Rhythm of life (in Polish). Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie.  引用错误:无效<ref>标签;name属性“kepinski1972c”使用不同内容定义了多次
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19 Kępiński, Antoni (1974). Melancholy (in Polish). Warszawa: Państwowy Zakład Wydawnictw Lekarskich.  引用错误:无效<ref>标签;name属性“kepinski1974”使用不同内容定义了多次
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Kępiński, Antoni (1977). Anxiety (in Polish). Warszawa: Państwowy Zakład Wydawnictw Lekarskich.  引用错误:无效<ref>标签;name属性“kepinski1977”使用不同内容定义了多次
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Kępiński, Antoni (1978). Psychopaties (in Polish). Warszawa: Państwowy Zakład Wydawnictw Lekarskich. 
  10. Schochow, Maximilian; Steger, Florian (2016). "Antoni Kepiński (1918–1972), pioneer of post-traumatic stress disorder". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 208 (6): 590. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.115.168237. PMID 27251694.
  11. Ryn, Zdzisław. "Mistrz Antoni Kępiński". psychiatria.pl. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
  12. Literackie, Wydawnictwo. "Antoni Kępiński". www.wydawnictwoliterackie.pl.
  13. Brzezicki, Eugeniusz (2014). "Foreword". In Kępiński, Antoni. Schizophrenia (in Polish). Wydawnictwo Literackie. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Ceklarz, Jan (2018). "Revision of Antoni Kępiński's concept of information metabolism (in Polish)" (PDF). Psychiatr. Pol. 52 (1): 165–173. doi:10.12740/PP/65751. PMID 29704423.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Zawiła-Niedźwiecki, Jakub. "Kępiński, philosophy of mind, an inquiry into some limits of patient's autonomy". academia.edu. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Struzik, Tadeusz (1987). "Kepiński's Information Metabolism, Carnot's Principle and Information Theory". International Journal of Neuroscience. 36 (1–2): 105–111. doi:10.3109/00207458709002144. PMID 3654085.