An infection rate (or incident rate) is the probability or risk of an infection in a population. It is used to measure the frequency of occurrence of new instances of infection within a population during a specific time period.
The number of infections equals the cases identified in the study or observed. An example might by HIV infection during a specific time period in the defined population. The population at risk are the cases appearing in the population during the same time period. An example would be all the people in a city during a specific time period. The constant, or K is assigned a value of 100 to represent a percentage. An example would be to find the percentage of people in a city who are infected with HIV: 6,000 cases in March divided by the population of a city (one million) multiplied by the constant (K) would give an infection rate of 0.6%. Calculating the infection rate is used to analyze trends for the purpose of infection and disease control.
An online infection rate calculator has been developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that allows the determination of the Streptococcal A infection rate in a population.
临床应用 Clinical applications
Health care facilities routinely track their infection rates according to the guidelines issued by the Joint Commission. The healthcare-associated infection (HAI) rates measure infection of patients in a particular hospital. This allows rates to compared with other hospitals. These infections can often be prevented when healthcare facilities follow guidelines for safe care. To get payment from Medicare, hospitals are required to report data about some infections to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). Hospitals currently submit information on central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), surgical site infections (SSIs), MRSA Bacteremia, and C. difficile laboratory-identified events. The public reporting of these data is an effort by the Department of Health and Human Services.
卫生保健机构根据联合委员会发布的准则，定期跟踪其感染率。医疗保健相关感染（HAI）率用于衡量特定医院中患者的感染情况。 这样可以将感染率与其他医院相比。 当医疗机构遵循安全护理指南时，通常可以预防这些感染。 为了从Medicare获得付款，医院必须向疾病控制与预防中心（CDC）的国家医疗安全网络（NHSN）报告有关某些感染的数据。 医院目前提交有关中心线相关的血液感染（CLABSI），导管相关的尿路感染（CAUTI），手术部位感染（SSI），MRSA细菌血症和艰难梭菌实验室鉴定事件的信息。 这些数据的公开报告是卫生与公共服务部的一项工作。
For meaningful comparisons of infection rates, populations must be very similar between the two or more assessments. However, a problem with mean rates is that they cannot reflect differences in risk between populations.
- "Calculation of Infection Rates" (PDF). Utah Department of Health. 2017. Retrieved 2017-01-09.
- "Group A Streptococcus Calculator". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 4 July 2008. Retrieved 2017-01-09.
- "Basic Statistical Data Used in Acute Care Facilities" (PDF). JB Learning. Retrieved 2017-01-09.
- "Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) data". Medicare.gov. Retrieved 2017-01-09.
- "NHSN Standardized Infection Ratio" (PDF). December 2016. Retrieved 2017-01-09.
- The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America epidemiologists or physicians in infection control.
- Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology infection prevention and control professionals.
- The Certification Board of Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc.