涌现

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The formation of complex symmetrical and fractal patterns in snowflakes exemplifies emergence in a physical system.

The formation of complex symmetrical and fractal patterns in snowflakes exemplifies emergence in a physical system.

复杂对称的形成以及[科赫雪花中的分形图案说明了物理系统的涌现]

A termite "cathedral" mound produced by a termite colony offers a classic example of emergence in nature

A termite "cathedral" mound produced by a termite colony offers a classic example of emergence in nature

一个由[白蚁聚居地制造的白蚁“大教堂”建筑高地为我们提供了一个涌现的经典例子]

In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when an entity is observed to have properties its parts do not have on their own. These properties or behaviors emerge only when the parts interact in a wider whole. For example, smooth forward motion emerges when a bicycle and its rider interoperate, but neither part can produce the behavior on their own.

In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when an entity is observed to have properties its parts do not have on their own. These properties or behaviors emerge only when the parts interact in a wider whole. For example, smooth forward motion emerges when a bicycle and its rider interoperate, but neither part can produce the behavior on their own.

在哲学、系统论、科学和艺术中,当一个实体被观察到具有其所有组成部分本身没有的属性时,涌现 emergence 就出现了。这些属性或行为只有当各个部分在一个更广泛的整体中相互作用时才会涌现。例如,当一辆自行车和骑手互动时,平稳的向前运动就出现了,但是两个部分都不能独自产生这种行为。

Emergence plays a central role in theories of integrative levels and of complex systems. For instance, the phenomenon of life as studied in biology is an emergent property of chemistry, and psychological phenomena emerge from the neurobiological phenomena of living things.

Emergence plays a central role in theories of integrative levels and of complex systems. For instance, the phenomenon of life as studied in biology is an emergent property of chemistry, and psychological phenomena emerge from the neurobiological phenomena of living things.

涌现的概念在整合层次理论 theories of integrative levels复杂系统 theories of complex systems 理论中扮处于核心地位。例如,生物学所研究的生命现象是化学的一个涌现特性,而心理现象是从生物的神经生物学现象中涌现出的。

In philosophy, theories that emphasize emergent properties have been called emergentism. Almost all accounts of emergentism include a form of epistemic or ontological irreducibility to the lower levels.[1]

In philosophy, theories that emphasize emergent properties have been called emergentism. Almost all accounts of emergentism include a form of epistemic or ontological irreducibility to the lower levels.

在哲学中,强调涌现特性的理论被称为涌现论/涌现主义 emergentism。几乎所有涌现主义的叙述都包括一种认识论意义或本体论意义的不可化约性 irreducibility



在哲学上

Philosophers often understand emergence as a claim about the etiology of a system's properties. An emergent property of a system, in this context, is one that is not a property of any component of that system, but is still a feature of the system as a whole. Nicolai Hartmann (1882-1950), one of the first modern philosophers to write on emergence, termed this a categorial novum (new category).

Philosophers often understand emergence as a claim about the etiology of a system's properties. An emergent property of a system, in this context, is one that is not a property of any component of that system, but is still a feature of the system as a whole. Nicolai Hartmann (1882-1950), one of the first modern philosophers to write on emergence, termed this a categorial novum (new category).

哲学家通常把涌现理解为一种对系统特性的发生学主张。在这个语境里,系统的涌现特性不是系统的任何组件的属性,但仍然是整个系统的一个特征。尼古拉·哈特曼 Nicolai Hartmann (1882-1950) ,首批写出涌现论的现代哲学家之一,把这种现象称为categorial novum (新的范畴)。

定义

This concept of emergence dates from at least the time of Aristotle.[2] The many scientists and philosophers[3] who have written on the concept include John Stuart Mill (Composition of Causes, 1843)[4] and Julian Huxley[5] (1887-1975).


涌现的概念至少在亚里士多德时代就已经存在了[2]。许多科学家和哲学家[6]写过关于这个概念的文章,其中包括 约翰·斯图尔特·密尔 John Stuart Mill [7]和朱利安 · 赫胥黎 Julian Huxley [8]


哲学家 g· h·刘易斯 (g. h. Lewes) 在1875年创造了“涌现”(emergent)一词

Every resultant is either a sum or a difference of the co-operant forces; their sum, when their directions are the same – their difference, when their directions are contrary. Further, every resultant is clearly traceable in its components, because these are homogeneous and commensurable. It is otherwise with emergents, when, instead of adding measurable motion to measurable motion, or things of one kind to other individuals of their kind, there is a co-operation of things of unlike kinds. The emergent is unlike its components insofar as these are incommensurable, and it cannot be reduced to their sum or their difference.


每个合力要么是共同作用力的和,要么是共同作用力的差; 当它们的方向相同时,是它们的和——当它们的方向相反时,则是它们的差。 此外,每个成果在其组成部分中都可以清楚地朔源,因为这些组成部分是同质的和可公度的。涌现的情况与此不同,它们既不是在动量中再增加动量,也不是在同类个体中增加一种个体,而是在不同种类的事物之间进行合作。涌现不同于其组成部分,因为这些部分是不可通约的,不能被还原为它们的总和或差。 [9]模板:Sfn

In 1999, economist Jeffrey Goldstein provided a current definition of emergence in the journal Emergence.[10] Goldstein initially defined emergence as: "the arising of novel and coherent structures, patterns and properties during the process of self-organization in complex systems".

In 1999, economist Jeffrey Goldstein provided a current definition of emergence in the journal Emergence. Goldstein initially defined emergence as: "the arising of novel and coherent structures, patterns and properties during the process of self-organization in complex systems".

1999年,经济学家杰弗里•戈尔茨坦(Jeffrey Goldstein) 在《涌现》(Emergence)杂志上提出了现有的对“涌现”的定义。戈尔茨坦最初将涌现定义为: “在复杂系统自组织过程中产生的新颖而连贯的结构、模式和性质(the arising of novel and coherent structures, patterns and properties during the process of self-organization in complex systems)”。


In 2002 systems scientist Peter Corning described the qualities of Goldstein's definition in more detail:

In 2002 systems scientist Peter Corning described the qualities of Goldstein's definition in more detail:

2002年,系统科学家彼得·康宁(Peter Corning)更详细地描述了戈尔茨坦的定义:

The common characteristics are: (1) radical novelty (features not previously observed in systems); (2) coherence or correlation (meaning integrated wholes that maintain themselves over some period of time); (3) A global or macro "level" (i.e. there is some property of "wholeness"); (4) it is the product of a dynamical process (it evolves); and (5) it is "ostensive" (it can be perceived).[11]

The common characteristics are: (1) radical novelty (features not previously observed in systems); (2) coherence or correlation (meaning integrated wholes that maintain themselves over some period of time); (3) A global or macro "level" (i.e. there is some property of "wholeness"); (4) it is the product of a dynamical process (it evolves); and (5) it is "ostensive" (it can be perceived).

共同的特征有: (1)根本的新颖性(以前在系统中没有观察到的特征) ; (2)连贯性或相关性(意味着在一段时间内维持自身的完整) ; (3)全局或宏观的“层次”(即:它是一个整体的特性);(4)它是动力学过程的产物(它可以演进); (5)它是一个明显的(可以被感知)。 [11]


Corning suggests a narrower definition, requiring that the components be unlike in kind (following Lewes), and that they involve division of labor between these components. He also says that living systems (like the game of chess), while emergent, cannot be reduced to underlying laws of emergence:

Corning suggests a narrower definition, requiring that the components be unlike in kind (following Lewes), and that they involve division of labor between these components. He also says that living systems (like the game of chess), while emergent, cannot be reduced to underlying laws of emergence:

康宁提出了一个狭义的定义,要求组分不同于实体(传承了刘易斯的观点),并且它们涉及这些组分之间的分工。他还表示,涌现的系统不能简化为底层的基本规律:

Rules, or laws, have no causal efficacy; they do not in fact 'generate' anything. They serve merely to describe regularities and consistent relationships in nature. These patterns may be very illuminating and important, but the underlying causal agencies must be separately specified (though often they are not). But that aside, the game of chess illustrates ... why any laws or rules of emergence and evolution are insufficient. Even in a chess game, you cannot use the rules to predict 'history' – i.e., the course of any given game. Indeed, you cannot even reliably predict the next move in a chess game. Why? Because the 'system' involves more than the rules of the game. It also includes the players and their unfolding, moment-by-moment decisions among a very large number of available options at each choice point. The game of chess is inescapably historical, even though it is also constrained and shaped by a set of rules, not to mention the laws of physics. Moreover, and this is a key point, the game of chess is also shaped by teleonomic, cybernetic, feedback-driven influences. It is not simply a self-ordered process; it involves an organized, 'purposeful' activity.[11]

Rules, or laws, have no causal efficacy; they do not in fact 'generate' anything. They serve merely to describe regularities and consistent relationships in nature. These patterns may be very illuminating and important, but the underlying causal agencies must be separately specified (though often they are not). But that aside, the game of chess illustrates ... why any laws or rules of emergence and evolution are insufficient. Even in a chess game, you cannot use the rules to predict 'history' – i.e., the course of any given game. Indeed, you cannot even reliably predict the next move in a chess game. Why? Because the 'system' involves more than the rules of the game. It also includes the players and their unfolding, moment-by-moment decisions among a very large number of available options at each choice point. The game of chess is inescapably historical, even though it is also constrained and shaped by a set of rules, not to mention the laws of physics. Moreover, and this is a key point, the game of chess is also shaped by teleonomic, cybernetic, feedback-driven influences. It is not simply a self-ordered process; it involves an , 'purposeful' activity.

Rules, or laws, have no causal efficacy; they do not in fact 'generate' anything. They serve merely to describe regularities and consistent relationships in nature. These patterns may be very illuminating and important, but the underlying causal agencies must be separately specified (though often they are not). But that aside, the game of chess illustrates ... why any laws or rules of emergence and evolution are insufficient. Even in a chess game, you cannot use the rules to predict 'history' – i.e., the course of any given game. Indeed, you cannot even reliably predict the next move in a chess game. Why? Because the 'system' involves more than the rules of the game. It also includes the players and their unfolding, moment-by-moment decisions among a very large number of available options at each choice point. The game of chess is inescapably historical, even though it is also constrained and shaped by a set of rules, not to mention the laws of physics. Moreover, and this is a key point, the game of chess is also shaped by teleonomic, cybernetic, feedback-driven influences. It is not simply a self-ordered process; it involves an organized, 'purposeful' activity.[11]

这些规则,或者说定律,没有有效的因果关系,它们实际上并不‘产生’任何东西。它们只是用来描述自然界中的规律性和一致性关系。国际象棋游戏说明了为什么任何关于出现和进化的法则和规则都是不充分的。即使在国际象棋游戏中,你也不能用这些规则来预测“历史”——也就是说,任何给定游戏进程都不能被预测。事实上,你甚至无法可靠地预测下一步棋的走法。为什么?因为“系统”涉及的不仅仅是游戏规则。它还包括玩家及其在每个选择点对大量可用选项做出决策。国际象棋是不可避免地具有历史性,尽管它也受到一系列规则的约束和塑造,在此之上更不用说物理定律了。更重要的是,国际象棋的游戏还受到目的性,控制论,反馈驱动的影响。它不仅仅是一个自我有序的过程,它还包括一个有组织的、“有目的的”活动。

强涌现和弱涌现

Usage of the notion "emergence" may generally be subdivided into two perspectives, that of "weak emergence" and "strong emergence". One paper discussing this division is Weak Emergence, by philosopher Mark Bedau. In terms of physical systems, weak emergence is a type of emergence in which the emergent property is amenable to computer simulation or similar forms of after-the-fact analysis (for example, the formation of a traffic jam, the structure of a flight of starlings or a school of fishes, or the formation of galaxies). Crucial in these simulations is that the interacting members retain their independence. If not (for example in a chemical reaction), a new entity is formed with new, emergent properties: this is called strong emergence, which it is argued cannot be simulated or analysed.

Usage of the notion "emergence" may generally be subdivided into two perspectives, that of "weak emergence" and "strong emergence". One paper discussing this division is Weak Emergence, by philosopher Mark Bedau. In terms of physical systems, weak emergence is a type of emergence in which the emergent property is amenable to computer simulation or similar forms of after-the-fact analysis (for example, the formation of a traffic jam, the structure of a flight of starlings or a school of fishes, or the formation of galaxies). Crucial in these simulations is that the interacting members retain their independence. If not (for example in a chemical reaction), a new entity is formed with new, emergent properties: this is called strong emergence, which it is argued cannot be simulated or analysed.

“涌现”概念可以分为“弱涌现”和“强涌现”两种观点。一篇来源于哲学家马克·贝道 Mark Bedau的《弱涌现》的论述文章区分了这种概念的。就物理系统而言,弱涌现是一种适合进行计算机模拟或类似形式的事后分析的涌现类型 (例如,交通堵塞的形成,椋鸟飞行结构或鱼群结构,又或星系的形成)。在这些模拟中至关重要的是相互作用的成员保持他们的独立性。如果没有保持独立性,则会形成具有新颖的、涌现的特性的新实体(例如在化学反应):这就是所谓的强涌现,它被认为是不能被模拟或分析的。


Some common points between the two notions are that emergence concerns new properties produced as the system grows, which is to say ones which are not shared with its components or prior states. Also, it is assumed that the properties are supervenient rather than metaphysically primitive 模板:Harv.

Some common points between the two notions are that emergence concerns new properties produced as the system grows, which is to say ones which are not shared with its components or prior states. Also, it is assumed that the properties are supervenient rather than metaphysically primitive .

这两个概念之间的一些共同点是,涌现与随着系统发展过程中产生的新特性有关,也就是说,这些新特性不包含在其系统组成部分或先前系统状态中。另外,它假设这些属性是伴生属性,而不是形而上学上的原始属性。


Weak emergence describes new properties arising in systems as a result of the interactions at an elemental level. However, Bedau stipulates that the properties can be determined only by observing or simulating the system, and not by any process of a reductionist analysis. As a consequence the emerging properties are scale dependent: they are only observable if the system is large enough to exhibit the phenomenon. Chaotic, unpredictable behaviour can be seen as an emergent phenomenon, while at a microscopic scale the behaviour of the constituent parts can be fully deterministic.

Weak emergence describes new properties arising in systems as a result of the interactions at an elemental level. However, Bedau stipulates that the properties can be determined only by observing or simulating the system, and not by any process of a reductionist analysis. As a consequence the emerging properties are scale dependent: they are only observable if the system is large enough to exhibit the phenomenon. Chaotic, unpredictable behaviour can be seen as an emergent phenomenon, while at a microscopic scale the behaviour of the constituent parts can be fully deterministic.

弱涌现描述了由于元素层次上的相互作用而在系统中产生的新特性。然而,贝道规定,只有通过观察或模拟系统才能确定系统的涌现性质,而不能通过任何还原论分析过程来确定。因此,新出现的属性是与规模相关的:它们只有在系统足够大,能够展现这种现象时才能观察到。混乱、不可预知的行为可以看作是一种涌现现象,而在微观尺度上,组成部分的行为可以是完全确定的。


Bedau notes that weak emergence is not a universal metaphysical solvent, as the hypothesis that consciousness is weakly emergent would not resolve the traditional philosophical questions about the physicality of consciousness. However, Bedau concludes that adopting this view would provide a precise notion that emergence is involved in consciousness, and second, the notion of weak emergence is metaphysically benign. 模板:Harv

Bedau notes that weak emergence is not a universal metaphysical solvent, as the hypothesis that consciousness is weakly emergent would not resolve the traditional philosophical questions about the physicality of consciousness. However, Bedau concludes that adopting this view would provide a precise notion that emergence is involved in consciousness, and second, the notion of weak emergence is metaphysically benign.

贝道指出,弱涌现不是一种普遍的形而上学的万金油概念(universal metaphysical solvent),因为意识是弱涌现的假设不能解决关于意识的物质性的传统哲学问题。然而,贝道的结论是,采用这种观点将提供一个精确的概念,即涌现是包含在意识中的,其次,弱涌现的概念在形而上学上是良性的(the notion of weak emergence is metaphysically benign)。

- Ricky "universal metaphysical solvent"和"the notion of weak emergence is metaphysically benign"这两句需要有哲学素养的审校者校正

Strong emergence describes the direct causal action of a high-level system upon its components; qualities produced this way are irreducible to the system's constituent parts 模板:Harv. The whole is other than the sum of its parts. An example from physics of such emergence is water, which appears unpredictable even after an exhaustive study of the properties of its constituent atoms of hydrogen and oxygen.[12] It follows then that no simulation of the system can exist, for such a simulation would itself constitute a reduction of the system to its constituent parts. 模板:Harv.

Strong emergence describes the direct causal action of a high-level system upon its components; qualities produced this way are irreducible to the system's constituent parts . The whole is other than the sum of its parts. An example from physics of such emergence is water, which appears unpredictable even after an exhaustive study of the properties of its constituent atoms of hydrogen and oxygen. It follows then that no simulation of the system can exist, for such a simulation would itself constitute a reduction of the system to its constituent parts. .

强涌现描述了一个高层次系统对其组成部分的直接因果作用:由强涌现产生的特性不能还原为系统的组成部分。整体不是各部分的总和。出现这种现象的物理学例子是:即使对水的组成原子氢和氧的性质进行了详尽的研究,水的形成也显得不可预测[13]。因此,不可能存在任何对系统的仿真,能把系统还原成其组成部分。


拒绝区分

However, biologist Peter Corning has asserted that "the debate about whether or not the whole can be predicted from the properties of the parts misses the point. Wholes produce unique combined effects, but many of these effects may be co-determined by the context and the interactions between the whole and its environment(s)" 模板:Harv. In accordance with his Synergism Hypothesis 模板:Harv, Corning also stated: "It is the synergistic effects produced by wholes that are the very cause of the evolution of complexity in nature." Novelist Arthur Koestler used the metaphor of Janus (a symbol of the unity underlying complements like open/shut, peace/war) to illustrate how the two perspectives (strong vs. weak or holistic vs. reductionistic) should be treated as non-exclusive, and should work together to address the issues of emergence 模板:Harv. Theoretical physicist PW Anderson states it this way:

However, biologist Peter Corning has asserted that "the debate about whether or not the whole can be predicted from the properties of the parts misses the point. Wholes produce unique combined effects, but many of these effects may be co-determined by the context and the interactions between the whole and its environment(s)" . In accordance with his Synergism Hypothesis , Corning also stated: "It is the synergistic effects produced by wholes that are the very cause of the evolution of complexity in nature." Novelist Arthur Koestler used the metaphor of Janus (a symbol of the unity underlying complements like open/shut, peace/war) to illustrate how the two perspectives (strong vs. weak or holistic vs. reductionistic) should be treated as non-exclusive, and should work together to address the issues of emergence . Theoretical physicist PW Anderson states it this way:

然而,生物学家彼得·康宁断言,“关于是否可以从组成部分的特性来预测整体特性的争论并没有抓住要点。整体可以产生独特的组合效应,但其中许多效应可能由整体及其环境之间的相互作用共同决定”。根据他的协同论假说,康宁还指出: “正是整体产生的协同效应才是自然界复杂性进化的根本原因。小说家亚瑟·凯斯特勒用“两面神(Janus)”隐喻(两面神是开/关、和平/战争等潜在互补统一的象征)来说明两种观点(强涌现与弱涌现、整体论与还原论)应该如何被视不独立存在的,并且应该一起解决涌现的问题。理论物理学家P.W.安德森是这样说的:

The ability to reduce everything to simple fundamental laws does not imply the ability to start from those laws and reconstruct the universe. The constructionist hypothesis breaks down when confronted with the twin difficulties of scale and complexity. At each level of complexity entirely new properties appear. Psychology is not applied biology, nor is biology applied chemistry. We can now see that the whole becomes not merely more, but very different from the sum of its parts .

把一切都简化为简单的基本定律的能力并不意味着从这些定律出发并重建宇宙的能力。当面对规模和复杂性的双重困难时,建构主义的假设就失败了。在复杂性的每个层级上,都会出现全新的属性。心理学不是应用生物学,生物学也不是应用化学。我们现在可以看到,整体不仅变得更多,而且与各部分的总和大不相同。

强涌现的可能性

Some thinkers question the plausibility of strong emergence as contravening our usual understanding of physics. Mark A. Bedau observes:

Some thinkers question the plausibility of strong emergence as contravening our usual understanding of physics. Mark A. Bedau observes:

一些思想家质疑强涌现的合理性,认为它违背了我们对物理学的通常理解。马克·贝道观察到:

Although strong emergence is logically possible, it is uncomfortably like magic. How does an irreducible but supervenient downward causal power arise, since by definition it cannot be due to the aggregation of the micro-level potentialities? Such causal powers would be quite unlike anything within our scientific ken. This not only indicates how they will discomfort reasonable forms of materialism. Their mysteriousness will only heighten the traditional worry that emergence entails illegitimately getting something from nothing.

尽管强涌现在逻辑上是可能的,但它就像魔术一样令人难以信服。既然从定义上看,它不可能是由于微观层面可能性的聚集而成,那么一种不可还原却又伴随着向下的因果律是如何产生的呢?这种因果与我们科学知识范围内的任何事物都完全不同。这不仅将使得唯物主义者感到不适,它们的神秘特性也会加剧一种传统的担忧,即涌现会引发无中生有的想法。[14]


Strong emergence can be criticized for being causally overdetermined. The canonical example concerns emergent mental states (M and M∗) that supervene on physical states (P and P∗) respectively. Let M and M∗ be emergent properties. Let M∗ supervene on base property P∗. What happens when M causes M∗? Jaegwon Kim says:

Strong emergence can be criticized for being causally overdetermined. The canonical example concerns emergent mental states (M and M∗) that supervene on physical states (P and P∗) respectively. Let M and M∗ be emergent properties. Let M∗ supervene on base property P∗. What happens when M causes M∗? Jaegwon Kim says:


强涌现因为过度决定 overdetermined而被批评(过度决定就是一个事物背后有多个相互矛盾的决定因素的情况。拿超定方程组举例:一个方程组只有一个未知量,却有两个方程,每个方程都能单独解出这个未知量,但两个方程的解却不一样,导致这个方程组无解。)。有一个典型的例子:现有涌现出来的两个心理状态(M 和 M) ,它们分别在物理状态(P和 P*)上涌现出来的。则当 M 导致 M* 时会发生什么?Jaegwon Kim 表示:

In our schematic example above, we concluded that M causes M∗ by causing P∗. So M causes P∗. Now, M, as an emergent, must itself have an emergence base property, say P. Now we face a critical question: if an emergent, M, emerges from basal condition P, why cannot P displace M as a cause of any putative effect of M? Why cannot P do all the work in explaining why any alleged effect of M occurred? If causation is understood as nomological (law-based) sufficiency, P, as M's emergence base, is nomologically sufficient for it, and M, as P∗'s cause, is nomologically sufficient for P∗. It follows that P is nomologically sufficient for P∗ and hence qualifies as its cause…If M is somehow retained as a cause, we are faced with the highly implausible consequence that every case of downward causation involves overdetermination (since P remains a cause of P∗ as well). Moreover, this goes against the spirit of emergentism in any case: emergents are supposed to make distinctive and novel causal contributions.[15]

In our schematic example above, we concluded that M causes M∗ by causing P∗. So M causes P∗. Now, M, as an emergent, must itself have an emergence base property, say P. Now we face a critical question: if an emergent, M, emerges from basal condition P, why cannot P displace M as a cause of any putative effect of M? Why cannot P do all the work in explaining why any alleged effect of M occurred? If causation is understood as nomological (law-based) sufficiency, P, as M's emergence base, is nomologically sufficient for it, and M, as P∗'s cause, is nomologically sufficient for P∗. It follows that P is nomologically sufficient for P∗ and hence qualifies as its cause…If M is somehow retained as a cause, we are faced with the highly implausible consequence that every case of downward causation involves overdetermination (since P remains a cause of P∗ as well). Moreover, this goes against the spirit of emergentism in any case: emergents are supposed to make distinctive and novel causal contributions. 在我们上面的例子中,我们得出结论,心理状态 M 引起的另一个心理状态 M * 对应着微观的物理状态 P* ,所以我们可以说 M 引起 P∗。现在,M 作为一个涌现现象,本身必须有一个底层的基本性质,比如 P。 现在我们面临一个关键的问题: 如果一个涌现现象M出现在基础条件 P下,为什么P不能作为M的任何假定影响的原因?为什么 P 不能充分解释 M 引发的其他效应呢?如果因果关系被理解为法理上(基于规则)的充分性,那么 P,作为 M 的涌现基础,同样是法理充分的。而M作为 P* 的原因,对于P*也是法理上充分的。于是出现了P对于P*也是法理有效的,并因此能成为 P* 的理由。如果 M 以某种方式作为原因被保留下来,我们就会面临一个非常难以置信的结果,那就是每一个向下的因果关系都牵涉到过度决定(因为 P 也是 P * 的原因)。此外,这在任何情况下都与涌现主义的精神背道而驰: 涌现主义者应该做出独特而新颖的因果贡献。.[16]



If M is the cause of M∗, then M∗ is overdetermined because M∗ can also be thought of as being determined by P. One escape-route that a strong emergentist could take would be to deny downward causation. However, this would remove the proposed reason that emergent mental states must supervene on physical states, which in turn would call physicalism into question, and thus be unpalatable for some philosophers and physicists.

If M is the cause of M∗, then M∗ is overdetermined because M∗ can also be thought of as being determined by P. One escape-route that a strong emergentist could take would be to deny downward causation. However, this would remove the proposed reason that emergent mental states must supervene on physical states, which in turn would call physicalism into question, and thus be unpalatable for some philosophers and physicists.

如果 M 是 M * 的原因,那么 M * 就被过分决定了,因为 M * 也可以被认为是由 P 决定的。 一个强涌现论者可能采取的逃避途径是否认向下的因果关系。然而,这将消除涌现的精神状态必须附加在物理状态上的理由,这反过来会使唯物主义受到质疑,因此对于一些哲学家和物理学家来说是难以接受的。


Meanwhile, others have worked towards developing analytical evidence of strong emergence. In 2009, Gu et al. presented a class of physical systems that exhibits non-computable macroscopic properties.[17][18] More precisely, if one could compute certain macroscopic properties of these systems from the microscopic description of these systems, then one would be able to solve computational problems known to be undecidable in computer science. Gu et al. concluded that

Meanwhile, others have worked towards developing analytical evidence of strong emergence. In 2009, Gu et al. presented a class of physical systems that exhibits non-computable macroscopic properties. More precisely, if one could compute certain macroscopic properties of these systems from the microscopic description of these systems, then one would be able to solve computational problems known to be undecidable in computer science. Gu et al. concluded that

与此同时,其他人则致力于发掘强涌现的分析学证据。2009年,Gu等人提出了一类具有不可计算的宏观属性的物理系统。[17][18]更准确地说,如果一个人能够从这些系统的微观描述计算出这些系统的某些宏观性质,那么他就能够解决计算机科学中已知的一些无法判定的计算问题。Gu等人得出结论

  --趣木木讨论)探究一下是Gu  是谷还是顾。
  --Ricky 从Google的知识卡片上是“顾”。但这位 Mile Gu 只是华裔,在新西兰和澳大利亚读完大学,现在在新加坡南洋理工当教授。我没有搜到人家的中文名。应该是有的,但没有公开,也许人家也不愿意公开。



Although macroscopic concepts are essential for understanding our world, much of fundamental physics has been devoted to the search for a 'theory of everything', a set of equations that perfectly describe the behavior of all fundamental particles. The view that this is the goal of science rests in part on the rationale that such a theory would allow us to derive the behavior of all macroscopic concepts, at least in principle. The evidence we have presented suggests that this view may be overly optimistic. A 'theory of everything' is one of many components necessary for complete understanding of the universe, but is not necessarily the only one. The development of macroscopic laws from first principles may involve more than just systematic logic, and could require conjectures suggested by experiments, simulations or insight.[17]

Although macroscopic concepts are essential for understanding our world, much of fundamental physics has been devoted to the search for a 'theory of everything', a set of equations that perfectly describe the behavior of all fundamental particles. The view that this is the goal of science rests in part on the rationale that such a theory would allow us to derive the behavior of all macroscopic concepts, at least in principle. The evidence we have presented suggests that this view may be overly optimistic. A 'theory of everything' is one of many components necessary for complete understanding of the universe, but is not necessarily the only one. The development of macroscopic laws from first principles may involve more than just systematic logic, and could require conjectures suggested by experiments, simulations or insight.

尽管宏观概念对于理解我们的世界来说是必不可少的,大部分的基础物理学致力于寻找一个“万物理论”,一个完美描述所有基本粒子行为的方程组。有观点认为,这就是科学的目标,因为“万物理论”可以让我们推导出所有宏观事物的行为,至少在原则上是这样的。但我们的证据表明,这种观点可能过于乐观。“万有理论”是完全理解宇宙所必需的许多要素之一,但不一定是唯一的要素。从第一原理出发推导宏观定律可能不仅仅涉及系统的逻辑,而且可能需要实验、模拟或洞察力的推测。 [17]

涌现和相互作用

Emergent structures are patterns that emerge via the collective actions of many individual entities. To explain such patterns, one might conclude, per Aristotle,[2] that emergent structures are other than the sum of their parts on the assumption that the emergent order will not arise if the various parts simply interact independently of one another. However, there are those who disagree.[19] According to this argument, the interaction of each part with its immediate surroundings causes a complex chain of processes that can lead to order in some form. In fact, some systems in nature are observed to exhibit emergence based upon the interactions of autonomous parts, and some others exhibit emergence that at least at present cannot be reduced in this way. In particular renormalization methods in theoretical physics enable scientists to study systems that are not tractable as the combination of their parts.[20]

Emergent structures are patterns that emerge via the collective actions of many individual entities. To explain such patterns, one might conclude, per Aristotle, According to this argument, the interaction of each part with its immediate surroundings causes a complex chain of processes that can lead to order in some form. In fact, some systems in nature are observed to exhibit emergence based upon the interactions of autonomous parts, and some others exhibit emergence that at least at present cannot be reduced in this way. In particular renormalization methods in theoretical physics enable scientists to study systems that are not tractable as the combination of their parts.

涌现结构是通过许多单个实体的集体行动而出现的模式。为了解释这种模式,人们提出了一些假说。按照亚里士多德的说法[2],每个部分与其周围环境的相互作用导致了一系列复杂的过程,这些过程可以导致某种形式的秩序。事实上,我们观察到自然界中的一些系统是基于其部分的相互作用而呈现出涌现的,而另一些系统则呈现出了,至少目前不能以进行简化的涌现现象[21]。特别是理论物理学中的重整化方法使得科学家们能够研究那些不能作为各部分组合来处理的系统。[22]

客观或主观的品质

Crutchfield regards the properties of complexity and organization of any system as subjective qualities determined by the observer.

Crutchfield regards the properties of complexity and organization of any system as subjective qualities determined by the observer.

克拉奇菲尔德认为任何系统的复杂性和组织性都是由观察者主观所决定的。


Defining structure and detecting the emergence of complexity in nature are inherently subjective, though essential, scientific activities. Despite the difficulties, these problems can be analysed in terms of how model-building observers infer from measurements the computational capabilities embedded in non-linear processes. An observer’s notion of what is ordered, what is random, and what is complex in its environment depends directly on its computational resources: the amount of raw measurement data, of memory, and of time available for estimation and inference. The discovery of structure in an environment depends more critically and subtly, though, on how those resources are organized. The descriptive power of the observer’s chosen (or implicit) computational model class, for example, can be an overwhelming determinant in finding regularity in data.

Defining structure and detecting the emergence of complexity in nature are inherently subjective, though essential, scientific activities. Despite the difficulties, these problems can be analysed in terms of how model-building observers infer from measurements the computational capabilities embedded in non-linear processes. An observer’s notion of what is ordered, what is random, and what is complex in its environment depends directly on its computational resources: the amount of raw measurement data, of memory, and of time available for estimation and inference. The discovery of structure in an environment depends more critically and subtly, though, on how those resources are organized. The descriptive power of the observer’s chosen (or implicit) computational model class, for example, can be an overwhelming determinant in finding regularity in data.

尽管是必要的科学活动,定义结构和探测自然界复杂性的涌现本质上是主观的。尽管存在这些困难,这些问题可以从建模观察者如何从测量中推断出在非线性过程中蕴含的计算的角度进行分析。观察者对于什么是有序的,什么是随机的,什么是复杂的环境的概念直接取决于它的计算资源: 原始测量数据的数量,存储空间,以及可用于计算的时间。更关键和微妙的一点是,环境中结构的发现取决于这些计算资源是如何被使用的。例如,观察者选择的(或隐含的)计算模型的描述能力,是能否在数据中找到规律性的一个极端重要的决定因素。 [23]


On the other hand, Peter Corning argues: "Must the synergies be perceived/observed in order to qualify as emergent effects, as some theorists claim? Most emphatically not. The synergies associated with emergence are real and measurable, even if nobody is there to observe them."模板:Harv

On the other hand, Peter Corning argues: "Must the synergies be perceived/observed in order to qualify as emergent effects, as some theorists claim? Most emphatically not. The synergies associated with emergence are real and measurable, even if nobody is there to observe them."

另一方面,彼得·康宁认为: “难道协同作用必须被感知/观察,才能像某些理论家所说的那样,被称为涌现效应吗?很明显不是。与涌现相关的协同效应是真实的、可衡量的,即使没有人在那里观察它们。”


The low entropy of an ordered system can be viewed as an example of subjective emergence: the observer sees an ordered system by ignoring the underlying microstructure (i.e. movement of molecules or elementary particles) and concludes that the system has a low entropy.

The low entropy of an ordered system can be viewed as an example of subjective emergence: the observer sees an ordered system by ignoring the underlying microstructure (i.e. movement of molecules or elementary particles) and concludes that the system has a low entropy.

有序系统的低熵值可以看作是主观涌现的一个例子: 观察者通过忽略基本的微观结构(例如分子或基本粒子的运动),并得出结论,该系统有低的熵值[24]


On the other hand, chaotic, unpredictable behaviour can also be seen as subjective emergent, while at a microscopic scale the movement of the constituent parts can be fully deterministic.

On the other hand, chaotic, unpredictable behaviour can also be seen as subjective emergent, while at a microscopic scale the movement of the constituent parts can be fully deterministic.

另一方面,混乱、不可预知的行为也可以被视为主观涌现,而在微观尺度上,组成部分的运动可以是完全确定的。

在宗教、艺术和人文学科

In religion, emergence grounds expressions of religious naturalism and syntheism in which a sense of the sacred is perceived in the workings of entirely naturalistic processes by which more complex forms arise or evolve from simpler forms. Examples are detailed in The Sacred Emergence of Nature by Ursula Goodenough & Terrence Deacon and Beyond Reductionism: Reinventing the Sacred by Stuart Kauffman, both from 2006, and in Syntheism – Creating God in The Internet Age by Alexander Bard & Jan Söderqvist from 2014. An early argument (1904–05) for the emergence of social formations, in part stemming from religion, can be found in Max Weber's most famous work, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.[25] Recently, the emergence of a new social system is linked with the emergence of order from nonlinear relationships among multiple interacting units, where multiple interacting units are individual thoughts, consciousness, and actions.[26]

In religion, emergence grounds expressions of religious naturalism and syntheism in which a sense of the sacred is perceived in the workings of entirely naturalistic processes by which more complex forms arise or evolve from simpler forms. Examples are detailed in The Sacred Emergence of Nature by Ursula Goodenough & Terrence Deacon and Beyond Reductionism: Reinventing the Sacred by Stuart Kauffman, both from 2006, and in Syntheism – Creating God in The Internet Age by Alexander Bard & Jan Söderqvist from 2014. An early argument (1904–05) for the emergence of social formations, in part stemming from religion, can be found in Max Weber's most famous work, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Recently, the emergence of a new social system is linked with the emergence of order from nonlinear relationships among multiple interacting units, where multiple interacting units are individual thoughts, consciousness, and actions.

在宗教中,涌现是宗教自然主义和综合主义的表现形式,给人一种神圣的感觉,通常认为在完全自然主义的过程中,复杂形式是从更简单形式中产生或演化出来的。例如,2006年出版的 Ursula Goodenough 和 Terrence Deacon的《自然的神圣涌现》和 Stuart Kauffman的《超越还原论的:重塑神圣》,以及2014年出版的Alexander Bard和Jan Söderqvist的《综合主义: 在互联网时代创造上帝》,这个也被拍成电影:Futurica Trilogy 未来三部曲。关于社会形态出现的早期论证(1904-05),部分源于宗教,可以在 Max Weber最著名的作品《新教伦理与资本主义精神》.[27] 找到。到近代以来,一个新的社会系统的涌现与多个相互作用的部分之间的非线性关系所导致的秩序的涌现是联系在一起的,其中多个相互作用的单元可以是个人的思想、意识和行动。[28]


In art, emergence is used to explore the origins of novelty, creativity, and authorship. Some art/literary theorists (Wheeler, 2006;[29] Alexander, 2011[30]) have proposed alternatives to postmodern understandings of "authorship" using the complexity sciences and emergence theory. They contend that artistic selfhood and meaning are emergent, relatively objective phenomena. Michael J. Pearce has used emergence to describe the experience of works of art in relation to contemporary neuroscience.[31] Practicing artist Leonel Moura, in turn, attributes to his "artbots" a real, if nonetheless rudimentary, creativity based on emergent principles.[32] In literature and linguistics, the concept of emergence has been applied in the domain of stylometry to explain the interrelation between the syntactical structures of the text and the author style (Slautina, Marusenko, 2014).[33]

In art, emergence is used to explore the origins of novelty, creativity, and authorship. Some art/literary theorists (Wheeler, 2006; Alexander, 2011) have proposed alternatives to postmodern understandings of "authorship" using the complexity sciences and emergence theory. They contend that artistic selfhood and meaning are emergent, relatively objective phenomena. Michael J. Pearce has used emergence to describe the experience of works of art in relation to contemporary neuroscience. Practicing artist Leonel Moura, in turn, attributes to his "artbots" a real, if nonetheless rudimentary, creativity based on emergent principles. In literature and linguistics, the concept of emergence has been applied in the domain of stylometry to explain the interrelation between the syntactical structures of the text and the author style (Slautina, Marusenko, 2014).

在艺术中,涌现被用来探索创新、创造和作品创作。一些艺术/文学理论家(Wheeler,2006; Alexande,2011)利用复杂性科学和涌现理论提出了替代后现代理解的“作品创作”。他们认为艺术的自我和意义是涌现出来的、相对客观的现象。Michael J. Pearce用涌现现象来描述与当代神经科学相关艺术作品的经验。实践艺术家Leonel Moura则认为他的“机器人艺术”具有真正的、基于涌现原理的创造力,尽管这种创造力还很初级。在文学和语言学中,涌现的概念被应用于文体学领域,以解释文本的句法结构和作者风格之间的相互关系(Slautina,Marusenko,2014)。

  -- Ricky: Some art/literary theorists have proposed alternatives to postmodern understandings of "authorship" using the complexity sciences and emergence theory. 这里我把“authorship”翻译成“作品创作”


In international development, concepts of emergence have been used within a theory of social change termed SEED-SCALE to show how standard principles interact to bring forward socio-economic development fitted to cultural values, community economics, and natural environment (local solutions emerging from the larger socio-econo-biosphere). These principles can be implemented utilizing a sequence of standardized tasks that self-assemble in individually specific ways utilizing recursive evaluative criteria.[34]

In international development, concepts of emergence have been used within a theory of social change termed SEED-SCALE to show how standard principles interact to bring forward socio-economic development fitted to cultural values, community economics, and natural environment (local solutions emerging from the larger socio-econo-biosphere). These principles can be implemented utilizing a sequence of standardized tasks that self-assemble in individually specific ways utilizing recursive evaluative criteria.

在国际发展中,涌现的概念被用于一种称为 SEED-SCALE 的社会变革理论中,以显示基本的原则是如何相互作用,从而推动符合文化价值观、社区经济和自然环境的社会经济发展。这些原则可以利用一系列标准化的任务来实现,利用递归的执行方式以各自特定的方式进行自组装。[35]


In postcolonial studies, the term "Emerging Literature" refers to a contemporary body of texts that is gaining momentum in the global literary landscape (v. esp.: J.M. Grassin, ed. Emerging Literatures, Bern, Berlin, etc. : Peter Lang, 1996). By opposition, "emergent literature" is rather a concept used in the theory of literature.

In postcolonial studies, the term "Emerging Literature" refers to a contemporary body of texts that is gaining momentum in the global literary landscape (v. esp.: J.M. Grassin, ed. Emerging Literatures, Bern, Berlin, etc. : Peter Lang, 1996). By opposition, "emergent literature" is rather a concept used in the theory of literature.

在20世纪90年代后殖民主义理论,“Emerging Literature”通常翻译为“新兴文学”,指的是在全球文学景观中获得势头的当代文本主体。(v. esp.: J.M. Grassin, ed. Emerging Literatures, Bern, Berlin, etc. : Peter Lang, 1996)。而“emergent literature”通常翻译为“涌现文学”,是文学理论中使用的一个概念。

涌现的特性和过程

An emergent behavior or emergent property can appear when a number of simple entities (agents) operate in an environment, forming more complex behaviors as a collective. If emergence happens over disparate size scales, then the reason is usually a causal relation across different scales. In other words, there is often a form of top-down feedback in systems with emergent properties. The processes causing emergent properties may occur in either the observed or observing system, and are commonly identifiable by their patterns of accumulating change, generally called 'growth'. Emergent behaviours can occur because of intricate causal relations across different scales and feedback, known as interconnectivity. The emergent property itself may be either very predictable or unpredictable and unprecedented, and represent a new level of the system's evolution. The complex behaviour or properties are not a property of any single such entity, nor can they easily be predicted or deduced from behaviour in the lower-level entities, and might in fact be irreducible to such behavior.[36] The shape and behaviour of a flock of birds or school of fish are good examples of emergent properties.

An emergent behavior or emergent property can appear when a number of simple entities (agents) operate in an environment, forming more complex behaviors as a collective. If emergence happens over disparate size scales, then the reason is usually a causal relation across different scales. In other words, there is often a form of top-down feedback in systems with emergent properties. The processes causing emergent properties may occur in either the observed or observing system, and are commonly identifiable by their patterns of accumulating change, generally called 'growth'. Emergent behaviours can occur because of intricate causal relations across different scales and feedback, known as interconnectivity. The emergent property itself may be either very predictable or unpredictable and unprecedented, and represent a new level of the system's evolution. The complex behaviour or properties are not a property of any single such entity, nor can they easily be predicted or deduced from behaviour in the lower-level entities, and might in fact be irreducible to such behavior. The shape and behaviour of a flock of birds or school of fish are good examples of emergent properties.

当一些简单的个体(主体)在一个环境中运动时,可能会出现涌现的行为或涌现特性,形成整体层面更复杂的行为。如果涌现发生在不同的尺度上,那么原因通常是不同尺度之间的因果关系。换句话说,涌现特性通常意味着在系统中存在一种自上而下的反馈形式。出现涌现特性的过程可能发生在观察系统之后或观察时,并且通常可以通过变化累积所形成的模式来识别,这个过程一般称为“增长”。涌现行为之所以会出现,是因为不同尺度之间存在复杂的因果关系和反馈,这种关系被称为互联性 Interconnectivity。涌现特性本身既不是完全可预测的,也不是完全不可预测和前所未有的,而是代表系统进化的新层次。复杂的行为或者特性不是任何一类实体的特性,也不能轻易地从较低级别个体行为中预测或推断出来,事实上复杂行为不能简化为个体层面的行为。鸟群或鱼群的集体行为展现出的整体形状就可以看成是涌现特性的很好例子。


One reason emergent behaviour is hard to predict is that the number of interactions between a system's components increases exponentially with the number of components, thus allowing for many new and subtle types of behaviour to emerge. Emergence is often a product of particular patterns of interaction. Negative feedback introduces constraints that serve to fix structures or behaviours. In contrast, positive feedback promotes change, allowing local variations to grow into global patterns. Another way in which interactions leads to emergent properties is dual-phase evolution. This occurs where interactions are applied intermittently, leading to two phases: one in which patterns form or grow, the other in which they are refined or removed.

One reason emergent behaviour is hard to predict is that the number of interactions between a system's components increases exponentially with the number of components, thus allowing for many new and subtle types of behaviour to emerge. Emergence is often a product of particular patterns of interaction. Negative feedback introduces constraints that serve to fix structures or behaviours. In contrast, positive feedback promotes change, allowing local variations to grow into global patterns. Another way in which interactions leads to emergent properties is dual-phase evolution. This occurs where interactions are applied intermittently, leading to two phases: one in which patterns form or grow, the other in which they are refined or removed.

涌现行为难以预测的一个原因是,系统个体之间相互作用的数量随个体的数量呈指数增长,从而允许许多新的微妙行为类型涌现出来。涌现通常是特定交互模式的产物。负反馈引入了有助于修复结构或行为的约束。相比之下,正反馈促进改变,允许局部变化发展成为全局模式。相互作用产生涌现特性的另一种方式是双相演化,这发生在相互作用是间歇出现的时候,引发两个阶段: 一个是模式的形成或增长,另一个是他们被提炼或移除。


On the other hand, merely having a large number of interactions is not enough by itself to guarantee emergent behaviour; many of the interactions may be negligible or irrelevant, or may cancel each other out. In some cases, a large number of interactions can in fact hinder the emergence of interesting behaviour, by creating a lot of "noise" to drown out any emerging "signal"; the emergent behaviour may need to be temporarily isolated from other interactions before it reaches enough critical mass to self-support. Thus it is not just the sheer number of connections between components which encourages emergence; it is also how these connections are organised. A hierarchical organisation is one example that can generate emergent behaviour (a bureaucracy may behave in a way quite different from the individual departments of that bureaucracy); but emergent behaviour can also arise from more decentralized organisational structures, such as a marketplace. In some cases, the system has to reach a combined threshold of diversity, organisation, and connectivity before emergent behaviour appears.

On the other hand, merely having a large number of interactions is not enough by itself to guarantee emergent behaviour; many of the interactions may be negligible or irrelevant, or may cancel each other out. In some cases, a large number of interactions can in fact hinder the emergence of interesting behaviour, by creating a lot of "noise" to drown out any emerging "signal"; the emergent behaviour may need to be temporarily isolated from other interactions before it reaches enough critical mass to self-support. Thus it is not just the sheer number of connections between components which encourages emergence; it is also how these connections are organised. A hierarchical organisation is one example that can generate emergent behaviour (a bureaucracy may behave in a way quite different from the individual departments of that bureaucracy); but emergent behaviour can also arise from more decentralized organisational structures, such as a marketplace. In some cases, the system has to reach a combined threshold of diversity, organisation, and connectivity before emergent behaviour appears.

另一方面,个体之间仅仅有大量的相互作用本身并不足以保证出现涌现行为。许多相互作用可能是微不足道或无关紧要的,或者可能相互抵消。在某些情况下,大量的相互作用实际上可能阻碍有趣行为的涌现,因为它们制造了大量的”噪音”来干扰新涌现出现的”信号”。在达到临界点以能维持自身以前,这种涌现行为可能需要暂时与其他相互作用隔离。因此,促进涌现的不仅仅是个体之间连接的绝对数量,还有连接的方式。分层组织就是能够产生涌现行为的例子(政府机构的行为方式可能与政府机构的单个部门大不相同)。 但涌现行为也可能产生于更为分散的组织结构,如市场。在某些情况下,在涌现行为出现之前,系统必须达到多样性、组织性和连通性的组合阈值。


Unintended consequences and side effects are closely related to emergent properties. Luc Steels writes: "A component has a particular functionality but this is not recognizable as a subfunction of the global functionality. Instead a component implements a behaviour whose side effect contributes to the global functionality [...] Each behaviour has a side effect and the sum of the side effects gives the desired functionality".模板:Harv In other words, the global or macroscopic functionality of a system with "emergent functionality" is the sum of all "side effects", of all emergent properties and functionalities.

Unintended consequences and side effects are closely related to emergent properties. Luc Steels writes: "A component has a particular functionality but this is not recognizable as a subfunction of the global functionality. Instead a component implements a behaviour whose side effect contributes to the global functionality [...] Each behaviour has a side effect and the sum of the side effects gives the desired functionality". In other words, the global or macroscopic functionality of a system with "emergent functionality" is the sum of all "side effects", of all emergent properties and functionalities.

无意识的后果和副作用都与涌现特性密切相关。Luc Steels写道: “一个组件有一个特定的功能,但这不能识别为全局功能的子功能。相反,一个组件实现了一种行为,其副作用有助于实现全局功能[ ... ]每种行为都有副作用,副作用的总和就是整体的功能”。换句话说,具有“涌现功能”系统的全局或宏观功能是所有“副作用”的总和,即所有涌现特性和功能的总和。


Systems with emergent properties or emergent structures may appear to defy entropic principles and the second law of thermodynamics, because they form and increase order despite the lack of command and central control. This is possible because open systems can extract information and order out of the environment.

Systems with emergent properties or emergent structures may appear to defy entropic principles and the second law of thermodynamics, because they form and increase order despite the lack of command and central control. This is possible because open systems can extract information and order out of the environment.

具有涌现特性或涌现结构的系统可能看起来有悖熵原理和热力学第二定律,因为尽管缺乏中央的指挥和控制,但他们形成并增加秩序。然而实际上并没有违反,因为开放系统可以从环境中获取信息和秩序。

自然界中的涌现结构

Ripple patterns in a sand dune created by wind or water is an example of an emergent structure in nature.

Ripple patterns in a sand dune created by wind or water is an example of an emergent structure in nature.

由风或水形成的沙丘的波纹模式是自然界涌现结构的一个例子。

Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland is an example of a complex emergent structure.

Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland is an example of a complex emergent structure.

北爱尔兰的巨人堤道是复杂涌现结构的一个例子。



Emergent structures can be found in many natural phenomena, from the physical to the biological domain. For example, the shape of weather phenomena such as hurricanes are emergent structures. The development and growth of complex, orderly crystals, as driven by the random motion of water molecules within a conducive natural environment, is another example of an emergent process, where randomness can give rise to complex and deeply attractive, orderly structures.

Emergent structures can be found in many natural phenomena, from the physical to the biological domain. For example, the shape of weather phenomena such as hurricanes are emergent structures. The development and growth of complex, orderly crystals, as driven by the random motion of water molecules within a conducive natural environment, is another example of an emergent process, where randomness can give rise to complex and deeply attractive, orderly structures.

涌现结构可以在从物理到生物的许多自然现象中找到。例如,气象(比如飓风)的形状就是涌现结构。在有利的自然的环境中(--嘉树讨论) conducive natural environment 导电的环境| Ricky: 上下文语境中没有和导电相关的信息,所以我还是改成了直译:有利的自然的环境),由水分子的随机运动驱动复杂有序晶体的发展和生长,是涌现过程的另一个例子,在这种涌现过程中,随机性可以产生复杂而具吸引力的有序结构。


Water crystals forming on glass demonstrate an emergent, fractal process occurring under appropriate conditions of temperature and humidity.

However, crystalline structure and hurricanes are said to have a self-organizing phase.

Water crystals forming on glass demonstrate an emergent, fractal process occurring under appropriate conditions of temperature and humidity. However, crystalline structure and hurricanes are said to have a self-organizing phase.

在玻璃上形成的水的晶体是一个涌现现象,这是一个在适当的温度和湿度条件下发生的分形过程。不过,晶体结构和飓风都有一个自组织的阶段


It is useful to distinguish three forms of emergent structures. A first-order emergent structure occurs as a result of shape interactions (for example, hydrogen bonds in water molecules lead to surface tension). A second-order emergent structure involves shape interactions played out sequentially over time (for example, changing atmospheric conditions as a snowflake falls to the ground build upon and alter its form). Finally, a third-order emergent structure is a consequence of shape, time, and heritable instructions. For example, an organism's genetic code affects the form of the organism's systems in space and time.

It is useful to distinguish three forms of emergent structures. A first-order emergent structure occurs as a result of shape interactions (for example, hydrogen bonds in water molecules lead to surface tension). A second-order emergent structure involves shape interactions played out sequentially over time (for example, changing atmospheric conditions as a snowflake falls to the ground build upon and alter its form). Finally, a third-order emergent structure is a consequence of shape, time, and heritable instructions. For example, an organism's genetic code affects the form of the organism's systems in space and time.

涌现结构可以被区分为的三种形式。一级涌现结构是空间相互作用的结果(例如,水分子中的氢键导致表面张力)。二级涌现结构涉及随时间变化的空间的相互作用(例如,当雪花落到地面时,大气环境的变化,会影响雪花的形态)。三级涌现结构是空间、时间和可继承指令的结果。例如,有机体的遗传密码影响着有机体系统在空间和时间上的形式。


无生命的物理系统

In physics, emergence is used to describe a property, law, or phenomenon which occurs at macroscopic scales (in space or time) but not at microscopic scales, despite the fact that a macroscopic system can be viewed as a very large ensemble of microscopic systems.[37][38]

In physics, emergence is used to describe a property, law, or phenomenon which occurs at macroscopic scales (in space or time) but not at microscopic scales, despite the fact that a macroscopic system can be viewed as a very large ensemble of microscopic systems.

在物理学中,涌现被用来描述在宏观尺度(空间或时间)上的性质、规律或现象,尽管一个宏观系统可以被看作是一个非常庞大的微观系统的集合。[39][40]


An emergent property need not be more complicated than the underlying non-emergent properties which generate it. For instance, the laws of thermodynamics are remarkably simple, even if the laws which govern the interactions between component particles are complex. The term emergence in physics is thus used not to signify complexity, but rather to distinguish which laws and concepts apply to macroscopic scales, and which ones apply to microscopic scales.

An emergent property need not be more complicated than the underlying non-emergent properties which generate it. For instance, the laws of thermodynamics are remarkably simple, even if the laws which govern the interactions between component particles are complex. The term emergence in physics is thus used not to signify complexity, but rather to distinguish which laws and concepts apply to macroscopic scales, and which ones apply to microscopic scales.

涌现属性不必比生成它的底层非涌现属性更复杂。例如,热力学定律是非常简单的,即使粒子之间相互作用的法则是复杂的。因此,物理学中的涌现一词不是用来表示复杂性,而是用来区分哪些定律和概念适用于宏观尺度,哪些定律和概念适用于微观尺度。


However, another, perhaps more broadly applicable way to conceive of the emergent divide does involve a dose of complexity insofar as the computational feasibility of going from the microscopic to the macroscopic property tells the 'strength' of the emergence. This is better understood given the following definition of emergence that comes from physics:

However, another, perhaps more broadly applicable way to conceive of the emergent divide does involve a dose of complexity insofar as the computational feasibility of going from the microscopic to the macroscopic property tells the 'strength' of the emergence. This is better understood given the following definition of emergence that comes from physics:

还有另一种关于涌现的设想,它也许更广泛适用,但这种方法涉及到一定程度的复杂性:从微观到宏观上的计算可行性可以告诉我们涌现的“强度”。如果考虑到以下来自物理学的涌现的定义,可以更好地理解:

"An emergent behavior of a physical system is a qualitative property that can only occur in the limit that the number of microscopic constituents tends to infinity."[41]

"An emergent behavior of a physical system is a qualitative property that can only occur in the limit that the number of microscopic constituents tends to infinity."

物理系统的涌现行为是一种定性性质,只有在微观成分的数量趋于无穷大的情况下才能发生。[42]


Since there are no actually infinite systems in the real world, there is no obvious naturally occurring notion of a hard separation between the properties of the constituents of a system and those of the emergent whole. As discussed below, classical mechanics is thought to be emergent from quantum mechanics, though in principle, quantum dynamics fully describes everything happening at a classical level. However, it would take a computer larger than the size of the universe with more computing time than life time of the universe to describe the motion of a falling apple in terms of the locations of its electrons [citation needed]; thus we can take this to be a "strong" emergent divide.

Since there are no actually infinite systems in the real world, there is no obvious naturally occurring notion of a hard separation between the properties of the constituents of a system and those of the emergent whole. As discussed below, classical mechanics is thought to be emergent from quantum mechanics, though in principle, quantum dynamics fully describes everything happening at a classical level. However, it would take a computer larger than the size of the universe with more computing time than life time of the universe to describe the motion of a falling apple in terms of the locations of its electrons ; thus we can take this to be a "strong" emergent divide.

因为在现实世界中不存在无限的系统,所以一个系统的组成部分的属性和涌现的整体的属性之间,并不存在自然产生的明显的区分。正如下面所讨论的,经典力学被认为是从量子力学中涌现出来的,尽管在原则上,量子力学完全描述了在经典水平上发生的一切。然而,需要一台比宇宙更大的计算机,计算比宇宙的生命时间更长的时间,才能根据电子的位置来描述一个下落的苹果的运动,因此我们可以把这看作一个“强的”涌现在宏观和微观世界的区分。


Some examples include:

一些例子包括:

  • Classical mechanics: The laws of classical mechanics can be said to emerge as a limiting case from the rules of quantum mechanics applied to large enough masses. This is particularly strange since quantum mechanics is generally thought of as more complicated than classical mechanics.

[[经典力学] : 可以说经典力学的法律是从量子力学规则中涌现的,适用于足够大物质的一个极限的例子。这一点特别奇怪,因为人们通常认为量子力学比经典力学更复杂。

  • Friction: Forces between elementary particles are conservative. However, friction emerges when considering more complex structures of matter, whose surfaces can convert mechanical energy into heat energy when rubbed against each other. Similar considerations apply to other emergent concepts in continuum mechanics such as viscosity, elasticity, tensile strength, etc.


️ Friction: Forces between elementary particles are conservative. However, friction emerges when considering more complex structures of matter, whose surfaces can convert mechanical energy into heat energy when rubbed against each other. Similar considerations apply to other emergent concepts in continuum mechanics such as viscosity, Elasticity (physics)|elasticity, tensile strength, etc.

摩擦力: 基本粒子之间的力是保守的。然而,当考虑到物质更复杂的结构时,摩擦就涌现了。物质表面相互摩擦时,机械能转化为热能。类似的涌现现象也适用于连续介质力学中的概念,如粘度、弹性、抗拉强度等。

  • Patterned ground: the distinct, and often symmetrical geometric shapes formed by ground material in periglacial regions.

Patterned ground: the distinct, and often symmetrical geometric shapes formed by ground material in periglacial regions.

花样表面 Patterned Ground: 花样表面是在冰缘地区由地面材料形成的明显的,通常是对称的几何图形。

  • Statistical mechanics was initially derived using the concept of a large enough ensemble that fluctuations about the most likely distribution can be all but ignored. However, small clusters do not exhibit sharp first order phase transitions such as melting, and at the boundary it is not possible to completely categorize the cluster as a liquid or solid, since these concepts are (without extra definitions) only applicable to macroscopic systems. Describing a system using statistical mechanics methods is much simpler than using a low-level atomistic approach.

Statistical mechanics was initially derived using the concept of a large enough statistical ensemble (mathematical physics)|ensemble that fluctuations about the most likely distribution can be all but ignored. However, small clusters do not exhibit sharp first order phase transitions such as melting, and at the boundary it is not possible to completely categorize the cluster as a liquid or solid, since these concepts are (without extra definitions) only applicable to macroscopic systems. Describing a system using statistical mechanics methods is much simpler than using a low-level atomistic approach.

统计力学最初是用一个足够大的数学和物理学集合的概念推导出来的,最有可能分布的波动可以是任何事情,但是不可以忽略不计。然而,小的团簇不表现出明显的一级相变,例如熔化,而且在边界上不可能完全将团簇归类为液体或固体,因为这些概念(没有额外的定义)只适用于宏观系统。使用统计力学方法描述一个系统要比使用低层次的原子论方法简单得多。

  • Electrical networks: The bulk conductive response of binary (RC) electrical networks with random arrangements, known as the Universal Dielectric Response (UDR), can be seen as emergent properties of such physical systems. Such arrangements can be used as simple physical prototypes for deriving mathematical formulae for the emergent responses of complex systems.[43]

Electrical networks: The bulk conductive response of binary (RC) electrical networks with random arrangements, known as the Universal Dielectric Response (UDR), can be seen as emergent properties of such physical systems. Such arrangements can be used as simple physical prototypes for deriving mathematical formulae for the emergent responses of complex systems.引用错误:没有找到与</ref>对应的<ref>标签[44] The three primary adaptive capacities may have been (1) the capacity to replicate with moderate fidelity (giving rise to both heritability and variation of type); (2) the capacity to avoid decay; and (3) the capacity to acquire and process resources.[45][44] These capacities would have been determined initially by the folded configurations of the RNA replicators (see “Ribozyme”) that, in turn, would be encoded in their individual nucleotide sequences. Competitive success among different replicators would have depended on the relative values of these adaptive capacities.

Life is thought to have emerged in the early RNA world when RNA chains began to express the basic conditions necessary for natural selection to operate as conceived by Darwin: heritability, variation of type, and competition for limited resources. Fitness of an RNA replicator (its per capita rate of increase) would likely be a function of adaptive capacities that were intrinsic (in the sense that they were determined by the nucleotide sequence) and the availability of resources. The three primary adaptive capacities may have been (1) the capacity to replicate with moderate fidelity (giving rise to both heritability and variation of type); (2) the capacity to avoid decay; and (3) the capacity to acquire and process resources. These capacities would have been determined initially by the folded configurations of the RNA replicators (see “Ribozyme”) that, in turn, would be encoded in their individual nucleotide sequences. Competitive success among different replicators would have depended on the relative values of these adaptive capacities.

生命被认为是在早期的 RNA 世界中出现的,那时 RNA 链开始出现达尔文所构想的自然选择运作的基本条件: 遗传性、品种变异和对有限资源的竞争。RNA 复制器 RNA Replicators的适应性(其人均增长率)可能是固有的适应能力 (在某种意义上说,它们是由核酸序列决定的)和资源的可用性的函数。 --嘉树讨论) 觉得原文是个半截句 the availability of resources。。。? 三种主要的适应能力可能是: (1)具有中等保真度的复制能力(同时具有遗传和变异的能力) ; (2)避免衰变的能力; (3)获取和加工资源的能力。这些能力最初是由 RNA 复制器(见“核酶 Ribozyme”)的折叠结构决定的,而这些结构又反过来编码在各自的核酸序列中。不同复制器之间的竞争成功将取决于这些适应能力的相对值。



Regarding causality in evolution Peter Corning observes:

Regarding causality in evolution Peter Corning observes:

关于进化中的因果关系,Peter Corning 观察到:

Synergistic effects of various kinds have played a major causal role in the evolutionary process generally and in the evolution of cooperation and complexity in particular... Natural selection is often portrayed as a “mechanism”, or is personified as a causal agency... In reality, the differential “selection” of a trait, or an adaptation, is a consequence of the functional effects it produces in relation to the survival and reproductive success of a given organism in a given environment. It is these functional effects that are ultimately responsible for the trans-generational continuities and changes in nature.模板:Harv

Synergistic effects of various kinds have played a major causal role in the evolutionary process generally and in the evolution of cooperation and complexity in particular... Natural selection is often portrayed as a “mechanism”, or is personified as a causal agency... In reality, the differential “selection” of a trait, or an adaptation, is a consequence of the functional effects it produces in relation to the survival and reproductive success of a given organism in a given environment. It is these functional effects that are ultimately responsible for the trans-generational continuities and changes in nature.}}

一般来说,各种协同作用在进化过程中,特别是在合作和复杂性的进化中起着重要的因果作用,自然选择通常被描述为一种“机制”,或者被人格化为一种因果代理。实际上,对某一特性或适应性的差异化“选择”,是它对特定环境中特定生物体生存和繁殖成功所产生的功能性影响的结果。正是这些功能性效应最终导致了跨代连续性 Trans-generational Continuities和自然界的变化。[} / blockquote



Per his definition of emergence, Corning also addresses emergence and evolution:

Per his definition of emergence, Corning also addresses emergence and evolution:

根据其对涌现的定义,Corning 还提到了“涌现”和“进化” :

[In] evolutionary processes, causation is iterative; effects are also causes. And this is equally true of the synergistic effects produced by emergent systems. In other words, emergence itself... has been the underlying cause of the evolution of emergent phenomena in biological evolution; it is the synergies produced by organized systems that are the key.模板:Harv

[In] evolutionary processes, causation is iterative; effects are also causes. And this is equally true of the synergistic effects produced by emergent systems. In other words, emergence itself... has been the underlying cause of the evolution of emergent phenomena in biological evolution; it is the synergies produced by organized systems that are the key.}}

在进化过程中,因果关系是迭代的; 结果也是原因。这同样适用于由涌现系统产生的协同效应 Synergistic Effects。换句话说,涌现本身是生物进化中涌现现象的根本原因; 有组织的系统产生的协同增效作用才是进化的关键。 --嘉树讨论) (进化的)是自己加的不知是否合适 [} / blockquote



Swarming is a well-known behaviour in many animal species from marching locusts to schooling fish to flocking birds. Emergent structures are a common strategy found in many animal groups: colonies of ants, mounds built by termites, swarms of bees, shoals/schools of fish, flocks of birds, and herds/packs of mammals.

Swarming is a well-known behaviour in many animal species from marching locusts to schooling fish to flocking birds. Emergent structures are a common strategy found in many animal groups: colonies of ants, mounds built by termites, swarms of bees, shoals/schools of fish, flocks of birds, and herds/packs of mammals.

集群 Swarming 在许多动物物种中是一种普遍的行为,从蝗虫群到鱼群,再到鸟群。涌现结构是许多动物群体中常见的策略: 例如蚁群,白蚁筑成的蚁丘、蜜蜂群、浅滩或鱼群、鸟群和哺乳动物群落。



An example to consider in detail is an ant colony. The queen does not give direct orders and does not tell the ants what to do. Instead, each ant reacts to stimuli in the form of chemical scent from larvae, other ants, intruders, food and buildup of waste, and leaves behind a chemical trail, which, in turn, provides a stimulus to other ants. Here each ant is an autonomous unit that reacts depending only on its local environment and the genetically encoded rules for its variety of ant. Despite the lack of centralized decision making, ant colonies exhibit complex behavior and have even demonstrated the ability to solve geometric problems. For example, colonies routinely find the maximum distance from all colony entrances to dispose of dead bodies.[46]

An example to consider in detail is an ant colony. The queen does not give direct orders and does not tell the ants what to do. Instead, each ant reacts to stimuli in the form of chemical scent from larvae, other ants, intruders, food and buildup of waste, and leaves behind a chemical trail, which, in turn, provides a stimulus to other ants. Here each ant is an autonomous unit that reacts depending only on its local environment and the genetically encoded rules for its variety of ant. Despite the lack of centralized decision making, ant colonies exhibit complex behavior and have even demonstrated the ability to solve geometric problems. For example, colonies routinely find the maximum distance from all colony entrances to dispose of dead bodies.

需要详细考虑的一个例子是蚁群。蚁后不会直接下达命令,也不会告诉蚂蚁该做什么。相反,每只蚂蚁对来自幼虫、其他蚂蚁、入侵者、食物和排泄物的化学气味的刺激作出反应,并留下化学痕迹,这反过来刺激其他蚂蚁。在这里,每只蚂蚁都是一个自主的单元,它们的反应仅仅取决于它们所处的局部环境和它们的蚂蚁种类的遗传编码规则。尽管缺乏集中化的决策,蚁群仍能表现出复杂的行为,甚至被证明具有解决几何问题的能力。例如,蚁群会按照一定的例行规则找到距离所有蚁群入口的最大距离来处理尸体。



It appears that environmental factors may play a role in influencing emergence. Research suggests induced emergence of the bee species Macrotera portalis. In this species, the bees emerge in a pattern consistent with rainfall. Specifically, the pattern of emergence is consistent with southwestern deserts' late summer rains and lack of activity in the spring.[47]

It appears that environmental factors may play a role in influencing emergence. Research suggests induced emergence of the bee species Macrotera portalis. In this species, the bees emerge in a pattern consistent with rainfall. Specifically, the pattern of emergence is consistent with southwestern deserts' late summer rains and lack of activity in the spring.

似乎环境因素可能在影响涌现方面发挥作用,比如大翅目 Macrotera Portalis的蜜蜂。在这个物种中,蜜蜂以与降雨量一致的模式出现。具体来说,出现的模式与西南部沙漠春季和夏末的降雨情况相一致。 --嘉树讨论) late summer rains and lack of activity in the spring 翻译为 春季和夏末的降雨情况

生命的组织

A broader example of emergent properties in biology is viewed in the biological organisation of life, ranging from the subatomic level to the entire biosphere. For example, individual atoms can be combined to form molecules such as polypeptide chains, which in turn fold and refold to form proteins, which in turn create even more complex structures. These proteins, assuming their functional status from their spatial conformation, interact together and with other molecules to achieve higher biological functions and eventually create an organism. Another example is how cascade phenotype reactions, as detailed in chaos theory, arise from individual genes mutating respective positioning.[48] At the highest level, all the biological communities in the world form the biosphere, where its human participants form societies, and the complex interactions of meta-social systems such as the stock market.

A broader example of emergent properties in biology is viewed in the biological organisation of life, ranging from the subatomic level to the entire biosphere. For example, individual atoms can be combined to form molecules such as polypeptide chains, which in turn fold and refold to form proteins, which in turn create even more complex structures. These proteins, assuming their functional status from their spatial conformation, interact together and with other molecules to achieve higher biological functions and eventually create an organism. Another example is how cascade phenotype reactions, as detailed in chaos theory, arise from individual genes mutating respective positioning. At the highest level, all the biological communities in the world form the biosphere, where its human participants form societies, and the complex interactions of meta-social systems such as the stock market.

从生命的生物组织,从亚原子水平到整个生物圈,我们可以看到生物涌现特性的一个更广泛的例子。例如,单个原子可以结合形成多肽链之类的分子,多肽链再折叠形成蛋白质,而蛋白质又形成更复杂的结构。这些蛋白质,从它们的空间构象中获得它们的功能状态,并与其他分子相互作用,实现更高的生物功能,最终创造出一个生物体。另一个例子是级联表型反应 Cascade Phenotype Reactions,如混沌理论中详细描述的,级联表型反应产生于个体基因在特定位置的变异。在最高层次上,世界上所有的生物群落形成了生物圈,其中,人类形成了人类社会,并形成了诸如股票市场等元社会系统的复杂相互作用。

心灵的涌现

Among the considered phenomena in the evolutionary account of life, as a continuous history, marked by stages at which fundamentally new forms have appeared - the origin of sapiens intelligence.[49] The emergence of mind and its evolution is researched and considered as a separate phenomenon in a special system knowledge called noogenesis.[50]

Among the considered phenomena in the evolutionary account of life, as a continuous history, marked by stages at which fundamentally new forms have appeared - the origin of sapiens intelligence. The emergence of mind and its evolution is researched and considered as a separate phenomenon in a special system knowledge called noogenesis. 在生命进化论中考虑的现象中,作为一段连续的历史,以新形式出现的阶段——人类智力的起源为标志。 --嘉树讨论) 第一句增加(很重要) 心智的涌现及其演化被认为是特殊系统知识中的一个独立的现象,被称为心智演化 Noogenesis

在人类学中

自发秩序

Groups of human beings, left free to each regulate themselves, tend to produce spontaneous order, rather than the meaningless chaos often feared. This has been observed in society at least since Chuang Tzu in ancient China. Human beings are the basic elements of social systems, which perpetually interact and create, maintain, or untangle mutual social bonds. Social bonds in social systems are perpetually changing in the sense of the ongoing reconfiguration of their structure.[51] A classic traffic roundabout is also a good example, with cars moving in and out with such effective organization that some modern cities have begun replacing stoplights at problem intersections with traffic circles [1], and getting better results. Open-source software and Wiki projects form an even more compelling illustration.

Groups of human beings, left free to each regulate themselves, tend to produce spontaneous order, rather than the meaningless chaos often feared. This has been observed in society at least since Chuang Tzu in ancient China. Human beings are the basic elements of social systems, which perpetually interact and create, maintain, or untangle mutual social bonds. Social bonds in social systems are perpetually changing in the sense of the ongoing reconfiguration of their structure. A classic traffic roundabout is also a good example, with cars moving in and out with such effective organization that some modern cities have begun replacing stoplights at problem intersections with traffic circles [2], and getting better results. Open-source software and Wiki projects form an even more compelling illustration.

人类群体如果能够自由地调节自己,往往会产生一种自发的秩序,而不是人们常常害怕的那种毫无意义的混乱。至少从中国古代的庄子以来,这种现象就已经存在于社会中了。人类是社会系统的基本要素,它们不断地相互作用,创造、维持或割断相互之间的社会联系。社会系统中的社会纽带随着其结构的重构而不断变化。一个经典的环形交叉路口也是一个很好的例子,十分有效的组织汽车进进出出,以至于一些现代城市已经开始用环形交叉路口的红绿灯取代问题十字路口的红绿灯,并取得了更好的结果。

 --趣木木讨论)with cars moving in and out with such effective organization that some modern cities have begun replacing stoplights at problem intersections with traffic circles   没有搜到 problem intersections对应的专有名词  问题十字路口暂时直译;交通圈是指各种中心地的交通吸引范围。以各条交通线路上的交通流分界点所包围的范围来表示。无论客流、货流或车流等都具有向各种量级中心地汇集的特征,通过寻找各个交通线上下行方向发生明显变化的交通流变流点,将这些点相连所划定的范围即构成一级交通圈,圈内各条线路上的交通流共同指向一个中心地。   是不是可以换为“十字路口问题”?开源软件和 Wiki 项目提供了一个更加引人注目的例子。


 --趣木木讨论)补充解释:自发秩序原理指市场控制是不必要的,因为市场本身能够产生一种自发的秩序——每个人都在“看不见的手”的引导下自发地实现个人利益的极大化。


Emergent processes or behaviors can be seen in many other places, such as cities, cabal and market-dominant minority phenomena in economics, organizational phenomena in computer simulations and cellular automata. Whenever there is a multitude of individuals interacting, an order emerges from disorder; a pattern, a decision, a structure, or a change in direction occurs.[52]

Emergent processes or behaviors can be seen in many other places, such as cities, cabal and market-dominant minority phenomena in economics, organizational phenomena in computer simulations and cellular automata. Whenever there is a multitude of individuals interacting, an order emerges from disorder; a pattern, a decision, a structure, or a change in direction occurs.

涌现过程或行为可以在许多其他地方看到,如城市、(政治)阴谋和在经济学,组织现象、计算机模拟和元胞自动机中占市场主导地位的少数群体。

 --趣木木讨论)两个in 是不是代表其有包含关系   该句不确定

无论何时,只要有大量的个体相互作用,一种秩序就会从混乱中产生(无序就会产生秩序;)一种模式、一种决定、一种结构或方向的改变就会发生。


经济学

The stock market (or any market for that matter) is an example of emergence on a grand scale. As a whole it precisely regulates the relative security prices of companies across the world, yet it has no leader; when no central planning is in place, there is no one entity which controls the workings of the entire market. Agents, or investors, have knowledge of only a limited number of companies within their portfolio, and must follow the regulatory rules of the market and analyse the transactions individually or in large groupings. Trends and patterns emerge which are studied intensively by technical analysts.[citation needed].

The stock market (or any market for that matter) is an example of emergence on a grand scale. As a whole it precisely regulates the relative security prices of companies across the world, yet it has no leader; when no central planning is in place, there is no one entity which controls the workings of the entire market. Agents, or investors, have knowledge of only a limited number of companies within their portfolio, and must follow the regulatory rules of the market and analyse the transactions individually or in large groupings. Trends and patterns emerge which are studied intensively by technical analysts..

股票市场(或任何市场)就是一个大规模涌现的例子。作为一个整体,它精确地调节着世界上各地公司的相对安全价格,然而它没有领导者; 当没有中央计划的时候,就没有一个实体控制着整个市场的运作。经纪人或投资者只了解其投资组合中有限的几家公司,他们必须遵守市场的监管规则,对交易进行单独或大规模的分析。趋势和模式的出现则是由技术分析师深入研究的。




万维网与互联网=

The World Wide Web is a popular example of a decentralized system exhibiting emergent properties. There is no central organization rationing the number of links, yet the number of links pointing to each page follows a power law in which a few pages are linked to many times and most pages are seldom linked to. A related property of the network of links in the World Wide Web is that almost any pair of pages can be connected to each other through a relatively short chain of links. Although relatively well known now, this property was initially unexpected in an unregulated network. It is shared with many other types of networks called small-world networks. 模板:Harv

The World Wide Web is a popular example of a decentralized system exhibiting emergent properties. There is no central organization rationing the number of links, yet the number of links pointing to each page follows a power law in which a few pages are linked to many times and most pages are seldom linked to. A related property of the network of links in the World Wide Web is that almost any pair of pages can be connected to each other through a relatively short chain of links. Although relatively well known now, this property was initially unexpected in an unregulated network. It is shared with many other types of networks called small-world networks.


万维网是一个分散系统展示涌现属性的大众例子。没有中央组织限制链接的数量,但是指向每个页面的链接数量遵循幂律分布,即少数页面被多次链接,而大多数页面很少被链接。万维网链接网络的一个相关特性是,几乎任何一对页面都可以通过相对较短的链接相互连接。虽然这个特性现在已经被大众所熟悉,但是这个特性最初在不受控制的网络中是意想不到的。它与许多其他类型的网络共享,称为小世界网络。


Internet traffic can also exhibit some seemingly emergent properties. In the congestion control mechanism, TCP flows can become globally synchronized at bottlenecks, simultaneously increasing and then decreasing throughput in coordination. Congestion, widely regarded as a nuisance, is possibly an emergent property of the spreading of bottlenecks across a network in high traffic flows which can be considered as a phase transition [see review of related research in 模板:Harv].

Internet traffic can also exhibit some seemingly emergent properties. In the congestion control mechanism, TCP flows can become globally synchronized at bottlenecks, simultaneously increasing and then decreasing throughput in coordination. Congestion, widely regarded as a nuisance, is possibly an emergent property of the spreading of bottlenecks across a network in high traffic flows which can be considered as a phase transition [see review of related research in ].


互联网流量也可以表现出一些看似涌现的特性。 在拥塞控制机制中,TCP 流可以在瓶颈处实现全局同步,在协调中同时增加和减少吞吐量 拥塞,被广泛认为是一种滋扰,可能是一个涌现的特性,在高流量的网络中传播的瓶颈可以被认为是一个阶段的转变(见相关研究的评论)。


Another important example of emergence in web-based systems is social bookmarking (also called collaborative tagging). In social bookmarking systems, users assign tags to resources shared with other users, which gives rise to a type of information organisation that emerges from this crowdsourcing process. Recent research which analyzes empirically the complex dynamics of such systems[53] has shown that consensus on stable distributions and a simple form of shared vocabularies does indeed emerge, even in the absence of a central controlled vocabulary. Some believe that this could be because users who contribute tags all use the same language, and they share similar semantic structures underlying the choice of words. The convergence in social tags may therefore be interpreted as the emergence of structures as people who have similar semantic interpretation collaboratively index online information, a process called semantic imitation.引用错误:没有找到与</ref>对应的<ref>标签[54][55]

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建筑与城市

Traffic patterns in cities can be seen as an example of spontaneous order城市的交通模式可以看作是自发秩序的一个例子[citation needed]

Traffic patterns in cities can be seen as an example of spontaneous order

城市的交通模式可以看作是自发秩序的一个例子

Emergent structures appear at many different levels of organization or as spontaneous order. Emergent self-organization appears frequently in cities where no planning or zoning entity predetermines the layout of the city. 模板:Harv The interdisciplinary study of emergent behaviors is not generally considered a homogeneous field, but divided across its application or problem domains.

Emergent structures appear at many different levels of organization or as spontaneous order. Emergent self-organization appears frequently in cities where no planning or zoning entity predetermines the layout of the city. The interdisciplinary study of emergent behaviors is not generally considered a homogeneous field, but divided across its application or problem domains.

涌现结构在许多不同层次的组织或自发秩序中出现。涌现性自组织经常出现在非规划或分区个体预先决定布局的城市中。对于涌现行为的跨学科研究通常不被认为是一个单一的领域,而是被划分到跨学科应用或问题领域中。


Architects may not design all the pathways of a complex of buildings. Instead they might let usage patterns emerge and then place pavement where pathways have become worn, such as a desire path.

Architects may not design all the pathways of a complex of buildings. Instead they might let usage patterns emerge and then place pavement where pathways have become worn, such as a desire path.

建筑师可能不会设计一个建筑群的所有通道。相反,他们可能会让“通路”自发涌现:让人们自由选择走出道路,然后在道路已经磨损的地方铺设路面,比如“心选小路”。心选小路 Desire Path,也叫牛道 Cow Path或者羊道 Goat Track ,指行人或自行车频繁经过而形成的一条小路。这种小路通常是往返于两地之间距离最短且最易找到的路。一般情况下,正式修建的道路绕远、路中间有沟,或者压根没有正式道路的地方就会出现“心选小路”。

 --趣木木讨论) usage patterns emerge  意译  添加补充


The on-course action and vehicle progression of the 2007 Urban Challenge could possibly be regarded as an example of cybernetic emergence. Patterns of road use, indeterministic obstacle clearance times, etc. will work together to form a complex emergent pattern that can not be deterministically planned in advance.

The on-course action and vehicle progression of the 2007 Urban Challenge could possibly be regarded as an example of cybernetic emergence. Patterns of road use, indeterministic obstacle clearance times, etc. will work together to form a complex emergent pattern that can not be deterministically planned in advance.

“2007年城市挑战”(2007 Urban Challenge)的航线方向和运载路径,可能被视为控制论出现的一个例子。道路使用模式,不确定的障碍物清除时间等将共同工作,形成一个复杂的涌现模式,它不能事先确切地计划。



The architectural school of Christopher Alexander takes a deeper approach to emergence, attempting to rewrite the process of urban growth itself in order to affect form, establishing a new methodology of planning and design tied to traditional practices, an Emergent Urbanism. Urban emergence has also been linked to theories of urban complexity 模板:Harv and urban evolution.模板:Harv

The architectural school of Christopher Alexander takes a deeper approach to emergence, attempting to rewrite the process of urban growth itself in order to affect form, establishing a new methodology of planning and design tied to traditional practices, an Emergent Urbanism. Urban emergence has also been linked to theories of urban complexity and urban evolution.

克里斯托佛·亚历山大的建筑学派对涌现采取了更深入的方法,试图重写城市发展本身的发展过程,以建立一个与传统实践相联系的规划和设计的新方法论:一个涌现的城市主义。城市的涌现也与城市复杂性和城市演化的理论联系在一起。



Building ecology is a conceptual framework for understanding architecture and the built environment as the interface between the dynamically interdependent elements of buildings, their occupants, and the larger environment. Rather than viewing buildings as inanimate or static objects, building ecologist Hal Levin views them as interfaces or intersecting domains of living and non-living systems.[56] The microbial ecology of the indoor environment is strongly dependent on the building materials, occupants, contents, environmental context and the indoor and outdoor climate. The strong relationship between atmospheric chemistry and indoor air quality and the chemical reactions occurring indoors. The chemicals may be nutrients, neutral or biocides for the microbial organisms. The microbes produce chemicals that affect the building materials and occupant health and well being. Humans manipulate the ventilation, temperature and humidity to achieve comfort with the concomitant effects on the microbes that populate and evolve.[56][57][58]

Building ecology is a conceptual framework for understanding architecture and the built environment as the interface between the dynamically interdependent elements of buildings, their occupants, and the larger environment. Rather than viewing buildings as inanimate or static objects, building ecologist Hal Levin views them as interfaces or intersecting domains of living and non-living systems. The microbial ecology of the indoor environment is strongly dependent on the building materials, occupants, contents, environmental context and the indoor and outdoor climate. The strong relationship between atmospheric chemistry and indoor air quality and the chemical reactions occurring indoors. The chemicals may be nutrients, neutral or biocides for the microbial organisms. The microbes produce chemicals that affect the building materials and occupant health and well being. Humans manipulate the ventilation, temperature and humidity to achieve comfort with the concomitant effects on the microbes that populate and evolve.


建筑生态学是一种概念框架,用于理解建筑和建筑环境之间动态相互依存的要素,包括建筑、居住者和更大的环境。 建筑生态学家哈尔·莱文 Hal Levin 并没有把建筑看作是无生命的或静态的物体,而是把它们看作是有生命和无生命系统的交界或交叉领域。 室内环境的微生物生态学强烈依赖于建筑材料、居住者、内容、环境背景和室内外气候。大气化学与室内空气质量及室内发生的化学反应密切相关。这些化学物质可能是微生物的营养物质、中性物质或生物杀灭剂。这些微生物产生的化学物质会影响建筑材料与居民健康。 人类操纵通风、温度和湿度以达到舒适的环境,同时对居住和进化的微生物产生影响。


Eric Bonabeau's attempt to define emergent phenomena is through traffic: "traffic jams are actually very complicated and mysterious. On an individual level, each driver is trying to get somewhere and is following (or breaking) certain rules, some legal (the speed limit) and others societal or personal (slow down to let another driver change into your lane). But a traffic jam is a separate and distinct entity that emerges from those individual behaviors. Gridlock on a highway, for example, can travel backward for no apparent reason, even as the cars are moving forward." He has also likened emergent phenomena to the analysis of market trends and employee behavior.[59]

Eric Bonabeau's attempt to define emergent phenomena is through traffic: "traffic jams are actually very complicated and mysterious. On an individual level, each driver is trying to get somewhere and is following (or breaking) certain rules, some legal (the speed limit) and others societal or personal (slow down to let another driver change into your lane). But a traffic jam is a separate and distinct entity that emerges from those individual behaviors. Gridlock on a highway, for example, can travel backward for no apparent reason, even as the cars are moving forward." He has also likened emergent phenomena to the analysis of market trends and employee behavior.

Eric Bonabeau 试图通过交通来定义涌现现象: “交通堵塞实际上是非常复杂和神秘的。在个人层面上,每个司机都试图到达某个地方,并遵守(或打破)某些规则,一些是合法的(限速) ,另一些是社会的或个人的(减速让另一个司机进入你的车道)。但是,交通堵塞是从这些个人行为中突现出来的一个独立的、不同的实体。例如,高速公路上的交通堵塞可能无缘无故地向后延伸,即使车辆在向前行驶。”他还把涌现现象比作对市场趋势和员工行为的分析。



Computational emergent phenomena have also been utilized in architectural design processes, for example for formal explorations and experiments in digital materiality.引用错误:没有找到与</ref>对应的<ref>标签 计算涌现现象也被应用于建筑设计过程中,例如在数字物质性方面的正式探索和实验。

</ref>

/ 参考

=计算机人工智能

Some artificially intelligent (AI) computer applications utilize emergent behavior for animation. One example is Boids, which mimics the swarming behavior of birds.

Some artificially intelligent (AI) computer applications utilize emergent behavior for animation. One example is Boids, which mimics the swarming behavior of birds.

一些人工智能(AI)计算机应用程序利用涌现行为进行动画制作。一个例子是Boids模型,它模仿鸟类的群体行为。

语言

It has been argued that the structure and regularity of language grammar, or at least language change, is an emergent phenomenon 模板:Harv. While each speaker merely tries to reach his or her own communicative goals, he or she uses language in a particular way. If enough speakers behave in that way, language is changed 模板:Harv. In a wider sense, the norms of a language, i.e. the linguistic conventions of its speech society, can be seen as a system emerging from long-time participation in communicative problem-solving in various social circumstances 模板:Harv.

It has been argued that the structure and regularity of language grammar, or at least language change, is an emergent phenomenon . While each speaker merely tries to reach his or her own communicative goals, he or she uses language in a particular way. If enough speakers behave in that way, language is changed . In a wider sense, the norms of a language, i.e. the linguistic conventions of its speech society, can be seen as a system emerging from long-time participation in communicative problem-solving in various social circumstances .

语言语法的结构和规律,或者至少是语言变化,被认为是一种涌现现象。虽然每个说话人只是试图达到自己的交际目的,但他或她使用语言的方式是特定的。如果有足够多的人这样做,语言就会改变。从更广泛的意义上讲,语言规范,即语言社会的语言习惯,可以看作是在各种社会环境下长期参与交际性解决问题的过程中涌现出来的一个系统。


涌现的变化过程

Within the field of group facilitation and organization development, there have been a number of new group processes that are designed to maximize emergence and self-organization, by offering a minimal set of effective initial conditions. Examples of these processes include SEED-SCALE, appreciative inquiry, Future Search, the world cafe or knowledge cafe, Open Space Technology, and others (Holman, 2010[60]).

Within the field of group facilitation and organization development, there have been a number of new group processes that are designed to maximize emergence and self-organization, by offering a minimal set of effective initial conditions. Examples of these processes include SEED-SCALE, appreciative inquiry, Future Search, the world cafe or knowledge cafe, Open Space Technology, and others (Holman, 2010).

在群体引导和组织发展的领域内,已经有提出了一些新的群体过程,意在通过提供一组最小化的初始条件去最大限度地实现涌现和自组织。这些过程的例子包括 SEED-SCALE、赏识调查、未来探索、世界咖啡馆或知识咖啡馆、开放空间技术等(Holman, 2010)[61]

参考文献

  1. O'Connor, Timothy; Wong, Hong Yu (February 28, 2012). "Emergent Properties". In Edward N. Zalta (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2012 Edition).
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Aristotle, Metaphysics (Aristotle), Book Η 1045a 8–10: "... the totality is not, as it were, a mere heap, but the whole is something besides the parts ...", i.e., the whole is other than the sum of the parts.
  3. Winning, Jason; Bechtel, William (2019). "Being emergence vs. pattern emergence: complexity, control, and goal-directedness in biological systems". In Gibb, Sophie; Hendry, Robin Findlay; Lancaster, Tom. The Routledge Handbook of Emergence. Routledge Handbooks in Philosophy. Abingdon: Routledge. p. 134. ISBN 9781317381501. https://philpapers.org/rec/WINBEV. "Emergence is much discussed by both philosophers and scientists." 
  4. "The chemical combination of two substances produces, as is well known, a third substance with properties entirely different from those of either of the two substances separately, or of both of them taken together."
  5. Julian Huxley: "now and again there is a sudden rapid passage to a totally new and more comprehensive type of order or organization, with quite new emergent properties, and involving quite new methods of further evolution" 模板:Harv
  6. Winning, Jason; Bechtel, William (2019). "Being emergence vs. pattern emergence: complexity, control, and goal-directedness in biological systems". In Gibb, Sophie; Hendry, Robin Findlay; Lancaster, Tom. The Routledge Handbook of Emergence. Routledge Handbooks in Philosophy. Abingdon: Routledge. p. 134. ISBN 9781317381501. https://philpapers.org/rec/WINBEV. "Emergence is much discussed by both philosophers and scientists." 
  7. "The chemical combination of two substances produces, as is well known, a third substance with properties entirely different from those of either of the two substances separately, or of both of them taken together."
  8. Julian Huxley: "now and again there is a sudden rapid passage to a totally new and more comprehensive type of order or organization, with quite new emergent properties, and involving quite new methods of further evolution" 模板:Harv
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引用

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