# 热力学

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**Thermodynamics** is a branch of physics that deals with heat, work, and temperature, and their relation to energy, radiation, and physical properties of matter. The behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics which convey a quantitative description using measurable macroscopic physical quantities, but may be explained in terms of microscopic constituents by statistical mechanics. Thermodynamics applies to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, especially physical chemistry, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering, but also in other complex fields such as meteorology.

热力学是物理学的一个分支，研究热、功和温度，以及它们与能量、辐射和物质物理性质的关系。这些量的行为遵循四个热力学定律，热力学定律用可测量的宏观物理量给出了一个定量描述，但是可以用统计力学以微观组成来解释。热力学适用于科学和工程中的各种各样的主题，尤其是物理化学、化学工程和机械工程，但也适用于气象学这样复杂的领域。

Historically, thermodynamics developed out of a desire to increase the efficiency of early steam engines, particularly through the work of French physicist Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1824) who believed that engine efficiency was the key that could help France win the Napoleonic Wars.^{[1]} Scots-Irish physicist Lord Kelvin was the first to formulate a concise definition of thermodynamics in 1854^{[2]} which stated, "Thermo-dynamics is the subject of the relation of heat to forces acting between contiguous parts of bodies, and the relation of heat to electrical agency."

从历史上看，热力学是出于提高早期蒸汽机的热力学效率的愿望而发展的，特别是通过法国物理学家 NicolasLéonardSadi Carnot（1824）的工作，他认为发动机效率是帮助法国赢得拿破仑战争的关键。苏格兰裔爱尔兰物理学家开尔文勋爵（Lord Kelvin）于1854年首次提出了热力学的简明定义，其中指出：“热力学的主题是物体相邻部分之间热量与作用力的关系，以及热量与电能的关系。”

The initial application of thermodynamics to mechanical heat engines was quickly extended to the study of chemical compounds and chemical reactions. Chemical thermodynamics studies the nature of the role of entropy in the process of chemical reactions and has provided the bulk of expansion and knowledge of the field.^{[3]}^{[4]}^{[5]}^{[6]}^{[7]}^{[8]}^{[9]}^{[10]}^{[11]} Other formulations of thermodynamics emerged. Statistical thermodynamics, or statistical mechanics, concerns itself with statistical predictions of the collective motion of particles from their microscopic behavior. In 1909, Constantin Carathéodory presented a purely mathematical approach in an axiomatic formulation, a description often referred to as *geometrical thermodynamics*.

热力学在机械热机上的最初应用很快扩展到了化学化合物和化学反应的研究。化学热力学研究了熵在化学反应过程中的作用性本质，并提供了更广阔的领域和知识。热力学的其他公式出现了。统计热力学，或称统计力学，从微观角度对粒子的集体运动进行统计预测。在1909年，康斯坦丁·卡拉西奥多在一个公理化形式里提出了一种纯粹的数学方法，通常被称为几何热力学。

## Introduction 引言

A description of any thermodynamic system employs the four laws of thermodynamics that form an axiomatic basis. The first law specifies that energy can be exchanged between physical systems as heat and work.^{[12]} The second law defines the existence of a quantity called entropy, that describes the direction, thermodynamically, that a system can evolve and quantifies the state of order of a system and that can be used to quantify the useful work that can be extracted from the system.^{[13]}

A description of any thermodynamic system employs the four laws of thermodynamics that form an axiomatic basis. The first law specifies that energy can be exchanged between physical systems as heat and work. The second law defines the existence of a quantity called entropy, that describes the direction, thermodynamically, that a system can evolve and quantifies the state of order of a system and that can be used to quantify the useful work that can be extracted from the system.

任何热力学系统的描述都使用了构成公理基础的四个热力学定律。第一定律规定能量可以在物理系统之间以热和功的形式进行交换。第二定律定义了一个叫做熵的量的存在，熵描述了一个系统在热力学上可以演化的方向，并且定量化一个系统有序的状态，用来量化可以从系统中提取的有用功。

In thermodynamics, interactions between large ensembles of objects are studied and categorized. Central to this are the concepts of the thermodynamic *system* and its *surroundings*. A system is composed of particles, whose average motions define its properties, and those properties are in turn related to one another through equations of state. Properties can be combined to express internal energy and thermodynamic potentials, which are useful for determining conditions for equilibrium and spontaneous processes.

In thermodynamics, interactions between large ensembles of objects are studied and categorized. Central to this are the concepts of the thermodynamic system and its surroundings. A system is composed of particles, whose average motions define its properties, and those properties are in turn related to one another through equations of state. Properties can be combined to express internal energy and thermodynamic potentials, which are useful for determining conditions for equilibrium and spontaneous processes.

热力学研究和分类了大量物体集合之间的相互作用。其核心是热力学系统及其周围环境的概念。一个系统是由粒子组成的，粒子的平均运动决定了它的性质，而这些性质又通过状态方程彼此相关。系统的性质可以结合起来表示内能和热力学势，这对于确定平衡和自发过程的条件是有用的。

With these tools, thermodynamics can be used to describe how systems respond to changes in their environment. This can be applied to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, such as engines, phase transitions, chemical reactions, transport phenomena, and even black holes. The results of thermodynamics are essential for other fields of physics and for chemistry, chemical engineering, corrosion engineering, aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, cell biology, biomedical engineering, materials science, and economics, to name a few.^{[14]}^{[15]}

With these tools, thermodynamics can be used to describe how systems respond to changes in their environment. This can be applied to a wide variety of topics in science and engineering, such as engines, phase transitions, chemical reactions, transport phenomena, and even black holes. The results of thermodynamics are essential for other fields of physics and for chemistry, chemical engineering, corrosion engineering, aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, cell biology, biomedical engineering, materials science, and economics, to name a few.

有了这些工具，热力学可以用来描述系统如何响应环境中的变化。这可以应用于科学和工程的各种主题，如引擎、相变、化学反应、输运现象、甚至黑洞。热力学的结果对于物理学其他领域、化学、化学工程、腐蚀工程、航空航天工程、机械工程、细胞生物学、生物医学工程、材料科学和经济学都是必不可少的。

This article is focused mainly on classical thermodynamics which primarily studies systems in thermodynamic equilibrium. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is often treated as an extension of the classical treatment, but statistical mechanics has brought many advances to that field.

This article is focused mainly on classical thermodynamics which primarily studies systems in thermodynamic equilibrium. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is often treated as an extension of the classical treatment, but statistical mechanics has brought many advances to that field.

这篇文章主要关注经典热力学，它主要研究热力学平衡中的系统。非平衡态热力学通常被视为经典方法的延伸，但是统计力学已经为这个领域带来了许多进步。

The [[thermodynamicists representative of the original eight founding schools of thermodynamics. The schools with the most-lasting effect in founding the modern versions of thermodynamics are the Berlin school, particularly as established in Rudolf Clausius’s 1865 textbook The Mechanical Theory of Heat, the Vienna school, with the statistical mechanics of Ludwig Boltzmann, and the Gibbsian school at Yale University, American engineer Willard Gibbs' 1876 On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances launching chemical thermodynamics.]]

代表热力学最初八个学派的热力学学者。在建立现代版本的热力学方面影响最深远的学校是柏林学派，特别是由 Rudolf Clausius 在1865年的教科书《热力学的机械理论》中建立的维也纳学派，与统计力学路德维希·玻尔兹曼合作的维也纳学派，以及耶鲁大学的 Gibbsian 学派，美国工程师 Willard Gibbs 在1876年建立的关于多相物质平衡化学热力学

## History

## History

历史

The history of thermodynamics as a scientific discipline generally begins with Otto von Guericke who, in 1650, built and designed the world's first vacuum pump and demonstrated a vacuum using his Magdeburg hemispheres. Guericke was driven to make a vacuum in order to disprove Aristotle's long-held supposition that 'nature abhors a vacuum'. Shortly after Guericke, the English physicist and chemist Robert Boyle had learned of Guericke's designs and, in 1656, in coordination with English scientist Robert Hooke, built an air pump.^{[17]} Using this pump, Boyle and Hooke noticed a correlation between pressure, temperature, and volume. In time, Boyle's Law was formulated, which states that pressure and volume are inversely proportional. Then, in 1679, based on these concepts, an associate of Boyle's named Denis Papin built a steam digester, which was a closed vessel with a tightly fitting lid that confined steam until a high pressure was generated.

The history of thermodynamics as a scientific discipline generally begins with Otto von Guericke who, in 1650, built and designed the world's first vacuum pump and demonstrated a vacuum using his Magdeburg hemispheres. Guericke was driven to make a vacuum in order to disprove Aristotle's long-held supposition that 'nature abhors a vacuum'. Shortly after Guericke, the English physicist and chemist Robert Boyle had learned of Guericke's designs and, in 1656, in coordination with English scientist Robert Hooke, built an air pump. Using this pump, Boyle and Hooke noticed a correlation between pressure, temperature, and volume. In time, Boyle's Law was formulated, which states that pressure and volume are inversely proportional. Then, in 1679, based on these concepts, an associate of Boyle's named Denis Papin built a steam digester, which was a closed vessel with a tightly fitting lid that confined steam until a high pressure was generated.

热力学史作为一门科学学科通常始于1650年的奥托·冯·格里克，他建造并设计了世界上第一台真空泵，并用他的马德堡半球展示了真空。格里克被迫制造一个真空，以反驳亚里士多德长期以来的假设，即“自然憎恶真空”。在格里克之后不久，英国物理学家和化学家罗伯特 · 波义耳听说了格里克的设计，并在1656年与英国科学家罗伯特 · 胡克合作制造了一个空气泵。波义耳和胡克利用这台泵，注意到了压力、温度和体积之间的关系。随着时间的推移，波义耳定律被公式化了，它指出压强和体积成反比。然后，在1679年，基于这些概念，波义耳的一位名叫丹尼斯 · 帕平的合伙人建造了一个蒸汽消化器，这是一个封闭的容器，有一个紧密的盖子，将蒸汽封闭起来，直到产生高压。

Later designs implemented a steam release valve that kept the machine from exploding. By watching the valve rhythmically move up and down, Papin conceived of the idea of a piston and a cylinder engine. He did not, however, follow through with his design. Nevertheless, in 1697, based on Papin's designs, engineer Thomas Savery built the first engine, followed by Thomas Newcomen in 1712. Although these early engines were crude and inefficient, they attracted the attention of the leading scientists of the time.

Later designs implemented a steam release valve that kept the machine from exploding. By watching the valve rhythmically move up and down, Papin conceived of the idea of a piston and a cylinder engine. He did not, however, follow through with his design. Nevertheless, in 1697, based on Papin's designs, engineer Thomas Savery built the first engine, followed by Thomas Newcomen in 1712. Although these early engines were crude and inefficient, they attracted the attention of the leading scientists of the time.

后来的设计实现了一个蒸汽释放阀，以防止机器爆炸。通过观察阀门有节奏地上下运动，帕平构思了活塞和汽缸发动机的概念。然而，他并没有坚持他的设计。然而，在1697年，根据帕平的设计，工程师托马斯 · 萨维里制造了第一台发动机，随后在1712年托马斯 · 纽科门制造了第一台发动机。虽然这些早期的发动机粗糙和低效，他们吸引了当时的主要科学家的注意。

The fundamental concepts of heat capacity and latent heat, which were necessary for the development of thermodynamics, were developed by Professor Joseph Black at the University of Glasgow, where James Watt was employed as an instrument maker. Black and Watt performed experiments together, but it was Watt who conceived the idea of the external condenser which resulted in a large increase in steam engine efficiency.^{[18]} Drawing on all the previous work led Sadi Carnot, the "father of thermodynamics", to publish *Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire* (1824), a discourse on heat, power, energy and engine efficiency. The book outlined the basic energetic relations between the Carnot engine, the Carnot cycle, and **motive power**. It marked the start of thermodynamics as a modern science.^{[10]}

The fundamental concepts of heat capacity and latent heat, which were necessary for the development of thermodynamics, were developed by Professor Joseph Black at the University of Glasgow, where James Watt was employed as an instrument maker. Black and Watt performed experiments together, but it was Watt who conceived the idea of the external condenser which resulted in a large increase in steam engine efficiency. Drawing on all the previous work led Sadi Carnot, the "father of thermodynamics", to publish Reflections on the Motive Power of Fire (1824), a discourse on heat, power, energy and engine efficiency. The book outlined the basic energetic relations between the Carnot engine, the Carnot cycle, and motive power. It marked the start of thermodynamics as a modern science.

热容量和潜热的基本概念是热力学发展所必需的，是由格拉斯哥大学的 Joseph Black 教授提出来的，James Watt 是那里的一个仪器制造商。布莱克和瓦特一起进行实验，但是瓦特提出了外部冷凝器的概念，从而大大提高了蒸汽机的效率。根据以前所有的工作，“热力学之父”萨迪 · 卡诺发表了《论火的动力(1824年) ，一篇关于热、动力、能源和发动机效率的论文。这本书概述了卡诺发动机、卡诺循环和动力之间的基本能量关系。它标志着热力学作为一门现代科学的开始。

The first thermodynamic textbook was written in 1859 by William Rankine, originally trained as a physicist and a civil and mechanical engineering professor at the University of Glasgow.^{[19]} The first and second laws of thermodynamics emerged simultaneously in the 1850s, primarily out of the works of William Rankine, Rudolf Clausius, and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin).^{[20]}

The first thermodynamic textbook was written in 1859 by William Rankine, originally trained as a physicist and a civil and mechanical engineering professor at the University of Glasgow. The first and second laws of thermodynamics emerged simultaneously in the 1850s, primarily out of the works of William Rankine, Rudolf Clausius, and William Thomson (Lord Kelvin).

第一本热力学教科书是 William Rankine 在1859年写的，他最初是格拉斯哥大学的物理学家和土木机械工程教授。第一个和第二个热力学定律同时出现在19世纪50年代，主要出自 William Rankine，Rudolf Clausius 和 William Thomson (Lord Kelvin)的作品。

The foundations of statistical thermodynamics were set out by physicists such as James Clerk Maxwell, Ludwig Boltzmann, Max Planck, Rudolf Clausius and J. Willard Gibbs.

The foundations of statistical thermodynamics were set out by physicists such as James Clerk Maxwell, Ludwig Boltzmann, Max Planck, Rudolf Clausius and J. Willard Gibbs.

统计热力学的基础是由物理学家建立的，如詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦，路德维希·玻尔兹曼，马克斯 · 普朗克，Rudolf Clausius 和 j. Willard Gibbs。

During the years 1873–76 the American mathematical physicist Josiah Willard Gibbs published a series of three papers, the most famous being *On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances*,^{[3]} in which he showed how thermodynamic processes, including chemical reactions, could be graphically analyzed, by studying the energy, entropy, volume, temperature and pressure of the thermodynamic system in such a manner, one can determine if a process would occur spontaneously.^{[21]} Also Pierre Duhem in the 19th century wrote about chemical thermodynamics.^{[4]} During the early 20th century, chemists such as Gilbert N. Lewis, Merle Randall,^{[5]} and E. A. Guggenheim^{[6]}^{[7]} applied the mathematical methods of Gibbs to the analysis of chemical processes.

During the years 1873–76 the American mathematical physicist Josiah Willard Gibbs published a series of three papers, the most famous being On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances, Also Pierre Duhem in the 19th century wrote about chemical thermodynamics. During the early 20th century, chemists such as Gilbert N. Lewis, Merle Randall, and E. A. Guggenheim applied the mathematical methods of Gibbs to the analysis of chemical processes.

在1873年至1876年间，美国数学物理学家约西亚·威拉德·吉布斯发表了一系列的3篇论文，其中最著名的是关于多相物质平衡，也是 Pierre Duhem 在19世纪写的关于化学热力学的论文。在20世纪早期，化学家如吉尔伯特·牛顿·路易斯，Merle Randall 和 e. a. Guggenheim 将吉布斯的数学方法应用于化学过程的分析。

## Etymology

## Etymology

词源学

这个术语的历史是丰富的，需要更多的补充

The etymology of *thermodynamics* has an intricate history.引用错误：没有找到与`</ref>`

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标签 It was first spelled in a hyphenated form as an adjective (*thermo-dynamic*) and from 1854 to 1868 as the noun *thermo-dynamics* to represent the science of generalized heat engines.^{[22]}

}}</ref> It was first spelled in a hyphenated form as an adjective (thermo-dynamic) and from 1854 to 1868 as the noun thermo-dynamics to represent the science of generalized heat engines.

它最初以连字符的形式作为形容词(热力学)拼写，从1854年到1868年作为名词热力学来代表广义热发动机的科学。

American biophysicist Donald Haynie claims that *thermodynamics* was coined in 1840 from the Greek root θέρμη *therme,* meaning “heat”, and δύναμις *dynamis,* meaning “power”.引用错误：没有找到与`</ref>`

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Pierre Perrot claims that the term *thermodynamics* was coined by James Joule in 1858 to designate the science of relations between heat and power,^{[10]} however, Joule never used that term, but used instead the term *perfect thermo-dynamic engine* in reference to Thomson's 1849^{[23]} phraseology.^{[22]}

Pierre Perrot claims that the term thermodynamics was coined by James Joule in 1858 to designate the science of relations between heat and power, however, Joule never used that term, but used instead the term perfect thermo-dynamic engine in reference to Thomson's 1849 phraseology.

皮埃尔 · 佩罗声称，热力学这个术语是由詹姆斯 · 朱尔在1858年创造的，用来指代热量和能量之间关系的科学。然而，朱尔从来没有使用过这个术语，而是在汤姆森1849年的措辞中使用了完美热力学引擎这个术语。

By 1858, *thermo-dynamics*, as a functional term, was used in William Thomson's paper "An Account of Carnot's Theory of the Motive Power of Heat."^{[23]}

By 1858, thermo-dynamics, as a functional term, was used in William Thomson's paper "An Account of Carnot's Theory of the Motive Power of Heat."

到1858年，热力学作为一个函数术语，被用于威廉 · 汤姆森的论文“卡诺的热动力理论的帐户。”

## Branches of thermodynamics

## Branches of thermodynamics

热力学的分支

The study of thermodynamical systems has developed into several related branches, each using a different fundamental model as a theoretical or experimental basis, or applying the principles to varying types of systems.

The study of thermodynamical systems has developed into several related branches, each using a different fundamental model as a theoretical or experimental basis, or applying the principles to varying types of systems.

热力学系统的研究已经发展成为几个相关的分支，每个分支都使用不同的基本模型作为理论或实验基础，或者将这些原理应用于不同类型的系统。

### Classical thermodynamics

### Classical thermodynamics

经典热力学

Classical thermodynamics is the description of the states of thermodynamic systems at near-equilibrium, that uses macroscopic, measurable properties. It is used to model exchanges of energy, work and heat based on the laws of thermodynamics. The qualifier *classical* reflects the fact that it represents the first level of understanding of the subject as it developed in the 19th century and describes the changes of a system in terms of macroscopic empirical (large scale, and measurable) parameters. A microscopic interpretation of these concepts was later provided by the development of *statistical mechanics*.

Classical thermodynamics is the description of the states of thermodynamic systems at near-equilibrium, that uses macroscopic, measurable properties. It is used to model exchanges of energy, work and heat based on the laws of thermodynamics. The qualifier classical reflects the fact that it represents the first level of understanding of the subject as it developed in the 19th century and describes the changes of a system in terms of macroscopic empirical (large scale, and measurable) parameters. A microscopic interpretation of these concepts was later provided by the development of statistical mechanics.

经典热力学是对近平衡态热力学系统状态的描述，它使用宏观的、可测量的性质。它被用来模拟能量、功和热量的交换，基于热力学定律。经典限定词反映了这样一个事实，即它代表了人们对这个学科在19世纪发展过程中的第一层次的理解，并且描述了一个系统在宏观经验(大尺度和可测量的)参数方面的变化。这些概念的微观解释后来由统计力学的发展提供。

### Statistical mechanics

### Statistical mechanics

统计力学

Statistical mechanics, also called statistical thermodynamics, emerged with the development of atomic and molecular theories in the late 19th century and early 20th century, and supplemented classical thermodynamics with an interpretation of the microscopic interactions between individual particles or quantum-mechanical states. This field relates the microscopic properties of individual atoms and molecules to the macroscopic, bulk properties of materials that can be observed on the human scale, thereby explaining classical thermodynamics as a natural result of statistics, classical mechanics, and quantum theory at the microscopic level.^{[20]}

Statistical mechanics, also called statistical thermodynamics, emerged with the development of atomic and molecular theories in the late 19th century and early 20th century, and supplemented classical thermodynamics with an interpretation of the microscopic interactions between individual particles or quantum-mechanical states. This field relates the microscopic properties of individual atoms and molecules to the macroscopic, bulk properties of materials that can be observed on the human scale, thereby explaining classical thermodynamics as a natural result of statistics, classical mechanics, and quantum theory at the microscopic level.

统计力学，又称统计热力学，在19世纪末20世纪初随着原子和分子理论的发展而出现，对单个粒子或量子力学状态之间的微观相互作用的解释补充了经典热力学。这个领域将单个原子和分子的微观属性与可以在人类尺度上观察到的物质的宏观体积属性联系起来，从而在微观层次上解释了经典热力学作为统计学、经典力学、量子理论的自然结果。

### Chemical thermodynamics

### Chemical thermodynamics

化学热力学

Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of energy with chemical reactions or with a physical change of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics.

Chemical thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of energy with chemical reactions or with a physical change of state within the confines of the laws of thermodynamics.

化学热力学是研究能量与化学反应或热力学定律范围内状态的物理变化之间的相互关系。

### Equilibrium thermodynamics

### Equilibrium thermodynamics

平衡热力学

Equilibrium thermodynamics is the study of transfers of matter and energy in systems or bodies that, by agencies in their surroundings, can be driven from one state of thermodynamic equilibrium to another. The term 'thermodynamic equilibrium' indicates a state of balance, in which all macroscopic flows are zero; in the case of the simplest systems or bodies, their intensive properties are homogeneous, and their pressures are perpendicular to their boundaries. In an equilibrium state there are no unbalanced potentials, or driving forces, between macroscopically distinct parts of the system. A central aim in equilibrium thermodynamics is: given a system in a well-defined initial equilibrium state, and given its surroundings, and given its constitutive walls, to calculate what will be the final equilibrium state of the system after a specified thermodynamic operation has changed its walls or surroundings.

Equilibrium thermodynamics is the study of transfers of matter and energy in systems or bodies that, by agencies in their surroundings, can be driven from one state of thermodynamic equilibrium to another. The term 'thermodynamic equilibrium' indicates a state of balance, in which all macroscopic flows are zero; in the case of the simplest systems or bodies, their intensive properties are homogeneous, and their pressures are perpendicular to their boundaries. In an equilibrium state there are no unbalanced potentials, or driving forces, between macroscopically distinct parts of the system. A central aim in equilibrium thermodynamics is: given a system in a well-defined initial equilibrium state, and given its surroundings, and given its constitutive walls, to calculate what will be the final equilibrium state of the system after a specified thermodynamic operation has changed its walls or surroundings.

平衡态热力学研究的是物质和能量在系统或物体中的转移，这些系统或物体在其周围的环境中，可以从一种热力学平衡状态转移到另一种状态。热力学平衡这个术语表示一种平衡状态，在这种状态下所有的宏观流动都是零; 对于最简单的系统或物体来说，它们的密集属性是均匀的，它们的压力垂直于它们的边界。在平衡状态下，系统宏观上截然不同的部分之间没有不平衡的势能或驱动力。平衡态热力学的一个中心目标是: 给定一个处于明确初始平衡状态的系统，给定其周围环境，给定其本构壁，计算在一个特定的热力学操作改变其周围或周围环境后，系统的最终平衡状态是什么。

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a branch of thermodynamics that deals with systems that are not in thermodynamic equilibrium. Most systems found in nature are not in thermodynamic equilibrium because they are not in stationary states, and are continuously and discontinuously subject to flux of matter and energy to and from other systems. The thermodynamic study of non-equilibrium systems requires more general concepts than are dealt with by equilibrium thermodynamics. Many natural systems still today remain beyond the scope of currently known macroscopic thermodynamic methods.

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a branch of thermodynamics that deals with systems that are not in thermodynamic equilibrium. Most systems found in nature are not in thermodynamic equilibrium because they are not in stationary states, and are continuously and discontinuously subject to flux of matter and energy to and from other systems. The thermodynamic study of non-equilibrium systems requires more general concepts than are dealt with by equilibrium thermodynamics. Many natural systems still today remain beyond the scope of currently known macroscopic thermodynamic methods.

非平衡态热力学是热力学的一个分支，主要研究非热力学平衡系统。自然界中发现的大多数系统都不在热力学平衡，因为它们不处于静止状态，并且不断不断地受到来自其他系统的物质和能量流动的影响。非平衡体系的热力学研究比平衡态热力学研究需要更多的一般概念。许多自然系统今天仍然超出目前已知的宏观热力学方法的范围。

--厚朴（讨论） 2020年7月20日 (一) 09:41 (CST)continuously and discontinuously的翻译是不是有些不恰当

## Laws of thermodynamics

## Laws of thermodynamics

热力学定律

Thermodynamics is principally based on a set of four laws which are universally valid when applied to systems that fall within the constraints implied by each. In the various theoretical descriptions of thermodynamics these laws may be expressed in seemingly differing forms, but the most prominent formulations are the following.

Thermodynamics is principally based on a set of four laws which are universally valid when applied to systems that fall within the constraints implied by each. In the various theoretical descriptions of thermodynamics these laws may be expressed in seemingly differing forms, but the most prominent formulations are the following.

热力学基本上是建立在一套四条定律的基础上的，这些定律在适用于每个定律所暗示的约束条件下的系统时是普遍有效的。在热力学的各种理论描述中，这些定律可能表现为看似不同的形式，但最突出的公式如下。 --厚朴（讨论） 2020年7月20日 (一) 10:05 (CST) set翻译成一集 prominent翻译成著名？

### Zeroth Law

### Zeroth Law

第零定律

The zeroth law of thermodynamics states: *If two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.*

The zeroth law of thermodynamics states: If two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.

美国热力学第零定律协会指出: 如果两个系统各有三分之一的热平衡，那么它们之间的热平衡也是一样的。

This statement implies that thermal equilibrium is an equivalence relation on the set of thermodynamic systems under consideration. Systems are said to be in equilibrium if the small, random exchanges between them (e.g. Brownian motion) do not lead to a net change in energy. This law is tacitly assumed in every measurement of temperature. Thus, if one seeks to decide whether two bodies are at the same temperature, it is not necessary to bring them into contact and measure any changes of their observable properties in time.^{[24]} The law provides an empirical definition of temperature, and justification for the construction of practical thermometers.

This statement implies that thermal equilibrium is an equivalence relation on the set of thermodynamic systems under consideration. Systems are said to be in equilibrium if the small, random exchanges between them (e.g. Brownian motion) do not lead to a net change in energy. This law is tacitly assumed in every measurement of temperature. Thus, if one seeks to decide whether two bodies are at the same temperature, it is not necessary to bring them into contact and measure any changes of their observable properties in time. The law provides an empirical definition of temperature, and justification for the construction of practical thermometers.

这种说法暗示了热平衡是热力学系统集合上的一个等价关系。如果系统之间的小的、随机的交换(例如:布朗运动)不会导致能量的净变化。这个定律在每次测量温度时都是默认的。因此，如果要确定两个物体是否处于同一温度，就没有必要使它们接触并及时测量它们可观测性质的任何变化。该定律提供了温度的经验定义，以及建造实用温度计的依据。

The zeroth law was not initially recognized as a separate law of thermodynamics, as its basis in thermodynamical equilibrium was implied in the other laws. The first, second, and third laws had been explicitly stated already, and found common acceptance in the physics community before the importance of the zeroth law for the definition of temperature was realized. As it was impractical to renumber the other laws, it was named the *zeroth law*.

The zeroth law was not initially recognized as a separate law of thermodynamics, as its basis in thermodynamical equilibrium was implied in the other laws. The first, second, and third laws had been explicitly stated already, and found common acceptance in the physics community before the importance of the zeroth law for the definition of temperature was realized. As it was impractical to renumber the other laws, it was named the zeroth law.

第零定律最初并没有被认为是一个独立的热力学定律，因为它在热力学平衡中的基础在其他定律中也有暗示。第一定律、第二定律和第三定律在温度定义的第零定律的重要性被认识到之前已经被物理学界明确阐述，并且得到了普遍接受。由于对其他法律重新编号是不切实际的，因此将其命名为第零法律。

--厚朴（讨论） 2020年7月20日 (一) 10:05 (CST)法律 Law检查一遍

### First Law

### First Law

第一定律

The first law of thermodynamics states: *In a process without transfer of matter, the change in internal energy,* Δ*U**, of a thermodynamic system is equal to the energy gained as heat,* *Q**, less the thermodynamic work,* *W**, done by the system on its surroundings.*^{[25]}^{[nb 1]}

The first law of thermodynamics states: In a process without transfer of matter, the change in internal energy, , of a thermodynamic system is equal to the energy gained as heat, , less the thermodynamic work, , done by the system on its surroundings.

能量守恒定律指出: 在一个没有物质转移的过程中，一个热力学系统的内部能量的变化等于作为热量获得的能量，减去系统在其周围所做的热力学功。

- [math]\displaystyle{ \Delta U = Q - W }[/math].

[math]\displaystyle{ \Delta U = Q - W }[/math].

数学 Delta u q-w / 数学。

For processes that include transfer of matter, a further statement is needed: *With due account of the respective fiducial reference states of the systems, when two systems, which may be of different chemical compositions, initially separated only by an impermeable wall, and otherwise isolated, are combined into a new system by the thermodynamic operation of removal of the wall, then*

For processes that include transfer of matter, a further statement is needed: With due account of the respective fiducial reference states of the systems, when two systems, which may be of different chemical compositions, initially separated only by an impermeable wall, and otherwise isolated, are combined into a new system by the thermodynamic operation of removal of the wall, then

对于包含物质转移的过程，需要进一步的陈述: 在适当考虑了系统各自的基准参考状态的情况下，当两个系统---- 它们可能是不同的化学成分，最初只是被不透水的墙隔开，或者是被隔离---- 通过移除热力学操作结合成一个新的系统时，那么

- [math]\displaystyle{ U_0 = U_1 + U_2 }[/math],

[math]\displaystyle{ U_0 = U_1 + U_2 }[/math],

数学 u 0 u 1 + u 2 / math,

*where* *U*_{0} *denotes the internal energy of the combined system, and* *U*_{1} *and* *U*_{2} *denote the internal energies of the respective separated systems.*

where denotes the internal energy of the combined system, and and denote the internal energies of the respective separated systems.

其中表示组合系统的内能，并表示各自分离系统的内能。

Adapted for thermodynamics, this law is an expression of the principle of conservation of energy, which states that energy can be transformed (changed from one form to another), but cannot be created or destroyed.^{[26]}

Adapted for thermodynamics, this law is an expression of the principle of conservation of energy, which states that energy can be transformed (changed from one form to another), but cannot be created or destroyed.

这一定律适用于热力学，是能量守恒定律的一种表述，它指出能量可以转换(从一种形式转变为另一种形式) ，但不能被创造或破坏。

Internal energy is a principal property of the thermodynamic state, while heat and work are modes of energy transfer by which a process may change this state. A change of internal energy of a system may be achieved by any combination of heat added or removed and work performed on or by the system. As a function of state, the internal energy does not depend on the manner, or on the path through intermediate steps, by which the system arrived at its state.

Internal energy is a principal property of the thermodynamic state, while heat and work are modes of energy transfer by which a process may change this state. A change of internal energy of a system may be achieved by any combination of heat added or removed and work performed on or by the system. As a function of state, the internal energy does not depend on the manner, or on the path through intermediate steps, by which the system arrived at its state.

内能是热力学状态的主要特性，而热和功是能量传递的方式，通过这种方式，一个过程可以改变这种状态。系统内部能量的变化可以通过加热或除热以及在系统上或由系统所做的功的任何组合来实现。作为状态的函数，内能并不依赖于系统到达其状态的方式或中间步骤的路径。

### Second Law

### Second Law

第二定律

The second law of thermodynamics states: *Heat cannot spontaneously flow from a colder location to a hotter location.*^{[20]}

The second law of thermodynamics states: Heat cannot spontaneously flow from a colder location to a hotter location.

热力学第二定律指出: 热量不能自发地从较冷的地方流向较热的地方。

This law is an expression of the universal principle of decay observable in nature. The second law is an observation of the fact that over time, differences in temperature, pressure, and chemical potential tend to even out in a physical system that is isolated from the outside world. Entropy is a measure of how much this process has progressed. The entropy of an isolated system which is not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time, approaching a maximum value at equilibrium. However, principles guiding systems that are far from equilibrium are still debatable. One of such principles is the maximum entropy production principle.^{[27]}^{[28]} It states that non-equilibrium systems behave such a way as to maximize its entropy production.^{[29]}

This law is an expression of the universal principle of decay observable in nature. The second law is an observation of the fact that over time, differences in temperature, pressure, and chemical potential tend to even out in a physical system that is isolated from the outside world. Entropy is a measure of how much this process has progressed. The entropy of an isolated system which is not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time, approaching a maximum value at equilibrium. However, principles guiding systems that are far from equilibrium are still debatable. One of such principles is the maximum entropy production principle. It states that non-equilibrium systems behave such a way as to maximize its entropy production.

这个定律是可以在自然界观察到的衰变的普遍原理的一种表述。第二定律是对这样一个事实的观察: 随着时间的推移，在与外界隔绝的物理系统中，温度、压力和化学势的差异趋于均衡。熵是对这个过程进展程度的度量。不处于平衡状态的孤立系统的熵会随着时间的推移而增加，在平衡状态时达到最大值。然而，远离平衡的原则指导体系仍然是有争议的。其中一个原则就是最大产生熵原则。它指出，非平衡系统的行为方式使其产生熵最大化。

In classical thermodynamics, the second law is a basic postulate applicable to any system involving heat energy transfer; in statistical thermodynamics, the second law is a consequence of the assumed randomness of molecular chaos. There are many versions of the second law, but they all have the same effect, which is to explain the phenomenon of irreversibility in nature.

In classical thermodynamics, the second law is a basic postulate applicable to any system involving heat energy transfer; in statistical thermodynamics, the second law is a consequence of the assumed randomness of molecular chaos. There are many versions of the second law, but they all have the same effect, which is to explain the phenomenon of irreversibility in nature.

在经典热力学中，第二定律是适用于任何涉及热能传递的系统的基本假设; 在统计热力学中，第二定律是假定的分子混沌随机性的结果。第二定律有许多版本，但它们都具有同样的效果，即解释自然界中的不可逆现象。

### Third Law

### Third Law

第三定律

The third law of thermodynamics states: *As the temperature of a system approaches absolute zero, all processes cease and the entropy of the system approaches a minimum value.*

The third law of thermodynamics states: As the temperature of a system approaches absolute zero, all processes cease and the entropy of the system approaches a minimum value.

热力学第三定律指出: 当一个系统的温度接近绝对零度时，所有的过程停止，系统的熵接近最小值。

This law of thermodynamics is a statistical law of nature regarding entropy and the impossibility of reaching absolute zero of temperature. This law provides an absolute reference point for the determination of entropy. The entropy determined relative to this point is the absolute entropy. Alternate definitions include "the entropy of all systems and of all states of a system is smallest at absolute zero," or equivalently "it is impossible to reach the absolute zero of temperature by any finite number of processes".

This law of thermodynamics is a statistical law of nature regarding entropy and the impossibility of reaching absolute zero of temperature. This law provides an absolute reference point for the determination of entropy. The entropy determined relative to this point is the absolute entropy. Alternate definitions include "the entropy of all systems and of all states of a system is smallest at absolute zero," or equivalently "it is impossible to reach the absolute zero of temperature by any finite number of processes".

这个热力学定律是关于熵和不可能达到绝对零度的自然统计法则。这个定律为确定熵提供了一个绝对的参考点。相对于这个点确定的熵就是绝对熵。替代定义包括”系统的所有系统和系统的所有状态的熵在绝对零度时最小” ，或相当于”任何有限数目的过程都不可能达到绝对零度”。

Absolute zero, at which all activity would stop if it were possible to achieve, is −273.15 °C (degrees Celsius), or −459.67 °F (degrees Fahrenheit), or 0 K (kelvin), or 0° R (degrees Rankine).

Absolute zero, at which all activity would stop if it were possible to achieve, is −273.15 °C (degrees Celsius), or −459.67 °F (degrees Fahrenheit), or 0 K (kelvin), or 0° R (degrees Rankine).

绝对零度是-273.15摄氏度(摄氏度) ，或-459.67华氏度(华氏度) ，或0 k (开尔文) ，或0 r (朗肯度)。

## System models

## System models

系统模型

A diagram of a generic thermodynamic system

一个通用的热力学系统图表

An important concept in thermodynamics is the thermodynamic system, which is a precisely defined region of the universe under study. Everything in the universe except the system is called the *surroundings*. A system is separated from the remainder of the universe by a *boundary* which may be a physical boundary or notional, but which by convention defines a finite volume. Exchanges of work, heat, or matter between the system and the surroundings take place across this boundary.

An important concept in thermodynamics is the thermodynamic system, which is a precisely defined region of the universe under study. Everything in the universe except the system is called the surroundings. A system is separated from the remainder of the universe by a boundary which may be a physical boundary or notional, but which by convention defines a finite volume. Exchanges of work, heat, or matter between the system and the surroundings take place across this boundary.

热力学中的一个重要概念是热力学系统，它是研究中的宇宙的一个精确定义的区域。除了这个系统之外，宇宙中的一切都被称为环境。一个系统通过一个边界从宇宙的其余部分中分离出来，这个边界可能是物理边界或者概念边界，但是按照惯例，它定义了一个有限的体积。系统和周围环境之间的功、热或物质的交换发生在这个边界上。

In practice, the boundary of a system is simply an imaginary dotted line drawn around a volume within which is going to be a change in the internal energy of that volume. Anything that passes across the boundary that effects a change in the internal energy of the system needs to be accounted for in the energy balance equation. The volume can be the region surrounding a single atom resonating energy, such as Max Planck defined in 1900; it can be a body of steam or air in a steam engine, such as Sadi Carnot defined in 1824; it can be the body of a tropical cyclone, such as Kerry Emanuel theorized in 1986 in the field of atmospheric thermodynamics; it could also be just one nuclide (i.e. a system of quarks) as hypothesized in quantum thermodynamics, or the event horizon of a black hole.

In practice, the boundary of a system is simply an imaginary dotted line drawn around a volume within which is going to be a change in the internal energy of that volume. Anything that passes across the boundary that effects a change in the internal energy of the system needs to be accounted for in the energy balance equation. The volume can be the region surrounding a single atom resonating energy, such as Max Planck defined in 1900; it can be a body of steam or air in a steam engine, such as Sadi Carnot defined in 1824; it can be the body of a tropical cyclone, such as Kerry Emanuel theorized in 1986 in the field of atmospheric thermodynamics; it could also be just one nuclide (i.e. a system of quarks) as hypothesized in quantum thermodynamics, or the event horizon of a black hole.

实际上，一个系统的边界只是一个虚构的虚线，它围绕着一个体积绘制，体积内部能量将发生变化。任何通过边界的影响系统内部能量的变化都需要在能量平衡方程中加以解释。体积可以是围绕单个原子共振能量的区域，如马克斯 · 普朗克在1900年定义的; 它可以是蒸汽机中的蒸汽体或空气体，如萨迪 · 卡诺在1824年定义的; 它可以是热带气旋的体，如 Kerry Emanuel 在1986年在大气热力学领域建立的理论; 它也可以只是一个核素(即:。量子热力学中假设的夸克系统，或黑洞的事件视界。

Boundaries are of four types: fixed, movable, real, and imaginary. For example, in an engine, a fixed boundary means the piston is locked at its position, within which a constant volume process might occur. If the piston is allowed to move that boundary is movable while the cylinder and cylinder head boundaries are fixed. For closed systems, boundaries are real while for open systems boundaries are often imaginary. In the case of a jet engine, a fixed imaginary boundary might be assumed at the intake of the engine, fixed boundaries along the surface of the case and a second fixed imaginary boundary across the exhaust nozzle.

Boundaries are of four types: fixed, movable, real, and imaginary. For example, in an engine, a fixed boundary means the piston is locked at its position, within which a constant volume process might occur. If the piston is allowed to move that boundary is movable while the cylinder and cylinder head boundaries are fixed. For closed systems, boundaries are real while for open systems boundaries are often imaginary. In the case of a jet engine, a fixed imaginary boundary might be assumed at the intake of the engine, fixed boundaries along the surface of the case and a second fixed imaginary boundary across the exhaust nozzle.

边界有四种类型: 固定的、可移动的、真实的和想象的。例如，在发动机中，一个固定的边界意味着活塞被锁定在它的位置，在那里可能发生一个定容过程。如果活塞允许移动，那么边界是可移动的，而气缸和气缸盖边界是固定的。对于封闭系统，边界是真实的，而对于开放系统，边界往往是虚构的。在喷气发动机的情况下，可以假定在发动机进气口处有一个固定的虚边界，沿着箱体表面有一个固定的边界，在排气喷嘴处有一个固定的虚边界。

Generally, thermodynamics distinguishes three classes of systems, defined in terms of what is allowed to cross their boundaries:

Generally, thermodynamics distinguishes three classes of systems, defined in terms of what is allowed to cross their boundaries:

一般来说，热力学区分了三类系统，根据允许什么跨越它们的边界来定义:

Type of system | Mass flow | Work | Heat |
---|---|---|---|

Open | |||

Closed | |||

Thermally isolated | |||

Mechanically isolated | |||

Isolated |

As time passes in an isolated system, internal differences of pressures, densities, and temperatures tend to even out. A system in which all equalizing processes have gone to completion is said to be in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium.

As time passes in an isolated system, internal differences of pressures, densities, and temperatures tend to even out. A system in which all equalizing processes have gone to completion is said to be in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium.

在一个孤立的系统中，随着时间的推移，压力、密度和温度的内部差异趋于平衡。一个所有均衡过程均已完成的系统被称为处于热力学平衡状态。

Once in thermodynamic equilibrium, a system's properties are, by definition, unchanging in time. Systems in equilibrium are much simpler and easier to understand than are systems which are not in equilibrium. Often, when analysing a dynamic thermodynamic process, the simplifying assumption is made that each intermediate state in the process is at equilibrium, producing thermodynamic processes which develop so slowly as to allow each intermediate step to be an equilibrium state and are said to be reversible processes.

Once in thermodynamic equilibrium, a system's properties are, by definition, unchanging in time. Systems in equilibrium are much simpler and easier to understand than are systems which are not in equilibrium. Often, when analysing a dynamic thermodynamic process, the simplifying assumption is made that each intermediate state in the process is at equilibrium, producing thermodynamic processes which develop so slowly as to allow each intermediate step to be an equilibrium state and are said to be reversible processes.

一旦进入热力学平衡，系统的属性，根据定义，在时间上是不变的。处于平衡状态的系统比不处于平衡状态的系统要简单得多，也更容易理解。通常，当分析一个动态热力学过程时，会做出这样的简化假设: 过程中的每一个居间态都处于平衡状态，产生的热力学过程发展得如此缓慢，以至于每一个中间步骤都是一个平衡状态，称之为可逆过程。

## States and processes

## States and processes

状态和过程

When a system is at equilibrium under a given set of conditions, it is said to be in a definite thermodynamic state. The state of the system can be described by a number of state quantities that do not depend on the process by which the system arrived at its state. They are called intensive variables or extensive variables according to how they change when the size of the system changes. The properties of the system can be described by an equation of state which specifies the relationship between these variables. State may be thought of as the instantaneous quantitative description of a system with a set number of variables held constant.

When a system is at equilibrium under a given set of conditions, it is said to be in a definite thermodynamic state. The state of the system can be described by a number of state quantities that do not depend on the process by which the system arrived at its state. They are called intensive variables or extensive variables according to how they change when the size of the system changes. The properties of the system can be described by an equation of state which specifies the relationship between these variables. State may be thought of as the instantaneous quantitative description of a system with a set number of variables held constant.

当一个系统在一组给定的条件下处于平衡状态时，我们称之为处于一个确定的热力学状态。系统的状态可以用许多状态量来描述，这些状态量并不依赖于系统到达其状态的过程。它们被称为密集型变量或扩展型变量，这取决于它们在系统规模发生变化时的变化情况。系统的属性可以用一个状态方程来描述，它指定了这些变量之间的关系。状态可以被认为是一系列变量保持不变的系统的瞬时定量描述。

A thermodynamic process may be defined as the energetic evolution of a thermodynamic system proceeding from an initial state to a final state. It can be described by process quantities. Typically, each thermodynamic process is distinguished from other processes in energetic character according to what parameters, such as temperature, pressure, or volume, etc., are held fixed; Furthermore, it is useful to group these processes into pairs, in which each variable held constant is one member of a conjugate pair.

A thermodynamic process may be defined as the energetic evolution of a thermodynamic system proceeding from an initial state to a final state. It can be described by process quantities. Typically, each thermodynamic process is distinguished from other processes in energetic character according to what parameters, such as temperature, pressure, or volume, etc., are held fixed; Furthermore, it is useful to group these processes into pairs, in which each variable held constant is one member of a conjugate pair.

热力学过程可以被定义为热力学系统从初始状态到最终状态的能量演化。它可以用工艺量来描述。通常情况下，根据温度、压力、体积等参数的固定程度，每个热力学过程过程与能量特征中的其他过程是不同的; 此外，将这些过程分组成对也很有用，每个变量保持常数是一个共轭对的一个成员。

Several commonly studied thermodynamic processes are:

Several commonly studied thermodynamic processes are:

一些常见的研究热力学过程是:

- Adiabatic process: occurs without loss or gain of energy by heat

- Isenthalpic process: occurs at a constant enthalpy

- Isentropic process: a reversible adiabatic process, occurs at a constant entropy

- Isobaric process: occurs at constant pressure

- Isochoric process: occurs at constant volume (also called isometric/isovolumetric)

- Isothermal process: occurs at a constant temperature

- Steady state process: occurs without a change in the internal energy

## Instrumentation

## Instrumentation

仪器仪表

There are two types of thermodynamic instruments, the **meter** and the **reservoir**. A thermodynamic meter is any device which measures any parameter of a thermodynamic system. In some cases, the thermodynamic parameter is actually defined in terms of an idealized measuring instrument. For example, the zeroth law states that if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. This principle, as noted by James Maxwell in 1872, asserts that it is possible to measure temperature. An idealized thermometer is a sample of an ideal gas at constant pressure. From the ideal gas law *pV=nRT*, the volume of such a sample can be used as an indicator of temperature; in this manner it defines temperature. Although pressure is defined mechanically, a pressure-measuring device, called a barometer may also be constructed from a sample of an ideal gas held at a constant temperature. A calorimeter is a device which is used to measure and define the internal energy of a system.

There are two types of thermodynamic instruments, the meter and the reservoir. A thermodynamic meter is any device which measures any parameter of a thermodynamic system. In some cases, the thermodynamic parameter is actually defined in terms of an idealized measuring instrument. For example, the zeroth law states that if two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. This principle, as noted by James Maxwell in 1872, asserts that it is possible to measure temperature. An idealized thermometer is a sample of an ideal gas at constant pressure. From the ideal gas law pV=nRT, the volume of such a sample can be used as an indicator of temperature; in this manner it defines temperature. Although pressure is defined mechanically, a pressure-measuring device, called a barometer may also be constructed from a sample of an ideal gas held at a constant temperature. A calorimeter is a device which is used to measure and define the internal energy of a system.

有两种类型的热力学设备，水表和水库。热力学仪表是测量热力学系统的任何参数的任何装置。在某些情况下，热力学参数实际上是用理想化的测量仪器来定义的。例如，第零定律指出，如果两个物体在热平衡中有第三个物体，那么它们也在热平衡中。正如詹姆斯 · 麦克斯韦尔在1872年指出的那样，这个原理断言测量温度是可能的。理想温度计是恒压下理想气体的样品。根据理想气体定律 pV nRT，这样一个样品的体积可以用作温度的指示器; 在这种方式下，它定义了温度。虽然压力是机械定义的，一个称为气压计的压力测量装置也可以由恒定温度下的理想气体样品构成。量热计是用来测量和定义系统内部能量的装置。

A thermodynamic reservoir is a system which is so large that its state parameters are not appreciably altered when it is brought into contact with the system of interest. When the reservoir is brought into contact with the system, the system is brought into equilibrium with the reservoir. For example, a pressure reservoir is a system at a particular pressure, which imposes that pressure upon the system to which it is mechanically connected. The Earth's atmosphere is often used as a pressure reservoir. If ocean water is used to cool a power plant, the ocean is often a temperature reservoir in the analysis of the power plant cycle.

A thermodynamic reservoir is a system which is so large that its state parameters are not appreciably altered when it is brought into contact with the system of interest. When the reservoir is brought into contact with the system, the system is brought into equilibrium with the reservoir. For example, a pressure reservoir is a system at a particular pressure, which imposes that pressure upon the system to which it is mechanically connected. The Earth's atmosphere is often used as a pressure reservoir. If ocean water is used to cool a power plant, the ocean is often a temperature reservoir in the analysis of the power plant cycle.

热力学储存器是这样一个系统，它的状态参数如此之大，当它与感兴趣的系统接触时，它的状态参数没有明显的改变。当油藏与系统接触时，系统与油藏达到平衡。例如，压力容器是一个处于特定压力下的系统，它对与之机械连接的系统施加压力。地球的大气层经常被用作压力储存器。如果用海水来冷却发电厂，在分析发电厂的循环过程中，海洋通常是一个温度储存库。

## Conjugate variables

## Conjugate variables

共轭变量

The central concept of thermodynamics is that of energy, the ability to do work. By the First Law, the total energy of a system and its surroundings is conserved. Energy may be transferred into a system by heating, compression, or addition of matter, and extracted from a system by cooling, expansion, or extraction of matter. In mechanics, for example, energy transfer equals the product of the force applied to a body and the resulting displacement.

The central concept of thermodynamics is that of energy, the ability to do work. By the First Law, the total energy of a system and its surroundings is conserved. Energy may be transferred into a system by heating, compression, or addition of matter, and extracted from a system by cooling, expansion, or extraction of matter. In mechanics, for example, energy transfer equals the product of the force applied to a body and the resulting displacement.

热力学的核心概念是能量，做功的能力。根据第一定律，系统及其周围环境的总能量是守恒的。能量可以通过加热、压缩或添加物质的方式转移到系统中，也可以通过冷却、膨胀或提取物质的方式从系统中提取。例如，在力学中，能量传递等于作用在物体上的力和由此产生的位移的乘积。

Conjugate variables are pairs of thermodynamic concepts, with the first being akin to a "force" applied to some thermodynamic system, the second being akin to the resulting "displacement," and the product of the two equalling the amount of energy transferred. The common conjugate variables are:

Conjugate variables are pairs of thermodynamic concepts, with the first being akin to a "force" applied to some thermodynamic system, the second being akin to the resulting "displacement," and the product of the two equalling the amount of energy transferred. The common conjugate variables are:

共轭变量是成对的热力学概念，第一个类似于施加在某些热力学系统上的“力” ，第二个类似于由此产生的“位移” ，两者的乘积等于所转移的能量。常见的共轭变量有:

- Pressure-volume (the mechanical parameters);

- Temperature-entropy (thermal parameters);

- Chemical potential-particle number (material parameters).

## Potentials

## Potentials

## Potentials

Thermodynamic potentials are different quantitative measures of the stored energy in a system. Potentials are used to measure the energy changes in systems as they evolve from an initial state to a final state. The potential used depends on the constraints of the system, such as constant temperature or pressure. For example, the Helmholtz and Gibbs energies are the energies available in a system to do useful work when the temperature and volume or the pressure and temperature are fixed, respectively.

Thermodynamic potentials are different quantitative measures of the stored energy in a system. Potentials are used to measure the energy changes in systems as they evolve from an initial state to a final state. The potential used depends on the constraints of the system, such as constant temperature or pressure. For example, the Helmholtz and Gibbs energies are the energies available in a system to do useful work when the temperature and volume or the pressure and temperature are fixed, respectively.

热力学势是体系中储存能量的不同定量度量。势能被用来测量系统从初始状态到最终状态的能量变化。所用的电位取决于系统的约束条件，如恒温或恒压。例如，亥姆霍兹能量和吉布斯能量是当温度和体积或压力和温度分别固定时，系统中可用于做有用功的能量。

The five most well known potentials are:

The five most well known potentials are:

五个最有名的潜力是:

Name | Symbol | Formula | Natural variables |
---|---|---|---|

Internal energy | [math]\displaystyle{ U }[/math] | [math]\displaystyle{ \int ( T \text{d}S - p \text{d}V + \sum_i \mu_i \text{d}N_i ) }[/math] | [math]\displaystyle{ S, V, \{N_i\} }[/math] |

Helmholtz free energy | [math]\displaystyle{ F }[/math] | [math]\displaystyle{ U - TS }[/math] | [math]\displaystyle{ T, V, \{N_i\} }[/math] |

Enthalpy | [math]\displaystyle{ H }[/math] | [math]\displaystyle{ U + pV }[/math] | [math]\displaystyle{ S, p, \{N_i\} }[/math] |

Gibbs free energy | [math]\displaystyle{ G }[/math] | [math]\displaystyle{ U + pV - TS }[/math] | [math]\displaystyle{ T, p, \{N_i\} }[/math] |

Landau potential, or grand potential |
[math]\displaystyle{ \Omega }[/math], [math]\displaystyle{ \Phi_\text{G} }[/math] | [math]\displaystyle{ U - T S - }[/math][math]\displaystyle{ \sum_i\, }[/math][math]\displaystyle{ \mu_i N_i }[/math] | [math]\displaystyle{ T, V, \{\mu_i\} }[/math] |

where [math]\displaystyle{ T }[/math] is the temperature, [math]\displaystyle{ S }[/math] the entropy, [math]\displaystyle{ p }[/math] the pressure, [math]\displaystyle{ V }[/math] the volume, [math]\displaystyle{ \mu }[/math] the chemical potential, [math]\displaystyle{ N }[/math] the number of particles in the system, and [math]\displaystyle{ i }[/math] is the count of particles types in the system.

where [math]\displaystyle{ T }[/math] is the temperature, [math]\displaystyle{ S }[/math] the entropy, [math]\displaystyle{ p }[/math] the pressure, [math]\displaystyle{ V }[/math] the volume, [math]\displaystyle{ \mu }[/math] the chemical potential, [math]\displaystyle{ N }[/math] the number of particles in the system, and [math]\displaystyle{ i }[/math] is the count of particles types in the system.

数学 t / math 是温度，数学 s / math 是熵，数学 p / math 是压力，数学 v / math 是体积，数学 mu / math 是化学势，数学 n / math 是系统中粒子的数量，数学 i / math 是系统中粒子类型的数量。

Thermodynamic potentials can be derived from the energy balance equation applied to a thermodynamic system. Other thermodynamic potentials can also be obtained through Legendre transformation.

Thermodynamic potentials can be derived from the energy balance equation applied to a thermodynamic system. Other thermodynamic potentials can also be obtained through Legendre transformation.

热力学势可以从应用于热力学系统的能量平衡方程推导出来。其他热力学势也可以通过勒壤得转换得到。

## Applied fields

## Applied fields

应用领域

}}

## See also

## See also

参见

### Lists and timelines

### Lists and timelines

清单和时间线

## Notes

## Notes

注释

- ↑ The sign convention (Q is heat supplied
*to*the system as, W is work done*by*the system) is that of Rudolf Clausius. The opposite sign convention is customary in chemical thermodynamics.

## References

## References

参考资料

- ↑ Clausius, Rudolf (1850).
*On the Motive Power of Heat, and on the Laws which can be deduced from it for the Theory of Heat*. Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik, LXXIX (Dover Reprint). ISBN 978-0-486-59065-3. - ↑ William Thomson, LL.D. D.C.L., F.R.S. (1882).
*Mathematical and Physical Papers*.**1**. London, Cambridge: C.J. Clay, M.A. & Son, Cambridge University Press. p. 232. https://books.google.com/books?id=nWMSAAAAIAAJ&q=On+an+Absolute+Thermometric+Scale+Founded+on+Carnot%E2%80%99s+Theory&pg=PA100. - ↑
^{3.0}^{3.1}Gibbs, Willard, J. (1874–1878).*Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences*.**III**. New Haven. pp. 108–248, 343–524. https://archive.org/details/transactions03conn. - ↑
^{4.0}^{4.1}Duhem, P.M.M. (1886).*Le Potential Thermodynamique et ses Applications*, Hermann, Paris. - ↑
^{5.0}^{5.1}Lewis, Gilbert N.; Randall, Merle (1923).*Thermodynamics and the Free Energy of Chemical Substances*. McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc.. https://archive.org/details/thermodynamicsfr00gnle. - ↑
^{6.0}^{6.1}Guggenheim, E.A. (1933).*Modern Thermodynamics by the Methods of J.W. Gibbs*, Methuen, London. - ↑
^{7.0}^{7.1}Guggenheim, E.A. (1949/1967).*Thermodynamics. An Advanced Treatment for Chemists and Physicists*, 1st edition 1949, 5th edition 1967, North-Holland, Amsterdam. - ↑ Ilya Prigogine, I. & Defay, R., translated by D.H. Everett (1954).
*Chemical Thermodynamics*. Longmans, Green & Co., London. Includes classical non-equilibrium thermodynamics.. - ↑ Enrico Fermi (1956).
*Thermodynamics*. Courier Dover Publications. p. ix. ISBN 978-0486603612. OCLC 230763036. https://books.google.com/books?id=VEZ1ljsT3IwC&q=thermodynamics. - ↑
^{10.0}^{10.1}^{10.2}Perrot, Pierre (1998).*A to Z of Thermodynamics*. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-856552-9. OCLC 123283342. - ↑ Clark, John, O.E. (2004).
*The Essential Dictionary of Science*. Barnes & Noble Books. ISBN 978-0-7607-4616-5. OCLC 58732844. - ↑ Van Ness, H.C. (1983) [1969].
*Understanding Thermodynamics*. Dover Publications, Inc.. ISBN 9780486632773. OCLC 8846081. https://archive.org/details/understandingthe00vann. - ↑ Dugdale, J.S. (1998).
*Entropy and its Physical Meaning*. Taylor and Francis. ISBN 978-0-7484-0569-5. OCLC 36457809. - ↑ Smith, J.M.; Van Ness, H.C.; Abbott, M.M. (2005).
*Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics*.**27**. p. 584. Bibcode 1950JChEd..27..584S. doi:10.1021/ed027p584.3. ISBN 978-0-07-310445-4. OCLC 56491111. - ↑ Haynie, Donald, T. (2001).
*Biological Thermodynamics*. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-79549-4. OCLC 43993556. - ↑ Schools of thermodynamics – EoHT.info.
- ↑ Partington, J.R. (1989).
*A Short History of Chemistry*. Dover. OCLC 19353301. https://archive.org/details/shorthistoryofch0000part_q6h4. - ↑ The Newcomen engine was improved from 1711 until Watt's work, making the efficiency comparison subject to qualification, but the increase from the 1865 version was on the order of 100%.
- ↑ Cengel, Yunus A.; Boles, Michael A. (2005).
*Thermodynamics – an Engineering Approach*. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-310768-4. - ↑
^{20.0}^{20.1}^{20.2}*A New Kind of Science*Note (b) for Irreversibility and the Second Law of Thermodynamics - ↑ Gibbs, Willard (1993).
*The Scientific Papers of J. Willard Gibbs, Volume One: Thermodynamics*. Ox Bow Press. ISBN 978-0-918024-77-0. OCLC 27974820. - ↑
^{22.0}^{22.1}引用错误：无效`<ref>`

标签；未给name属性为`eoht`

的引用提供文字 - ↑
^{23.0}^{23.1}Kelvin, William T. (1849) "An Account of Carnot's Theory of the Motive Power of Heat – with Numerical Results Deduced from Regnault's Experiments on Steam."*Transactions of the Edinburg Royal Society, XVI. January 2.*Scanned Copy - ↑ Moran, Michael J. and Howard N. Shapiro, 2008.
*Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics*. 6th ed. Wiley and Sons: 16. - ↑ Bailyn, M. (1994).
*A Survey of Thermodynamics*, American Institute of Physics, AIP Press, Woodbury NY, , p. 79. - ↑ Callen, H.B. (1960/1985).
*Thermodynamics and an Introduction to Thermostatistics*, second edition, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken NY, , pp. 11–13. - ↑ Onsager, Lars (1931). "Reciprocal Relations in Irreversible Processes".
*Phys. Rev*.**37**(405): 405–426. Bibcode:1931PhRv...37..405O. doi:10.1103/physrev.37.405. - ↑ Ziegler, H. (1983).
*An Introduction to Thermomechanics*. North Holland. - ↑ Belkin, Andrey; Hubler, A.; Bezryadin, A. (2015). "Self-Assembled Wiggling Nano-Structures and the Principle of Maximum Entropy Production".
*Sci. Rep*.**5**: 8323. Bibcode:2015NatSR...5E8323B. doi:10.1038/srep08323. PMC 4321171. PMID 25662746.

## Further reading

## Further reading

进一步阅读

- Goldstein, Martin & Inge F. (1993).
*The Refrigerator and the Universe*. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-75325-9. OCLC 32826343. https://archive.org/details/refrigeratoruniv0000gold. A nontechnical introduction, good on historical and interpretive matters.

- Kazakov, Andrei; Muzny, Chris D.; Chirico, Robert D.; Diky, Vladimir V.; Frenkel, Michael (2008). "Web Thermo Tables – an On-Line Version of the TRC Thermodynamic Tables".
*Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology*.**113**(4): 209–220. doi:10.6028/jres.113.016. ISSN 1044-677X. PMC 4651616. PMID 27096122.

- Gibbs J.W. (1928).
*The Collected Works of J. Willard Gibbs Thermodynamics.*. New York: Longmans, Green and Co.. Vol. 1, pp. 55–349.

- Guggenheim E.A. (1933).
*Modern thermodynamics by the methods of Willard Gibbs*. London: Methuen & co. ltd..

- Denbigh K. (1981).
*The Principles of Chemical Equilibrium: With Applications in Chemistry and Chemical Engineering.*. London: Cambridge University Press.

- Stull, D.R., Westrum Jr., E.F. and Sinke, G.C. (1969).
*The Chemical Thermodynamics of Organic Compounds.*. London: John Wiley and Sons, Inc..

- Bazarov I.P. (2010).
*Thermodynamics: Textbook.*. St. Petersburg: Lan publishing house. p. 384. ISBN 978-5-8114-1003-3. 5th ed. (in Russian)

- Bawendi Moungi G., Alberty Robert A. and Silbey Robert J. (2004).
*Physical Chemistry*. J. Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.

- Alberty Robert A. (2003).
*Thermodynamics of Biochemical Reactions*. Wiley-Interscience.

- Alberty Robert A. (2006).
*Biochemical Thermodynamics: Applications of Mathematica*.**48**. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. pp. 1–458. ISBN 978-0-471-75798-6. PMID 16878778.

The following titles are more technical:

The following titles are more technical:

下面的标题更具技术性:

- Bejan, Adrian (2016).
*Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics*(4 ed.). Wiley. ISBN 978-1-119-05209-8.

- Cengel, Yunus A., & Boles, Michael A. (2002).
*Thermodynamics – an Engineering Approach*. McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-238332-4. OCLC 45791449. https://archive.org/details/thermodynamicsen00ceng_0.

- Dunning-Davies, Jeremy (1997).
*Concise Thermodynamics: Principles and Applications*. Horwood Publishing. ISBN 978-1-8985-6315-0. OCLC 36025958.

- Kroemer, Herbert & Kittel, Charles (1980).
*Thermal Physics*. W.H. Freeman Company. ISBN 978-0-7167-1088-2. OCLC 32932988.

## External links

## External links

外部链接

- 12px "Thermodynamics".
*Encyclopædia Britannica*.**26**(11th ed.). 1911. pp. 808–814.

- Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics by Richard Fitzpatrick

Category:Chemical engineering

类别: 化学工程

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