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The heat death of the universe, also known as the Big Chill or Big Freeze,[1] is a conjecture on the ultimate fate of the universe, which suggests the universe would evolve to a state of no thermodynamic free energy and would therefore be unable to sustain processes that increase entropy. Heat death does not imply any particular absolute temperature; it only requires that temperature differences or other processes may no longer be exploited to perform work. In the language of physics, this is when the universe reaches thermodynamic equilibrium (maximum entropy).

The heat death of the universe, also known as the Big Chill or Big Freeze, is a conjecture on the ultimate fate of the universe, which suggests the universe would evolve to a state of no thermodynamic free energy and would therefore be unable to sustain processes that increase entropy. Heat death does not imply any particular absolute temperature; it only requires that temperature differences or other processes may no longer be exploited to perform work. In the language of physics, this is when the universe reaches thermodynamic equilibrium (maximum entropy).

宇宙的热死亡,也被称为大寒或大冻结,是对宇宙最终命运的猜测,这表明宇宙将进化到没有热力学自由能的状态,因此将无法维持增加熵的过程。热死并不意味着任何特定的绝对温度; 它只要求温差或其他过程可能不再利用进行工作。用物理学的语言来说,这是宇宙达到最大熵的热力学平衡。


If the topology of the universe is open or flat, or if dark energy is a positive cosmological constant (both of which are consistent with current data), the universe will continue expanding forever, and a heat death is expected to occur,[2] with the universe cooling to approach equilibrium at a very low temperature after a very long time period.

—Thomson, William. On the Age of the Sun’s Heat Macmillan's Magazine, 5 March 1862, pp. 388–93

ー汤姆森,威廉。《 http://zapatopi.net/kelvin/papers/on_the_age_of_the_suns_heat.html 志,1862年3月5日,页。388–93


The hypothesis of heat death stems from the ideas of Lord Kelvin, who in the 1850s took the theory of heat as mechanical energy loss in nature (as embodied in the first two laws of thermodynamics) and extrapolated it to larger processes on a universal scale.


The exponential acceleration of baryons' evaporation has been described by Arthur Eddington:

重子蒸发的指数加速已经被亚瑟·爱丁顿描述过了:

Concept

< 我们的目标是什么 >

The concept of the heat death of the universe is based on the observation that the gravitational potential energy of the universe, also known as rest mass that is stored mostly in baryons, self‑gravitationally shrinks and heats up to ever higher temperatures. Consequently, the ever‑smaller and ever‑hotter baryons "evaporate", with an exponential acceleration, into the seemingly expanding ambient space as photons, so that eventually the universe will consist of zero‑frequency photons:

All change is relative. The universe is expanding relatively to our common material standards; our material standards are shrinking relatively to the size of the universe. The theory of the "expanding universe" might also be called the theory of the "shrinking atom". <...>

所有的变化都是相对的。宇宙相对于我们共同的物质标准正在扩张; 我们的物质标准相对于宇宙的大小正在缩小。“膨胀宇宙”理论也可以称为“收缩原子”理论。我不知道你在说什么

Let us then take the whole universe as our standard of constancy, and adopt the view of a cosmic being whose body is composed of intergalactic spaces and swells as they swell. Or rather we must now say it keeps the same size, for he will not admit that it is he who has changed. Watching us for a few thousand million years, he sees us shrinking; atoms, animals, planets, even the galaxies, all shrink alike; only the intergalactic spaces remain the same. The earth spirals round the sun in an ever‑decreasing orbit. It would be absurd to treat its changing revolution as a constant unit of time. The cosmic being will naturally relate his units of length and time so that the velocity of light remains constant. Our years will then decrease in geometrical progression in the cosmic scale of time. On that scale man's life is becoming briefer; his threescore years and ten are an ever‑decreasing allowance. Owing to the property of geometrical progressions an infinite number of our years will add up to a finite cosmic time; so that what we should call the end of eternity is an ordinary finite date in the cosmic calendar. But on that date the universe has expanded to infinity in our reckoning, and we have shrunk to nothing in the reckoning of the cosmic being.

那么,让我们以整个宇宙作为恒常的标准,采纳宇宙存在的观点,认为宇宙存在的身体是由星系间的空间组成的,膨胀时会膨胀。或者更确切地说,我们现在必须说它保持了同样的规模,因为他不会承认是他改变了。观察我们几千万年,他看到我们在缩小; 原子、动物、行星,甚至星系,都一样缩小; 只有星系间的空间保持不变。地球绕着太阳旋转,轨道越来越小。把它不断变化的革命当作一个固定的时间单位是荒谬的。宇宙存在自然而然地将他的长度和时间单位联系起来,以便光速保持不变。我们的年龄将随着宇宙时间尺度上的几何级数而减少。在这个尺度上,人的生命变得越来越短暂; 他的六十岁和十岁是一个不断减少的零用钱。由于几何级数的性质,我们的无限年数加起来就是一个有限的宇宙时间; 所以我们应该称之为永恆的终结时间是宇宙日历中的一个普通的有限日期。但是在那一天,宇宙在我们的推算中已经膨胀到无穷大,而我们在宇宙存在的推算中已经缩小到什么也没有。(只提供英文版本)

If the rest mass decreases by Δm0, the kinetic energy E = c2Δm0 is produced. The same thing is true if we replace production of kinetic energy E by production of radiant energy E. Continuing this line of argument, one can envisage the possibility that the whole rest mass m of a body could be converted into energy. Then the energy E = m0c2 would be produced and the whole rest mass of the body would disappear.

We walk the stage of life, performers of a drama for the benefit of the cosmic spectator. As the scenes proceed he notices that the actors are growing smaller and the action quicker. When the last act opens the curtain rises on midget actors rushing through their parts at frantic speed. Smaller and smaller. Faster and faster. One last microscopic blurr of intense agitation. And then nothing.

我们行走在生命的舞台上,为了宇宙旁观者的利益而表演戏剧。随着场景的进行,他注意到演员们变得越来越小,动作也越来越快。当最后一幕开始时,幕布升起,侏儒演员以疯狂的速度冲过他们的角色。越来越小。越来越快。强烈搅动的最后一个微小的冲口。然后什么也没有。

International Encyclopedia of Unified Science Vol. 1, nos. 6–10, University of Chicago Press, 1955, p. 460

—Eddington, Arthur. The Expanding Universe CUP, 1933, pp. 90–92

—Eddington, Arthur.1933年, https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.220736/page/n105/mode/2up 90-92页

Although mechanical energy is indestructible, there is a universal tendency to its dissipation, which produces throughout the system a gradual augmentation and diffusion of heat, cessation of motion and exhaustion of the potential energy of the material Universe.

After the evaporation of all baryons, the resultant bath of zero‑frequency photons, indistinguishable from empty space, will condense into new protons, each miles across, which will undergo another 13.8‑billion‑year‑long exponentially accelerating shrinkage and evaporation. And so ad infinitum:

在所有重子蒸发之后,由此产生的频率为0的光子浴---- 与空空难以分辨---- 将凝结成新的质子,每英里宽,这将经历另一个13.8亿的长指数加速收缩和蒸发。所以永无止境:

—Thomson, William. On the Age of the Sun’s Heat Macmillan's Magazine, 5 March 1862, pp. 388–93

< 我们的目标是什么 >

According to the standard view, dark energy will lead the universe into an eternal accelerating expansion. Every bit of matter will eventually lose contact with every other bit. "It all just seemed unbelievably boring to me," Penrose says. Then he found something interesting within it: at the very end of the universe, the only remaining particles will be massless. That means everything that exists will travel at the speed of light, making the flow of time meaningless. After a few mathematical manipulations of infinity, out popped a never‑ending universe, where new big bangs are the inevitable result of a universe's demise. In Penrose's theory, one cosmos leads to another. "I used to call it a crazy scheme, but I'm starting to believe it now," he says.

根据标准观点,暗能量将导致宇宙进入永恒的加速膨胀。每一点物质最终都会与其他每一点失去联系。彭罗斯说: “对我来说,这一切都令人难以置信地无聊。”。然后他在其中发现了一些有趣的东西: 在宇宙的尽头,仅存的粒子将是无质量的。这意味着所有存在的事物都将以光速传播,使得时间的流动变得毫无意义。经过一些数学上的无限操作,一个永远不会结束的宇宙出现了,新的宇宙大爆炸是宇宙灭亡的必然结果。在彭罗斯的理论中,一个宇宙导致另一个宇宙。“我过去常说这是一个疯狂的计划,但现在我开始相信了,”他说。


—Brooks, Michael. Roger Penrose: Non-stop cosmos, non-stop career New Scientist, 10 March 2010

ー布鲁克斯,迈克尔。Https://web.archive.org/web/20160413033955/http:/www.newscientist.com/article/mg20527511-300-Roger-Penrose-Non-stop-cosmos-Non-stop-career/ : 《新科学家》 ,2010年3月10日

The exponential acceleration of baryons' evaporation has been described by Arthur Eddington:

All change is relative. The universe is expanding relatively to our common material standards; our material standards are shrinking relatively to the size of the universe. The theory of the "expanding universe" might also be called the theory of the "shrinking atom". <...>

Let us then take the whole universe as our standard of constancy, and adopt the view of a cosmic being whose body is composed of intergalactic spaces and swells as they swell. Or rather we must now say it keeps the same size, for he will not admit that it is he who has changed. Watching us for a few thousand million years, he sees us shrinking; atoms, animals, planets, even the galaxies, all shrink alike; only the intergalactic spaces remain the same. The earth spirals round the sun in an ever‑decreasing orbit. It would be absurd to treat its changing revolution as a constant unit of time. The cosmic being will naturally relate his units of length and time so that the velocity of light remains constant. Our years will then decrease in geometrical progression in the cosmic scale of time. On that scale man's life is becoming briefer; his threescore years and ten are an ever‑decreasing allowance. Owing to the property of geometrical progressions an infinite number of our years will add up to a finite cosmic time; so that what we should call the end of eternity is an ordinary finite date in the cosmic calendar. But on that date the universe has expanded to infinity in our reckoning, and we have shrunk to nothing in the reckoning of the cosmic being.

The idea of heat death stems from the second law of thermodynamics, of which one version states that entropy tends to increase in an isolated system. From this, the hypothesis implies that if the universe lasts for a sufficient time, it will asymptotically approach a state where all energy is evenly distributed. In other words, according to this hypothesis, there is a tendency in nature to the dissipation (energy transformation) of mechanical energy (motion) into thermal energy; hence, by extrapolation, there exists the view that, in time, the mechanical movement of the universe will run down as work is converted to heat because of the second law.

热死的概念来源于热力学第二定律,其中一种说法认为,在一个孤立的系统中,熵倾向于增加。由此,该假设暗示,如果宇宙持续足够长的时间,它将渐近地接近所有能量均匀分布的状态。换句话说,根据这一假设,在自然界中存在着将机械能(运动)耗散(能量转换)为热能的趋势; 因此,通过外推,存在着这样一种观点,即随着时间的推移,宇宙的机械运动将减少,因为根据第二定律,功转换为热。

We walk the stage of life, performers of a drama for the benefit of the cosmic spectator. As the scenes proceed he notices that the actors are growing smaller and the action quicker. When the last act opens the curtain rises on midget actors rushing through their parts at frantic speed. Smaller and smaller. Faster and faster. One last microscopic blurr of intense agitation. And then nothing.

—Eddington, Arthur. The Expanding Universe CUP, 1933, pp. 90–92

The conjecture that all bodies in the universe cool off, eventually becoming too cold to support life, seems to have been first put forward by the French astronomer Jean Sylvain Bailly in 1777 in his writings on the history of astronomy and in the ensuing correspondence with Voltaire. In Bailly's view, all planets have an internal heat and are now at some particular stage of cooling. Jupiter, for instance, is still too hot for life to arise there for thousands of years, while the Moon is already too cold. The final state, in this view, is described as one of "equilibrium" in which all motion ceases.

宇宙中的所有物体都会冷却,最终变得太冷以至于无法维持生命,这一猜想似乎最早是由法国天文学家让·西尔万·巴伊于1777年在他关于天文学史的著作中以及随后与伏尔泰的通信中提出的。在贝利看来,所有的行星都有内部热量,现在正处于某个特定的冷却阶段。例如,木星仍然太热,几千年来无法形成生命,而月球已经太冷了。在这种观点中,最终状态被描述为一种“平衡” ,在这种平衡中,所有的运动都停止了。


The idea of heat death as a consequence of the laws of thermodynamics, however, was first proposed in loose terms beginning in 1851 by Lord Kelvin (William Thomson), who theorized further on the mechanical energy loss views of Sadi Carnot (1824), James Joule (1843) and Rudolf Clausius (1850). Thomson's views were then elaborated over the next decade by Hermann von Helmholtz and William Rankine.

然而,热死作为热力学定律的后果的想法最早是在1851年由开尔文勋爵(William Thomson)以宽松的术语提出的,他进一步从萨迪 · 卡诺(1824年)、詹姆斯 · 朱尔(1843年)和鲁道夫 · 克劳修斯(1850年)的机械能损失观点进行理论化。在接下来的十年里,赫尔曼·冯·亥姆霍兹和威廉 · 兰金详细阐述了汤姆森的观点。

After the evaporation of all baryons, the resultant bath of zero‑frequency photons, indistinguishable from empty space, will condense into new protons, each miles across, which will undergo another 13.8‑billion‑year‑long exponentially accelerating shrinkage and evaporation. And so ad infinitum:

According to the standard view, dark energy will lead the universe into an eternal accelerating expansion. Every bit of matter will eventually lose contact with every other bit. "It all just seemed unbelievably boring to me," Penrose says. Then he found something interesting within it: at the very end of the universe, the only remaining particles will be massless. That means everything that exists will travel at the speed of light, making the flow of time meaningless. After a few mathematical manipulations of infinity, out popped a never‑ending universe, where new big bangs are the inevitable result of a universe's demise. In Penrose's theory, one cosmos leads to another. "I used to call it a crazy scheme, but I'm starting to believe it now," he says.

The idea of heat death of the universe derives from discussion of the application of the first two laws of thermodynamics to universal processes. Specifically, in 1851, Lord Kelvin outlined the view, as based on recent experiments on the dynamical theory of heat: "heat is not a substance, but a dynamical form of mechanical effect, we perceive that there must be an equivalence between mechanical work and heat, as between cause and effect."

宇宙热死的概念来源于前两个热力学定律对宇宙过程的应用的讨论。特别是在1851年,开尔文勋爵根据最近关于热力学理论的实验概述了这一观点: “热不是一种物质,而是一种机械效应的动力形式,我们认为机械功和热之间,如因果之间,必然存在等价关系。”

—Brooks, Michael. Roger Penrose: Non-stop cosmos, non-stop career New Scientist, 10 March 2010

Lord Kelvin originated the idea of universal heat death in 1852.]]

开尔文爵士在1852年提出了宇宙热死的概念


In 1852, Thomson published On a Universal Tendency in Nature to the Dissipation of Mechanical Energy, in which he outlined the rudiments of the second law of thermodynamics summarized by the view that mechanical motion and the energy used to create that motion will naturally tend to dissipate or run down. The ideas in this paper, in relation to their application to the age of the Sun and the dynamics of the universal operation, attracted the likes of William Rankine and Hermann von Helmholtz. The three of them were said to have exchanged ideas on this subject. In 1862, Thomson published "On the age of the Sun's heat", an article in which he reiterated his fundamental beliefs in the indestructibility of energy (the first law) and the universal dissipation of energy (the second law), leading to diffusion of heat, cessation of useful motion (work), and exhaustion of potential energy through the material universe, while clarifying his view of the consequences for the universe as a whole. Thomson wrote:

1852年,Thomson 出版了《论自然界中机械能耗散的普遍趋势》一书,其中他概述了热力学第二定律的基本原理,总结为机械运动和用来产生运动的能量会自然地趋于消散或下降。这篇论文中的观点,关于它们在太阳时代和宇宙运行动力学中的应用,吸引了像 William Rankine 和赫尔曼·冯·亥姆霍兹。据说他们三人就这个问题交换了意见。1862年,汤姆森发表了《论太阳热的年龄》一文,重申了他对能量不可毁灭(第一定律)和能量普遍耗散(第二定律)的基本信念,导致热量扩散、有用运动(功)停止以及通过物质宇宙的势能耗尽,同时澄清了他对整个宇宙的后果的看法。汤姆森写道:

Origins of the idea

The idea of heat death stems from the second law of thermodynamics, of which one version states that entropy tends to increase in an isolated system. From this, the hypothesis implies that if the universe lasts for a sufficient time, it will asymptotically approach a state where all energy is evenly distributed. In other words, according to this hypothesis, there is a tendency in nature to the dissipation (energy transformation) of mechanical energy (motion) into thermal energy; hence, by extrapolation, there exists the view that, in time, the mechanical movement of the universe will run down as work is converted to heat because of the second law.

The result would inevitably be a state of universal rest and death, if the universe were finite and left to obey existing laws. But it is impossible to conceive a limit to the extent of matter in the universe; and therefore science points rather to an endless progress, through an endless space, of action involving the transformation of potential energy into palpable motion and hence into heat, than to a single finite mechanism, running down like a clock, and stopping for ever.

如果宇宙是有限的,并且遵循现有的法则,那么结果将不可避免地是宇宙的休息和死亡的状态。但是,我们不可能设想宇宙中物质范围的极限; 因此,科学指向的是一个无止境的进步,通过一个无止境的空间,将势能转化为可触知的运动,进而转化为热量,而不是一个单一的有限机制,像时钟一样慢下来,永远停止。


The conjecture that all bodies in the universe cool off, eventually becoming too cold to support life, seems to have been first put forward by the French astronomer Jean Sylvain Bailly in 1777 in his writings on the history of astronomy and in the ensuing correspondence with Voltaire. In Bailly's view, all planets have an internal heat and are now at some particular stage of cooling. Jupiter, for instance, is still too hot for life to arise there for thousands of years, while the Moon is already too cold. The final state, in this view, is described as one of "equilibrium" in which all motion ceases.[3]


The idea of heat death as a consequence of the laws of thermodynamics, however, was first proposed in loose terms beginning in 1851 by Lord Kelvin (William Thomson), who theorized further on the mechanical energy loss views of Sadi Carnot (1824), James Joule (1843) and Rudolf Clausius (1850). Thomson's views were then elaborated over the next decade by Hermann von Helmholtz and William Rankine.[citation needed]

Max Planck wrote that the phrase "entropy of the universe" has no meaning because it admits of no accurate definition. More recently, Walter Grandy writes: "It is rather presumptuous to speak of the entropy of a universe about which we still understand so little, and we wonder how one might define thermodynamic entropy for a universe and its major constituents that have never been in equilibrium in their entire existence." According to Tisza: "If an isolated system is not in equilibrium, we cannot associate an entropy with it." Buchdahl writes of "the entirely unjustifiable assumption that the universe can be treated as a closed thermodynamic system". According to Gallavotti: "... there is no universally accepted notion of entropy for systems out of equilibrium, even when in a stationary state." Discussing the question of entropy for non-equilibrium states in general, Lieb and Yngvason express their opinion as follows: "Despite the fact that most physicists believe in such a nonequilibrium entropy, it has so far proved impossible to define it in a clearly satisfactory way." In Landsberg's opinion: "The third misconception is that thermodynamics, and in particular, the concept of entropy, can without further enquiry be applied to the whole universe. ... These questions have a certain fascination, but the answers are speculations, and lie beyond the scope of this book."

马克斯 · 普朗克写道,“宇宙的熵”这个短语没有任何意义,因为它不承认有准确的定义。最近,Walter Grandy 写道: “我们仍然对宇宙的熵知之甚少,我们想知道如何定义一个宇宙及其主要成分的熵,而这些成分在整个存在过程中从未处于平衡状态。”蒂萨说: “如果一个孤立的系统不处于平衡状态,我们就不能把熵和它联系起来。”布赫达尔写道: “宇宙可以被视为一个封闭的热力学系统,这是完全不合理的假设。”。根据 Gallavotti 的说法: “对于失去平衡的系统,没有普遍接受的熵的概念,即使是在定态中。”在讨论一般非平衡态的熵问题时,Lieb 和 Yngvason 表达了他们的观点如下: “尽管大多数物理学家相信存在这样的非平衡熵,但迄今为止已经证明不可能以一种明显令人满意的方式来定义它。”兰兹伯格认为: “第三个误解是,热力学,特别是熵的概念,不需要进一步探究就可以应用于整个宇宙。...这些问题有一定的吸引力,但答案都是推测,超出了本书的范围。”


History

A 2010 analysis of entropy states, "The entropy of a general gravitational field is still not known", and "gravitational entropy is difficult to quantify". The analysis considers several possible assumptions that would be needed for estimates and suggests that the observable universe has more entropy than previously thought. This is because the analysis concludes that supermassive black holes are the largest contributor. Lee Smolin goes further: "It has long been known that gravity is important for keeping the universe out of thermal equilibrium. Gravitationally bound systems have negative specific heat—that is, the velocities of their components increase when energy is removed. ... Such a system does not evolve toward a homogeneous equilibrium state. Instead it becomes increasingly structured and heterogeneous as it fragments into subsystems."

2010年对熵状态的分析表明,“一个普通引力场的熵仍然不为人知” ,“引力熵很难量化”。该分析考虑了几个可能的假设,这些假设对于估计来说是必要的,并且表明可观测宇宙的熵比之前想象的要多。这是因为分析得出结论,超大质量黑洞是最大的贡献者。李 · 斯莫林更进一步说: “人们早就知道,引力对于防止宇宙进入热平衡十分重要。引力束缚系统具有负的比热,也就是说,当能量消失时,其组分的速度增加。...这样的系统不会演化到均匀的平衡状态。相反,随着它分解成子系统,它变得越来越结构化和异构化。”

The idea of heat death of the universe derives from discussion of the application of the first two laws of thermodynamics to universal processes. Specifically, in 1851, Lord Kelvin outlined the view, as based on recent experiments on the dynamical theory of heat: "heat is not a substance, but a dynamical form of mechanical effect, we perceive that there must be an equivalence between mechanical work and heat, as between cause and effect."[4]

This point of view is also supported by the fact of a recent experimental discovery of a stable non-equilibrium steady state in a relatively simple closed system. It should be expected that an isolated system fragmented into subsystems does not necessarily come to thermodynamic equilibrium and remain in non-equilibrium steady state. Entropy will be transmitted from one subsystem to another, but its production will be zero, which does not contradict the second law of thermodynamics.

最近在一个相对简单的封闭系统中实验发现了稳定的非平衡稳态,这也支持了这一观点。可以预期的是,一个分裂成子系统的孤立系统不一定会达到热力学平衡并保持非平衡的稳定状态。熵将从一个子系统传递到另一个子系统,但是它的产出将为零,这与热力学第二定律并不矛盾。

文件:Lord Kelvin photograph.jpg
Lord Kelvin originated the idea of universal heat death in 1852.


In 1852, Thomson published On a Universal Tendency in Nature to the Dissipation of Mechanical Energy, in which he outlined the rudiments of the second law of thermodynamics summarized by the view that mechanical motion and the energy used to create that motion will naturally tend to dissipate or run down.[5] The ideas in this paper, in relation to their application to the age of the Sun and the dynamics of the universal operation, attracted the likes of William Rankine and Hermann von Helmholtz. The three of them were said to have exchanged ideas on this subject.[6] In 1862, Thomson published "On the age of the Sun's heat", an article in which he reiterated his fundamental beliefs in the indestructibility of energy (the first law) and the universal dissipation of energy (the second law), leading to diffusion of heat, cessation of useful motion (work), and exhaustion of potential energy through the material universe, while clarifying his view of the consequences for the universe as a whole. Thomson wrote:


The result would inevitably be a state of universal rest and death, if the universe were finite and left to obey existing laws. But it is impossible to conceive a limit to the extent of matter in the universe; and therefore science points rather to an endless progress, through an endless space, of action involving the transformation of potential energy into palpable motion and hence into heat, than to a single finite mechanism, running down like a clock, and stopping for ever.[7]


Category:Physical cosmology

类别: 物理宇宙学

In the years to follow both Thomson's 1852 and the 1862 papers, Helmholtz and Rankine both credited Thomson with the idea, but read further into his papers by publishing views stating that Thomson argued that the universe will end in a "heat death" (Helmholtz) which will be the "end of all physical phenomena" (Rankine).[6]<ref>

Category:Thermodynamic entropy

类别: 熵

{{Cite web

Category:Doomsday scenarios

分类: 末日情景

| url = http://webplaza.pt.lu/fklaess/html/HISTORIA.HTML

Category:1851 in science

类别: 1851年的科学

| title = Physics Chronology

Category:Ultimate fate of the universe

类别: 宇宙的终极命运


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Heat death of the universe. Its edit history can be viewed at 热寂/edithistory

  1. WMAP – Fate of the Universe, WMAP's Universe, NASA. Accessed online July 17, 2008.
  2. If the topology of the universe is open or flat, or if dark energy is a positive cosmological constant (both of which are consistent with current data), the universe will continue expanding forever, and a heat death is expected to occur, with the universe cooling to approach equilibrium at a very low temperature after a very long time period. 如果宇宙的拓扑结构是开放的或者是平坦的,或者暗能量是一个正宇宙学常数(两者都与当前的数据一致) ,那么宇宙将永远继续膨胀,并且预计会发生热死亡,在很长一段时间后,宇宙将在一个非常低的温度下达到平衡。 [[Phil Plait |Plait, Philip]] (2008

    Although mechanical energy is indestructible, there is a universal tendency to its dissipation, which produces throughout the system a gradual augmentation and diffusion of heat, cessation of motion and exhaustion of the potential energy of the material Universe.

    虽然机械能是坚不可摧的,但是它的耗散有一种普遍的趋势,这种趋势使整个系统产生热量的逐渐增加和扩散、运动停止和物质宇宙的势能耗尽。). Death from the Skies!

    The hypothesis of heat death stems from the ideas of Lord Kelvin, who in the 1850s took the theory of heat as mechanical energy loss in nature (as embodied in the first two laws of thermodynamics) and extrapolated it to larger processes on a universal scale.

    热死的假说来源于开尔文勋爵的思想,他在19世纪50年代把热理论看作是自然界中的机械能损失(正如前两个热力学定律所体现的那样) ,并将其推广到普遍规模的更大过程中。. Viking Adult

    The concept of the heat death of the universe is based on the observation that the gravitational potential energy of the universe, also known as rest mass that is stored mostly in baryons, self‑gravitationally shrinks and heats up to ever higher temperatures. Consequently, the ever‑smaller and ever‑hotter baryons "evaporate", with an exponential acceleration, into the seemingly expanding ambient space as photons, so that eventually the universe will consist of zero‑frequency photons:

    宇宙热死的概念是基于这样的观察: 宇宙的重力位能量,也被称为剩余质量,大部分储存在重子中,自我; 引力收缩和加热到更高的温度。因此,越来越小、越来越热的重子以指数加速“蒸发” ,进入看似正在扩张的周围空间,成为光子,因此最终宇宙将由频率为0的光子组成: (published 16 October 2008

    If the rest mass decreases by Δm0, the kinetic energy E = c2Δm0 is produced. The same thing is true if we replace production of kinetic energy E by production of radiant energy E. Continuing this line of argument, one can envisage the possibility that the whole rest mass m of a body could be converted into energy. Then the energy E = m0c2 would be produced and the whole rest mass of the body would disappear.

    如果静止质量减小到 δm < sub > 0 ,动能 e = c < sup > 2 δm < sub > 0 。如果我们用辐射能的产生来代替动能的产生,情况也是如此。继续这一论点,我们可以设想一个物体的整个静止质量 m 可以转化为能量的可能性。然后产生能量 e = m < sub > 0 c < sup > 2 ,使整个身体的静止质量消失。). pp. 259

    International Encyclopedia of Unified Science Vol. 1, nos. 6–10, University of Chicago Press, 1955, p. 460

    国际统一科学百科全书 https://dokumen.pub/qdownload/International-Encyclopedia-of-Unified-Science-Vol-1-nos-6-10.html。1,no.6-10,芝加哥大学出版社,1955,第460页.+ISBN [[Special:BookSources/978-0-670-01997-7

    < 我们的目标是什么 >|978-0-670-01997-7

    < 我们的目标是什么 >]]. 

  3. In the years to follow both Thomson's 1852 and the 1862 papers, Helmholtz and Rankine both credited Thomson with the idea, but read further into his papers by publishing views stating that Thomson argued that the universe will end in a "heat death" (Helmholtz) which will be the "end of all physical phenomena" (Rankine). 在汤姆森1852年和1862年的论文发表后的几年里,亥姆霍兹和兰金都赞扬了汤姆森的这个想法,但他们对汤姆森的论文进行了进一步的解读,发表了自己的观点,认为汤姆森认为宇宙将以“热死亡”(亥姆霍兹)结束,这将是“所有物理现象的终结”(兰金)。 Brush, Stephen G. Proposals about the final state of the universe depend on the assumptions made about its ultimate fate, and these assumptions have varied considerably over the late 20th century and early 21st century. In a hypothesized "open" or "flat" universe that continues expanding indefinitely, either a heat death or a Big Rip is expected to eventually occur. 关于宇宙最终状态的提议取决于对宇宙最终命运的假设,而这些假设在20世纪晚期和21世纪早期已经发生了相当大的变化。在一个假设的“开放”或“平坦”宇宙,继续膨胀无限期,要么热死或大撕裂预计最终发生。 (1996). [https://archive.org/details/historyofmodernp0000brus/page/77 From the Big Bang through the present day, matter and dark matter in the universe are thought to have been concentrated in stars, galaxies, and galaxy clusters, and are presumed to continue to do so well into the future. Therefore, the universe is not in thermodynamic equilibrium, and objects can do physical work.:§VID The decay time for a supermassive black hole of roughly 1 galaxy mass (1011 solar masses) due to Hawking radiation is on the order of 10100 years, so entropy can be produced until at least that time. Some large black holes in the universe are predicted to continue to grow up to perhaps 1014 during the collapse of superclusters of galaxies. Even these would evaporate over a timescale of up to 10106 years. After that time, the universe enters the so-called Dark Era and is expected to consist chiefly of a dilute gas of photons and leptons. Over vast periods of time, a spontaneous entropy decrease would eventually occur via the Poincaré recurrence theorem, thermal fluctuations, and fluctuation theorem. Such a scenario, however, has been described as "highly speculative, probably wrong, [and] completely untestable". Sean M. Carroll, originally an advocate of this idea, no longer supports it. 从大爆炸到现在,宇宙中的物质和暗物质被认为集中在恒星、星系和星系团中,并且被认为在未来会继续这样做。因此,宇宙不在热力学平衡,物体可以做物理工作。一个大约有1个星系质量(10个 < sup > 11个 太阳质量)的超重黑洞,由于霍金辐射的存在,其衰变时间大约为10 < sup > 100 年,因此至少在那个时间之前,熵是可以产生的。据预测,在超星系团坍缩期间,宇宙中的一些大型黑洞可能会继续增长到10个。即使这些也会在长达10年的时间内蒸发掉。在那之后,宇宙进入了所谓的黑暗时期,预计主要由光子和轻子组成的稀释气体。在大量的时间里,自发的熵减少最终会通过庞加莱始态复现定理、热涨落和涨落定理发生。然而,这种情况被描述为“高度投机,可能是错误的,并且完全不可测试”。最初支持这一观点的肖恩 · m · 卡罗尔不再支持这一观点。 A History of Modern Planetary Physics: Nebulous Earth]. 1. Cambridge University Press If a Big Rip does not happen long before that, the "heat death" situation could be avoided if there is a method or mechanism to regenerate hydrogen atoms from radiation, dark matter, dark energy, zero-point energy, or other sources. If so, it is at least possible that star formation and heat transfer can continue, avoiding a gradual running down of the universe due to the conversion of matter into energy and heavier elements in stellar processes, and the absorption of matter by black holes and their subsequent evaporation as Hawking radiation. 如果大裂缝不会在那之前很久发生,那么如果有一种方法或机制可以从辐射、暗物质、暗能量、零点能量或其他来源再生氢原子,那么“热死”情况就可以避免。如果是这样的话,至少恒星的形成和热量传递可以继续下去,从而避免了在恒星形成过程中由于物质转化为能量和更重的元素,以及黑洞吸收物质并随之蒸发为霍金辐射而导致的宇宙的逐渐减少。. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-521-44171-1. https://archive.org/details/historyofmodernp0000brus/page/77 From the Big Bang through the present day, matter and dark matter in the universe are thought to have been concentrated in stars, galaxies, and galaxy clusters, and are presumed to continue to do so well into the future. Therefore, the universe is not in thermodynamic equilibrium, and objects can do physical work.:§VID The decay time for a supermassive black hole of roughly 1 galaxy mass (1011 solar masses) due to Hawking radiation is on the order of 10100 years, so entropy can be produced until at least that time. Some large black holes in the universe are predicted to continue to grow up to perhaps 1014 during the collapse of superclusters of galaxies. Even these would evaporate over a timescale of up to 10106 years. After that time, the universe enters the so-called Dark Era and is expected to consist chiefly of a dilute gas of photons and leptons. Over vast periods of time, a spontaneous entropy decrease would eventually occur via the Poincaré recurrence theorem, thermal fluctuations, and fluctuation theorem. Such a scenario, however, has been described as "highly speculative, probably wrong, [and] completely untestable". Sean M. Carroll, originally an advocate of this idea, no longer supports it. 从大爆炸到现在,宇宙中的物质和暗物质被认为集中在恒星、星系和星系团中,并且被认为在未来会继续这样做。因此,宇宙不在热力学平衡,物体可以做物理工作。一个大约有1个星系质量(10个 < sup > 11个 太阳质量)的超重黑洞,由于霍金辐射的存在,其衰变时间大约为10 < sup > 100 年,因此至少在那个时间之前,熵是可以产生的。据预测,在超星系团坍缩期间,宇宙中的一些大型黑洞可能会继续增长到10个。即使这些也会在长达10年的时间内蒸发掉。在那之后,宇宙进入了所谓的黑暗时期,预计主要由光子和轻子组成的稀释气体。在大量的时间里,自发的熵减少最终会通过庞加莱始态复现定理、热涨落和涨落定理发生。然而,这种情况被描述为“高度投机,可能是错误的,并且完全不可测试”。最初支持这一观点的肖恩 · m · 卡罗尔不再支持这一观点。. 
  4. Thomson, Sir William. (1851). "On the Dynamical Theory of Heat, with numerical results deduced from Mr Joule’s equivalent of a Thermal Unit, and M. Regnault’s Observations on Steam" Excerpts. [§§1–14 & §§99–100], Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, March 1851, and Philosophical Magazine IV, 1852. [from Mathematical and Physical Papers, vol. i, art. XLVIII, pp. 174]
  5. Thomson, Sir William (1852). "On a Universal Tendency in Nature to the Dissipation of Mechanical Energy" Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh for 19 April 1852, also Philosophical Magazine, Oct. 1852. [This version from Mathematical and Physical Papers, vol. i, art. 59, pp. 511.]
  6. 6.0 6.1 Smith, Crosbie; Wise, M. Norton (1989). Energy and Empire: A Biographical Study of Lord Kelvin. Cambridge University Press. pp. 500. ISBN 978-0-521-26173-9. 
  7. Thomson, Sir William (5 March 1862). "On the Age of the Sun's Heat". Macmillan's Magazine. Vol. 5. pp. 388–93.