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Lao Tzu itself is a [[Chinese honorifics|Chinese honorific title]]: {{lang|zh|{{linktext|老}}}} (<small>[[Old Chinese|Old]]</small>&nbsp;[[reconstruction of Old Chinese|*]]''r[[Pharyngealization|ˤu]] [[glottal stop|ʔ]]'', "old, venerable")<ref name=baxsag/> and {{lang|zh|{{linktext|子}}}} (<small>[[Old Chinese|Old]]</small>&nbsp;[[Reconstruction of Old Chinese|*]]''tsə[[glottal stop|ʔ]]'', "master").<ref name=baxsag/> In traditional accounts, ''Laozi'''s actual [[Chinese personal names|personal name]] is usually given as Li&nbsp;Er {{nowrap|({{lang|zh|{{linktext|李|耳}}}},}} <small>[[Old Chinese|Old]]</small>&nbsp;[[reconstruction of Old Chinese|*]]''rə[[glottal stop|ʔ]]&nbsp;nə[[glottal stop|ʔ]]'',<ref name=baxsag>{{cite web |last1=Baxter |first1=William |first2=Laurent |last2=Sagart |url=http://ocbaxtersagart.lsait.lsa.umich.edu/BaxterSagartOCbyMandarinMC2014-09-20.pdf |title=Baxter–Sagart Old Chinese Reconstruction |date=20 September 2014 |accessdate=1 May 2018}}</ref> <small>[[pinyin|Mod.]]</small>&nbsp;''Lǐ&nbsp;Ěr'') and his [[courtesy name]] as Boyang {{nowrap|(<small>[[traditional characters|trad.]]</small>&nbsp;{{lang|zh|{{linktext|伯|陽}}}},}} {{nowrap|<small>[[simplified characters|simp.]]</small>&nbsp;{{lang|zh|{{linktext|伯|阳}}}},}} <small>[[Old Chinese|Old]]</small>&nbsp;[[reconstruction of Old Chinese|*]]''P[[Pharyngealization|ˤrak]]-lang'',<ref name=baxsag/> <small>[[pinyin|Mod.]]</small>&nbsp;''Bóyáng''). A prominent [[posthumous name]] was ''Li&nbsp;Dan'' {{nowrap|({{lang|zh|{{linktext|李|聃}}}},}} ''Lǐ&nbsp;Dān'').<ref>{{Harvtxt|Luo|2004|p=118}}</ref><ref>{{Harvtxt|Kramer|1986|p=118}}</ref><ref>{{Harvtxt|Kohn|2000|p=2}}</ref> [[Sima Qian]] in his biography mentions his name as ''Lǐ Ěr'', and his literary name as ''Lǐ Dān'', which became the deferential ''Lǎo Dān'' {{nowrap|({{lang|zh|{{linktext|老|聃}}}},}} ''Lǎo&nbsp;Dān'').<ref name="LDR">"Sima Qian identifies the old master as a "Lao Dan"...." in {{cite book |last1=Rainey |first1=Lee Dian |title=Decoding Dao: Reading the Dao De Jing (Tao Te Ching) and the Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu) |date=2013 |publisher=John Wiley & Sons |isbn=978-1-118-46567-7 |page=31 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=YNFiAgAAQBAJ&pg=PT31 |language=en}}</ref> The name ''Lǎo Dān'' also appears interchangeably with ''Lǎo Zi'' in early Daoist texts such as the ''[[Zhuangzi (book)|Zhuangzi]]'',<ref name="LDR"/> and may also be the name by which ''Lao Tzu'' was addressed by [[Confucius]] when they possibly met.<ref name="LDR"/> According to the ''Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy'',  "the 'founder' of philosophical Daoism is the quasi-legendary ''Laodan'', more commonly known as ''Laozi'' (Old Master)".<ref>"The 'founder' of philosophical Daoism is the quasi-legendary ''Laodan'', more commonly known as ''Laozi'' (Old Master)" in {{cite book |last1=Carr |first1=Dr Brian |last2=Mahalingam |first2=Indira |title=Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy |date=2002 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-134-96058-3 |page=497 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=xIwrBgAAQBAJ&pg=PA497 |language=en}}</ref>
 
Lao Tzu itself is a [[Chinese honorifics|Chinese honorific title]]: {{lang|zh|{{linktext|老}}}} (<small>[[Old Chinese|Old]]</small>&nbsp;[[reconstruction of Old Chinese|*]]''r[[Pharyngealization|ˤu]] [[glottal stop|ʔ]]'', "old, venerable")<ref name=baxsag/> and {{lang|zh|{{linktext|子}}}} (<small>[[Old Chinese|Old]]</small>&nbsp;[[Reconstruction of Old Chinese|*]]''tsə[[glottal stop|ʔ]]'', "master").<ref name=baxsag/> In traditional accounts, ''Laozi'''s actual [[Chinese personal names|personal name]] is usually given as Li&nbsp;Er {{nowrap|({{lang|zh|{{linktext|李|耳}}}},}} <small>[[Old Chinese|Old]]</small>&nbsp;[[reconstruction of Old Chinese|*]]''rə[[glottal stop|ʔ]]&nbsp;nə[[glottal stop|ʔ]]'',<ref name=baxsag>{{cite web |last1=Baxter |first1=William |first2=Laurent |last2=Sagart |url=http://ocbaxtersagart.lsait.lsa.umich.edu/BaxterSagartOCbyMandarinMC2014-09-20.pdf |title=Baxter–Sagart Old Chinese Reconstruction |date=20 September 2014 |accessdate=1 May 2018}}</ref> <small>[[pinyin|Mod.]]</small>&nbsp;''Lǐ&nbsp;Ěr'') and his [[courtesy name]] as Boyang {{nowrap|(<small>[[traditional characters|trad.]]</small>&nbsp;{{lang|zh|{{linktext|伯|陽}}}},}} {{nowrap|<small>[[simplified characters|simp.]]</small>&nbsp;{{lang|zh|{{linktext|伯|阳}}}},}} <small>[[Old Chinese|Old]]</small>&nbsp;[[reconstruction of Old Chinese|*]]''P[[Pharyngealization|ˤrak]]-lang'',<ref name=baxsag/> <small>[[pinyin|Mod.]]</small>&nbsp;''Bóyáng''). A prominent [[posthumous name]] was ''Li&nbsp;Dan'' {{nowrap|({{lang|zh|{{linktext|李|聃}}}},}} ''Lǐ&nbsp;Dān'').<ref>{{Harvtxt|Luo|2004|p=118}}</ref><ref>{{Harvtxt|Kramer|1986|p=118}}</ref><ref>{{Harvtxt|Kohn|2000|p=2}}</ref> [[Sima Qian]] in his biography mentions his name as ''Lǐ Ěr'', and his literary name as ''Lǐ Dān'', which became the deferential ''Lǎo Dān'' {{nowrap|({{lang|zh|{{linktext|老|聃}}}},}} ''Lǎo&nbsp;Dān'').<ref name="LDR">"Sima Qian identifies the old master as a "Lao Dan"...." in {{cite book |last1=Rainey |first1=Lee Dian |title=Decoding Dao: Reading the Dao De Jing (Tao Te Ching) and the Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu) |date=2013 |publisher=John Wiley & Sons |isbn=978-1-118-46567-7 |page=31 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=YNFiAgAAQBAJ&pg=PT31 |language=en}}</ref> The name ''Lǎo Dān'' also appears interchangeably with ''Lǎo Zi'' in early Daoist texts such as the ''[[Zhuangzi (book)|Zhuangzi]]'',<ref name="LDR"/> and may also be the name by which ''Lao Tzu'' was addressed by [[Confucius]] when they possibly met.<ref name="LDR"/> According to the ''Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy'',  "the 'founder' of philosophical Daoism is the quasi-legendary ''Laodan'', more commonly known as ''Laozi'' (Old Master)".<ref>"The 'founder' of philosophical Daoism is the quasi-legendary ''Laodan'', more commonly known as ''Laozi'' (Old Master)" in {{cite book |last1=Carr |first1=Dr Brian |last2=Mahalingam |first2=Indira |title=Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy |date=2002 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-134-96058-3 |page=497 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=xIwrBgAAQBAJ&pg=PA497 |language=en}}</ref>
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在中国,“老子”这个词本意是一个尊称。一般认为,老子的真实名字是李聃,字为伯阳,因此也有人尊称其为老聃。 根据《Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy》(《亚洲哲学百科全书》)中所述,人们将道家哲学的奠基人称之为老子。
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在中国,“老子”这个词本意是一个尊称。传统观点认为,老子的真实名字是李耳,字为伯阳,谥李聃。司马迁的《史记》中记载,老子名李耳,字李聃,人们尊称其为老聃。《庄子》中也用老聃称呼老子,据说孔子与老子相遇时称呼老子为老聃。 根据《亚洲哲学百科全书指南》(Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy),人们将道家学派的创始人称之为老聃,也叫老子。
    
The honorific title ''Lao Tzu'' has been [[romanization of Chinese|romanized]] numerous ways, sometimes leading to confusion. The most common present form is still ''Lao Tzu'', which is based on the formerly prevalent [[Wade–Giles]] system.<ref>Also encountered as ''Lao&nbsp;Tzu'' and ''Lao-Tzu''.</ref><ref name="ngoog" />  In the 19th century, the title was usually romanized as ''Lao-tse''.<ref name=ngoog>Franz, Alex et al. ed. [https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=(Laozi)%2B(LaoZi)%2B(Lao+Zi)%2B(Lao+zi)%2C(Laotze)%2B(LaoTze)%2B(Lao+tze)%2B(Lao+Tze)%2C(Laotse)%2B(LaoTse)%2B(Lao+tse)%2B(Lao+Tse)%2CLaocius%2C(Lao+Tzu)%2B(Lao+tzu)%2B(Laotzu)%2B(LaoTzu)%2CLaosi%2C(Lao+Tsu)%2B(Lao+tsu)%2B(Laotsu)%2B(LaoTsu)&year_start=1800&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=10&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2C%28Laozi%29%20%2B%20%28LaoZi%29%20%2B%20%28Lao%20Zi%29%20%2B%20%28Lao%20zi%29%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2C%28Laotze%29%20%2B%20%28LaoTze%29%20%2B%20%28Lao%20tze%29%20%2B%20%28Lao%20Tze%29%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2C%28Laotse%29%20%2B%20%28LaoTse%29%20%2B%20%28Lao%20tse%29%20%2B%20%28Lao%20Tse%29%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2CLaocius%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2C%28Lao%20Tzu%29%20%2B%20%28Lao%20tzu%29%20%2B%20%28Laotzu%29%20%2B%20%28LaoTzu%29%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2CLaosi%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2C%28Lao%20Tsu%29%20%2B%20%28Lao%20tsu%29%20%2B%20%28Laotsu%29%20%2B%20%28LaoTsu%29%3B%2Cc0 Google corpus]. 2008. Retrieved 17 Jan;2014.</ref><ref>Also encountered as ''Lao&nbsp;Tse'' and ''Lao-Tse''.</ref> Other forms include the variants ''Lao-tze'',<ref>Also encountered as ''Lao&nbsp;Tze'' and ''Lao-Tze''.</ref> ''Lao-tsu''<ref>Also encountered as ''Lao&nbsp;Tsu'' and ''Lao-Tsu''.</ref> and ''Laozi/Lao Zi.''
 
The honorific title ''Lao Tzu'' has been [[romanization of Chinese|romanized]] numerous ways, sometimes leading to confusion. The most common present form is still ''Lao Tzu'', which is based on the formerly prevalent [[Wade–Giles]] system.<ref>Also encountered as ''Lao&nbsp;Tzu'' and ''Lao-Tzu''.</ref><ref name="ngoog" />  In the 19th century, the title was usually romanized as ''Lao-tse''.<ref name=ngoog>Franz, Alex et al. ed. [https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=(Laozi)%2B(LaoZi)%2B(Lao+Zi)%2B(Lao+zi)%2C(Laotze)%2B(LaoTze)%2B(Lao+tze)%2B(Lao+Tze)%2C(Laotse)%2B(LaoTse)%2B(Lao+tse)%2B(Lao+Tse)%2CLaocius%2C(Lao+Tzu)%2B(Lao+tzu)%2B(Laotzu)%2B(LaoTzu)%2CLaosi%2C(Lao+Tsu)%2B(Lao+tsu)%2B(Laotsu)%2B(LaoTsu)&year_start=1800&year_end=2008&corpus=15&smoothing=10&share=&direct_url=t1%3B%2C%28Laozi%29%20%2B%20%28LaoZi%29%20%2B%20%28Lao%20Zi%29%20%2B%20%28Lao%20zi%29%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2C%28Laotze%29%20%2B%20%28LaoTze%29%20%2B%20%28Lao%20tze%29%20%2B%20%28Lao%20Tze%29%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2C%28Laotse%29%20%2B%20%28LaoTse%29%20%2B%20%28Lao%20tse%29%20%2B%20%28Lao%20Tse%29%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2CLaocius%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2C%28Lao%20Tzu%29%20%2B%20%28Lao%20tzu%29%20%2B%20%28Laotzu%29%20%2B%20%28LaoTzu%29%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2CLaosi%3B%2Cc0%3B.t1%3B%2C%28Lao%20Tsu%29%20%2B%20%28Lao%20tsu%29%20%2B%20%28Laotsu%29%20%2B%20%28LaoTsu%29%3B%2Cc0 Google corpus]. 2008. Retrieved 17 Jan;2014.</ref><ref>Also encountered as ''Lao&nbsp;Tse'' and ''Lao-Tse''.</ref> Other forms include the variants ''Lao-tze'',<ref>Also encountered as ''Lao&nbsp;Tze'' and ''Lao-Tze''.</ref> ''Lao-tsu''<ref>Also encountered as ''Lao&nbsp;Tsu'' and ''Lao-Tsu''.</ref> and ''Laozi/Lao Zi.''
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As a religious figure, he is worshipped under the name "Supreme Old Lord" }}, Tàishàng Lǎojūn) and as one of the "Three Pure Ones". During the Tang dynasty, he was granted the title "Supremely Mysterious and Primordial Emperor" ,}} Tàishàng Xuānyuán Huángdì).
 
As a religious figure, he is worshipped under the name "Supreme Old Lord" }}, Tàishàng Lǎojūn) and as one of the "Three Pure Ones". During the Tang dynasty, he was granted the title "Supremely Mysterious and Primordial Emperor" ,}} Tàishàng Xuānyuán Huángdì).
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作为一个宗教人物形象时,他被冠以“至尊老爷”、“太守郎”、“三圣”之一等称号。在唐朝,他还被授予“至高无上的神秘而原始的皇帝”的称号。
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在宗教领域,老子被冠以“太上老君”,“三圣”之一等称号,唐朝时被追封为“太上玄元皇帝”。
    
==历代观点==
 
==历代观点==
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In the mid-twentieth century, a consensus emerged among scholars that the [[historicity]] of the person known as Laozi is doubtful and that the ''Tao Te Ching'' was "a compilation of Taoist sayings by many hands".<ref>{{Harvtxt|Watson|1968|p=8}}</ref>  
 
In the mid-twentieth century, a consensus emerged among scholars that the [[historicity]] of the person known as Laozi is doubtful and that the ''Tao Te Ching'' was "a compilation of Taoist sayings by many hands".<ref>{{Harvtxt|Watson|1968|p=8}}</ref>  
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二十世纪中叶时,学者们一致认为,老子这个人的历史性是值得怀疑的,《道德经》是“多人汇编的道教语录”。
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二十世纪中叶,学术界一致怀疑老子是否真实存在,认为《道德经》是“多人汇编的道教语录”。
    
The earliest certain reference to the present figure of Laozi is found in the 1st‑century&nbsp;BC ''[[Records of the Grand Historian]]'' collected by the historian [[Sima Qian]] from earlier accounts. In one account, Laozi was said to be a contemporary of [[Confucius]] during the 6th or 5th&nbsp;century&nbsp;BC. His [[Chinese surname#Shi|surname]] was [[Li (surname 李)|Li]] and his personal name was Er or Dan. He was an official in the imperial archives and wrote a book in two parts before departing to the west. In another, Laozi was a different contemporary of [[Confucius]] titled Lao Laizi {{nowrap|({{lang|zh|{{linktext|老|莱|子}}}})}} and wrote a book in 15 parts. In a third, he was the court astrologer Lao Dan who lived during the 4th century&nbsp;BC reign of [[list of dukes of Qin|Duke]] [[Duke Xian of Qin (424–362 BC)|Xian]] of the [[state of Qin|Qin Dynasty]].<ref>{{Harvtxt|Fowler|2005|p=96}}</ref><ref>{{Harvtxt|Robinet|1997|p=26}}</ref> The oldest text of the ''Tao Te Ching'' so far recovered was part of the [[Guodian Chu Slips]]. It was written on [[bamboo slips]], and dates to the late 4th&nbsp;century&nbsp;BC.<ref name="stanford">{{cite encyclopedia |title=Laozi |url=http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/laozi/ |encyclopedia=[[Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy]] |publisher=Stanford University|year=2018 |quote=The discovery of two ''Laozi'' silk manuscripts at Mawangdui, near Changsha, Hunan province in 1973 marks an important milestone in modern ''Laozi'' research. The manuscripts, identified simply as 'A' (jia) and 'B' (yi), were found in a tomb that was sealed in 168 BC. The texts themselves can be dated earlier, the 'A' manuscript being the older of the two, copied in all likelihood before 195 BC.<br/><br/>"Until recently, the Mawangdui manuscripts have held the pride of place as the oldest extant manuscripts of the ''Laozi''. In late 1993, the excavation of a tomb (identified as M1) in [[Guodian, Jingmen|Guodian]], Jingmen city, [[Hubei]], has yielded among other things some 800 bamboo slips, of which 730 are inscribed, containing over 13,000 Chinese characters. Some of these, amounting to about 2,000 characters, match the ''Laozi''. The tomb...is dated around 300 BC.}}</ref>
 
The earliest certain reference to the present figure of Laozi is found in the 1st‑century&nbsp;BC ''[[Records of the Grand Historian]]'' collected by the historian [[Sima Qian]] from earlier accounts. In one account, Laozi was said to be a contemporary of [[Confucius]] during the 6th or 5th&nbsp;century&nbsp;BC. His [[Chinese surname#Shi|surname]] was [[Li (surname 李)|Li]] and his personal name was Er or Dan. He was an official in the imperial archives and wrote a book in two parts before departing to the west. In another, Laozi was a different contemporary of [[Confucius]] titled Lao Laizi {{nowrap|({{lang|zh|{{linktext|老|莱|子}}}})}} and wrote a book in 15 parts. In a third, he was the court astrologer Lao Dan who lived during the 4th century&nbsp;BC reign of [[list of dukes of Qin|Duke]] [[Duke Xian of Qin (424–362 BC)|Xian]] of the [[state of Qin|Qin Dynasty]].<ref>{{Harvtxt|Fowler|2005|p=96}}</ref><ref>{{Harvtxt|Robinet|1997|p=26}}</ref> The oldest text of the ''Tao Te Ching'' so far recovered was part of the [[Guodian Chu Slips]]. It was written on [[bamboo slips]], and dates to the late 4th&nbsp;century&nbsp;BC.<ref name="stanford">{{cite encyclopedia |title=Laozi |url=http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/laozi/ |encyclopedia=[[Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy]] |publisher=Stanford University|year=2018 |quote=The discovery of two ''Laozi'' silk manuscripts at Mawangdui, near Changsha, Hunan province in 1973 marks an important milestone in modern ''Laozi'' research. The manuscripts, identified simply as 'A' (jia) and 'B' (yi), were found in a tomb that was sealed in 168 BC. The texts themselves can be dated earlier, the 'A' manuscript being the older of the two, copied in all likelihood before 195 BC.<br/><br/>"Until recently, the Mawangdui manuscripts have held the pride of place as the oldest extant manuscripts of the ''Laozi''. In late 1993, the excavation of a tomb (identified as M1) in [[Guodian, Jingmen|Guodian]], Jingmen city, [[Hubei]], has yielded among other things some 800 bamboo slips, of which 730 are inscribed, containing over 13,000 Chinese characters. Some of these, amounting to about 2,000 characters, match the ''Laozi''. The tomb...is dated around 300 BC.}}</ref>
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对于老子的最早的记载存在于公元前1世纪史学家司马迁的《史记》。一方面,有人认为老子是公元前6或者5史记和孔子同时代的人。他姓李名耳,字聃,是朝廷档案馆的官员,在去世之前分两部分写了一本书。另一方面,老子是不同于孔子的另外一个人,并且被称为老莱子,写了一本由15部分组成的书。此外,还有一种观点认为,他是宫廷占星家老聃,生活在公元前4史记的秦朝咸阳。迄今为止,发现的最古老的《道德经》的文字是《郭店楚简》中的一部分。这些记录在竹简上的文字可以追溯到公元前4世纪后期。
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老子最早见载于司马迁的《史记》。一说老子生活于公元前六世纪或五世纪,与孔子同期。他姓李名耳,字聃,曾任周朝守藏室之史,西行前著书一本,共两篇;二说老子与孔子同期,但名为老莱子,著书一本,共十五篇;三说老子为周朝的占星术士,生活于公元前四世纪的秦朝咸阳。迄今为止,发现的最古老的《道德经》写在《郭店楚墓竹简》上,竹简上的文字可追溯至公元前四世纪后期。
    
According to traditional accounts, Laozi was a scholar who worked as the Keeper of the Archives for the royal court of [[Zhou dynasty|Zhou]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.edepot.com/taoism_lao-tzu.html |title=Lao Tzu (Lao Zi) Scroll Paintings and Posters |publisher=Edepot.com |accessdate=15 February 2013}}</ref> This reportedly allowed him broad access to the works of the [[Yellow Emperor]] and other classics of the time. The stories assert that Laozi never opened a formal school but nonetheless attracted a large number of students and loyal disciples. There are many variations of a story retelling his encounter with Confucius, most famously in the ''[[Zhuangzi (book)|Zhuangzi]]''.<ref name="Simpkins 1999 pp 12-13">{{Harvtxt|Simpkins|Simpkins|1999|pp=12–13}}</ref><ref>{{Harvtxt|Morgan|2001|pp=223–24}}</ref>
 
According to traditional accounts, Laozi was a scholar who worked as the Keeper of the Archives for the royal court of [[Zhou dynasty|Zhou]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.edepot.com/taoism_lao-tzu.html |title=Lao Tzu (Lao Zi) Scroll Paintings and Posters |publisher=Edepot.com |accessdate=15 February 2013}}</ref> This reportedly allowed him broad access to the works of the [[Yellow Emperor]] and other classics of the time. The stories assert that Laozi never opened a formal school but nonetheless attracted a large number of students and loyal disciples. There are many variations of a story retelling his encounter with Confucius, most famously in the ''[[Zhuangzi (book)|Zhuangzi]]''.<ref name="Simpkins 1999 pp 12-13">{{Harvtxt|Simpkins|Simpkins|1999|pp=12–13}}</ref><ref>{{Harvtxt|Morgan|2001|pp=223–24}}</ref>
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According to traditional accounts, Laozi was a scholar who worked as the Keeper of the Archives for the royal court of Zhou. This reportedly allowed him broad access to the works of the Yellow Emperor and other classics of the time. The stories assert that Laozi never opened a formal school but nonetheless attracted a large number of students and loyal disciples. There are many variations of a story retelling his encounter with Confucius, most famously in the Zhuangzi.
 
According to traditional accounts, Laozi was a scholar who worked as the Keeper of the Archives for the royal court of Zhou. This reportedly allowed him broad access to the works of the Yellow Emperor and other classics of the time. The stories assert that Laozi never opened a formal school but nonetheless attracted a large number of students and loyal disciples. There are many variations of a story retelling his encounter with Confucius, most famously in the Zhuangzi.
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传统观点认为,老子是一位学者,曾担任周朝的档案管理员。据记载,官职的原因使他能够广泛接触黄帝的作品和其他当时的经典作品。在这些故事中,老子从未开设过正规学校,但仍然吸引了大批学生和忠实的徒弟。讲述他与孔子相遇的故事有很多,其中最著名的是《庄子》中的阐述。
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传统观点认为,老子是一位学者,曾担任周朝守藏室之史。据记载,官职的原因使他能够广泛接触黄帝的作品和其他当时的经典作品。在这些故事中,老子从未开设过正规学校,但仍然吸引了大批学生和忠实的徒弟。讲述他与孔子相遇的故事有很多,其中最著名的是《庄子》中的阐述。
    
He was sometimes held to have come from the [[village (China)|village]] of [[Chu Jen]] in [[state of Chu|Chu]].<ref>{{Harvtxt|Morgan|2001}}</ref> In accounts where Laozi married, he was said to have had a son named Zong who became a celebrated soldier.
 
He was sometimes held to have come from the [[village (China)|village]] of [[Chu Jen]] in [[state of Chu|Chu]].<ref>{{Harvtxt|Morgan|2001}}</ref> In accounts where Laozi married, he was said to have had a son named Zong who became a celebrated soldier.
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