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添加133字节 、 2021年8月2日 (星期一)
无编辑摘要
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The Pearly Bag of the Three Caverns continues the parallel of an adherent's quest. Yinxi received his ordination when Laozi transmitted the Tao Te Ching, along with other texts and precepts, just as Taoist adherents receive a number of methods, teachings and scriptures at ordination. This is only an initial ordination and Yinxi still needed an additional period to perfect his virtue, thus Laozi gave him three years to perfect his Tao. Yinxi gave himself over to a full-time devotional life. After the appointed time, Yinxi again demonstrates determination and perfect trust, sending out a black sheep to market as the agreed sign. He eventually meets again with Laozi, who announces that Yinxi's immortal name is listed in the heavens and calls down a heavenly procession to clothe Yinxi in the garb of immortals. The story continues that Laozi bestowed a number of titles upon Yinxi and took him on a journey throughout the universe, even into the nine heavens. After this fantastic journey, the two sages set out to western lands of the barbarians. The training period, reuniting and travels represent the attainment of the highest religious rank in medieval Taoism called "Preceptor of the Three Caverns". In this legend, Laozi is the perfect Taoist master and Yinxi is the ideal Taoist student. Laozi is presented as the Tao personified, giving his teaching to humanity for their salvation. Yinxi follows the formal sequence of preparation, testing, training and attainment.
 
The Pearly Bag of the Three Caverns continues the parallel of an adherent's quest. Yinxi received his ordination when Laozi transmitted the Tao Te Ching, along with other texts and precepts, just as Taoist adherents receive a number of methods, teachings and scriptures at ordination. This is only an initial ordination and Yinxi still needed an additional period to perfect his virtue, thus Laozi gave him three years to perfect his Tao. Yinxi gave himself over to a full-time devotional life. After the appointed time, Yinxi again demonstrates determination and perfect trust, sending out a black sheep to market as the agreed sign. He eventually meets again with Laozi, who announces that Yinxi's immortal name is listed in the heavens and calls down a heavenly procession to clothe Yinxi in the garb of immortals. The story continues that Laozi bestowed a number of titles upon Yinxi and took him on a journey throughout the universe, even into the nine heavens. After this fantastic journey, the two sages set out to western lands of the barbarians. The training period, reuniting and travels represent the attainment of the highest religious rank in medieval Taoism called "Preceptor of the Three Caverns". In this legend, Laozi is the perfect Taoist master and Yinxi is the ideal Taoist student. Laozi is presented as the Tao personified, giving his teaching to humanity for their salvation. Yinxi follows the formal sequence of preparation, testing, training and attainment.
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《三洞珠囊》的故事延续了一个追随者想要的追求。老子向尹喜传授《道德经》及其他道家著作时,尹喜接受了很多戒律。而这些戒律只是一个初步任务,尹喜还需要很多的修行来完善他的道,所以老子给了他三年时间来完善他的“道”。尹喜全身心的投入到道的学习当中,在三年时间过后,尹喜再次表现出决心和完全的信任,所有人都认为他是一匹道家思想的黑马。最终,他再次与老子见面,老子宣布他以阴天仙人的名字列入天界,并号召进行天界大游行,为尹喜穿上仙人的外衣。在这个故事中,老子还赋予尹喜许多头衔,并带他踏上了探索整个宇宙的修行之旅,甚至进入了九个天堂。经过这段奇妙的旅程,两位圣人最终进入了野蛮人的西部并传授道。在训练时期,“相聚”和“修行”代表着中世纪道教中最高的宗教等级,即“三洞的感受者”。在这个传说中,老子是完美的道家大师,尹喜是理想的道家学生。老子呈现为道的世俗化身,向人们传授道,让人解脱,获得救赎。尹喜则遵循了准备、测试、培训和得道的完备过程。
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《三洞珠囊》的故事延续了一个追随者想要的追求。老子向尹喜传授《道德经》及其他道家著作时,尹喜接受了很多戒律。而这些戒律只是一个初步任务,尹喜还需要很多的修行来完善他的道,所以老子给了他三年时间来完善他的“道”。尹喜全身心的投入到道的学习当中,在三年时间过后,尹喜再次表现出决心和完全的信任,所有人都认为他是一匹道家思想的黑马。最终,他再次与老子见面,老子宣布他以阴天仙人的名字列入天界,并号召进行天界大游行,为尹喜穿上仙人的外衣。在这个故事中,老子还赋予尹喜许多头衔,并带他踏上了探索整个宇宙的修行之旅,甚至进入了九重天。经过这段奇妙的旅程,两位圣人最终进入了西游并传授道。在训练时期,“相聚”和“修行”代表着中世纪道教中最高的宗教等级,即“三洞的感受者”。在这个传说中,老子是完美的道家大师,尹喜是理想的道家学生。老子呈现为道的世俗化身,向人们传授道,让人解脱,获得救赎。尹喜则遵循了准备、测试、培训和得道的完备过程。
    
The story of Laozi has taken on strong religious overtones since the [[Han dynasty]]. As [[Taoism]] took root, Laozi was worshipped as a god. Belief in the revelation of the ''Tao'' from the divine Laozi resulted in the formation of the [[Way of the Celestial Masters]], the first organized religious Taoist sect. In later mature Taoist tradition, Laozi came to be seen as a personification of the ''Tao''. He is said to have undergone numerous "transformations" and taken on various guises in various incarnations throughout history to initiate the faithful in the Way. Religious Taoism often holds that the "Old Master" did not disappear after writing the ''Tao Te Ching'' but rather spent his life traveling and revealing the ''Tao''.<ref name="Kohn 3-4"/>
 
The story of Laozi has taken on strong religious overtones since the [[Han dynasty]]. As [[Taoism]] took root, Laozi was worshipped as a god. Belief in the revelation of the ''Tao'' from the divine Laozi resulted in the formation of the [[Way of the Celestial Masters]], the first organized religious Taoist sect. In later mature Taoist tradition, Laozi came to be seen as a personification of the ''Tao''. He is said to have undergone numerous "transformations" and taken on various guises in various incarnations throughout history to initiate the faithful in the Way. Religious Taoism often holds that the "Old Master" did not disappear after writing the ''Tao Te Ching'' but rather spent his life traveling and revealing the ''Tao''.<ref name="Kohn 3-4"/>
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The story of Laozi has taken on strong religious overtones since the Han dynasty. As Taoism took root, Laozi was worshipped as a god. Belief in the revelation of the Tao from the divine Laozi resulted in the formation of the Way of the Celestial Masters, the first organized religious Taoist sect. In later mature Taoist tradition, Laozi came to be seen as a personification of the Tao. He is said to have undergone numerous "transformations" and taken on various guises in various incarnations throughout history to initiate the faithful in the Way. Religious Taoism often holds that the "Old Master" did not disappear after writing the Tao Te Ching but rather spent his life traveling and revealing the Tao. Other myths state that he was reborn 13 times after his first life during the days of Fuxi. In his last incarnation as Laozi, he lived nine hundred and ninety years and spent his life traveling to reveal the Tao.
 
The story of Laozi has taken on strong religious overtones since the Han dynasty. As Taoism took root, Laozi was worshipped as a god. Belief in the revelation of the Tao from the divine Laozi resulted in the formation of the Way of the Celestial Masters, the first organized religious Taoist sect. In later mature Taoist tradition, Laozi came to be seen as a personification of the Tao. He is said to have undergone numerous "transformations" and taken on various guises in various incarnations throughout history to initiate the faithful in the Way. Religious Taoism often holds that the "Old Master" did not disappear after writing the Tao Te Ching but rather spent his life traveling and revealing the Tao. Other myths state that he was reborn 13 times after his first life during the days of Fuxi. In his last incarnation as Laozi, he lived nine hundred and ninety years and spent his life traveling to reveal the Tao.
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自汉代以来,老子的故事就带有强烈的宗教色彩。随着道教的生根发芽,老子被尊崇为神。人们认为老子是道的启示者,由此推动了天师道的形成。天师道是第一个有组织的宗教教派。在后来成熟的道家传统中,老子逐渐被视为道的化身。据说他在整个历史中经历了无数的“转变” ,并以各种各样的化身形象来启蒙求道的信徒。道教中认为,老子在写完《道德经》之后并没有消失,而是一生都在游历和揭示道。道家神话中,老子是在他母亲凝视一颗流星的时候怀上的。据说,他在母亲的子宫里待了62年,然后出生了,生下老子时他的母亲正靠在一棵李子树上。据说老子长成了一个成年人后,满脸灰白的胡须,长长的耳垂,既象征着智慧,又象征着长寿。还有一些神话传说,老子是伏羲的化身,是伏羲13次重生的最后一次,他活了九百九十年,用他的一生修行来揭示道。
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自汉代以来,老子的故事就带有强烈的宗教色彩。随着道教的生根发芽,老子被尊崇为神。人们认为老子是道的启示者,由此推动了天师道的形成。天师道是第一个有组织的宗教教派。在后来成熟的道家传统中,老子逐渐被视为道的化身。据说他在整个历史中经历了无数的“转变” ,并以各种各样的化身形象来启蒙求道的信徒。道教中认为,老子在写完《道德经》之后并没有消失,而是一生都在游历和揭示道。在其他神话传说中,老子共有13次化身,从人皇伏羲到老子。最后一世作为老子,他活了九百九十年,用他的一生修行来揭示道。
    
==道德经==
 
==道德经==
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It is a concept used to explain ziran (自然), or harmony with the Tao. It includes the concepts that value distinctions are ideological and seeing ambition of all sorts as originating from the same source. Laozi used the term broadly with simplicity and humility as key virtues, often in contrast to selfish action. On a political level, it means avoiding such circumstances as war, harsh laws and heavy taxes. Some Taoists see a connection between wu wei and esoteric practices, such as zuowang "sitting in oblivion" (emptying the mind of bodily awareness and thought) found in the Zhuangzi.
 
It is a concept used to explain ziran (自然), or harmony with the Tao. It includes the concepts that value distinctions are ideological and seeing ambition of all sorts as originating from the same source. Laozi used the term broadly with simplicity and humility as key virtues, often in contrast to selfish action. On a political level, it means avoiding such circumstances as war, harsh laws and heavy taxes. Some Taoists see a connection between wu wei and esoteric practices, such as zuowang "sitting in oblivion" (emptying the mind of bodily awareness and thought) found in the Zhuangzi.
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Potential officials throughout Chinese history drew on the authority of non-Confucian sages, especially Laozi and Zhuangzi, to deny serving any ruler at any time. Zhuangzi, Laozi's most famous follower in traditional accounts, had a great deal of influence on Chinese literati and culture. Lao Tsu influenced millions of Chinese people by his psychological understanding. He persuaded people by his inaction and non-speaking.
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Political theorists influenced by Laozi have advocated humility in leadership and a restrained approach to statecraft, either for ethical and pacifist reasons, or for tactical ends. In a different context, various anti-authoritarian movements have embraced the Laozi teachings on the power of the weak.
    
   --[[用户:CecileLi|CecileLi]]([[用户讨论:CecileLi|讨论]])  【审校】缺失翻译 补充:无为是一个用来解释“自然”或“与道和谐”的概念。它包含价值差异是意识形态的,并将各种野心视为同一来源的概念。老子广泛地使用这个词,把朴素和谦逊作为主要美德,并常常把它们与自私的行为形成对比。在政治层面上,这意味着统治者要避免战争、实行轻徭薄赋等政策。一些道家学者认为,无为与深奥的行为有联系,如《庄子》中的左王“坐忘”(清空身体意识和思想的心灵)。
 
   --[[用户:CecileLi|CecileLi]]([[用户讨论:CecileLi|讨论]])  【审校】缺失翻译 补充:无为是一个用来解释“自然”或“与道和谐”的概念。它包含价值差异是意识形态的,并将各种野心视为同一来源的概念。老子广泛地使用这个词,把朴素和谦逊作为主要美德,并常常把它们与自私的行为形成对比。在政治层面上,这意味着统治者要避免战争、实行轻徭薄赋等政策。一些道家学者认为,无为与深奥的行为有联系,如《庄子》中的左王“坐忘”(清空身体意识和思想的心灵)。
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纵观中国历史,士大夫以老庄思想为工具,拥护王道而非霸道。庄子继承发展了老子的主要思想,对中国文化和文化产生了深远的影响。老子的修身养性、无为无言影响了千百万中国人。受到老子影响的政治理论家都提倡谦逊治国、无为而治,无论是出于伦理或和平原因,还是出于战术目的。历代反专制起义都不同程度地接纳了老子的弱者之道。
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===道教===
 
===道教===
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== 影响 ==
 
== 影响 ==
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Potential officials throughout Chinese history drew on the authority of non-Confucian sages, especially Laozi and Zhuangzi, to deny serving any ruler at any time. Zhuangzi, Laozi's most famous follower in traditional accounts, had a great deal of influence on Chinese literati and culture. Lao Tsu influenced millions of Chinese people by his psychological understanding. He persuaded people by his inaction and non-speaking.
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纵观中国历史,士大夫以老庄思想为工具,拥护王道而非霸道。庄子继承发展了老子的主要思想,对中国文化和文化产生了深远的影响。老子的修身养性、无为无言影响了千百万中国人。受到老子影响的政治理论家都提倡谦逊治国、无为而治,无论是出于伦理或和平原因,还是出于战术目的。历代反专制起义都不同程度地接纳了老子的弱者之道。
 
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Political theorists influenced by Laozi have advocated humility in leadership and a restrained approach to statecraft, either for ethical and pacifist reasons, or for tactical ends. In a different context, various anti-authoritarian movements have embraced the Laozi teachings on the power of the weak.
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纵观中国历史,士大夫以老庄思想为工具,拥护王道而非霸道。庄子继承发展了老子的主要思想,对中国文化和文化产生了深远的影响。老子的修身养性、无为无言影响了千百万中国人。
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受到老子影响的政治理论家都提倡谦逊治国、无为而治,无论是出于伦理或和平原因,还是出于战术目的。历代反专制起义都不同程度地接纳了老子的弱者之道。
      
老子是无政府主义的倡导者。左派自由主义者尤其受到老子的影响——无政府工团主义作家和活动家Rudolf Rocker在他1937年出版的《Nationalism and Culture》一书中赞扬了老子的“温和智慧”以及对政治权力与人民和社区的文化活动之间的对立的理解。在1910年发表在《大英百科全书》的文章中,Peter Kropotkin还指出,老子本质上是无政府主义概念的最早支持者之一。近年来,无政府主义者如 John p. Clark 和Ursula K. Le Guin 以不同的方式写了关于无政府主义和道教之间的联系的文章,特别强调了老子的教义。在讲述《道德经》时,Le Guin 写道,老子“并不把政治权力视为无限制的权利。他认为合法的权力是挣来的,错误的权力被篡夺了... ... 他认为自我牺牲或他人牺牲是权力的堕落,权力对任何遵循道路的人都是有效的。所以无政府主义者和道教徒会成为好朋友。”
 
老子是无政府主义的倡导者。左派自由主义者尤其受到老子的影响——无政府工团主义作家和活动家Rudolf Rocker在他1937年出版的《Nationalism and Culture》一书中赞扬了老子的“温和智慧”以及对政治权力与人民和社区的文化活动之间的对立的理解。在1910年发表在《大英百科全书》的文章中,Peter Kropotkin还指出,老子本质上是无政府主义概念的最早支持者之一。近年来,无政府主义者如 John p. Clark 和Ursula K. Le Guin 以不同的方式写了关于无政府主义和道教之间的联系的文章,特别强调了老子的教义。在讲述《道德经》时,Le Guin 写道,老子“并不把政治权力视为无限制的权利。他认为合法的权力是挣来的,错误的权力被篡夺了... ... 他认为自我牺牲或他人牺牲是权力的堕落,权力对任何遵循道路的人都是有效的。所以无政府主义者和道教徒会成为好朋友。”
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