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Many clans of the Li family trace their descent to Laozi, including the emperors of the Tang dynasty. This family was known as the Longxi Li lineage (隴西李氏). According to the Simpkinses, while many (if not all) of these lineages are questionable, they provide a testament to Laozi's impact on Chinese culture.
 
Many clans of the Li family trace their descent to Laozi, including the emperors of the Tang dynasty. This family was known as the Longxi Li lineage (隴西李氏). According to the Simpkinses, while many (if not all) of these lineages are questionable, they provide a testament to Laozi's impact on Chinese culture.
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许多李氏一族追认老子为李姓始祖,包括李唐一族。该氏族被称为陇西李氏。根据辛普森的观点,尽管其中的许多血统都让人怀疑,但是这证明了老子对于中国文化的影响力。
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许多李氏一族追认老子为李姓始祖,包括李唐一族。该氏族被称为陇西李氏。根据辛普金斯一家(the Simpinses)的观点,尽管其中的许多血统都让人怀疑,但是这证明了老子对于中国文化的影响力。
    
The third story in [[Sima Qian]] states that Laozi grew weary of the moral decay of life in [[Chengzhou]] and noted the kingdom's decline. He ventured west to live as a hermit in the unsettled frontier at the age of 80. At the western gate of the city (or kingdom), he was recognized by the guard [[Yinxi]]. The sentry asked the old master to record his wisdom for the good of the country before he would be permitted to pass. The text Laozi wrote was said to be the ''Tao Te Ching'', although the present version of the text includes additions from later periods. In some versions of the tale, the sentry was so touched by the work that he became a disciple and left with Laozi, never to be seen again.<ref>{{Harvtxt|Kohn|Lafargue|1998|pp=14, 17, 54–55}}</ref> In others, the "Old Master" journeyed all the way to India and was the teacher of [[Siddartha Gautama]], the [[Buddha]]. Others say he was the Buddha himself.<ref name="Simpkins 1999 pp 12-13"/><ref>{{Harvtxt|Morgan|2001|pp=224–25}}</ref>
 
The third story in [[Sima Qian]] states that Laozi grew weary of the moral decay of life in [[Chengzhou]] and noted the kingdom's decline. He ventured west to live as a hermit in the unsettled frontier at the age of 80. At the western gate of the city (or kingdom), he was recognized by the guard [[Yinxi]]. The sentry asked the old master to record his wisdom for the good of the country before he would be permitted to pass. The text Laozi wrote was said to be the ''Tao Te Ching'', although the present version of the text includes additions from later periods. In some versions of the tale, the sentry was so touched by the work that he became a disciple and left with Laozi, never to be seen again.<ref>{{Harvtxt|Kohn|Lafargue|1998|pp=14, 17, 54–55}}</ref> In others, the "Old Master" journeyed all the way to India and was the teacher of [[Siddartha Gautama]], the [[Buddha]]. Others say he was the Buddha himself.<ref name="Simpkins 1999 pp 12-13"/><ref>{{Harvtxt|Morgan|2001|pp=224–25}}</ref>
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''[[Wu wei]]'' (無為), literally "non-action" or "not acting", is a central concept of the ''Tao Te Ching''. The concept of ''wu wei'' is multifaceted, and reflected in the words' multiple meanings, even in English translation; it can mean "not doing anything", "not forcing", "not acting" in the theatrical sense, "creating nothingness", "acting spontaneously", and "flowing with the moment".<ref>{{Harvtxt|Watts|1975|pp=78–86}}</ref>
 
''[[Wu wei]]'' (無為), literally "non-action" or "not acting", is a central concept of the ''Tao Te Ching''. The concept of ''wu wei'' is multifaceted, and reflected in the words' multiple meanings, even in English translation; it can mean "not doing anything", "not forcing", "not acting" in the theatrical sense, "creating nothingness", "acting spontaneously", and "flowing with the moment".<ref>{{Harvtxt|Watts|1975|pp=78–86}}</ref>
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无为,字面意思是“不为”,是《道德经》的核心观点。“无为”有多重含义,也有多种英语翻译。在文学意义上,它可能意味着“不做任何事情”,“不强迫”,“不行动”,“虚无”,“自发行动”和“随时间流逝”。无为是一个概念,用于解释人与自然或与道的和谐。它包括价值区分是意识形态的概念,并将各种野心都源于同一来源。老子广泛地以简单和谦卑为主要美德来使用这个词,这常常与自私的行为形成对比。从政治角度讲,这意味着避免战争,苛刻的法律和重税之类的情况。一些道教徒认为无为与深奥的实践之间存在联系,例如在庄子中发现的坐忘(清空身体意识和思想)。
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无为,字面意思是“不为”,是《道德经》的核心观点。“无为”有多重含义,也有多种英语翻译。在文学意义上,它可能意味着“不做任何事情”,“不强迫”,“不行动”,“虚无”,“自发行动”和“随时间流逝”。
    
It is a concept used to explain ''[[ziran]]'' (自然), or harmony with the ''Tao''. It includes the concepts that value distinctions are ideological and seeing ambition of all sorts as originating from the same source. Laozi used the term broadly with [[simplicity]] and [[humility]] as key virtues, often in contrast to selfish action. On a political level, it means avoiding such circumstances as war, harsh laws and heavy taxes. Some Taoists see a connection between ''wu wei'' and [[esoteric]] practices, such as ''[[zuowang]]'' "sitting in oblivion" (emptying the mind of bodily awareness and thought) found in the Zhuangzi.<ref name="Kohn-22"/>
 
It is a concept used to explain ''[[ziran]]'' (自然), or harmony with the ''Tao''. It includes the concepts that value distinctions are ideological and seeing ambition of all sorts as originating from the same source. Laozi used the term broadly with [[simplicity]] and [[humility]] as key virtues, often in contrast to selfish action. On a political level, it means avoiding such circumstances as war, harsh laws and heavy taxes. Some Taoists see a connection between ''wu wei'' and [[esoteric]] practices, such as ''[[zuowang]]'' "sitting in oblivion" (emptying the mind of bodily awareness and thought) found in the Zhuangzi.<ref name="Kohn-22"/>
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纵观中国历史,士大夫以老庄思想为工具,拥护王道而非霸道。庄子继承发展了老子的主要思想,对中国文化和文化产生了深远的影响。老子的修身养性、无为无言影响了千百万中国人。受到老子影响的政治理论家都提倡谦逊治国、无为而治,无论是出于伦理或和平原因,还是出于战术目的。历代反专制起义都不同程度地接纳了老子的弱者之道。
 
纵观中国历史,士大夫以老庄思想为工具,拥护王道而非霸道。庄子继承发展了老子的主要思想,对中国文化和文化产生了深远的影响。老子的修身养性、无为无言影响了千百万中国人。受到老子影响的政治理论家都提倡谦逊治国、无为而治,无论是出于伦理或和平原因,还是出于战术目的。历代反专制起义都不同程度地接纳了老子的弱者之道。
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老子是无政府主义的倡导者。左派自由主义者尤其受到老子的影响——无政府工团主义作家和活动家Rudolf Rocker在他1937年出版的《Nationalism and Culture》一书中赞扬了老子的“温和智慧”以及对政治权力与人民和社区的文化活动之间的对立的理解。在1910年发表在《大英百科全书》的文章中,Peter Kropotkin还指出,老子本质上是无政府主义概念的最早支持者之一。近年来,无政府主义者如 John p. Clark 和Ursula K. Le Guin 以不同的方式写了关于无政府主义和道教之间的联系的文章,特别强调了老子的教义。在讲述《道德经》时,Le Guin 写道,老子“并不把政治权力视为无限制的权利。他认为合法的权力是挣来的,错误的权力被篡夺了... ... 他认为自我牺牲或他人牺牲是权力的堕落,权力对任何遵循道路的人都是有效的。所以无政府主义者和道教徒会成为好朋友。”
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老子是无政府主义的倡导者。左派自由主义者尤其受到老子的影响——无政府工团主义作家和活动家Rudolf Rocker在他1937年出版的《民族主义和文化》(Nationalism and Culture'')''一书中赞扬了老子的“温和智慧”以及对政治权力与人民和社区的文化活动之间的对立的理解。在1910年发表在《大英百科全书》的文章中,Peter Kropotkin还指出,老子本质上是无政府主义概念的最早支持者之一。近年来,无政府主义者如 John p. Clark 和Ursula K. Le Guin 以不同的方式写了关于无政府主义和道教之间的联系的文章,特别强调了老子的教义。在讲述《道德经》时,Le Guin 写道,老子“并不把政治权力视为无限制的权利。他认为合法的权力是挣来的,错误的权力被篡夺了... ... 他认为自我牺牲或他人牺牲是权力的堕落,权力对任何遵循道路的人都是有效的。所以无政府主义者和道教徒会成为好朋友。”
    
右翼自由主义经济学家Murray Rothbard认为老子是第一个自由主义者,他把老子的政府观点比作Friedrich Hayek的自发秩序理论。James A. Dorn对此表示赞同,他在书中写道,老子和许多18世纪的自由主义者一样,“认为最小化政府的作用,让个人自发发展,才是实现社会和经济和谐的最佳途径。”同样,Cato研究所的David Boaz在他1997年出版的《The Libertarian Reader》一书中也引用了《道德经》中的一些段落。然而,哲学家Roderick Long认为,道家思想中的自由意志主义主题实际上是从早期的儒家作家那里借鉴来的。
 
右翼自由主义经济学家Murray Rothbard认为老子是第一个自由主义者,他把老子的政府观点比作Friedrich Hayek的自发秩序理论。James A. Dorn对此表示赞同,他在书中写道,老子和许多18世纪的自由主义者一样,“认为最小化政府的作用,让个人自发发展,才是实现社会和经济和谐的最佳途径。”同样,Cato研究所的David Boaz在他1997年出版的《The Libertarian Reader》一书中也引用了《道德经》中的一些段落。然而,哲学家Roderick Long认为,道家思想中的自由意志主义主题实际上是从早期的儒家作家那里借鉴来的。
    
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