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添加65字节 、 2021年8月11日 (星期三)
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{{short description|Thought experiment devised by the physicist Erwin Schrödinger}}<br>
 
{{short description|Thought experiment devised by the physicist Erwin Schrödinger}}<br>
模板:简短说明 由物理学家欧文·薛定谔设计的思维实验
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模板:简短说明 由物理学家埃尔温·薛定谔设计的思维实验
    
{{more citations needed|date=November 2018}}<br>
 
{{more citations needed|date=November 2018}}<br>
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In the transactional interpretation the apparatus emits an advanced wave backward in time, which combined with the wave that the source emits forward in time, forms a standing wave.  The waves are seen as physically real, and the apparatus is considered an "observer".  In the transactional interpretation, the collapse of the wavefunction is "atemporal" and occurs along the whole transaction between the source and the apparatus.  The cat is never in superposition.  Rather the cat is only in one state at any particular time, regardless of when the human experimenter looks in the box.  The transactional interpretation resolves this quantum paradox.
 
In the transactional interpretation the apparatus emits an advanced wave backward in time, which combined with the wave that the source emits forward in time, forms a standing wave.  The waves are seen as physically real, and the apparatus is considered an "observer".  In the transactional interpretation, the collapse of the wavefunction is "atemporal" and occurs along the whole transaction between the source and the apparatus.  The cat is never in superposition.  Rather the cat is only in one state at any particular time, regardless of when the human experimenter looks in the box.  The transactional interpretation resolves this quantum paradox.
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在'''<font color=”#ff8000”>交易诠释transactional interpretation</font>'''中,该装置在时间上向后发射前进波,再与源在时间上向前发射的波结合,形成驻波。这些波被视为物理上真实的波,这个装置被视为“观察者”。在交易诠释中,波函数的坍缩是不受时间影响的,并且发生在源和器件之间的整个过程中。这只猫从来不处于叠加状态。不管人类实验者什么时候看盒子,猫在任何特定的时间都只处于一种状态。交易诠释解决了这一量子悖论。
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在'''<font color=”#ff8000”>交易诠释transactional interpretation</font>'''中,实验设备发射一个逆时间方向的超前波,超前波与源发射的顺时间方向的波互相作用,形成驻波。这些波在物理上被视为真实存在,实验设备被视为“观察者”。在交易诠释中,波函数的坍缩是“非时间性的”,并且发生在源和设备发出的波之间的整个过程中。猫从未处于叠加状。相反,不管人类实验者什么时候看盒子,猫在任何特定时间都只处于一种状态。这样交易诠释九解决了这一量子悖论。
          
===Zeno effects===<br>
 
===Zeno effects===<br>
芝诺效应
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量子芝诺效应
    
The [[Quantum Zeno effect|Zeno effect]] is known to cause delays to any changes from the initial state.
 
The [[Quantum Zeno effect|Zeno effect]] is known to cause delays to any changes from the initial state.
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The Zeno effect is known to cause delays to any changes from the initial state.
 
The Zeno effect is known to cause delays to any changes from the initial state.
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众所周知,'''<font color=”#ff8000”>芝诺效应zeno effect</font>'''会对初始状态的任何更改造成延迟。
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'''<font color=”#ff8000”>量子芝诺效应zeno effect</font>'''指延缓量子从对初始状态到其他状态的演化。
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On the other hand, the anti-Zeno effect accelerates the changes. For example, if you peek a look into the cat box frequently you may either cause delays to the fateful choice or, conversely, accelerate it.  Both the Zeno effect and the anti-Zeno effect are real and known to happen to real atoms. The quantum system being measured must be strongly coupled to the surrounding environment (in this case to the apparatus, the experiment room ... etc.) in order to obtain more accurate information. But while there is no information passed to the outside world, it is considered to be a quasi-measurement, but as soon as the information about the cat's well-being is passed on to the outside world (by peeking into the box) quasi-measurement turns into measurement.  Quasi-measurements, like measurements, cause the Zeno effects.  Zeno effects teach us that even without peeking into the box, the death of the cat would have been delayed or accelerated anyway due to its environment.
 
On the other hand, the anti-Zeno effect accelerates the changes. For example, if you peek a look into the cat box frequently you may either cause delays to the fateful choice or, conversely, accelerate it.  Both the Zeno effect and the anti-Zeno effect are real and known to happen to real atoms. The quantum system being measured must be strongly coupled to the surrounding environment (in this case to the apparatus, the experiment room ... etc.) in order to obtain more accurate information. But while there is no information passed to the outside world, it is considered to be a quasi-measurement, but as soon as the information about the cat's well-being is passed on to the outside world (by peeking into the box) quasi-measurement turns into measurement.  Quasi-measurements, like measurements, cause the Zeno effects.  Zeno effects teach us that even without peeking into the box, the death of the cat would have been delayed or accelerated anyway due to its environment.
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另一方面,反芝诺效应加速了这种变化。例如,如果你频繁地窥视放置猫的盒子,则可能会导致延迟或加速你的决定性的选择。芝诺效应和反芝诺效应都是真实存在的,并且已知会发生在真实的原子上。为了获得更准确的信息,被测量的量子系统必须与周围的环境牢固的耦合(在这种情况下,与仪器、实验室... ..等等耦合)但是,当没有信息传递给外界时,这被认为是一种准测量,但是一旦有关猫的健康状况的信息传递给外部外界(通过窥视盒子) ,准测量就变成了测量。类似于测量的准测量会引起芝诺效应。芝诺效应告诉我们,即使不窥视盒子,猫的死亡也会因为它所处的环境而延迟或加速。
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另一方面,存在加速量子系统演化的反芝诺效应。例如,如果你频繁地窥视放置猫的盒子,你可能会延迟或加速决定性选择。芝诺效应和反芝诺效应都是真实存在的,并且已知会发生在真实的原子上。被测量的量子系统必须与周围环境(在本例中是仪器、实验室等)强耦合以便获得更准确的信息。但是,在薛定谔的猫实验中没有信息传递到盒子外部,这种与环境的耦合被认为是一种准测量,但是一旦猫的健康状况(通过窥视盒子)传递到了外部世界,准测量就变成了测量。准测量和测量一样都会引起芝诺效应。芝诺效应告诉我们,即使不窥视盒子,猫的死亡也会因为环境而被延迟或加速。
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According to objective collapse theories, superpositions are destroyed spontaneously (irrespective of external observation), when some objective physical threshold (of time, mass, temperature, irreversibility, etc.) is reached. Thus, the cat would be expected to have settled into a definite state long before the box is opened. This could loosely be phrased as "the cat observes itself", or "the environment observes the cat".
 
According to objective collapse theories, superpositions are destroyed spontaneously (irrespective of external observation), when some objective physical threshold (of time, mass, temperature, irreversibility, etc.) is reached. Thus, the cat would be expected to have settled into a definite state long before the box is opened. This could loosely be phrased as "the cat observes itself", or "the environment observes the cat".
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根据''<font color=”#ff8000”>客观塌缩理论objective collapse theories</font>''',当达到某种客观物理阈值(时间、质量、温度、不可逆性等)时,叠加会自发地被破坏(与外部观察无关)。因此,猫应该在盒子打开之前很久就已经进入了一个确定的状态。这可以不严谨地表述为“猫自己观察自己” ,或者“环境观察猫”。
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根据''<font color=”#ff8000”>客观塌缩理论objective collapse theories</font>'',当达到客观物理阈值(时间、质量、温度、不可逆性等)时,叠加态会自发地被破坏(与外部观察无关)。因此,猫应该在盒子被打开之前很久就已经稳定在一个确定状态。这可以粗略地称为“猫观察自己” ,或者“环境观察猫”。
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Objective collapse theories require a modification of standard quantum mechanics to allow superpositions to be destroyed by the process of time evolution.
 
Objective collapse theories require a modification of standard quantum mechanics to allow superpositions to be destroyed by the process of time evolution.
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客观的坍塌理论要求标准量子力学进行修改,以使叠加可以被时间演化过程所破坏。
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客观的坍塌理论需要对标准量子力学进行修改,以允许叠加态被时间演化过程所破坏。
          
==Applications and tests==<br>
 
==Applications and tests==<br>
应用程序和测试
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应用和测试
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Schrödinger's cat quantum superposition of states and effect of the environment through decoherence
 
Schrödinger's cat quantum superposition of states and effect of the environment through decoherence
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薛定谔的猫量子叠加态和通过退相干的环境效应
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薛定谔的猫量子叠加态和退相干环境效应
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The experiment as described is a purely theoretical one, and the machine proposed is not known to have been constructed. However, successful experiments involving similar principles, e.g. superpositions of relatively large (by the standards of quantum physics) objects have been performed. These experiments do not show that a cat-sized object can be superposed, but the known upper limit on "cat states" has been pushed upwards by them. In many cases the state is short-lived, even when cooled to near absolute zero.
 
The experiment as described is a purely theoretical one, and the machine proposed is not known to have been constructed. However, successful experiments involving similar principles, e.g. superpositions of relatively large (by the standards of quantum physics) objects have been performed. These experiments do not show that a cat-sized object can be superposed, but the known upper limit on "cat states" has been pushed upwards by them. In many cases the state is short-lived, even when cooled to near absolute zero.
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所描述的实验是纯理论性的实验,所提出的机器尚未被构造出来,但是已经进行了涉及类似原理的成功试验,例如:。相对较大的物体(按量子物理学的标准)的叠加已经完成。这些实验并没有表明可以将猫大小的物体叠加,但是已知的“猫状态”的上限已经被它们向上推了。在许多情况下,即使冷却到接近绝对零度,这种状态也是短暂的。
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薛定谔的猫实验是纯理论性的,所涉及的实验装置并未实际建成,然而,很多涉及类似原理的实验已经取得成功,例如一些相对较大(按量子物理学的标准)系统的叠加态已经实现。这些实验并没有表明与猫大小一样的物体可以处于重叠态,但是这些实验提升了存在“猫态”的系统的尺寸上限。在很多实验中,即使冷却到接近绝对零度,这种状态也只能短暂存在。
    
* A "cat state" has been achieved with photons.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.science20.com/news_articles/schr%C3%B6dingers_cat_now_made_light|title=Schrödinger's Cat Now Made Of Light|date=27 August 2014|website=www.science20.com|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120318091956/http://www.science20.com/news_articles/schr%C3%B6dingers_cat_now_made_light|archivedate=18 March 2012}}</ref><br>
 
* A "cat state" has been achieved with photons.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.science20.com/news_articles/schr%C3%B6dingers_cat_now_made_light|title=Schrödinger's Cat Now Made Of Light|date=27 August 2014|website=www.science20.com|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120318091956/http://www.science20.com/news_articles/schr%C3%B6dingers_cat_now_made_light|archivedate=18 March 2012}}</ref><br>
光子已经达到了“猫状态”。
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多光子的“猫态”已经实验
    
* A beryllium ion has been trapped in a superposed state.<ref>[http://www.quantumsciencephilippines.com/seminar/seminar-topics/SchrodingerCatAtom.pdf C. Monroe, et al.  ''A "Schrödinger Cat" Superposition State of an Atom''] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120107013418/http://www.quantumsciencephilippines.com/seminar/seminar-topics/SchrodingerCatAtom.pdf |date=2012-01-07 }}</ref><br>
 
* A beryllium ion has been trapped in a superposed state.<ref>[http://www.quantumsciencephilippines.com/seminar/seminar-topics/SchrodingerCatAtom.pdf C. Monroe, et al.  ''A "Schrödinger Cat" Superposition State of an Atom''] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120107013418/http://www.quantumsciencephilippines.com/seminar/seminar-topics/SchrodingerCatAtom.pdf |date=2012-01-07 }}</ref><br>
铍离子已经以叠加态被捕获。
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观测到处于叠加态的被捕获的。
    
* An experiment involving a [[superconducting quantum interference device]] ("SQUID") has been linked to the theme of the thought experiment: "The superposition state does not correspond to a billion electrons flowing one way and a billion others flowing the other way. Superconducting electrons move en masse. All the superconducting electrons in the SQUID flow both ways around the loop at once when they are in the Schrödinger's cat state."<ref>[https://physicsworld.com/a/schrodingers-cat-comes-into-view/ Physics World: ''Schrödinger's cat comes into view'']</ref><br>
 
* An experiment involving a [[superconducting quantum interference device]] ("SQUID") has been linked to the theme of the thought experiment: "The superposition state does not correspond to a billion electrons flowing one way and a billion others flowing the other way. Superconducting electrons move en masse. All the superconducting electrons in the SQUID flow both ways around the loop at once when they are in the Schrödinger's cat state."<ref>[https://physicsworld.com/a/schrodingers-cat-comes-into-view/ Physics World: ''Schrödinger's cat comes into view'']</ref><br>
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