更改

跳到导航 跳到搜索
添加1,886字节 、 2021年8月18日 (星期三)
无编辑摘要
第675行: 第675行:     
[https://archive.is/20121204184041/http://www.tuhh.de/rzt/rzt/it/QM/cat.html#sect5 Schroedinger: "The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics." 5. Are the Variables Really Blurred?]</ref>
 
[https://archive.is/20121204184041/http://www.tuhh.de/rzt/rzt/it/QM/cat.html#sect5 Schroedinger: "The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics." 5. Are the Variables Really Blurred?]</ref>
 +
 +
One can even set up quite ridiculous cases. A cat is penned up in a steel chamber, along with the following device (which must be secured against direct interference by the cat): in a Geiger counter, there is a tiny bit of radioactive substance, so small, that perhaps in the course of the hour one of the atoms decays, but also, with equal probability, perhaps none; if it happens, the counter tube discharges and through a relay releases a hammer that shatters a small flask of hydrocyanic acid. If one has left this entire system to itself for an hour, one would say that the cat still lives if meanwhile no atom has decayed. The first atomic decay would have poisoned it. The psi-function of the entire system would express this by having in it the living and dead cat (pardon the expression) mixed or smeared out in equal parts.
 +
 +
人们甚至可以
    
[https://archive.is/20121204184041/http://www.tuhh.de/rzt/rzt/it/QM/cat.html#sect5 Schroedinger: "The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics." 5. Are the Variables Really Blurred?]</ref>
 
[https://archive.is/20121204184041/http://www.tuhh.de/rzt/rzt/it/QM/cat.html#sect5 Schroedinger: "The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics." 5. Are the Variables Really Blurred?]</ref>
第697行: 第701行:     
It is typical of these cases that an indeterminacy originally restricted to the atomic domain becomes transformed into macroscopic indeterminacy, which can then be resolved by direct observation. That prevents us from so naïvely accepting as valid a "blurred model" for representing reality. In itself, it would not embody anything unclear or contradictory. '''<font color="#32CD32">There is a difference between a shaky or out-of-focus photograph and a snapshot of clouds and fog banks.}}</font>'''
 
It is typical of these cases that an indeterminacy originally restricted to the atomic domain becomes transformed into macroscopic indeterminacy, which can then be resolved by direct observation. That prevents us from so naïvely accepting as valid a "blurred model" for representing reality. In itself, it would not embody anything unclear or contradictory. '''<font color="#32CD32">There is a difference between a shaky or out-of-focus photograph and a snapshot of clouds and fog banks.}}</font>'''
 +
 +
It is typical of these cases that an indeterminacy originally restricted to the atomic domain becomes transformed into macroscopic indeterminacy, which can then be resolved by direct observation. That prevents us from so naïvely accepting as valid a "blurred model" for representing reality. In itself, it would not embody anything unclear or contradictory. There is a difference between a shaky or out-of-focus photograph and a snapshot of clouds and fog banks.
    
在这些情况下,典型的情况是,最初局限于原子域的不确定性转变为宏观不确定性,这种不确定性可以通过直接观察得到解决。这使我们无法轻易地接受代表现实的“模糊模型”作为有效的模型。它本身不会包含任何不清楚或矛盾的东西。'''<font color="#32CD32">摇晃的失焦的照片与云层和雾层的快照是有区别的。</font>'''
 
在这些情况下,典型的情况是,最初局限于原子域的不确定性转变为宏观不确定性,这种不确定性可以通过直接观察得到解决。这使我们无法轻易地接受代表现实的“模糊模型”作为有效的模型。它本身不会包含任何不清楚或矛盾的东西。'''<font color="#32CD32">摇晃的失焦的照片与云层和雾层的快照是有区别的。</font>'''
  −
      
Schrödinger's famous [[thought experiment]] poses the question, "''when'' does a quantum system stop existing as a superposition of states and become one or the other?"  (More technically, when does the actual quantum state stop being a non-trivial [[linear combination]] of states, each of which resembles different classical states, and instead begin to have a unique classical description?) If the cat survives, it remembers only being alive. But explanations of the EPR experiments that are consistent with standard microscopic quantum mechanics require that macroscopic objects, such as cats and notebooks, do not always have unique classical descriptions. The thought experiment illustrates this apparent paradox. Our intuition says that no observer can be in a mixture of states—yet the cat, it seems from the thought experiment, can be such a mixture. Is the cat required to be an observer, or does its existence in a single well-defined classical state require another external observer? Each alternative seemed absurd to Einstein, who was impressed by the ability of the thought experiment to highlight these issues. In a letter to Schrödinger dated 1950, he wrote:
 
Schrödinger's famous [[thought experiment]] poses the question, "''when'' does a quantum system stop existing as a superposition of states and become one or the other?"  (More technically, when does the actual quantum state stop being a non-trivial [[linear combination]] of states, each of which resembles different classical states, and instead begin to have a unique classical description?) If the cat survives, it remembers only being alive. But explanations of the EPR experiments that are consistent with standard microscopic quantum mechanics require that macroscopic objects, such as cats and notebooks, do not always have unique classical descriptions. The thought experiment illustrates this apparent paradox. Our intuition says that no observer can be in a mixture of states—yet the cat, it seems from the thought experiment, can be such a mixture. Is the cat required to be an observer, or does its existence in a single well-defined classical state require another external observer? Each alternative seemed absurd to Einstein, who was impressed by the ability of the thought experiment to highlight these issues. In a letter to Schrödinger dated 1950, he wrote:
第709行: 第713行:     
{{Quote|You are the only contemporary physicist, besides [[Max von Laue|Laue]], who sees that one cannot get around the assumption of reality, if only one is honest. Most of them simply do not see what sort of risky game they are playing with reality—reality as something independent of what is experimentally established. Their interpretation is, however, refuted most elegantly by your system of radioactive atom + amplifier + charge of gun powder + cat in a box, in which the psi-function of the system contains both the cat alive and blown to bits. Nobody really doubts that the presence or absence of the cat is something independent of the act of observation.<ref>{{cite journal|title=Induction and Scientific Realism: Einstein versus van Fraassen Part Three: Einstein, Aim-Oriented Empiricism and the Discovery of Special and General Relativity|first=Nicholas|last=Maxwell|date=1 January 1993|volume=44|issue=2|pages=275–305|doi=10.1093/bjps/44.2.275|jstor=687649|journal=The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science}}</ref>}}<br>
 
{{Quote|You are the only contemporary physicist, besides [[Max von Laue|Laue]], who sees that one cannot get around the assumption of reality, if only one is honest. Most of them simply do not see what sort of risky game they are playing with reality—reality as something independent of what is experimentally established. Their interpretation is, however, refuted most elegantly by your system of radioactive atom + amplifier + charge of gun powder + cat in a box, in which the psi-function of the system contains both the cat alive and blown to bits. Nobody really doubts that the presence or absence of the cat is something independent of the act of observation.<ref>{{cite journal|title=Induction and Scientific Realism: Einstein versus van Fraassen Part Three: Einstein, Aim-Oriented Empiricism and the Discovery of Special and General Relativity|first=Nicholas|last=Maxwell|date=1 January 1993|volume=44|issue=2|pages=275–305|doi=10.1093/bjps/44.2.275|jstor=687649|journal=The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science}}</ref>}}<br>
 +
 +
You are the only contemporary physicist, besides Laue, who sees that one cannot get around the assumption of reality, if only one is honest. Most of them simply do not see what sort of risky game they are playing with reality—reality as something independent of what is experimentally established. Their interpretation is, however, refuted most elegantly by your system of radioactive atom + amplifier + charge of gun powder + cat in a box, in which the psi-function of the system contains both the cat alive and blown to bits. Nobody really doubts that the presence or absence of the cat is something independent of the act of observation.
    
除了劳厄之外,您是唯一的当代物理学家,他发现只有诚实的人才能绕开对现实的假设。他们中的大多数人根本不知道他们在玩什么样的冒险游戏-现实是独立于实验建立的东西。但是,你的系统——放射性原子+放大器+火药电荷+盒子里的猫优雅地驳斥了他们的解释,在这个系统里,psi功能既包含活的猫,也包含被炸成碎片的猫。没有人真的怀疑猫的存在或不存在与观察行为无关。<br>
 
除了劳厄之外,您是唯一的当代物理学家,他发现只有诚实的人才能绕开对现实的假设。他们中的大多数人根本不知道他们在玩什么样的冒险游戏-现实是独立于实验建立的东西。但是,你的系统——放射性原子+放大器+火药电荷+盒子里的猫优雅地驳斥了他们的解释,在这个系统里,psi功能既包含活的猫,也包含被炸成碎片的猫。没有人真的怀疑猫的存在或不存在与观察行为无关。<br>
第736行: 第742行:  
<!-- Deleted image removed: [[File:Schrodingers-cat-desmos-graph.png|thumb|The likelihood for which Schrödinger's cat is dead is invariant irrespective of time.]] -->
 
<!-- Deleted image removed: [[File:Schrodingers-cat-desmos-graph.png|thumb|The likelihood for which Schrödinger's cat is dead is invariant irrespective of time.]] -->
   −
<!-- Deleted image removed: The likelihood for which Schrödinger's cat is dead is invariant irrespective of time. --><br>
+
 
薛定谔的猫死亡的可能性与时间无关。
+
<!-- Deleted image removed: The likelihood for which Schrödinger's cat is dead is invariant irrespective of time. -->
 +
 
    
<!-- Deleted image removed: The likelihood for which Schrödinger's cat is dead is invariant irrespective of time.-->
 
<!-- Deleted image removed: The likelihood for which Schrödinger's cat is dead is invariant irrespective of time.-->
第748行: 第755行:     
量子力学的主流诠释之一是哥本哈根诠释。该诠释认为,一个系统在观察时将不再处于叠加态,而是坍缩为叠加态中的任意一种状态。薛定谔的思维实验清楚地表明,哥本哈根诠释没有明确定义测量和观察的本质。实验可以解释为,盒子关闭时,系统处于“衰变的原子核/死猫”和“未衰变的原子核/活猫”叠加态中,只有打开盒子进行观察时,波函数才会坍缩成这两种状态之一。
 
量子力学的主流诠释之一是哥本哈根诠释。该诠释认为,一个系统在观察时将不再处于叠加态,而是坍缩为叠加态中的任意一种状态。薛定谔的思维实验清楚地表明,哥本哈根诠释没有明确定义测量和观察的本质。实验可以解释为,盒子关闭时,系统处于“衰变的原子核/死猫”和“未衰变的原子核/活猫”叠加态中,只有打开盒子进行观察时,波函数才会坍缩成这两种状态之一。
  −
      
However, one of the main scientists associated with the Copenhagen interpretation, [[Niels Bohr]], never had in mind the observer-induced collapse of the wave function, as he did not regard the wave function as physically real, but a statistical tool; thus, Schrödinger's cat did not pose any riddle to him. The cat would be either dead or alive long before the box is opened by a conscious [[Observer (quantum physics)|observer]].<ref name='Faye2008'>{{cite web | url = http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/qm-copenhagen/ | title = Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics | accessdate = 2010-09-19 | last = Faye | first = J | date = 2008-01-24 | encyclopedia = [[Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy]] | publisher = The Metaphysics Research Lab Center for the Study of Language and Information, [[Stanford University]]}}</ref> Analysis of an actual experiment found that measurement alone (for example by a Geiger counter) is sufficient to collapse a quantum wave function before there is any conscious observation of the measurement,<ref name='Carpenter2006'>{{cite journal | title = The death of Schroedinger's cat and of consciousness-based wave-function collapse | journal = [[Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie]] | year = 2006 | author = Carpenter RHS, Anderson AJ | volume = 31 | issue = 1 | pages = 45–52| id = | url = http://www.ensmp.fr/aflb/AFLB-311/aflb311m387.pdf  | accessdate = 2010-09-10 |archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20061130173850/http://www.ensmp.fr/aflb/AFLB-311/aflb311m387.pdf |archivedate = 2006-11-30}}</ref> although the validity of their design is disputed.<ref name='Okon2006'>{{cite journal | title = How to Back up or Refute Quantum Theories of Consciousness | journal = Mind and Matter | year = 2016 | author = Okón E, Sebastián MA | volume = 14 | issue = 1 | pages = 25–49}}</ref> (The view that the "observation" is taken when a particle from the nucleus hits the detector can be developed into [[objective collapse theories]]. The thought experiment requires an "unconscious observation" by the detector in order for waveform collapse to occur. In contrast, the [[many worlds]] approach denies that collapse ever occurs.)
 
However, one of the main scientists associated with the Copenhagen interpretation, [[Niels Bohr]], never had in mind the observer-induced collapse of the wave function, as he did not regard the wave function as physically real, but a statistical tool; thus, Schrödinger's cat did not pose any riddle to him. The cat would be either dead or alive long before the box is opened by a conscious [[Observer (quantum physics)|observer]].<ref name='Faye2008'>{{cite web | url = http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/qm-copenhagen/ | title = Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics | accessdate = 2010-09-19 | last = Faye | first = J | date = 2008-01-24 | encyclopedia = [[Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy]] | publisher = The Metaphysics Research Lab Center for the Study of Language and Information, [[Stanford University]]}}</ref> Analysis of an actual experiment found that measurement alone (for example by a Geiger counter) is sufficient to collapse a quantum wave function before there is any conscious observation of the measurement,<ref name='Carpenter2006'>{{cite journal | title = The death of Schroedinger's cat and of consciousness-based wave-function collapse | journal = [[Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie]] | year = 2006 | author = Carpenter RHS, Anderson AJ | volume = 31 | issue = 1 | pages = 45–52| id = | url = http://www.ensmp.fr/aflb/AFLB-311/aflb311m387.pdf  | accessdate = 2010-09-10 |archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20061130173850/http://www.ensmp.fr/aflb/AFLB-311/aflb311m387.pdf |archivedate = 2006-11-30}}</ref> although the validity of their design is disputed.<ref name='Okon2006'>{{cite journal | title = How to Back up or Refute Quantum Theories of Consciousness | journal = Mind and Matter | year = 2016 | author = Okón E, Sebastián MA | volume = 14 | issue = 1 | pages = 25–49}}</ref> (The view that the "observation" is taken when a particle from the nucleus hits the detector can be developed into [[objective collapse theories]]. The thought experiment requires an "unconscious observation" by the detector in order for waveform collapse to occur. In contrast, the [[many worlds]] approach denies that collapse ever occurs.)
   −
However, one of the main scientists associated with the Copenhagen interpretation, Niels Bohr, never had in mind the observer-induced collapse of the wave function, as he did not regard the wave function as physically real, but a statistical tool; thus, Schrödinger's cat did not pose any riddle to him. The cat would be either dead or alive long before the box is opened by a conscious observer. Analysis of an actual experiment found that measurement alone (for example by a Geiger counter) is sufficient to collapse a quantum wave function before there is any conscious observation of the measurement, although the validity of their design is disputed. (The view that the "observation" is taken when a particle from the nucleus hits the detector can be developed into objective collapse theories. The thought experiment requires an "unconscious observation" by the detector in order for waveform collapse to occur. In contrast, ’’’<font color=”#32CD32”>the many worlds approach </font>’’’denies that collapse ever occurs.)
+
However, one of the main scientists associated with the Copenhagen interpretation, Niels Bohr, never had in mind the observer-induced collapse of the wave function, as he did not regard the wave function as physically real, but a statistical tool; thus, Schrödinger's cat did not pose any riddle to him. The cat would be either dead or alive long before the box is opened by a conscious observer. Analysis of an actual experiment found that measurement alone (for example by a Geiger counter) is sufficient to collapse a quantum wave function before there is any conscious observation of the measurement, although the validity of their design is disputed. (The view that the "observation" is taken when a particle from the nucleus hits the detector can be developed into objective collapse theories. The thought experiment requires an "unconscious observation" by the detector in order for waveform collapse to occur. In contrast, "<font color=”#32CD32”>the many worlds approach" </font>denies that collapse ever occurs.)
    
但是,哥本哈根诠释的主要科学家尼尔斯·玻尔从未认为是观察者引起了波函数的坍缩,因为他并不认为波函数真实存在,它只是一个统计工具。因此薛定谔的猫对他来说不是什么谜题。早在意识的观察者打开盒子前,猫就已经死去或者仍然活着。分析一个真实的实验会发现,尽管实验涉及的有效性尚有争议,在有意识的观察者对测量结果进行观察前,测量本身(比如盖革计数器)就足以使量子波函数发生坍缩。(这种当原子核中的粒子撞击监测器时“观察”已经发生的观点可以发展为客观坍缩理论。在薛定谔的思维实验中,波函数要发生坍缩,监测器需要进行“无意识观察”。相比之下,“多世界理论”否认曾发生过坍缩。
 
但是,哥本哈根诠释的主要科学家尼尔斯·玻尔从未认为是观察者引起了波函数的坍缩,因为他并不认为波函数真实存在,它只是一个统计工具。因此薛定谔的猫对他来说不是什么谜题。早在意识的观察者打开盒子前,猫就已经死去或者仍然活着。分析一个真实的实验会发现,尽管实验涉及的有效性尚有争议,在有意识的观察者对测量结果进行观察前,测量本身(比如盖革计数器)就足以使量子波函数发生坍缩。(这种当原子核中的粒子撞击监测器时“观察”已经发生的观点可以发展为客观坍缩理论。在薛定谔的思维实验中,波函数要发生坍缩,监测器需要进行“无意识观察”。相比之下,“多世界理论”否认曾发生过坍缩。
第772行: 第777行:     
1957年,休·埃弗莱特提出了量子力学的多世界诠释,该诠释并不把观察视为一个特殊过程。在多世界诠释中,盒子打开后,活猫和死猫仍然存在,但彼此之间是退相干的。换句话说,盒子被打开时,观察者和可能死亡的猫分裂成两个分支:观察者看着盒中的死猫,观察者看着盒中的活猫。但由于死态和活态是退相干的,它们之间无法发生有效的交流或相互作用。
 
1957年,休·埃弗莱特提出了量子力学的多世界诠释,该诠释并不把观察视为一个特殊过程。在多世界诠释中,盒子打开后,活猫和死猫仍然存在,但彼此之间是退相干的。换句话说,盒子被打开时,观察者和可能死亡的猫分裂成两个分支:观察者看着盒中的死猫,观察者看着盒中的活猫。但由于死态和活态是退相干的,它们之间无法发生有效的交流或相互作用。
 +
 +
 +
      第891行: 第899行:  
薛定谔的猫实验是纯理论性的,所涉及的实验装置并被制造出来。但是,很多涉及类似原理的实验已经取得成功,例如一些(在量子力学标准中)相对较大系统的叠加态已经实现。这些实验并没有表明与猫大小一样的物体可以处于叠加态,但是这些实验提升了存在“猫态”的系统的大小上线。在很多实验中,即使冷却到接近绝对零度,猫态也只能短暂存在。
 
薛定谔的猫实验是纯理论性的,所涉及的实验装置并被制造出来。但是,很多涉及类似原理的实验已经取得成功,例如一些(在量子力学标准中)相对较大系统的叠加态已经实现。这些实验并没有表明与猫大小一样的物体可以处于叠加态,但是这些实验提升了存在“猫态”的系统的大小上线。在很多实验中,即使冷却到接近绝对零度,猫态也只能短暂存在。
   −
* A "cat state" has been achieved with photons.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.science20.com/news_articles/schr%C3%B6dingers_cat_now_made_light|title=Schrödinger's Cat Now Made Of Light|date=27 August 2014|website=www.science20.com|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120318091956/http://www.science20.com/news_articles/schr%C3%B6dingers_cat_now_made_light|archivedate=18 March 2012}}</ref><br>
+
* A "cat state" has been achieved with photons.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.science20.com/news_articles/schr%C3%B6dingers_cat_now_made_light|title=Schrödinger's Cat Now Made Of Light|date=27 August 2014|website=www.science20.com|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120318091956/http://www.science20.com/news_articles/schr%C3%B6dingers_cat_now_made_light|archivedate=18 March 2012}}</ref><br>多光子的“猫态”已经实现。
多光子的“猫态”已经实现。
     −
* A beryllium ion has been trapped in a superposed state.<ref>[http://www.quantumsciencephilippines.com/seminar/seminar-topics/SchrodingerCatAtom.pdf C. Monroe, et al.  ''A "Schrödinger Cat" Superposition State of an Atom''] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120107013418/http://www.quantumsciencephilippines.com/seminar/seminar-topics/SchrodingerCatAtom.pdf |date=2012-01-07 }}</ref><br>
+
* A beryllium ion has been trapped in a superposed state.<ref>[http://www.quantumsciencephilippines.com/seminar/seminar-topics/SchrodingerCatAtom.pdf C. Monroe, et al.  ''A "Schrödinger Cat" Superposition State of an Atom''] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120107013418/http://www.quantumsciencephilippines.com/seminar/seminar-topics/SchrodingerCatAtom.pdf |date=2012-01-07 }}</ref><br>观测到处于叠加态的被捕获的铍离子。
观测到处于叠加态的被捕获的铍离子。
     −
* An experiment involving a [[superconducting quantum interference device]] ("SQUID") has been linked to the theme of the thought experiment: "The superposition state does not correspond to a billion electrons flowing one way and a billion others flowing the other way. Superconducting electrons move en masse. All the superconducting electrons in the SQUID flow both ways around the loop at once when they are in the Schrödinger's cat state."<ref>[https://physicsworld.com/a/schrodingers-cat-comes-into-view/ Physics World: ''Schrödinger's cat comes into view'']</ref><br>
+
* An experiment involving a [[superconducting quantum interference device]] ("SQUID") has been linked to the theme of the thought experiment: "The superposition state does not correspond to a billion electrons flowing one way and a billion others flowing the other way. Superconducting electrons move en masse. All the superconducting electrons in the SQUID flow both ways around the loop at once when they are in the Schrödinger's cat state."<ref>[https://physicsworld.com/a/schrodingers-cat-comes-into-view/ Physics World: ''Schrödinger's cat comes into view'']</ref><br>一项涉及超导量子干涉仪( SQUID)的实验与薛定谔思想实验的主题联系在一起:“叠加态并不是说十亿个电子正向流动,十亿个电子反向流动。超导电子总是沿同一方向移动,当超导量子干涉仪中的所有超导电子都处于薛定谔的猫态时,它们会同时在回路中双向流动。“
一项涉及超导量子干涉仪( SQUID)的实验与薛定谔思想实验的主题联系在一起:“叠加态并不是说十亿个电子正向流动,十亿个电子反向流动。超导电子总是沿同一方向移动,当超导量子干涉仪中的所有超导电子都处于薛定谔的猫态时,它们会同时在回路中双向流动。“
     −
* A [[piezoelectric]] "tuning fork" has been constructed, which can be placed into a superposition of vibrating and non vibrating states. The resonator comprises about 10 trillion atoms.<ref>[http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=quantum-microphone Scientific American :'' Macro-Weirdness: "Quantum Microphone" Puts Naked-Eye Object in 2 Places at Once: A new device tests the limits of Schrödinger's cat''] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120319021316/http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=quantum-microphone |date=2012-03-19 }}</ref><br>
+
* A [[piezoelectric]] "tuning fork" has been constructed, which can be placed into a superposition of vibrating and non vibrating states. The resonator comprises about 10 trillion atoms.<ref>[http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=quantum-microphone Scientific American :'' Macro-Weirdness: "Quantum Microphone" Puts Naked-Eye Object in 2 Places at Once: A new device tests the limits of Schrödinger's cat''] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120319021316/http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=quantum-microphone |date=2012-03-19 }}</ref><br>一种压电“音叉”已经被制造出来,可被置于振动和非振动状态的叠加态。谐振器包含约10万亿个原子。
一种压电“音叉”已经被制造出来,可被置于振动和非振动状态的叠加态。谐振器包含约10万亿个原子。
     −
* An experiment involving a flu virus has been proposed.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.technologyreview.com/blog/arxiv/24101/|title=How to Create Quantum Superpositions of Living Things|first=Emerging Technology from the|last=arXiv|publisher=}}</ref><br>
+
* An experiment involving a flu virus has been proposed.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.technologyreview.com/blog/arxiv/24101/|title=How to Create Quantum Superpositions of Living Things|first=Emerging Technology from the|last=arXiv|publisher=}}</ref><br>一项涉及流感病毒的实验已被提出。
一项涉及流感病毒的实验已被提出。
     −
* An experiment involving a bacterium and an electromechanical oscillator has been proposed.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2015/sep/21/could-schrodingers-bacterium-be-placed-in-a-quantum-superposition|title=Could 'Schrödinger's bacterium' be placed in a quantum superposition?|website=physicsworld.com|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160730174613/http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2015/sep/21/could-schrodingers-bacterium-be-placed-in-a-quantum-superposition|archivedate=2016-07-30}}</ref><br>
+
* An experiment involving a bacterium and an electromechanical oscillator has been proposed.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2015/sep/21/could-schrodingers-bacterium-be-placed-in-a-quantum-superposition|title=Could 'Schrödinger's bacterium' be placed in a quantum superposition?|website=physicsworld.com|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160730174613/http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2015/sep/21/could-schrodingers-bacterium-be-placed-in-a-quantum-superposition|archivedate=2016-07-30}}</ref><br>一项利用机电振荡器和细菌的实验已被提出。
一项利用机电振荡器和细菌的实验已被提出。
       
29

个编辑

导航菜单