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Per Bak (December 8, 1948 – October 16, 2002) was a Danish theoretical physicist who coauthored the 1987 academic paper that coined the term "self-organized criticality."
 
Per Bak (December 8, 1948 – October 16, 2002) was a Danish theoretical physicist who coauthored the 1987 academic paper that coined the term "self-organized criticality."
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Per Bak (1948年12月8日-2002年10月16日)是一位丹麦理论物理学家,他与人合著了1987年的学术论文,创造了“自组织临界性”这个词
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巴克(Per Bak)(1948年12月8日-2002年10月16日)是一位丹麦理论物理学家,在1987年与他人合著的学术论文中提出了“自组织临界”。
    
== Life and work ==
 
== Life and work ==
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After receiving his Ph.D. from the Technical University of Denmark in 1974, Bak worked at Brookhaven National Laboratory. He specialized in phase transitions, such as those occurring when an insulator suddenly becomes a conductor or when water freezes. In that context, he also did important work on complicated spatially modulated (magnetic) structures in solids. This research led him to the more general question of how organization emerges from disorder.
 
After receiving his Ph.D. from the Technical University of Denmark in 1974, Bak worked at Brookhaven National Laboratory. He specialized in phase transitions, such as those occurring when an insulator suddenly becomes a conductor or when water freezes. In that context, he also did important work on complicated spatially modulated (magnetic) structures in solids. This research led him to the more general question of how organization emerges from disorder.
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1974年在丹麦技术大学获得博士学位后,Bak 在布鲁克黑文国家实验室工作。他专门研究相变,比如当绝缘体突然变成导体或者水结冰的时候。在这种背景下,他还对固体中复杂的空间调制(磁)结构做了重要的工作。这项研究使他提出了一个更普遍的问题: 组织是如何从混乱中产生的。
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1974年,巴克获得丹麦科技大学博士学位,之后在布鲁克海文国家实验室工作。他专门研究相变,比如当绝缘体突然变成导体时的相变,或者水变成冰时的相变。在这种背景下,他还着重研究固体中复杂的空间调制(磁)结构。这项研究让他思考一个更普遍的问题:组织是如何从混乱中产生的。
    
In 1987, he and two postdoctoral researchers, [[Chao Tang]] and [[Kurt Wiesenfeld]], published an article in ''[[Physical Review Letters]]'' setting a new concept they called [[self-organized criticality]]. The first discovered example of a [[dynamical system]] displaying such self-organized criticality, the [[Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile]] model, was named after them.
 
In 1987, he and two postdoctoral researchers, [[Chao Tang]] and [[Kurt Wiesenfeld]], published an article in ''[[Physical Review Letters]]'' setting a new concept they called [[self-organized criticality]]. The first discovered example of a [[dynamical system]] displaying such self-organized criticality, the [[Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile]] model, was named after them.
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In 1987, he and two postdoctoral researchers, Chao Tang and Kurt Wiesenfeld, published an article in Physical Review Letters setting a new concept they called self-organized criticality. The first discovered example of a dynamical system displaying such self-organized criticality, the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model, was named after them.
 
In 1987, he and two postdoctoral researchers, Chao Tang and Kurt Wiesenfeld, published an article in Physical Review Letters setting a new concept they called self-organized criticality. The first discovered example of a dynamical system displaying such self-organized criticality, the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model, was named after them.
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1987年,他和两位博士后研究人员,Chao Tang 和 Kurt Wiesenfeld,在《物理评论快报》上发表了一篇文章,提出了一个新的概念,他们称之为自组织临界性。人们发现的第一个展示这种动力系统的自组织临界性,Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld 沙堆模型,就是以它们命名的。
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1987年,他和两位博士后研究人员:汤超(Chao Tang) 库尔特·维森费尔德(Kurt Wiesenfeld),在《物理评论快报》上发表了一篇文章,提出了一个新的概念,他们称之为自组织临界。人们发现的第一个展示这种动力系统的自组织临界性的Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld 沙堆模型,就是以他们命名的。
    
Faced with many skeptics, Bak pursued the implications of his theory at a number of institutions, including the Brookhaven National Laboratory, the [[Santa Fe Institute]], the [[Niels Bohr Institute]] in Copenhagen, and [[Imperial College London]], where he became a professor in 2000.
 
Faced with many skeptics, Bak pursued the implications of his theory at a number of institutions, including the Brookhaven National Laboratory, the [[Santa Fe Institute]], the [[Niels Bohr Institute]] in Copenhagen, and [[Imperial College London]], where he became a professor in 2000.
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