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'''Per Bak''' (December 8, 1948 – October 16, 2002) was a [[Denmark|Danish]] [[Theoretical physics|theoretical physicist]] who coauthored the 1987 academic paper that coined the term "[[self-organized criticality]]."
 
'''Per Bak''' (December 8, 1948 – October 16, 2002) was a [[Denmark|Danish]] [[Theoretical physics|theoretical physicist]] who coauthored the 1987 academic paper that coined the term "[[self-organized criticality]]."
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Per Bak (December 8, 1948 – October 16, 2002) was a Danish theoretical physicist who coauthored the 1987 academic paper that coined the term "self-organized criticality."
      
巴克(Per Bak)(1948年12月8日-2002年10月16日)是一位丹麦理论物理学家,在1987年与他人合著的学术论文中提出了“自组织临界”。
 
巴克(Per Bak)(1948年12月8日-2002年10月16日)是一位丹麦理论物理学家,在1987年与他人合著的学术论文中提出了“自组织临界”。
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== Life and work ==
 
== Life and work ==
 
After receiving his Ph.D. from the [[Technical University of Denmark]] in 1974, Bak worked at [[Brookhaven National Laboratory]]. He specialized in [[phase transition]]s, such as those occurring when an [[Electrical insulation|insulator]] suddenly becomes a [[conductor (material)|conductor]] or when water freezes. In that context, he also did important work on complicated [[ANNNI model|spatially modulated]] (magnetic) structures in solids. This research led him to the more general question of how organization emerges from disorder.
 
After receiving his Ph.D. from the [[Technical University of Denmark]] in 1974, Bak worked at [[Brookhaven National Laboratory]]. He specialized in [[phase transition]]s, such as those occurring when an [[Electrical insulation|insulator]] suddenly becomes a [[conductor (material)|conductor]] or when water freezes. In that context, he also did important work on complicated [[ANNNI model|spatially modulated]] (magnetic) structures in solids. This research led him to the more general question of how organization emerges from disorder.
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After receiving his Ph.D. from the Technical University of Denmark in 1974, Bak worked at Brookhaven National Laboratory. He specialized in phase transitions, such as those occurring when an insulator suddenly becomes a conductor or when water freezes. In that context, he also did important work on complicated spatially modulated (magnetic) structures in solids. This research led him to the more general question of how organization emerges from disorder.
      
1974年,巴克获得丹麦科技大学博士学位,之后在布鲁克海文国家实验室工作。他专门研究相变,比如当绝缘体突然变成导体时的相变,或者水变成冰时的相变。在这种背景下,他还着重研究固体中复杂的空间调制(磁)结构。这项研究让他思考一个更普遍的问题:组织是如何从混乱中产生的。
 
1974年,巴克获得丹麦科技大学博士学位,之后在布鲁克海文国家实验室工作。他专门研究相变,比如当绝缘体突然变成导体时的相变,或者水变成冰时的相变。在这种背景下,他还着重研究固体中复杂的空间调制(磁)结构。这项研究让他思考一个更普遍的问题:组织是如何从混乱中产生的。
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In 1987, he and two postdoctoral researchers, [[Chao Tang]] and [[Kurt Wiesenfeld]], published an article in ''[[Physical Review Letters]]'' setting a new concept they called [[self-organized criticality]]. The first discovered example of a [[dynamical system]] displaying such self-organized criticality, the [[Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile]] model, was named after them.
 
In 1987, he and two postdoctoral researchers, [[Chao Tang]] and [[Kurt Wiesenfeld]], published an article in ''[[Physical Review Letters]]'' setting a new concept they called [[self-organized criticality]]. The first discovered example of a [[dynamical system]] displaying such self-organized criticality, the [[Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile]] model, was named after them.
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In 1987, he and two postdoctoral researchers, Chao Tang and Kurt Wiesenfeld, published an article in Physical Review Letters setting a new concept they called self-organized criticality. The first discovered example of a dynamical system displaying such self-organized criticality, the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model, was named after them.
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1987年,他和两位博士后研究人员:汤超(Chao Tang) 和 库尔特·维森费尔德(Kurt Wiesenfeld),在《物理评论快报》上发表了一篇文章,提出了一个新的概念,他们称之为自组织临界。第一个说明自组织临界态的动态系统Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld沙堆模型,就是以他们命名的。
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1987年,他和两位博士后研究人员:汤超(Chao Tang) 和 库尔特·维森费尔德(Kurt Wiesenfeld),在《物理评论快报》上发表了一篇文章,提出了一个新的概念,他们称之为自组织临界。人们发现的第一个展示这种动力系统的自组织临界性的Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld 沙堆模型,就是以他们命名的。
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他们让沙子一粒一粒落在桌上,形成逐渐增高的一小堆,借助计算机模拟精确地计算每在沙堆顶部落置一粒沙会连带多少沙粒移动; 初始阶段,落下的沙粒对沙堆整体影响很小; 然而当沙堆增高到一定程度,落下一粒沙却可能导致整个沙堆发生坍塌。
    
Faced with many skeptics, Bak pursued the implications of his theory at a number of institutions, including the Brookhaven National Laboratory, the [[Santa Fe Institute]], the [[Niels Bohr Institute]] in Copenhagen, and [[Imperial College London]], where he became a professor in 2000.
 
Faced with many skeptics, Bak pursued the implications of his theory at a number of institutions, including the Brookhaven National Laboratory, the [[Santa Fe Institute]], the [[Niels Bohr Institute]] in Copenhagen, and [[Imperial College London]], where he became a professor in 2000.
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Faced with many skeptics, Bak pursued the implications of his theory at a number of institutions, including the Brookhaven National Laboratory, the Santa Fe Institute, the Niels Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, and Imperial College London, where he became a professor in 2000.
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面对质疑者,巴克在许多机构继续研究他的理论,包括布鲁克海文国家实验室、圣菲研究所、哥本哈根大学的尼尔斯·波尔研究所和伦敦帝国理工学院。2000年他成为了伦敦帝国理工的教授。
 
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面对许多怀疑论者,Bak 在许多机构继续研究他的理论,包括布鲁克黑文国家实验室、圣菲研究所、哥本哈根尼尔斯·波耳研究所和伦敦帝国理工学院,2000年他在那里成为了一名教授。
      
In 1996, he took his ideas to a broader audience with his ambitiously entitled book, ''How Nature Works''.  In 2001, Bak learned that he had [[myelodysplastic syndrome]] and died from it the following year.  
 
In 1996, he took his ideas to a broader audience with his ambitiously entitled book, ''How Nature Works''.  In 2001, Bak learned that he had [[myelodysplastic syndrome]] and died from it the following year.  
Bak is survived by his second wife, [[Maya Paczuski]], a fellow physicist and current professor at the [[University of Calgary]],<ref>{{cite web |title=Home {{!}} Complexity |url=https://www.ucalgary.ca/complexity |website=University of Calgary |access-date=1 January 2021 |language=en}}</ref> with whom he has coauthored papers,<ref>{{cite journal |last1=Bak |first1=P. |last2=Paczuski |first2=M. |title=Complexity, contingency, and criticality |journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences |date=18 July 1995 |volume=92 |issue=15 |pages=6689–6696 |doi=10.1073/pnas.92.15.6689 |pmid=11607561 |pmc=41396 |bibcode=1995PNAS...92.6689B |doi-access=free }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last1=Maslov |first1=Sergei |last2=Paczuski |first2=Maya |last3=Bak |first3=Per |title=Avalanches and $\frac{1}{f}$ Noise in Evolution and Growth Models |journal=Physical Review Letters |date=17 October 1994 |volume=73 |issue=16 |pages=2162–2165 |doi=10.1103/PhysRevLett.73.2162 |pmid=10056988 }}</ref> and his four children.
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Bak is survived by his second wife, [[Maya Paczuski]], a fellow physicist and current professor at the [[University of Calgary]],<ref name=":0">{{cite web |title=Home {{!}} Complexity |url=https://www.ucalgary.ca/complexity |website=University of Calgary |access-date=1 January 2021 |language=en}}</ref> with whom he has coauthored papers,<ref name=":1">{{cite journal |last1=Bak |first1=P. |last2=Paczuski |first2=M. |title=Complexity, contingency, and criticality |journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences |date=18 July 1995 |volume=92 |issue=15 |pages=6689–6696 |doi=10.1073/pnas.92.15.6689 |pmid=11607561 |pmc=41396 |bibcode=1995PNAS...92.6689B |doi-access=free }}</ref><ref name=":2">{{cite journal |last1=Maslov |first1=Sergei |last2=Paczuski |first2=Maya |last3=Bak |first3=Per |title=Avalanches and $\frac{1}{f}$ Noise in Evolution and Growth Models |journal=Physical Review Letters |date=17 October 1994 |volume=73 |issue=16 |pages=2162–2165 |doi=10.1103/PhysRevLett.73.2162 |pmid=10056988 }}</ref> and his four children.
 
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In 1996, he took his ideas to a broader audience with his ambitiously entitled book, How Nature Works.  In 2001, Bak learned that he had myelodysplastic syndrome and died from it the following year.
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Bak is survived by his second wife, Maya Paczuski, a fellow physicist and current professor at the University of Calgary, with whom he has coauthored papers, and his four children.
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1996年,他以自己雄心勃勃的著作《自然是如何运作的》将自己的想法带给了更广泛的读者。2001年,贝克得知自己得了骨髓增生异常综合征,第二年就死了。贝克身后留下了他的第二任妻子 Maya Paczuski 和他的4个孩子,Maya Paczuski 是他的同事,也是物理学家,现在是卡尔加里大学的教授。
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1996年,他写下《自然是如何运作的》,这本雄心勃勃的著作进一步推广了自组织临界理论。2001年,巴克得知自己得了骨髓增生异常综合征,于第二年去世。巴克死后,留下他的第二任妻子马雅·帕丘斯基(Maya Paczuski)和4个孩子。马雅·帕丘斯基是他的同事,也是物理学家,目前是卡尔加里大学<ref name=":0" /> 的教授,他们曾合著了多篇论文<ref name=":1" /><ref name=":2" /> 。
    
== Selected publications ==
 
== Selected publications ==
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