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系统科学

short description 简短描述


文件:Systems thinking about the society.svg
Impression of systems thinking about society

Impression of systems thinking about society

对社会的系统思考的印象


Systems science is an interdisciplinary field that studies the nature of systems—from simple to complex—in nature, society, cognition, engineering, technology and science itself. To systems scientists, the world can be understood as a system of systems.[1] The field aims to develop interdisciplinary foundations that are applicable in a variety of areas, such as psychology, biology, medicine, communication, business management, computer science, engineering, and social sciences.[2]

Systems science is an interdisciplinary field that studies the nature of systems—from simple to complex—in nature, society, cognition, engineering, technology and science itself. To systems scientists, the world can be understood as a system of systems. The field aims to develop interdisciplinary foundations that are applicable in a variety of areas, such as psychology, biology, medicine, communication, business management, computer science, engineering, and social sciences.

系统科学Systems science是研究自然界、社会、认知、工程、技术和科学本身的系统本质的一门交叉学科。对于系统科学家来说,世界可以被理解为一个系统的系统。该领域旨在发展跨学科基础,适用于各种领域,如心理学、生物学、医学、通信、商业管理、计算机科学、工程学和社会科学。 系统科学是一个跨学科的领域,研究从简单到复杂的系统本质,包括自然、社会、认知、工程、技术和科学本身。对系统科学家来说,世界可以理解为一个系统的系统。该领域旨在发展跨学科基础,适用于各种领域,如心理学、生物学、医学、通讯、商业管理、计算机科学、工程和社会科学。


Systems science covers formal sciences such as complex systems, cybernetics, dynamical systems theory, information theory, linguistics or systems theory. It has applications in the field of the natural and social sciences and engineering, such as control theory, operations research, social systems theory, systems biology, system dynamics, human factors, systems ecology, computer science, systems engineering and systems psychology.[3] Themes commonly stressed in system science are (a) holistic view, (b) interaction between a system and its embedding environment, and (c) complex (often subtle) trajectories of dynamic behavior that sometimes are stable (and thus reinforcing), while at various 'boundary conditions' can become wildly unstable (and thus destructive). Concerns about Earth-scale biosphere/geosphere dynamics is an example of the nature of problems to which systems science seeks to contribute meaningful insights.

系统科学涵盖了诸如复杂系统、控制论、动态系统理论、信息论、语言学或系统论等正规科学。它在自然科学、社会科学和工程学领域有应用,如控制论、运筹学、社会系统理论、系统生物学、系统动力学、人的因素、系统生态学、计算机科学、系统工程和系统心理学。系统科学通常强调的主题是: (a)整体观点,(b)系统与其嵌入环境之间的相互作用,(c)复杂的(通常是微妙的)动态行为轨迹,有时是稳定的(因此是强化的) ,而在各种“边界条件”下可能变得极不稳定(因此具有破坏性)。对地球尺度生物圈/地圈动力学的关注是系统科学力求提供有意义的见解的问题性质的一个例子。



Theories

Since the emergence of general systems research in the 1950s,[4] systems thinking and systems science have developed into many theoretical frameworks.

自从20世纪50年代通用系统研究出现以来,系统思维和系统科学已经发展成为许多理论框架。

Systems notes of Henk Bikker, TU Delft, 1991

Systems notes of Henk Bikker, TU Delft, 1991

Henk Bikker系统笔记,[美国德尔夫特大学,1991]

Systems analysis
系统分析
Systems analysis is the branch of systems science that analyzes systems, the interactions within those systems, or interaction with its environment,[5] often prior to their automation as computer models. This field is closely related to operations research.
系统分析Systems analysis是系统科学的一个分支,它分析系统,系统内部的交互,或者系统与环境的交互,通常在系统自动化成为计算机模型之前。这一领域与运筹学密切相关。
Systems design
系统设计
Systems design is the process of "establishing and specifying the optimum system component configuration for achieving specific goal or objective."[5] For example in computing, systems design can define the hardware and systems architecture which includes many sub-architectures including software architecture, components, modules, interfaces, and data, as well as security, information, and others, for a computer system to satisfy specified requirements.
系统设计Systems design是“建立和确定最佳系统组件配置以实现特定目标或目的”的过程。例如在计算方面,系统设计可以定义硬件和系统体系结构,其中包括许多子体系结构,包括软件体系结构、组件、模块、接口和数据,以及安全、信息等,以满足计算机系统的特定要求。
System dynamics
系统动力学
System dynamics is an approach to understanding the behavior of complex systems over time. It offers "simulation technique for modeling business and social systems,"[6] which deals with internal feedback loops and time delays that affect the behavior of the entire system. What makes using system dynamics different from other approaches to studying complex systems is the use of feedback loops and stocks and flows.
系统动力学System dynamics是一种理解复杂系统随时间变化行为的方法。它提供了“商业和社会系统建模的仿真技术” ,处理影响整个系统行为的内部反馈循环和时间延迟。使用系统动力学与其他研究复杂系统的方法的不同之处在于反馈循环、存量和流量的使用。
Systems engineering
系统工程
Systems engineering (SE) is an interdisciplinary field of engineering, that focuses on the development and organization of complex systems. It is the "art and science of creating whole solutions to complex problems,"[7] for example: signal processing systems, control systems and communication system, or other forms of high-level modelling and design in specific fields of engineering.
系统工程Systems engineering(SE)是一个跨学科的工程领域,其重点是复杂系统的开发和组织。它是“为复杂问题创造整体解决方案的艺术和科学” ,例如: 信号处理系统、控制系统和通信系统,或者在特定工程领域的其他形式的高级建模和设计。
Systems methodologies
系统方法论
There are several types of Systems Methodologies, that is, disciplines for analysis of systems. For example:
有几种类型的系统方法论Systems methodologies,即系统分析的学科。例如:
  • Soft systems methodology (SSM) : in the field of organizational studies is an approach to organisational process modelling, and it can be used both for general problem solving and in the management of change. It was developed in England by academics at the University of Lancaster Systems Department through a ten-year Action Research programme.
软系统方法论(SSM): 在组织研究领域是一种组织过程建模的方法,可用于一般问题的解决和变革的管理。它是由英格兰兰卡斯特大学系统学院的学者通过一个为期十年的行动研究项目开发出来的。
  • System development methodology (SDM) in the field of IT development is a variety of structured, organized processes for developing information technology and embedded software systems.
在IT开发领域中的系统发展方法(SDM)是用于开发信息技术和嵌入式软件系统的各种结构化、有组织的过程。
  • Viable systems approach (vSa) is a methodology useful for the understanding and governance of complex phenomena; it has been successfully proposed in the field of management, decision making, marketing and service.
可行系统方法(vSa)是一种用于理解和管理复杂现象的方法论; 它已经在管理、决策、营销和服务领域被成功地提出。
Systems theories
系统理论
Systems theory is an interdisciplinary field that studies complex systems in nature, society, and science. More specifically, it is a conceptual framework by which one can analyze or describe any group of objects that work in concert to produce some result.
系统理论Systems theories是研究自然、社会和科学中复杂系统的交叉学科。更具体地说,它是一个概念框架,通过它,人们可以分析或描述任何一组协同工作以产生某种结果的对象。
Systems science
系统科学
Systems sciences are scientific disciplines partly based on systems thinking such as chaos theory, complex systems, control theory, cybernetics, sociotechnical systems theory, systems biology, systems chemistry, systems ecology, systems psychology and the already mentioned systems dynamics, systems engineering, and systems theory.
系统科学Systems science是部分基于系统思维的科学学科,如混沌理论、复杂系统、控制理论、控制论、社会技术系统论、系统生物学、系统化学、系统生态学、系统心理学以及已经提到的系统动力学、系统工程和系统理论。

Fields

Systems sciences cover formal sciences like dynamical systems theory and applications in the natural and social sciences and engineering, such as social systems theory and system dynamics.

系统科学涵盖了正规科学,如动态系统理论科学,以及在自然和社会科学和工程中的应用,如社会系统理论和系统动力学。


混沌理论
概念系统
复杂系统
控制论
自治代理理论
二阶控制论
可行系统理论
控制理论
影响控制理论
控制工程
控制系统
动力系统
知觉控制理论
地球系统科学
气候系统
系统地质学
经济系统
地缘政治系统
运筹学
政治系统
系统生物学
计算系统生物学
合成生物学
系统免疫学
系统神经科学
系统动态
社会动态
系统化学
系统生态学
生态系统生态
农业生态学
系统工程
航空航天系统
生物系统工程
地球系统工程与管理
电子产品| 电子系统
企业系统工程
软件系统
系统分析
人类学中的系统理论
系统心理学
人机工程学
家庭系统理论
系统治疗
系统理论
生化系统理论
生态系统理论
发展系统理论
通用系统理论
生命系统理论
LTI系统理论
社会技术系统理论
数学系统理论
世界系统理论

Systems scientists

General systems scientists can be divided into different generations. The founders of the systems movement like Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Kenneth Boulding, Ralph Gerard, James Grier Miller, George J. Klir, and Anatol Rapoport were all born between 1900 and 1920. They came from different natural and social science disciplines and joined forces in the 1950s to establish the general systems theory paradigm. Along with the organization of their efforts a first generation of systems scientists rose.

一般系统科学家可以分为不同的世代。系统运动的创始人,如Ludwig von Bertalanffy,Kenneth Boulding,Ralph Gerard,James Grier Miller,George j. Klir 和 Anatol Rapoport 都出生于1900年到1920年之间。他们来自不同的自然科学和社会科学学科,并在20世纪50年代联合起来建立了一般系统理论范式。随着他们努力的组织,第一代系统科学家崛起。


Among them were other scientists like Ackoff, Ashby, Margaret Mead and Churchman, who popularized the systems concept in the 1950s and 1960s. These scientists inspired and educated a second generation with more notable scientists like Ervin Laszlo (1932) and Fritjof Capra (1939), who wrote about systems theory in the 1970s and 1980s. Others got acquainted and started studying these works in the 1980s and started writing about it since the 1990s. Debora Hammond can be seen as a typical representative of these third generation of general systems scientists.

他们当中还有其他科学家,如Ackoff, Ashby, Margaret Mead和Churchman,他们在20世纪50年代和60年代推广了系统的概念。这些科学家激励并教育了第二代更著名的科学家,如 Ervin Laszlo (1932年)和 Fritzjof Capra (1939年) ,后者在20世纪70年代和80年代写过系统论。其他人在20世纪80年代开始了解并研究这些著作,并从20世纪90年代开始撰写相关著作。Debora Hammond可以说是第三代系统科学家的典型代表。

Organizations

The International Society for the Systems Sciences (ISSS) is an organisation for interdisciplinary collaboration and synthesis of systems sciences. The ISSS is unique among systems-oriented institutions in terms of the breadth of its scope, bringing together scholars and practitioners from academic, business, government, and non-profit organizations. Based on fifty years of tremendous interdisciplinary research from the scientific study of complex systems to interactive approaches in management and community development. This society was initially conceived in 1954 at the Stanford Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences by Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Kenneth Boulding, Ralph Gerard, and Anatol Rapoport.

国际系统科学学会(ISSS)是一个跨学科合作和综合系统科学的组织。ISSS 在系统导向的机构中是独一无二的,它的范围很广,汇集了来自学术界、商界、政府和非盈利组织的学者和从业者。基于50年来巨大的跨学科研究,从对复杂系统的科学研究到管理和社区发展的互动方法。这个协会最初是1954年在斯坦福行为科学高级研究中心由Ludwig von Bertalanffy,Kenneth Boulding,Ralph Gerard 和 Anatol Rapoport 创立的。


In the field of systems science the International Federation for Systems Research (IFSR) is an international federation for global and local societies in the field of systems science. This federation is a non-profit, scientific and educational agency founded in 1981, and constituted of some thirty member organizations from various countries. The overall purpose of this Federation is to advance cybernetic and systems research and systems applications and to serve the international systems community.

在系统科学领域,国际系统研究联合会(IFSR)是系统科学领域全球和地方社会的国际联合会。该联合会成立于1981年,是一个非营利的科学和教育机构,由来自各国的约三十个成员组织组成。联合会的总体宗旨是促进控制论和系统研究及系统应用,并为国际系统界服务。


The best known research institute in the field is the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) located in Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States, dedicated to the study of complex systems. This institute was founded in 1984 by George Cowan, David Pines, Stirling Colgate, Murray Gell-Mann, Nick Metropolis, Herb Anderson, Peter A. Carruthers, and Richard Slansky. All but Pines and Gell-Mann were scientists with Los Alamos National Laboratory. SFI's original mission was to disseminate the notion of a separate interdisciplinary research area, complexity theory referred to at SFI as complexity science. Recently, IIT Jodhpur in Rajasthan, India started inculcating system science and engineering to its students through Bachelors, Masters and Doctorate programs. This makes it the first institution to offer system science education to students in India.

该领域最著名的研究机构是位于美国新墨西哥州圣达菲的圣菲研究所研究所(SFI),致力于复杂系统的研究。该研究所是在1984年由 George Cowan,David Pines,Stirling Colgate,Murray Gell-Mann,Nick Metropolis,Herb Anderson,Peter a. Carruthers 和 Richard Slansky 创立。除了Pines 和 Gell-Mann,其他人都是洛斯阿拉莫斯国家实验室的科学家。SFI的最初的任务是传播一个独立的跨学科研究领域的概念,复杂性理论在 SFI 被称为复杂性科学。最近,印度拉贾斯坦邦焦特布尔理工学院开始通过学士、硕士和博士项目向学生灌输系统科学和工程学。这使它成为印度第一个向学生提供系统科学教育的机构。

See also

  • Portal inline
门户内联
反还原主义
进化原型
整体主义
系统工程
系统学
系统等效
系统理论
构造学
世界系统理论

References

  1. G. E. Mobus & M. C. Kalton, Principles of Systems Science, 2015, New York:Springer.
  2. Philip M'Pherson (1974, p. 229); as cited by: Hieronymi, A. (2013), Understanding Systems Science: A Visual and Integrative Approach. Syst. Res.. doi:10.1002/sres.2215. He defined systems science as "the ordered arrangement of knowledge acquired from the study of systems in the observable world, together with the application of this knowledge to the design of man-made systems."
  3. According to Francis Heylighen in "What are Cybernetics and Systems Science?" on Principia Cybernetica Web (1999) systems science is an "academic domain, that touches virtually all traditional disciplines, from mathematics, technology and biology to philosophy and the social sciences."
  4. Robert L. Flood (1993) Dealing with Complexity: : An Introduction to the Theory and Application of Systems Science. p. 3
  5. 5.0 5.1 Anthony Debons. "Command and Control: Technology and Social Impact" in: Advances in computers, Vol. 11. Franz L. Alt & Morris Rubinoff eds. (1971). p. 362
  6. Center for Complex Adaptive Agent Systems Simulation Argonne National Laboratory (2007) Managing Business Complexity : Discovering Strategic Solutions with Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation: Discovering Strategic Solutions with Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation. Oxford University Press. p. 55
  7. Derek K. Hitchins (2008) Systems Engineering: A 21st Century Systems Methodology. p. 100


Further reading

  • B. A. Bayraktar, Education in Systems Science, 1979, 369 pp.
  • Jiri Kroc, Karel Balihar, Martin Matejovic, Complex Systems and Their Use in Medicine: Concepts, Methods and Bio-Medical Applications, ResearchGate, 2019.
  • Ervin László, Systems Science and World Order: Selected Studies, 1983.
  • G. E. Mobus & M. C. Kalton, Principles of Systems Science, 2015, New York:Springer.
  • Anatol Rapoport (ed.), General Systems: Yearbook of the Society for the Advancement of General Systems Theory, Society for General Systems Research, Vol 1., 1956.
  • Li D. Xu, "The contributions of Systems Science to Information Systems Research", Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 17, 2000, pp. 105–116.
  • Graeme Donald Snooks, "A general theory of complex living systems: Exploring the demand side of dynamics", Complexity, vol. 13, no. 6, July/August 2008.
  • Michael C. Jackson, Critical Systems Thinking and the Management of Complexity, 2019 , Wiley.

External links

Commons category

一般类别

控制论网络原理
  • Institute of System Science Knowledge (ISSK.org)
系统科学研究所
国际系统科学学会
英国系统学会
控制论学会



Systems

系统

Science

科学

Category:Cybernetics

类别: 控制论

Category:Formal sciences

类别: 正规科学

Science

科学

Category:Emergence

类别: 涌现


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Systems science. Its edit history can be viewed at 系统科学/edithistory