社会计算

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Social computing is an area of computer science that is concerned with the intersection of social behavior and computational systems. It is based on creating or recreating social conventions and social contexts through the use of software and technology. Thus, blogs, email, instant messaging, social network services, wikis, social bookmarking and other instances of what is often called social software illustrate ideas from social computing.


Social computing is an area of computer science that is concerned with the intersection of social behavior and computational systems. It is based on creating or recreating social conventions and social contexts through the use of software and technology. Thus, blogs, email, instant messaging, social network services, wikis, social bookmarking and other instances of what is often called social software illustrate ideas from social computing.

社会计算是计算机科学的一个领域,它涉及到社会行为和计算系统的交叉。它基于通过使用软件和技术创造或再创造社会习俗和社会背景。因此,博客、电子邮件、社交即时通讯、社交网络服务、维基、社会性书签和其他社交软件的实例阐释了社交计算的思想。

History

Social computing begins with the observation that humans—and human behavior—are profoundly social. From birth, humans orient to one another, and as they grow, they develop abilities for interacting with each other. This ranges from expression and gesture to spoken and written language. As a consequence, people are remarkably sensitive to the behavior of those around them and make countless decisions that are shaped by their social context. Whether it's wrapping up a talk when the audience starts fidgeting, choosing the crowded restaurant over the nearly deserted one, or crossing the street against the light because everyone else is doing so, social information provides a basis for inferences, planning, and coordinating activity.

Social computing begins with the observation that humans—and human behavior—are profoundly social. From birth, humans orient to one another, and as they grow, they develop abilities for interacting with each other. This ranges from expression and gesture to spoken and written language. As a consequence, people are remarkably sensitive to the behavior of those around them and make countless decisions that are shaped by their social context. Whether it's wrapping up a talk when the audience starts fidgeting, choosing the crowded restaurant over the nearly deserted one, or crossing the street against the light because everyone else is doing so, social information provides a basis for inferences, planning, and coordinating activity.

社会计算始于对人类和人类行为深刻的社会性的观察。从出生开始,人类就相互定位,随着他们的成长,他们逐渐形成了相互交流的能力。这包括从表达和手势到口头和书面语言。因此,人们对周围人的行为非常敏感,他们会根据自己的社会背景做出无数的决定。无论是在听众开始坐立不安时结束演讲,选择拥挤的餐厅而不是几乎空无一人的餐厅,还是因为其他人都在这样做而逆着光穿过马路,社会信息为推论、计划和协调活动提供了基础。

The premise of 'Social Computing' is that it is possible to design digital systems that support useful functionality by making socially produced information available to their users. This information may be provided directly, as when systems show the number of users who have rated a review as helpful or not. Or the information may be provided after being filtered and aggregated, as is done when systems recommend a product based on what else people with similar purchase history have purchased. Alternatively, the information may be provided indirectly, as is the case with Google's page rank algorithms which orders search results based on the number of pages that (recursively) point to them. In all of these cases, information that is produced by a group of people is used to provide or enhance the functioning of a system. Social computing is concerned with systems of this sort and the mechanisms and principles that underlie them.

The premise of 'Social Computing' is that it is possible to design digital systems that support useful functionality by making socially produced information available to their users. This information may be provided directly, as when systems show the number of users who have rated a review as helpful or not. Or the information may be provided after being filtered and aggregated, as is done when systems recommend a product based on what else people with similar purchase history have purchased. Alternatively, the information may be provided indirectly, as is the case with Google's page rank algorithms which orders search results based on the number of pages that (recursively) point to them. In all of these cases, information that is produced by a group of people is used to provide or enhance the functioning of a system. Social computing is concerned with systems of this sort and the mechanisms and principles that underlie them.

社交计算的前提是,通过向用户提供社交产生的信息,可以设计出支持有用功能的数字系统。这些信息可以直接提供,比如系统显示评价评论是否有用的用户数量。或者信息可能在被过滤和聚合之后被提供,就像系统根据其他有相似购买历史的人所购买的产品来推荐产品一样。或者,这些信息可以间接提供,就像谷歌的页面排名算法一样,这种算法根据(递归)指向它们的页面数量对搜索结果进行排序。在所有这些情况下,由一群人产生的信息被用来提供或增强系统的功能。社会计算关注的是这类系统以及它们背后的机制和原则。

Social computing can be defined as follows:

Social computing can be defined as follows:

社会计算可以定义如下:

"Social Computing" refers to systems that support the gathering, representation, processing, use, and dissemination of information that is distributed across social collectivities such as teams, communities, organizations, and markets. Moreover, the information is not "anonymous" but is significantly precise because it is linked to people, who are in turn linked to other people.[1]

   "Social Computing" refers to systems that support the gathering, representation, processing, use, and dissemination of information that is distributed across social collectivities such as teams, communities, organizations, and markets. Moreover, the information is not "anonymous" but is significantly precise because it is linked to people, who are in turn linked to other people.From "Social Computing", introduction to Social Computing special edition of the Communications of the ACM, edited by Douglas Schuler, Volume 37, Issue 1 (January 1994), Pages: 28 - 108

“社会计算”是指支持信息的收集、表示、处理、使用和传播的系统,这些信息分布在社会团队、社区、组织和市场等社会团体中。此外,这些信息不是“匿名”的,而是非常精确的,因为它们与人有关,而人又与其他人有关。摘自《社会计算》 ,美国计算机学会通讯社会计算特别版导论,Douglas Schuler 编辑,卷37,第1期(1994年1月) ,页数: 28-108

More recent definitions, however, have foregone the restrictions regarding anonymity of information, acknowledging the continued spread and increasing pervasiveness of social computing. As an example, Hemmatazad, N. (2014) defined social computing as "the use of computational devices to facilitate or augment the social interactions of their users, or to evaluate those interactions in an effort to obtain new information."[2]

More recent definitions, however, have foregone the restrictions regarding anonymity of information, acknowledging the continued spread and increasing pervasiveness of social computing. As an example, Hemmatazad, N. (2014) defined social computing as "the use of computational devices to facilitate or augment the social interactions of their users, or to evaluate those interactions in an effort to obtain new information."From Social Computing in Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Third Edition. IGI Global, 2014, p. 6754.

然而,最近的定义已经放弃了关于信息匿名性的限制,承认社会计算的持续传播和日益普及。例如,Hemmatazad n. (2014)将社会计算定义为“使用计算设备来促进或增强用户的社会互动,或者评估这些互动以获取新信息。《来自信息科学与技术百科全书中的社会计算》 ,第三版。2014,p. 6754.

PLATO may be the earliest example of social computing in a live production environment with initially hundreds and soon thousands of users, on the PLATO computer system based in the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign in 1973, when social software applications for multi-user chat rooms, group message forums, and instant messaging appeared all within that year. In 1974, email was made available as well as the world's first online newspaper called NewsReport, which supported content submitted by the user community as well as written by editors and reporters.

PLATO may be the earliest example of social computing in a live production environment with initially hundreds and soon thousands of users, on the PLATO computer system based in the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign in 1973, when social software applications for multi-user chat rooms, group message forums, and instant messaging appeared all within that year. In 1974, email was made available as well as the world's first online newspaper called NewsReport, which supported content submitted by the user community as well as written by editors and reporters.

柏拉图可能是最早的社会化计算的例子,在最初的生产环境中有成百上千的用户,在柏拉图的计算机系统在1973年设在伊利诺伊大学厄巴纳-香槟分校香槟,当社会化软件应用程序的多用户聊天室,群组信息论坛,和即时通讯都出现在那一年。1974年,电子邮件和世界上第一份在线报纸《新闻报道》同时出现,这份报纸支持用户社区提交的内容以及编辑和记者撰写的内容。

Social computing has to do with supporting "computations" that are carried out by groups of people, an idea that has been popularized in James Surowiecki's book, The Wisdom of Crowds. Examples of social computing in this sense include collaborative filtering, online auctions, prediction markets, reputation systems, computational social choice, tagging, and verification games. The social information processing page focuses on this sense of social computing.

Social computing has to do with supporting "computations" that are carried out by groups of people, an idea that has been popularized in James Surowiecki's book, The Wisdom of Crowds. Examples of social computing in this sense include collaborative filtering, online auctions, prediction markets, reputation systems, computational social choice, tagging, and verification games. The social information processing page focuses on this sense of social computing.

社会计算与支持由一群人执行的“计算”有关,这个想法在 James Surowiecki 的书《群体的智慧》中得到了普及。这个意义上的社会计算的例子包括协同过滤、在线拍卖、预测市场、声誉系统、计算社会选择、标签和验证游戏。社会信息处理页面聚焦于这种社会计算的意义。

背景

Technology infrastructure技术基础设施

The idea to engage users using websites to interact was first brought forth by Web 2.0 and was an advancement from Web 1.0 where according to Cormode, G. and Krishnamurthy, B. (2008): "content creators were few in Web 1.0 with the vast majority of users simply acting as consumers of content."[2]

The idea to engage users using websites to interact was first brought forth by Web 2.0 and was an advancement from Web 1.0 where according to Cormode, G. and Krishnamurthy, B. (2008): "content creators were few in Web 1.0 with the vast majority of users simply acting as consumers of content."

使用网站来吸引用户互动的想法最早是由 Web 2.0提出的,是 Web 1.0的一个进步,根据 Cormode,g. 和 Krishnamurthy,b。(2008) : “在 Web 1.0中,内容创建者寥寥无几,绝大多数用户只是内容的消费者。”

Web 2.0 provided functionalities that allowed for low cost web-hosting services and introduced features with browser windows that used basic information structure and expanded it to as many devices as possible using HTTP.[3]

Web 2.0 provided functionalities that allowed for low cost web-hosting services and introduced features with browser windows that used basic information structure and expanded it to as many devices as possible using HTTP.

Web 2.0提供了允许低成本网络托管服务的功能,并引入了使用基本信息结构的浏览器窗口的特性,并使用 HTTP 将其扩展到尽可能多的设备。

By 2006, Of particular interest in the realm of social computing is social software for enterprise. Sometimes referred to as "Enterprise 2.0",[4] a term derived from Web 2.0, this generally refers to the use of social computing in corporate intranets and in other medium- and large-scale business environments. It consisted of a class of tools that allowed for networking and social changes to businesses at the time. It was a layering of the business tools on Web 2.0 and brought forth several applications and collaborative software with specific uses.

By 2006, Of particular interest in the realm of social computing is social software for enterprise. Sometimes referred to as "Enterprise 2.0", a term derived from Web 2.0, this generally refers to the use of social computing in corporate intranets and in other medium- and large-scale business environments. It consisted of a class of tools that allowed for networking and social changes to businesses at the time. It was a layering of the business tools on Web 2.0 and brought forth several applications and collaborative software with specific uses.

到2006年,社会化计算领域特别感兴趣的是企业社会化软件。有时被称为“ Enterprise 2.0”,这个术语来自 Web 2.0,它通常指的是在企业内部网和其他中型和大型商业环境中使用社会计算。它包括一类工具,允许网络和社会变化的企业在当时。它是 Web 2.0上商业工具的一个分层,带来了几个具有特定用途的应用程序和协作软件。

Finance

Electronic negotiation, which first came up in 1969 and was adapted over time to suit financial markets networking needs, represents an important and desirable coordination mechanism for electronic markets. Negotiation between agents (software agents as well as humans) allows cooperative and competitive sharing of information to determine a proper price. Recent research and practice has also shown that electronic negotiation is beneficial for the coordination of complex interactions among organizations. Electronic negotiation has recently emerged as a very dynamic, interdisciplinary research area covering aspects from disciplines such as Economics, Information Systems, Computer Science, Communication Theory, Sociology and Psychology.

Social computing has become more widely known because of its relationship to a number of recent trends. These include the growing popularity of social software and Web 3.0, increased academic interest in social network analysis, the rise of open source as a viable method of production, and a growing conviction that all of this can have a profound impact on daily life. A February 13, 2006 paper by market research company Forrester Research suggested that:

Easy connections brought about by cheap devices, modular content, and shared computing resources are having a profound impact on our global economy and social structure. Individuals increasingly take cues from one another rather than from institutional sources like corporations, media outlets, religions, and political bodies. To thrive in an era of Social Computing, companies must abandon top-down management and communication tactics, weave communities into their products and services, use employees and partners as marketers, and become part of a living fabric of brand loyalists.[1][4]

FinanceElectronic negotiation, which first came up in 1969 and was adapted over time to suit financial markets networking needs, represents an important and desirable coordination mechanism for electronic markets. Negotiation between agents (software agents as well as humans) allows cooperative and competitive sharing of information to determine a proper price. Recent research and practice has also shown that electronic negotiation is beneficial for the coordination of complex interactions among organizations. Electronic negotiation has recently emerged as a very dynamic, interdisciplinary research area covering aspects from disciplines such as Economics, Information Systems, Computer Science, Communication Theory, Sociology and Psychology.Social computing has become more widely known because of its relationship to a number of recent trends. These include the growing popularity of social software and Web 3.0, increased academic interest in social network analysis, the rise of open source as a viable method of production, and a growing conviction that all of this can have a profound impact on daily life. A February 13, 2006 paper by market research company Forrester Research suggested that:

Easy connections brought about by cheap devices, modular content, and shared computing resources are having a profound impact on our global economy and social structure. Individuals increasingly take cues from one another rather than from institutional sources like corporations, media outlets, religions, and political bodies. To thrive in an era of Social Computing, companies must abandon top-down management and communication tactics, weave communities into their products and services, use employees and partners as marketers, and become part of a living fabric of brand loyalists.A term coined by Andrew McAfee of Harvard Business School in the Spring 2006 MIT Sloan Management Review.

金融电子谈判于1969年首次提出,并经过一段时间的调整以适应金融市场网络化的需要,是电子市场的一个重要而理想的协调机制。代理(软件代理以及人类代理)之间的协商允许合作和竞争性的信息共享,以确定合适的价格。最近的研究和实践也表明,电子谈判有利于组织间复杂互动的协调。近年来,电子谈判已经成为一个非常活跃的科际整合领域,涵盖了经济学、信息系统、计算机科学、传播理论、社会学和心理学等学科的各个方面。由于社会计算与最近的一些趋势之间的关系,它已经变得越来越广为人知。其中包括社交软件和 Web 3.0的日益流行,社交网络分析的学术兴趣的增加,开源作为一种可行的生产方式的兴起,以及越来越多的人相信所有这一切都可以对日常生活产生深远的影响。市场研究公司 Forrester Research 在2006年2月13日的一篇论文中指出: 廉价设备、模块化内容和共享计算资源带来的便捷联系正在对我们的全球经济和社会结构产生深远的影响。个人越来越多地从彼此身上获得线索,而不是从公司、媒体、宗教和政治团体等机构渠道获得线索。为了在社会化计算时代繁荣发展,公司必须放弃自上而下的管理和沟通策略,将社区融入到他们的产品和服务中,将员工和合作伙伴作为营销人员,并成为品牌忠诚者活生生的结构的一部分。
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Theoretical Foundations

Socially intelligent computing is a new term that refers to the recent efforts of individuals to understand the ways in which systems of people and computers will prove useful as intermediaries between people and tools used by people. These systems result in new behaviors that occur as a result of the complex interaction between humans and computers and can be explained by several different areas of science. The Foundations of Social Computing are deeply vested in the understanding of social psychology and cyberpsychology. Social psychology covers topics such as decision making, persuasion, group behavior, personal attraction, and factors that promote health and well-being.[5] Cognitive sciences also play a huge role in understanding Social computing and human behavior on networking elements driven by personal needs/means. Sociology is also a factor since overall environments decide how individuals choose to interact.[6]

Socially intelligent computing is a new term that refers to the recent efforts of individuals to understand the ways in which systems of people and computers will prove useful as intermediaries between people and tools used by people. These systems result in new behaviors that occur as a result of the complex interaction between humans and computers and can be explained by several different areas of science. The Foundations of Social Computing are deeply vested in the understanding of social psychology and cyberpsychology. Social psychology covers topics such as decision making, persuasion, group behavior, personal attraction, and factors that promote health and well-being. Cognitive sciences also play a huge role in understanding Social computing and human behavior on networking elements driven by personal needs/means. Sociology is also a factor since overall environments decide how individuals choose to interact.

社会智能计算是一个新的术语,指的是个人最近努力理解的方式,人和计算机系统将证明有用的人和工具之间的中介人和人使用的工具。这些系统产生了新的行为,这些行为是人类和计算机之间复杂交互作用的结果,可以用几个不同的科学领域来解释。社会计算的基础在于对社会心理学和网络心理学的理解。社会心理学涵盖了诸如决策、说服、群体行为、个人吸引力以及促进健康和幸福的因素等主题。认知科学在理解社会计算和由个人需求/方式驱动的网络元素上的人类行为方面也发挥着巨大的作用。社会学也是一个因素,因为总体环境决定个人如何选择互动。

There are multiple areas of social computing that have been able to expand the threshold of knowledge in this discipline. Each area has been able to have a focus and goal behind it that provides us with a deeper understanding of the social behavior between users that interact using some variation of social computing.

There are multiple areas of social computing that have been able to expand the threshold of knowledge in this discipline. Each area has been able to have a focus and goal behind it that provides us with a deeper understanding of the social behavior between users that interact using some variation of social computing.

社会计算的许多领域已经能够扩展这一学科的知识门槛。每个领域都有一个重点和目标,这个重点和目标为我们提供了一个更深入的理解,用户之间的社会行为交互使用社会计算的一些变化。

Social Software

Social software can be any computational system that supports social interactions among groups of people. The following are examples of such systems.

Social software can be any computational system that supports social interactions among groups of people. The following are examples of such systems.

社交软件可以是任何支持群体间社交互动的计算系统。以下是这类系统的例子。

Social media

Social media has become an outlet that is one of the most widely used ways of interacting through computers. Though there are many different platforms that can be used for social media, they all serve the same primary purpose of creating a social interaction through computers, mobile devices, etc. Social media has evolved into not just an interaction through text, but through pictures, videos, GIFs, and many other forms of multimedia. This has provided users an enhanced way to interact with other users while being able to more widely express and share during computational interaction. Within the last couple decades, social media has blown up and created many famous applications within the social computing arena.

Social media has become an outlet that is one of the most widely used ways of interacting through computers. Though there are many different platforms that can be used for social media, they all serve the same primary purpose of creating a social interaction through computers, mobile devices, etc. Social media has evolved into not just an interaction through text, but through pictures, videos, GIFs, and many other forms of multimedia. This has provided users an enhanced way to interact with other users while being able to more widely express and share during computational interaction. Within the last couple decades, social media has blown up and created many famous applications within the social computing arena.

社交媒体已经成为一种出口,是最广泛使用的通过电脑进行交互的方式之一。虽然有许多不同的平台可以用于社交媒体,但它们都服务于通过电脑、移动设备等创建社交互动的同一个主要目的。社交媒体已经演变成不仅仅是通过文本的互动,而是通过图片、视频、 gif 和许多其他形式的多媒体。这为用户提供了一种与其他用户交互的增强方式,同时能够在计算交互期间更广泛地表达和共享。在过去的几十年里,社交媒体已经在社交计算领域发展起来并创造了许多著名的应用程序。

Social networking

Through social networking, people are able to use platforms to build or enhance social networks/relations among people. These are people who commonly share similar backgrounds, interests, or participate in the same activities. For more details see social networking service.

Through social networking, people are able to use platforms to build or enhance social networks/relations among people. These are people who commonly share similar backgrounds, interests, or participate in the same activities. For more details see social networking service.

透过社交网络,人们可以利用平台建立或加强人与人之间的社交网络/关系。这些人通常具有相似的背景、兴趣或者参与相同的活动。更多详细信息请参阅社交网络服务。

Wiki pages

A wiki provides computing users a chance to collaborate to come together with a common goal and provide content to the public; both novice and expert users. Through the collaboration and efforts of many, a wiki page has no limit for the number of improvements that can be made.

A wiki provides computing users a chance to collaborate to come together with a common goal and provide content to the public; both novice and expert users. Through the collaboration and efforts of many, a wiki page has no limit for the number of improvements that can be made.

Wiki 为计算用户提供了一个机会,可以通过协作实现一个共同的目标,并向公众(包括新手用户和专家用户)提供内容。通过许多人的协作和努力,一个 wiki 页面对于可以做出的改进的数量没有限制。

Blogs

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A blog, in social computing aspects, is more a way for people to follow a particular user, group, or company and comment on the progress toward the particular ideal being covered in the blog. This allows users to interact using the content that is provided by page admin as the main subject.

A blog, in social computing aspects, is more a way for people to follow a particular user, group, or company and comment on the progress toward the particular ideal being covered in the blog. This allows users to interact using the content that is provided by page admin as the main subject.

一个博客,在社会计算方面,更多的是一种方式,让人们关注一个特定的用户,团体,或公司和评论的进展,以特定的理想正在涵盖的博客。这允许用户使用页面管理员提供的内容作为主题进行交互。

Five of the best blogging platforms[3] include Tumblr, WordPress, Squarespace, Blogger, and Posterous. These sites enable users, whether it be a person, company, or organization, to express certain ideas, thoughts, and/or opinions on either a single or variety of subjects. There are also a new technology called webloging which are sites that hosts blogs such as Myspace and Xanga. Both blogs and weblogging are very similar in that they act as a form of social computing where they help form social relations through one another such as gaining followers, trending using hashtags, or commenting on a post providing an opinion on a blog.

Five of the best blogging platformsFitzpatrick, Jason. "Five Best Blogging Platforms." Lifehacker. N.p., 20 June 2010. Web. 22 Oct. 2016 include Tumblr, WordPress, Squarespace, Blogger, and Posterous. These sites enable users, whether it be a person, company, or organization, to express certain ideas, thoughts, and/or opinions on either a single or variety of subjects. There are also a new technology called webloging which are sites that hosts blogs such as Myspace and Xanga. Both blogs and weblogging are very similar in that they act as a form of social computing where they help form social relations through one another such as gaining followers, trending using hashtags, or commenting on a post providing an opinion on a blog.

5个最好的博客平台。“五大最佳博客平台”Lifehacker.2010年6月20日。网页。2016年10月22日包括 Tumblr,WordPress,Squarespace,Blogger,和 Posterous。这些网站使得用户,无论是个人、公司还是组织,都能够表达某些想法、想法和/或对某一个或多个主题的观点。还有一种叫做 webloging 的新技术,这些网站上有 Myspace 和 Xanga 这样的博客。博客和网络日志非常相似,它们扮演着一种社会计算的角色,通过互相帮助形成社会关系,比如增加关注者,使用标签趋势,或在博客上发表评论提供意见。

According to a study conducted by Rachael Kwai Fun IP and Christian Wagner,[5] some features of weblogs that attract users and support blogs and weblogs as an important aspect of social computing in forming and strengthening relationships are: content management tools, community building tools, time structuring, search by category, commentary, and the ability to secure closed blogs.

According to a study conducted by Rachael Kwai Fun IP and Christian Wagner,Ip, Rachael Kwai Fun, and Christian Wagner. "Weblogging: A Study of Social Computing and Its Impact on Organizations." Decision Support Systems45.2 (2008): 242-50. Science Direct. Web some features of weblogs that attract users and support blogs and weblogs as an important aspect of social computing in forming and strengthening relationships are: content management tools, community building tools, time structuring, search by category, commentary, and the ability to secure closed blogs.

根据 Rachael Kwai Fun IP 和克里斯帝安·华格纳,叶,Rachael Kwai Fun 和克里斯帝安·华格纳的研究。“网络日志: 社会计算及其对组织影响的研究”决策支援系统45.2(2008) : 242-50。科学直播。网络博客的一些功能吸引用户,并支持博客和博客作为社会计算在形成和加强关系的一个重要方面是: 内容管理工具,社区建设工具,时间结构,按类别搜索,评论,以及能够保护封闭的博客。

Blogs are also highly used in social computing concepts in order to understand human behaviors amongst online communities through a concept called social network analysis. Social network analysis (SNA) is "a discipline of social science that seeks to explain social phenomena through a structural interpretation of human interaction both as a theory and a methodology".[6] There are certain links that occur in blogs, weblogs in this case, where they have different functions that portray different types of information such as Permalink, Blogrolls, Comments, and Trackbacks.

Blogs are also highly used in social computing concepts in order to understand human behaviors amongst online communities through a concept called social network analysis. Social network analysis (SNA) is "a discipline of social science that seeks to explain social phenomena through a structural interpretation of human interaction both as a theory and a methodology".Marlow, Cameron. "Audience, Structure and Authority in the Weblog Community." MIT Media Laboratory (2004): 1-9. Web. 26 Oct. 2016 There are certain links that occur in blogs, weblogs in this case, where they have different functions that portray different types of information such as Permalink, Blogrolls, Comments, and Trackbacks.

博客也被广泛应用于社会计算概念中,以便通过一个叫做社会网络分析的概念来理解在线社区中的人类行为。社会网络分析(Social network analysis,SNA)是“一门社会科学学科,它试图通过对人类相互作用的结构性解释来解释社会现象,这既是一种理论,也是一种方法论”。卡梅隆 · 马洛。“ Weblog 社区的受众、结构和权威。”麻省理工学院媒体实验室(2004) : 1-9。网页。2016年10月26日博客、博客中有一些特定的链接,它们有不同的功能描述不同类型的信息,比如 Permalink、 Blogrolls、 Comments 和 Trackbacks。

Online gaming

Online gaming is the social behavior of using an online game while interacting with other users. Online gaming can be done using a multitude of different platforms; common ones include personal computers, Xbox, PlayStation, and many more gaming consoles that can be stationary or mobile.

Online gaming is the social behavior of using an online game while interacting with other users. Online gaming can be done using a multitude of different platforms; common ones include personal computers, Xbox, PlayStation, and many more gaming consoles that can be stationary or mobile.

网络游戏是一种在与其他用户互动时使用网络游戏的社会行为。在线游戏可以通过许多不同的平台来完成; 常见的平台包括个人电脑、 Xbox、 PlayStation 以及许多其他可以固定或移动的游戏机。

Online dating

Online dating has created a community of websites like OkCupid, eHarmony, and Match.com. These platforms provide users with a way to interact with others that have goals relating to creating new relationships. The interaction between users in sites like these will differ based on the platform but the goal is simple; create relationships through online social interaction.

Online dating has created a community of websites like OkCupid, eHarmony, and Match.com. These platforms provide users with a way to interact with others that have goals relating to creating new relationships. The interaction between users in sites like these will differ based on the platform but the goal is simple; create relationships through online social interaction.

在线约会创建了一个社区网站,如 OkCupid,eHarmony 和 match. com。这些平台为用户提供了一种与其他目标与创建新关系相关的人进行交互的方式。在类似这样的网站上,用户之间的互动会因平台的不同而有所不同,但目标很简单: 通过在线社交互动建立关系。

Socially Intelligent Computing

Groups of people interact with these social computing systems in a variety of ways, all of which may be described as socially intelligent computing.

Groups of people interact with these social computing systems in a variety of ways, all of which may be described as socially intelligent computing.

一群人以各种各样的方式与这些社会计算系统进行交互,所有这些都可以被描述为社会智能计算。

Crowdsourcing

Crowdsourcing is currently a branch of social computing that has brought computing tasks to a new level when it comes to completion speed. This has also given users a way to earn an income through things like Amazon Mechanical Turk.

Crowdsourcing is currently a branch of social computing that has brought computing tasks to a new level when it comes to completion speed. This has also given users a way to earn an income through things like Amazon Mechanical Turk.

众包目前是社会计算的一个分支,它将计算任务的完成速度提升到了一个新的水平。这也为用户提供了一种通过亚马逊土耳其机器人赚钱的途径。

Dark social media

The Dark social media is the social media tools used to collaborate between individuals where contents are supposed to be only available to the participants. However, unlike mobile phone calls or messaging where information is sent from one user, transmitted through a medium and stored on each user devices, with the medium having no storage permission of the actual content of the data, more and more communication methods include a centralized server where all the contents are received, stored, and then transmitted. Some examples of these new mechanisms include Google Doc, Facebook Messages or Snapchat. All of the information passes through these channels has largely been unaccounted for by users themselves and the data analytics. However, in addition to their respective users private companies (Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat) that provided these services do have complete control over such data. The number of images, links, referrals and information pass through digital is supposed to be completely unaccounted for in the marketing scheme of things.

The Dark social media is the social media tools used to collaborate between individuals where contents are supposed to be only available to the participants. However, unlike mobile phone calls or messaging where information is sent from one user, transmitted through a medium and stored on each user devices, with the medium having no storage permission of the actual content of the data, more and more communication methods include a centralized server where all the contents are received, stored, and then transmitted. Some examples of these new mechanisms include Google Doc, Facebook Messages or Snapchat. All of the information passes through these channels has largely been unaccounted for by users themselves and the data analytics. However, in addition to their respective users private companies (Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat) that provided these services do have complete control over such data. The number of images, links, referrals and information pass through digital is supposed to be completely unaccounted for in the marketing scheme of things.

黑暗社交媒体是用来在个人之间进行协作的社交媒体工具,其内容应该只对参与者开放。然而,与移动电话呼叫或消息传递不同的是,信息从一个用户发送,通过媒介传输并存储在每个用户设备上,媒介没有数据实际内容的存储许可,越来越多的通信方法包括一个中央服务器,在那里所有的内容都被接收、存储,然后传输。这些新机制的一些例子包括 Google Doc,Facebook Messages 或 Snapchat。所有通过这些渠道传递的信息很大程度上由于用户自身和数据分析而无法解释。然而,除了他们各自的用户,提供这些服务的私人公司(Facebook,Twitter,Snapchat)对这些数据有完全的控制权。通过数字传递的图片、链接、推荐和信息的数量应该在市场营销计划中完全没有说明。

Social Science Theories社会科学理论

Collective intelligence

Collective intelligence is considered an area of social computing because of the group collaboration aspect. Becoming a growing area in computer science, collective intelligence provides users with a way to gain knowledge through collective efforts in a social interactive environment.

Collective intelligence is considered an area of social computing because of the group collaboration aspect. Becoming a growing area in computer science, collective intelligence provides users with a way to gain knowledge through collective efforts in a social interactive environment.

由于团队协作的方面,集体智能被认为是社会计算的一个领域。集体智能正在成为计算机科学的一个新兴领域,它为用户提供了一种在社会互动环境中通过集体努力获取知识的方式。

Social perceptions

Recent research has begun to look at interactions between humans and their computers in groups. This line of research focuses on the interaction as the primary unit of analysis by drawing from fields such as psychology, social psychology, and sociology.[7][8]

Recent research has begun to look at interactions between humans and their computers in groups. This line of research focuses on the interaction as the primary unit of analysis by drawing from fields such as psychology, social psychology, and sociology.

最近的研究已经开始着眼于人类和他们的电脑在群体中的互动。这一系列的研究聚焦于互动作为主要的分析单位,借鉴了心理学、社会心理学和社会学等领域的成果。

Current Research

Since 2007, research in social computing has become more popular for researchers and professionals in multiple fields dealing with technology, business and politics. A study performed by affiliates of Washington State University used a Latent semantic analysis on academic papers containing the term "social computing" to find that topics in social computing converge into the three major themes of Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Sharing and Content Management.[9] Social computing continues to shift the direction of research in Information Sciences as a whole, extending social aspects into technological and corporate domains. Companies and industries such as Google, Cisco and Fox have invested in such endeavors. Possible questions to be answered through social computing research include how to form stable communities, how these communities evolve, how knowledge is created and processed, how people are motivated to participate, etc.[10]

Since 2007, research in social computing has become more popular for researchers and professionals in multiple fields dealing with technology, business and politics. A study performed by affiliates of Washington State University used a Latent semantic analysis on academic papers containing the term "social computing" to find that topics in social computing converge into the three major themes of Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Sharing and Content Management. Social computing continues to shift the direction of research in Information Sciences as a whole, extending social aspects into technological and corporate domains. Companies and industries such as Google, Cisco and Fox have invested in such endeavors. Possible questions to be answered through social computing research include how to form stable communities, how these communities evolve, how knowledge is created and processed, how people are motivated to participate, etc.

自2007年以来,社交计算的研究已经变得越来越受科技、商业和政治等多个领域的研究人员和专业人士的欢迎。一项由华盛顿州立大学附属机构进行的研究使用了一个包含术语“社会计算”的学术论文潜在语义学,发现社会计算的主题集中在知识发现、知识共享和内容管理这三大主题中。社会计算作为一个整体继续改变信息科学的研究方向,将社会方面扩展到技术和企业领域。像谷歌、思科和福克斯这样的公司和行业已经投资了这样的项目。通过社会计算机研究可能要回答的问题包括如何形成稳定的社区,这些社区如何进化,知识如何创造和处理,人们如何积极参与等等。

Currently, research in the areas of social computing is being done by many well known labs owned by Microsoft and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The team at Microsoft has taken off with a mission statement of "To research and develop software that contributes to compelling and effective social interactions."[11] They take a main focus on user-centered design processes. They also add rapid prototyping combined with rigorous science to bring forth complete projects and research that can impact the social computing field. Current projects being worked on by the Microsoft team include Hotmap,[12] SNARF,[13] Slam,[14] and Wallop. MIT, however, has a goal of creating software that shapes our cities[15] and more in depth:

"More specifically, (1) we create micro-institutions in physical space, (2) we design social processes that allow others to replicate and evolve those micro-institutions, and (3) we write software that enables those social processes. We use this process to create more robust, decentralized, human-scale systems in our cities. We are particularly focused on reinventing our current systems for learning, agriculture, and transportation."[15]

The current research projects at the MIT social computing lab include The Dog Programming Language,[16] Wildflower Montessori, and You Are Here.[17] A broad overview of what to expect from newly started Wildflower Montessori is as follows:

"Wildflower Montessori School is a pilot Lab School and the first in a new network of learning centers. Its aim is to be an experiment in a new learning environment, blurring the boundaries between coffee shops and schools, between home-schooling and institutional schooling, between tactile, multisensory methods and abstract thinking. Wildflower will serve as a research platform to test new ideas in advancing the Montessori Method in the context of modern fluencies, as well as to test how to direct the organic growth of a social system that fosters the growth and connection of such schools."[15]

Currently, research in the areas of social computing is being done by many well known labs owned by Microsoft and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The team at Microsoft has taken off with a mission statement of "To research and develop software that contributes to compelling and effective social interactions." They take a main focus on user-centered design processes. They also add rapid prototyping combined with rigorous science to bring forth complete projects and research that can impact the social computing field. Current projects being worked on by the Microsoft team include Hotmap, SNARF, Slam, and Wallop. MIT, however, has a goal of creating software that shapes our cities and more in depth:"More specifically, (1) we create micro-institutions in physical space, (2) we design social processes that allow others to replicate and evolve those micro-institutions, and (3) we write software that enables those social processes. We use this process to create more robust, decentralized, human-scale systems in our cities. We are particularly focused on reinventing our current systems for learning, agriculture, and transportation."The current research projects at the MIT social computing lab include The Dog Programming Language, Wildflower Montessori, and You Are Here. A broad overview of what to expect from newly started Wildflower Montessori is as follows:"Wildflower Montessori School is a pilot Lab School and the first in a new network of learning centers. Its aim is to be an experiment in a new learning environment, blurring the boundaries between coffee shops and schools, between home-schooling and institutional schooling, between tactile, multisensory methods and abstract thinking. Wildflower will serve as a research platform to test new ideas in advancing the Montessori Method in the context of modern fluencies, as well as to test how to direct the organic growth of a social system that fosters the growth and connection of such schools."

目前,微软和麻省理工学院的许多知名实验室正在进行社会计算领域的研究。微软的团队带着“研究和开发有助于引人注目和有效的社会互动的软件”的使命宣言起飞了他们主要关注以用户为中心的设计/工艺。他们还增加了快速成型和严谨的科学相结合,带来了完整的项目和研究,可以影响社会计算领域。目前微软团队正在开发的项目包括 Hotmap、 SNARF、 Slam 和 Wallop。然而,麻省理工学院有一个目标,那就是创造出塑造我们城市的更深层次的软件: “更具体地说,(1)我们在物理空间中创造微型机构; (2)我们设计社会过程,允许其他人复制和进化这些微型机构; (3)我们编写软件,使这些社会过程成为可能。我们利用这个过程,在我们的城市中创造出更强大、更分散、更人性化的系统。我们特别关注于重塑我们现有的学习、农业和交通系统。“麻省理工学院社会计算实验室目前的研究项目包括狗编程语言、 Wildflower Montessori 和 You Are Here。蒙台梭利野花学校是一所试点实验学校,也是一个新的学习中心网络中的第一所。它的目标是在一个新的学习环境中进行实验,模糊咖啡店和学校之间、家庭教育和机构教育之间、触觉、多感官方法和抽象思维之间的界限。野花将作为一个研究平台,在现代流动的背景下测试推进蒙台梭利方法的新思想,以及测试如何引导社会系统的有机增长,促进这些学校的发展和联系。”

The difference between computational social science and computer science

Computational social science can be defined as the interdisciplinary investigation of the social universe on many scales, ranging from individual actors to the largest grouping through the medium of computation. Computer science is the study of the principles and use of computers to study experimentation and theories.

Computational social science can be defined as the interdisciplinary investigation of the social universe on many scales, ranging from individual actors to the largest grouping through the medium of computation. Computer science is the study of the principles and use of computers to study experimentation and theories.

计算社会科学可以定义为在许多尺度上对社会宇宙的跨学科研究,从个人行为者到通过计算媒介进行的最大分组。计算机科学是研究计算机的原理和使用,以研究实验和理论。

Conferences

  • Computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW)
  • SIGCHI


  • 计算机支持的协同工作
  • SIGCHI

See also


  • Computer-mediated communication
  • Game theory
  • Folksonomy
  • Groupware
  • Human-based computation
  • Human-centered computing
  • Multi-agent system
  • Open innovation
  • Social choice
  • Social machine
  • Social network
  • Social software engineering
  • Sociology
  • Symbiotic intelligence
  • Web 2.0
  • Research institutions
    • MIT Media Lab
    • Cosmos Lab
    • GroupLens Research
    • HCII


  • 电脑辅助沟通
  • 博弈论
  • 大众分类法
  • 群件
  • 人类计算
  • 人本计算
  • 多智能体系统
  • 开放式创新
  • 社交机器
  • 社交软件工程
  • 社会学
  • 共生智能
  • Web 2.0
  • 研究机构
  • 麻省理工学院媒体实验室
  • 宇宙 GroupLens
  • HCII

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 From "Social Computing", introduction to Social Computing special edition of the Communications of the ACM, edited by Douglas Schuler, Volume 37, Issue 1 (January 1994), Pages: 28 - 108
  2. 2.0 2.1 From Social Computing in Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Third Edition. IGI Global, 2014, p. 6754.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Fitzpatrick, Jason. "Five Best Blogging Platforms." Lifehacker. N.p., 20 June 2010. Web. 22 Oct. 2016
  4. 4.0 4.1 A term coined by Andrew McAfee of Harvard Business School in the Spring 2006 MIT Sloan Management Review.
    McAfee, Andrew (2006). "Enterprise 2.0: The Dawn of Emergent Collaboration". MIT Sloan Management Review. 47 (3): 21–28.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Ip, Rachael Kwai Fun, and Christian Wagner. "Weblogging: A Study of Social Computing and Its Impact on Organizations." Decision Support Systems45.2 (2008): 242-50. Science Direct. Web
  6. 6.0 6.1 Marlow, Cameron. "Audience, Structure and Authority in the Weblog Community." MIT Media Laboratory (2004): 1-9. Web. 26 Oct. 2016
  7. Posard, Marek (2014). "Status processes in human-computer interactions: Does gender matter?". Computers in Human Behavior. 37: 189–195. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2014.04.025.
  8. Posard, Marek; Rinderknecht, R. Gordon (2015). "Do people like working with computers more than human beings?". Computers in Human Behavior. 51: 232–238. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.04.057.
  9. Li, Yibai; Joshi, K.D. (July 29, 2012). "The State of Social Computing Research: A Literature Review and Synthesis using the Latent Semantic Analysis Approach". Association for Information Systems Electronic Library.
  10. Parameswaran, Manoj; Whinston, Andrew B. (June 2007). "Research Issues in Social Computing". Journal of the Association for Information Sciences. 8 (6).
  11. "Social Computing - Microsoft Research". research.microsoft.com. Retrieved 2015-04-23.
  12. Fisher, Danyel (November 2007). "Hotmap: Looking at Geographic Attention". Microsoft Research. 13 (6): 1184–91. doi:10.1109/TVCG.2007.70561. PMID 17968063. Retrieved 2015-04-23.
  13. "SNARF - Microsoft Research". research.microsoft.com. Retrieved 2015-04-23.
  14. "SLAM - Microsoft Research". research.microsoft.com. Retrieved 2015-04-23.
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 "Social Computing | MIT Media Lab". www.media.mit.edu. Retrieved 2015-04-23.
  16. "The Dog Programming Language". www.dog-lang.org. Archived from the original on 2015-04-29. Retrieved 2015-04-23.
  17. "You Are Here". youarehere.cc. Retrieved 2015-04-23.

Introduction to Computational Social Science: Principles and Applications . textbook by Claudio Cioffi-Revilla

Published at December 31,2013.page 2,3

Introduction to Computational Social Science: Principles and Applications . textbook by Claudio Cioffi-Revilla

Published at December 31,2013.page 2,3

计算社会科学导论: 原理与应用。由 Claudio Cioffi-Revilla 编写的教科书,2013年12月31日出版。第2页,第3页

External links

  • Peer-reviewed overview of Social Computing by Tom Erickson (IBM Research) and Elizabeth Churchill (Yahoo! Research)
  • Social Machines - Computing means connecting - Wade Roush, MIT Technology Review, August 2005
  • Microsoft Research - Social Computing Group Home
  • IBM Research Social Computing Group
  • University of Lincoln Social Computing Research Centre
  • iCrossing ebook What is Social Media? - Antony Mayfield, 2007
  • You Are Here: Social Computing Snapshots
  • Socially Intelligent Computing Talk
  • Social Computing, special edition of the Communications of the ACM, edited by Douglas Schuler, Volume 37, Issue 1 (January 1994), Pages: 28 - 108
  • Theoretical foundations of Social Computation


  • 同行评审的社交电脑概览,作者为 IBM 研究部的 Tom Erickson 和伊丽莎白丘吉尔!研究)
  • 社会机器-计算意味着连接-Wade Roush,麻省理工学院技术评论,2005年8月
  • 微软研究-社会计算集团家庭
  • IBM 研究社会计算集团
  • 林肯大学社会计算研究中心
  • iCrossing 电子书什么是社会媒体?社会计算美国计算机学会通讯》特别版,Douglas Schuler 编辑,卷37,第1期(1994年1月) ,页数: 28-108社会计算的理论基础

Category:Social networking services Category:Cyberpsychology Category:Persuasion Category:Crowdsourcing Category:Dating sims

类别: 社交网络服务类别: 网络心理类别: 说服类别: 众包类别: 约会模拟


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Social computing. Its edit history can be viewed at 社会计算/edithistory