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Ecological analysis of CO2 in an ecosystem

Ecological analysis of CO2 in an ecosystem [生态系统]中二氧化碳的生态学分析

Systems ecology is an interdisciplinary field of ecology, a subset of Earth system science, that takes a holistic approach to the study of ecological systems, especially ecosystems.[1][2][3] Systems ecology can be seen as an application of general systems theory to ecology. Central to the systems ecology approach is the idea that an ecosystem is a complex system exhibiting emergent properties. Systems ecology focuses on interactions and transactions within and between biological and ecological systems, and is especially concerned with the way the functioning of ecosystems can be influenced by human interventions. It uses and extends concepts from thermodynamics and develops other macroscopic descriptions of complex systems.

Systems ecology is an interdisciplinary field of ecology, a subset of Earth system science, that takes a holistic approach to the study of ecological systems, especially ecosystems. Systems ecology can be seen as an application of general systems theory to ecology. Central to the systems ecology approach is the idea that an ecosystem is a complex system exhibiting emergent properties. Systems ecology focuses on interactions and transactions within and between biological and ecological systems, and is especially concerned with the way the functioning of ecosystems can be influenced by human interventions. It uses and extends concepts from thermodynamics and develops other macroscopic descriptions of complex systems.

系统生态学Systems ecology是一个跨学科的生态学领域,是地球系统科学的一个子集,它采用整体的方法研究生态系统学,尤其是生态系统。系统生态学可以看作是一般系统理论在生态学中的应用。系统生态学方法的核心思想是,生态系统是一个具有突现特性的复杂系统。系统生态学侧重于生物和生态系统内部和之间的相互作用和交易,尤其关注人类干预对生态系统功能的影响。它使用和扩展了热力学的概念,并开发了其他复杂系统的宏观描述。



Overview

Overview

概览

Systems ecology seeks a holistic view of the interactions and transactions within and between biological and ecological systems. Systems ecologists realise that the function of any ecosystem can be influenced by human economics in fundamental ways. They have therefore taken an additional transdisciplinary step by including economics in the consideration of ecological-economic systems. In the words of R.L. Kitching:[4]

Systems ecology seeks a holistic view of the interactions and transactions within and between biological and ecological systems. Systems ecologists realise that the function of any ecosystem can be influenced by human economics in fundamental ways. They have therefore taken an additional transdisciplinary step by including economics in the consideration of ecological-economic systems. In the words of R.L. Kitching:

系统生态学寻求生物系统和生态系统内部和之间的相互作用和交易的整体观点。系统生态学家意识到,任何生态系统的功能都可以从根本上受到人类经济的影响。因此,他们采取了额外的跨学科步骤,将经济学纳入生态经济系统的考虑。用R.L. Kitching的话来说就是:



  • Systems ecology can be defined as the approach to the study of ecology of organisms using the techniques and philosophy of systems analysis: that is, the methods and tools developed, largely in engineering, for studying, characterizing and making predictions about complex entities, that is, systems..

系统生态学可以被定义为使用系统分析的技术和观点来研究生物体生态学的方法:也就是说,主要是在工程学中开发的用于研究、描述和对复杂实体(即系统)进行预测的方法和工具

  • In any study of an ecological system, an essential early procedure is to draw a diagram of the system of interest ... diagrams indicate the system's boundaries by a solid line. Within these boundaries, series of components are isolated which have been chosen to represent that portion of the world in which the systems analyst is interested ... If there are no connections across the systems' boundaries with the surrounding systems environments, the systems are described as closed. Ecological work, however, deals almost exclusively with open systems.[5]

在任何一个生态系统的研究中,一个重要的早期程序就是画出一个感兴趣的系统图。图表用实线表示系统的“边界”。在这些边界内,一系列的组件与系统分析者感兴趣的那部分世界分离出来。如果没有跨越系统边界与周围“系统环境”的连接,则系统被描述为“闭合”。然而,生态工作几乎只涉及“开放”系统。



As a mode of scientific enquiry, a central feature of Systems Ecology is the general application of the principles of energetics to all systems at any scale. Perhaps the most notable proponent of this view was Howard T. Odum - sometimes considered the father of ecosystems ecology. In this approach the principles of energetics constitute ecosystem principles. Reasoning by formal analogy from one system to another enables the Systems Ecologist to see principles functioning in an analogous manner across system-scale boundaries. H.T. Odum commonly used the Energy Systems Language as a tool for making systems diagrams and flow charts.

As a mode of scientific enquiry, a central feature of Systems Ecology is the general application of the principles of energetics to all systems at any scale. Perhaps the most notable proponent of this view was Howard T. Odum - sometimes considered the father of ecosystems ecology. In this approach the principles of energetics constitute ecosystem principles. Reasoning by formal analogy from one system to another enables the Systems Ecologist to see principles functioning in an analogous manner across system-scale boundaries. H.T. Odum commonly used the Energy Systems Language as a tool for making systems diagrams and flow charts.

作为一种科学探究方式,系统生态学的一个核心特征就是能量学原理在任何尺度的所有系统中的普遍应用。也许这个观点最著名的支持者是 Howard T. Odum,他时常被认为是生态系统生态学之父。在这种方法中,能量学原理构成了生态系统原理。通过从一个系统到另一个系统的形式类比推理,使系统生态学家能够看到法则以类似的方式在跨越系统尺度的边界发挥作用。H.t.Odum 通常使用能源系统语言作为制作系统图和流程图的工具。



The fourth of these principles, the principle of maximum power efficiency, takes central place in the analysis and synthesis of ecological systems. The fourth principle suggests that the most evolutionarily advantageous system function occurs when the environmental load matches the internal resistance of the system. The further the environmental load is from matching the internal resistance, the further the system is away from its sustainable steady state. Therefore, the systems ecologist engages in a task of resistance and impedance matching in ecological engineering, just as the electronic engineer would do.

The fourth of these principles, the principle of maximum power efficiency, takes central place in the analysis and synthesis of ecological systems. The fourth principle suggests that the most evolutionarily advantageous system function occurs when the environmental load matches the internal resistance of the system. The further the environmental load is from matching the internal resistance, the further the system is away from its sustainable steady state. Therefore, the systems ecologist engages in a task of resistance and impedance matching in ecological engineering, just as the electronic engineer would do.

这些原则中的第四条,即最大功率原则,在生态系统的分析和综合中占据中心地位。第四原则建议,当环境负荷与系统内部阻力相匹配时,系统功能发生最有利于进化的变化。环境负荷与内阻的匹配越小,系统离可持续稳定状态越远。因此,系统生态学家像电子工程师一样,在生态工程中从事抵抗和阻抗匹配的任务。



Closely related fields

Closely related fields

密切相关的领域



Deep ecology

Deep ecology

深层生态学

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Deep ecology is an ideology whose metaphysical underpinnings are deeply concerned with the science of ecology. The term was coined by Arne Naess, a Norwegian philosopher, Gandhian scholar, and environmental activist. He argues that the prevailing approach to environmental management is anthropocentric, and that the natural environment is not only "more complex than we imagine, it is more complex than we can imagine."[6] Naess formulated deep ecology in 1973 at an environmental conference in Budapest.

Deep ecology is an ideology whose metaphysical underpinnings are deeply concerned with the science of ecology. The term was coined by Arne Naess, a Norwegian philosopher, Gandhian scholar, and environmental activist. He argues that the prevailing approach to environmental management is anthropocentric, and that the natural environment is not only "more complex than we imagine, it is more complex than we can imagine." Naess formulated deep ecology in 1973 at an environmental conference in Budapest.

深层生态学是一种与生态学密切相关的形而上学基础意识形态。这个术语是由挪威哲学家、甘地学者和环境活动家 Arne Naess创造的。他认为,目前流行的环境管理方法是以人类为中心的,自然环境不仅“比我们想象的要复杂,而且比我们想象的要复杂”,Naess于1973年在布达佩斯的一次环境会议上提出了深层生态学的概念。



Joanna Macy, John Seed, and others developed Naess' thesis into a branch they called experiential deep ecology. Their efforts were motivated by a need they perceived for the development of an "ecological self", which views the human ego as an integrated part of a living system that encompasses the individual. They sought to transcend altruism with a deeper self-interest based on biospherical equality beyond human chauvinism.

Joanna Macy, John Seed, and others developed Naess' thesis into a branch they called experiential deep ecology. Their efforts were motivated by a need they perceived for the development of an "ecological self", which views the human ego as an integrated part of a living system that encompasses the individual. They sought to transcend altruism with a deeper self-interest based on biospherical equality beyond human chauvinism.

Joanna Macy, John Seed和其他人将Naess的论点发展成为他们称之为经验性深层生态学的一个分支。他们之所以作出这些努力,是因为他们认为需要发展”生态自我” ,将人的自我视为包括个人在内的生命系统的一个组成部分。他们试图超越利他主义,以生物圈上的平等为基础,实现更深层次的自我利益来超越人类 沙文主义chauvinism



Earth systems engineering and management

Earth systems engineering and management

地球系统工程与管理

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Earth systems engineering and management (ESEM) is a discipline used to analyze, design, engineer and manage complex environmental systems. It entails a wide range of subject areas including anthropology, engineering, environmental science, ethics and philosophy. At its core, ESEM looks to "rationally design and manage coupled human-natural systems in a highly integrated and ethical fashion"

Earth systems engineering and management (ESEM) is a discipline used to analyze, design, engineer and manage complex environmental systems. It entails a wide range of subject areas including anthropology, engineering, environmental science, ethics and philosophy. At its core, ESEM looks to "rationally design and manage coupled human-natural systems in a highly integrated and ethical fashion"

地球系统工程与管理(ESEM)是一门用于分析、设计、工程和管理复杂环境系统的学科。它涉及广泛的学科领域,包括人类学、工程学、环境科学、伦理学和哲学。ESEM 的核心是“以高度整合和道德的方式,合理地设计和管理人与自然的耦合系统”



Ecological economics

Ecological economics

生态经济学

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Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field of academic research that addresses the dynamic and spatial interdependence between human economies and natural ecosystems. Ecological economics brings together and connects different disciplines, within the natural and social sciences but especially between these broad areas. As the name suggests, the field is made up of researchers with a background in economics and ecology. An important motivation for the emergence of ecological economics has been criticism on the assumptions and approaches of traditional (mainstream) environmental and resource economics.

Ecological economics is a transdisciplinary field of academic research that addresses the dynamic and spatial interdependence between human economies and natural ecosystems. Ecological economics brings together and connects different disciplines, within the natural and social sciences but especially between these broad areas. As the name suggests, the field is made up of researchers with a background in economics and ecology. An important motivation for the emergence of ecological economics has been criticism on the assumptions and approaches of traditional (mainstream) environmental and resource economics.

生态经济学是研究人类经济和自然生态系统之间动态和空间相互依存关系的学术研究的一个跨学科领域。生态经济学把自然科学和社会科学中的不同学科联系在一起,特别是在这些广泛的领域之间。顾名思义,这个领域由具有经济学和生态学背景的研究人员组成。生态经济学产生的一个重要动因是对传统(主流)环境资源经济学的假设和方法的批判。



Ecological energetics

Ecological energetics

生态能量学

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Ecological energetics is the quantitative study of the flow of energy through ecological systems. It aims to uncover the principles which describe the propensity of such energy flows through the trophic, or 'energy availing' levels of ecological networks. In systems ecology the principles of ecosystem energy flows or "ecosystem laws" (i.e. principles of ecological energetics) are considered formally analogous to the principles of energetics.

Ecological energetics is the quantitative study of the flow of energy through ecological systems. It aims to uncover the principles which describe the propensity of such energy flows through the trophic, or 'energy availing' levels of ecological networks. In systems ecology the principles of ecosystem energy flows or "ecosystem laws" (i.e. principles of ecological energetics) are considered formally analogous to the principles of energetics.

生态能量学是对生态系统中能量流动的定量研究。它旨在揭示描述这种能量流通过营养或生态网络的能量利用水平的倾向的原理。在系统生态学中,生态系统能量流动原理或“生态系统规律”(即:生态能量学原理)被认为形式上类似于能量学原理。



Ecological humanities

Ecological humanities

生态人文学科

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Ecological humanities aims to bridge the divides between the sciences and the humanities, and between Western, Eastern and Indigenous ways of knowing nature. Like ecocentric political theory, the ecological humanities are characterised by a connectivity ontology and a commitment to two fundamental axioms relating to the need to submit to ecological laws and to see humanity as part of a larger living system.

Ecological humanities aims to bridge the divides between the sciences and the humanities, and between Western, Eastern and Indigenous ways of knowing nature. Like ecocentric political theory, the ecological humanities are characterised by a connectivity ontology and a commitment to two fundamental axioms relating to the need to submit to ecological laws and to see humanity as part of a larger living system.

生态人文旨在弥合科学与人文之间的鸿沟,弥合西方、东方和土著对自然的认识方式。就像生态中心的政治理论一样,生态人文学科的特点是连接本体论和两个基本原则的贯彻,即服从生态法则和将人类视为更大的生命系统的一部分的必要性。



Ecosystem ecology

Ecosystem ecology

生态系统生态学



A riparian forest in the White Mountains, New Hampshire (USA)

[[新罕布什尔州怀特山脉的河岸森林]

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Ecosystem ecology is the integrated study of biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems and their interactions within an ecosystem framework. This science examines how ecosystems work and relates this to their components such as chemicals, bedrock, soil, plants, and animals. Ecosystem ecology examines physical and biological structure and examines how these ecosystem characteristics interact.

Ecosystem ecology is the integrated study of biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems and their interactions within an ecosystem framework. This science examines how ecosystems work and relates this to their components such as chemicals, bedrock, soil, plants, and animals. Ecosystem ecology examines physical and biological structure and examines how these ecosystem characteristics interact.

生态系统学是生态系统的生物和非生物组成部分及其在生态系统框架内的相互作用的综合研究。这门科学研究生态系统是如何工作的,并将其与化学物质、基岩、土壤、植物和动物等组成部分联系起来。生态系统生态学研究物理和生物结构,并检查这些生态系统特征是如何相互作用的。



The relationship between systems ecology and ecosystem ecology is complex. Much of systems ecology can be considered a subset of ecosystem ecology. Ecosystem ecology also utilizes methods that have little to do with the holistic approach of systems ecology. However, systems ecology more actively considers external influences such as economics that usually fall outside the bounds of ecosystem ecology. Whereas ecosystem ecology can be defined as the scientific study of ecosystems, systems ecology is more of a particular approach to the study of ecological systems and phenomena that interact with these systems.

The relationship between systems ecology and ecosystem ecology is complex. Much of systems ecology can be considered a subset of ecosystem ecology. Ecosystem ecology also utilizes methods that have little to do with the holistic approach of systems ecology. However, systems ecology more actively considers external influences such as economics that usually fall outside the bounds of ecosystem ecology. Whereas ecosystem ecology can be defined as the scientific study of ecosystems, systems ecology is more of a particular approach to the study of ecological systems and phenomena that interact with these systems.

系统生态学和生态系统学之间的关系是复杂的。许多系统生态学可以被认为是生态系统生态学的一个子集。生态系统学也使用了一些与系统生态学的整体方法无关的方法。然而,系统生态学更积极地考虑通常超出了生态系统生态学的范围的外部影响,比如经济。然而生态系统学可以被定义为生态系统的科学研究,系统生态学更多的是一种特殊的方法来研究生态系统和与这些系统相互作用的现象。



Industrial ecology

Industrial ecology

工业生态学

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Industrial ecology is the study of industrial processes as linear (open loop) systems, in which resource and capital investments move through the system to become waste, to a closed loop system where wastes become inputs for new processes.

Industrial ecology is the study of industrial processes as linear (open loop) systems, in which resource and capital investments move through the system to become waste, to a closed loop system where wastes become inputs for new processes.

工业生态学是研究工业过程作为线性(开放式循环)系统,其中资源和资本投资通过该系统流动变成废料,到一个其中废料重新投入新过程的封闭式循环系统,。



See also

See also

参见

模板:Portal





农业生态学


地球系统科学

生态系统生态学

生态素养

能值

能量学

能量系统语言



科学整体论

整体单元(哲学)


整体管理



景观生态学

反还原主义

生物符号学

生态符号学

社会生态系统代谢多尺度综合评估理论




References

References

参考资料

  1. Shugart, Herman H. (Herman Henry), 1944-; O'Neill, R. V. (Robert V.), 1940-. Systems ecology. ISBN 0-87933-347-2. OCLC 4664585. 
  2. Van Dyne, George M., 1932- (1966). Ecosystems, systems ecology, and systems ecologists.. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Health Physics Divisions. OCLC 4247138. 
  3. Wilkinson, David M., 1963- (2006). Fundamental processes in ecology : an earth systems approach. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-856846-0. OCLC 67383832. 
  4. Kitching, R. L. (Roger Laurence), 1945- (1983). Systems ecology : an introduction to ecological modelling. University of Queensland Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-7022-1813-8. OCLC 8845946. 
  5. Kitching, R. L. (Roger Laurence), 1945- (1983). Systems ecology : an introduction to ecological modelling. University of Queensland Press. p. 11. ISBN 0-7022-1813-8. OCLC 8845946. 
  6. A statement attributed to British biologist J.B.S. Haldane




Literature

Literature

文学


  • Kenneth Edmund Ferguson, Systems Analysis in Ecology, WATT, 1966, 276 pp.


  • Efraim Halfon, Theoretical Systems Ecology: Advances and Case Studies, 1979.


  • J. W. Haefner, Modeling Biological Systems: Principles and Applications, London., UK, Chapman and Hall 1996, 473 pp.


  • Richard F Johnston, Peter W Frank, Charles Duncan Michener, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 1976, 307 pp.


  • Jorgensen, Sven E., "Introduction to Systems Ecology", CRC Press, 2012.


  • R.L. Kitching, Systems ecology, University of Queensland Press, 1983.


  • Howard T. Odum, Systems Ecology: An Introduction, Wiley-Interscience, 1983.


  • Howard T. Odum, Ecological and General Systems: An Introduction to Systems Ecology. University Press of Colorado, Niwot, CO, 1994.


  • Friedrich Recknagel, Applied Systems Ecology: Approach and Case Studies in Aquatic Ecology, 1989.


  • James. Sanderson & Larry D. Harris, Landscape Ecology: A Top-down Approach, 2000, 246 pp.


  • Sheldon Smith, Human Systems Ecology: Studies in the Integration of Political Economy, 1989.


  • Shugart, H.H., O’Neil, R.V. (Eds.) Systems Ecology, Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc., 1979.


  • Van Dyne, George M., Ecosystems, Systems Ecology, and Systems Ecologists, ORNL- 3975. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, pp. 1–40, 1966.


  • Patten, Bernard C. (editor), "Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology", Volume 1, Academic Press, 1971.


  • Patten, Bernard C. (editor), "Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology", Volume 2, Academic Press, 1972.


  • Patten, Bernard C. (editor), "Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology", Volume 3, Academic Press, 1975.


  • Patten, Bernard C. (editor), "Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology", Volume 4, Academic Press, 1976.




External links

External links

外部链接

模板:Commonscat


Organisations

Organisations

机构









模板:Modelling ecosystems


模板:Systems


模板:Environmental science


模板:Environmental social science

Category:Environmental science

类别: 环境科学

Category:Environmental social science

类别: 环境社会科学

Category:Formal sciences

类别: 正规科学

Ecology

生态学

Category:Subfields of ecology

分类: 生态学的子领域


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Systems ecology. Its edit history can be viewed at 系统论/edithistory