群体智能

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模板:Group intelligence 模板:Recommender systems Collective intelligence (CI) is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making. The term appears in sociobiology, political science and in context of mass peer review and crowdsourcing applications. It may involve consensus, social capital and formalisms such as voting systems, social media and other means of quantifying mass activity.[1] Collective IQ is a measure of collective intelligence, although it is often used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Collective intelligence has also been attributed to bacteria and animals.[2]



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Collective intelligence (CI) is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making. The term appears in sociobiology, political science and in context of mass peer review and crowdsourcing applications. It may involve consensus, social capital and formalisms such as voting systems, social media and other means of quantifying mass activity. Collective IQ is a measure of collective intelligence, although it is often used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Collective intelligence has also been attributed to bacteria and animals.

拇指 | 460px | 集体智慧(CI)是从许多个体的协作、集体努力和竞争中产生的共享或群体智慧,并出现在共识决策中。这个术语出现在社会生物学、政治科学和大规模同行评议和众包应用中。它可能涉及共识,社会资本和形式主义,如投票系统,社会媒体和其他手段量化大众活动。集体智商是对集体智慧的一种衡量,尽管它经常与集体智慧这个术语互换使用。集体智慧也被归功于细菌和动物。

It can be understood as an emergent property from the synergies among: 1) data-information-knowledge; 2) software-hardware; and 3) individuals (those with new insights as well as recognized authorities) that continually learns from feedback to produce just-in-time knowledge for better decisions than these three elements acting alone;[1][3] or more narrowly as an emergent property between people and ways of processing information.[4] This notion of collective intelligence is referred to as "symbiotic intelligence" by Norman Lee Johnson.[5] The concept is used in sociology, business, computer science and mass communications: it also appears in science fiction. Pierre Lévy defines collective intelligence as, "It is a form of universally distributed intelligence, constantly enhanced, coordinated in real time, and resulting in the effective mobilization of skills. I'll add the following indispensable characteristic to this definition: The basis and goal of collective intelligence is mutual recognition and enrichment of individuals rather than the cult of fetishized or hypostatized communities."[6] According to researchers Pierre Lévy and Derrick de Kerckhove, it refers to capacity of networked ICTs (Information communication technologies) to enhance the collective pool of social knowledge by simultaneously expanding the extent of human interactions.模板:Sfn[7] A broader definition was provided by Geoff Mulgan in a series of lectures and reports from 2006 onwards [8] and in the book Big Mind [9] which proposed a framework for analysing any thinking system, including both human and machine intelligence, in terms of functional elements (observation, prediction, creativity, judgement etc.), learning loops and forms of organisation. The aim was to provide a way to diagnose, and improve, the collective intelligence of a city, business, NGO or parliament.

It can be understood as an emergent property from the synergies among: 1) data-information-knowledge; 2) software-hardware; and 3) individuals (those with new insights as well as recognized authorities) that continually learns from feedback to produce just-in-time knowledge for better decisions than these three elements acting alone;Glenn, Jerome C. Collective Intelligence – One of the Next Big Things, Futura 4/2009, Finnish Society for Futures Studies, Helsinki, Finland or more narrowly as an emergent property between people and ways of processing information.Glenn, Jerome C. Chapter 5, 2008 State of the Future. The Millennium Project, Washington, DC 2008 This notion of collective intelligence is referred to as "symbiotic intelligence" by Norman Lee Johnson.Norman Lee Johnson, Collective Science site The concept is used in sociology, business, computer science and mass communications: it also appears in science fiction. Pierre Lévy defines collective intelligence as, "It is a form of universally distributed intelligence, constantly enhanced, coordinated in real time, and resulting in the effective mobilization of skills. I'll add the following indispensable characteristic to this definition: The basis and goal of collective intelligence is mutual recognition and enrichment of individuals rather than the cult of fetishized or hypostatized communities." According to researchers Pierre Lévy and Derrick de Kerckhove, it refers to capacity of networked ICTs (Information communication technologies) to enhance the collective pool of social knowledge by simultaneously expanding the extent of human interactions. A broader definition was provided by Geoff Mulgan in a series of lectures and reports from 2006 onwards lecture series in Adelaide on 'Collective Intelligence about Collective Intelligence and http://www.thinkers.sa.gov.au/images/Mulgan_Final_Report.pdf and in the book Big Mind Mulgan, Geoff Big Mind: How Collective Intelligence can Change our World, Princeton University Press, 2017 which proposed a framework for analysing any thinking system, including both human and machine intelligence, in terms of functional elements (observation, prediction, creativity, judgement etc.), learning loops and forms of organisation. The aim was to provide a way to diagnose, and improve, the collective intelligence of a city, business, NGO or parliament.

它可以被理解为: 1)数据-信息-知识; 2)软件-硬件; 和3)个人(那些有新的见解和公认的权威) ,不断从反馈中学习,产生及时的知识,为更好的决策比这三个要素单独行动更好的个人; 格伦,杰罗姆 c. 集体智慧-下一个大事件之一,未来4/2009,芬兰未来研究学会,赫尔辛基,芬兰或更多的一个新兴的属性之间的人和处理信息的方式。格伦,杰罗姆 c. 第五章,2008年的未来状态。千年计划,华盛顿特区2008集体智慧的概念被诺曼 · 李 · 约翰逊称为“共生智慧”。诺曼 · 李 · 约翰逊,集体科学网站这个概念在社会学、商业、计算机科学和大众传播中都有使用: 它也出现在科幻小说中。皮埃尔 · 莱维将集体智慧定义为: “它是一种普遍分布的智慧形式,不断得到增强,实时协调,并导致技能的有效动员。我将在这个定义中增加以下不可或缺的特征: 集体智慧的基础和目标是个人之间的相互承认和丰富,而不是盲目崇拜或实质化的社区根据研究人员 Pierre Lévy 和 Derrick de Kerckhove 的说法,它指的是联网的信息和通信技术(信息通信技术)的能力,通过同时扩大人类互动的范围来加强集体的社会知识库。一个更广泛的定义是由 Geoff Mulgan 在一系列讲座和报告中提出的,从2006年开始,在阿德莱德系列讲座‘关于集体智慧和 http://www.thinkers.sa.gov.au/images/mulgan_final_report.pdf 的集体智慧’和在《 Big Mind Mulgan,Geoff Big Mind: How Collective Intelligence can Change our World 》一书中提出了一个分析任何思维系统的框架,包括人类和机器智能,在功能元素方面(观察,预测,创造力,判断等)。)、学习循环和组织形式。其目的是提供一种方法来诊断和改善一个城市、商业、非政府组织或议会的集体智慧。

Collective intelligence strongly contributes to the shift of knowledge and power from the individual to the collective. According to Eric S. Raymond (1998) and JC Herz (2005), open source intelligence will eventually generate superior outcomes to knowledge generated by proprietary software developed within corporations (Flew 2008). Media theorist Henry Jenkins sees collective intelligence as an 'alternative source of media power', related to convergence culture. He draws attention to education and the way people are learning to participate in knowledge cultures outside formal learning settings. Henry Jenkins criticizes schools which promote 'autonomous problem solvers and self-contained learners' while remaining hostile to learning through the means of collective intelligence.[10] Both Pierre Lévy (2007) and Henry Jenkins (2008) support the claim that collective intelligence is important for democratization, as it is interlinked with knowledge-based culture and sustained by collective idea sharing, and thus contributes to a better understanding of diverse society.

Collective intelligence strongly contributes to the shift of knowledge and power from the individual to the collective. According to Eric S. Raymond (1998) and JC Herz (2005), open source intelligence will eventually generate superior outcomes to knowledge generated by proprietary software developed within corporations (Flew 2008). Media theorist Henry Jenkins sees collective intelligence as an 'alternative source of media power', related to convergence culture. He draws attention to education and the way people are learning to participate in knowledge cultures outside formal learning settings. Henry Jenkins criticizes schools which promote 'autonomous problem solvers and self-contained learners' while remaining hostile to learning through the means of collective intelligence.Jenkins, Henry Convergence Culture: Where old and new media collide. New York: New York University Press, 2006, p. 259 Both Pierre Lévy (2007) and Henry Jenkins (2008) support the claim that collective intelligence is important for democratization, as it is interlinked with knowledge-based culture and sustained by collective idea sharing, and thus contributes to a better understanding of diverse society.

集体智慧有力地促进了知识和权力从个人向集体的转移。根据 Eric s. Raymond (1998)和 JC Herz (2005)的说法,开源智能最终将产生比企业内部开发的专有软件智能产生的知识更优越的结果(Flew 2008)。媒体理论家亨利 · 詹金斯认为集体智慧是一种与趋同文化相关的“媒体力量的替代来源”。他提请注意教育和人们学习参与正式学习环境之外的知识文化的方式。亨利•詹金斯批评那些提倡“自主解决问题者和自我包容的学习者”,却对通过集体智慧的方式学习持敌对态度的学校。亨利汇聚文化: 新旧媒体的碰撞。纽约: 纽约大学出版社,2006年,第259页,Pierre Lévy (2007年)和 Henry Jenkins (2008年)都支持集体智慧对民主化很重要的主张,因为它与知识型文化相互关联,通过集体思想共享得以维持,从而有助于更好地理解多样化社会。

Similar to the g factor (g) for general individual intelligence, a new scientific understanding of collective intelligence aims to extract a general collective intelligence factor c factor for groups indicating a group's ability to perform a wide range of tasks.[11] Definition, operationalization and statistical methods are derived from g. Similarly as g is highly interrelated with the concept of IQ,[12][13] this measurement of collective intelligence can be interpreted as intelligence quotient for groups (Group-IQ) even though the score is not a quotient per se. Causes for c and predictive validity are investigated as well.

Similar to the g factor (g) for general individual intelligence, a new scientific understanding of collective intelligence aims to extract a general collective intelligence factor c factor for groups indicating a group's ability to perform a wide range of tasks. Definition, operationalization and statistical methods are derived from g. Similarly as g is highly interrelated with the concept of IQ, this measurement of collective intelligence can be interpreted as intelligence quotient for groups (Group-IQ) even though the score is not a quotient per se. Causes for c and predictive validity are investigated as well.

与一般个人智力的 g 因子(g)类似,对集体智力的新的科学理解旨在为群体提取一般的集体智力因子 c 因子,表明一个群体执行广泛任务的能力。定义,操作主义和统计方法来源于 g 类似于 g 与 IQ 的概念高度相关,这种集体智力的测量可以解释为群体的智商,即使分数本身不是商。同时也对 c 和预测效度的原因进行了调查。

Writers who have influenced the idea of collective intelligence include Francis Galton, Douglas Hofstadter (1979), Peter Russell (1983), Tom Atlee (1993), Pierre Lévy (1994), Howard Bloom (1995), Francis Heylighen (1995), Douglas Engelbart, Louis Rosenberg, Cliff Joslyn, Ron Dembo, Gottfried Mayer-Kress (2003), Geoff Mulgan 模板:TOC limit

Writers who have influenced the idea of collective intelligence include Francis Galton, Douglas Hofstadter (1979), Peter Russell (1983), Tom Atlee (1993), Pierre Lévy (1994), Howard Bloom (1995), Francis Heylighen (1995), Douglas Engelbart, Louis Rosenberg, Cliff Joslyn, Ron Dembo, Gottfried Mayer-Kress (2003), Geoff Mulgan


影响集体智慧观念的作家包括 Francis Galton,侯世达(1979) ,Peter Russell (1983) ,Tom Atlee (1993) ,Pierre Lévy (1994) ,Howard Bloom (1995) ,Francis Heylighen (1995) ,道格拉斯·恩格尔巴特,Louis Rosenberg,Cliff Joslyn,Ron Dembo,Gottfried Mayer-Kress (2003) ,Geoff Mulgan

History

H.G. Wells World Brain (1936–1938)

The concept (although not so named) originated in 1785 with the Marquis de Condorcet, whose "jury theorem" states that if each member of a voting group is more likely than not to make a correct decision, the probability that the highest vote of the group is the correct decision increases with the number of members of the group (see Condorcet's jury theorem).[14] Many theorists have interpreted Aristotle's statement in the Politics that "a feast to which many contribute is better than a dinner provided out of a single purse" to mean that just as many may bring different dishes to the table, so in a deliberation many may contribute different pieces of information to generate a better decision.[15][16] Recent scholarship,[17] however, suggests that this was probably not what Aristotle meant but is a modern interpretation based on what we now know about team intelligence.[18]

left|thumb|H.G. Wells World Brain (1936–1938) The concept (although not so named) originated in 1785 with the Marquis de Condorcet, whose "jury theorem" states that if each member of a voting group is more likely than not to make a correct decision, the probability that the highest vote of the group is the correct decision increases with the number of members of the group (see Condorcet's jury theorem). Many theorists have interpreted Aristotle's statement in the Politics that "a feast to which many contribute is better than a dinner provided out of a single purse" to mean that just as many may bring different dishes to the table, so in a deliberation many may contribute different pieces of information to generate a better decision. Recent scholarship, however, suggests that this was probably not what Aristotle meant but is a modern interpretation based on what we now know about team intelligence.

左手大拇指 | h.g。Wells World Brain (1936-1938)这个概念(虽然不是这样命名的)起源于1785年的美国马奎斯·孔多塞,其“陪审团定理”指出,如果一个投票群体的每个成员更有可能做出正确的决定,那么该群体中投票最多的成员是正确决定的概率随着该群体成员数量的增加而增加(见 Condorcet 的陪审团定理)。许多理论家对亚里士多德在《政治学》中的一句话进行了解释,即“多人参与的盛宴胜过一个钱包提供的晚餐”,这意味着正如许多人可以将不同的菜肴端上餐桌,因此在商议中许多人可能贡献不同的信息,以产生一个更好的决定。然而,最近的学术研究表明,这可能不是亚里士多德的意思,而是基于我们现在所知道的团队智力的现代解释。

A precursor of the concept is found in entomologist William Morton Wheeler's observation that seemingly independent individuals can cooperate so closely as to become indistinguishable from a single organism (1910).[19] Wheeler saw this collaborative process at work in ants that acted like the cells of a single beast he called a superorganism.

A precursor of the concept is found in entomologist William Morton Wheeler's observation that seemingly independent individuals can cooperate so closely as to become indistinguishable from a single organism (1910).Wheeler, W. M. (1910). Ants: their structure, development and behavior (Vol. 9). Columbia University Press. Wheeler saw this collaborative process at work in ants that acted like the cells of a single beast he called a superorganism.

这个概念的先驱是在昆虫学家威廉·莫顿·惠勒的观察中发现的,表面上看起来独立的个体可以如此紧密地合作,以至于变得与一个生物体无法区分(1910)。惠勒,w。 m。(1910)。蚂蚁: 它们的结构、发展和行为。9).哥伦比亚大学出版社。惠勒在蚂蚁身上看到了这种协作过程,蚂蚁的行为就像一头被他称为超个体的野兽的细胞。

In 1912 Émile Durkheim identified society as the sole source of human logical thought. He argued in "The Elementary Forms of Religious Life" that society constitutes a higher intelligence because it transcends the individual over space and time.[20] Other antecedents are Vladimir Vernadsky and Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's concept of "noosphere" and H.G. Wells's concept of "world brain" (see also the term "global brain"). Peter Russell, Elisabet Sahtouris, and Barbara Marx Hubbard (originator of the term "conscious evolution")[21] are inspired by the visions of a noosphere – a transcendent, rapidly evolving collective intelligence – an informational cortex of the planet. The notion has more recently been examined by the philosopher Pierre Lévy. In a 1962 research report, Douglas Engelbart linked collective intelligence to organizational effectiveness, and predicted that pro-actively 'augmenting human intellect' would yield a multiplier effect in group problem solving: "Three people working together in this augmented mode [would] seem to be more than three times as effective in solving a complex problem as is one augmented person working alone".[22] In 1994, he coined the term 'collective IQ' as a measure of collective intelligence, to focus attention on the opportunity to significantly raise collective IQ in business and society.[23]

In 1912 Émile Durkheim identified society as the sole source of human logical thought. He argued in "The Elementary Forms of Religious Life" that society constitutes a higher intelligence because it transcends the individual over space and time.Émile Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, 1912. Other antecedents are Vladimir Vernadsky and Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's concept of "noosphere" and H.G. Wells's concept of "world brain" (see also the term "global brain"). Peter Russell, Elisabet Sahtouris, and Barbara Marx Hubbard (originator of the term "conscious evolution") are inspired by the visions of a noosphere – a transcendent, rapidly evolving collective intelligence – an informational cortex of the planet. The notion has more recently been examined by the philosopher Pierre Lévy. In a 1962 research report, Douglas Engelbart linked collective intelligence to organizational effectiveness, and predicted that pro-actively 'augmenting human intellect' would yield a multiplier effect in group problem solving: "Three people working together in this augmented mode [would] seem to be more than three times as effective in solving a complex problem as is one augmented person working alone".Engelbart, Douglas (1962) Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework – section on Team Cooperation In 1994, he coined the term 'collective IQ' as a measure of collective intelligence, to focus attention on the opportunity to significantly raise collective IQ in business and society.Engelbart, Douglas (1994)Boosting Collective IQ (Slide Handouts) – 'Collective IQ' defined on Slide 4; also (1994) BBN Distinguished Guest Lecture (Video) – 'Collective IQ' defined @16:56 "CoDIAK"

1912年,涂尔干确定社会是人类逻辑思维的唯一来源。他在《宗教生活的基本形式》一书中指出,社会构成了一种更高级的智慧,因为它超越了个人的空间和时间。其他先行词还有复杂系统和德日进的“人圈”概念和 h.g。威尔斯的“世界大脑”的概念(也见术语“全球大脑”)。彼得•罗素(Peter Russell)、伊丽莎白•萨图里斯(Elisabet Sahtouris)和芭芭拉•马克思•哈伯德(Barbara Marx Hubbard)(“意识进化”(conscious evolution)一词的创始人)的灵感来自人类圈——一种超验的、快速进化的集体智慧——一种地球上的信息皮层。最近,哲学家皮埃尔 · 莱维对这一概念进行了研究。在1962年的一份研究报告中,道格拉斯·恩格尔巴特将集体智慧与组织效能联系起来,并预测积极主动的‘增强人类智力’将在解决团队问题中产生乘数效应: “在这种增强模式下,三个人一起工作,解决复杂问题的效率似乎是一个增强人单独工作的效率的三倍多。”。1994年,他创造了“集体智商”这个词来衡量集体智商,以此来集中注意力在商业和社会中显著提高集体智商的机会。恩格尔巴特,道格拉斯(1994)提高集体智商(幻灯片讲义)-“集体智商”定义在幻灯片4; 也(1994) BBN 杰出客座讲座(视频)-“集体智商”定义@16:56“ CoDIAK”

The idea of collective intelligence also forms the framework for contemporary democratic theories often referred to as epistemic democracy. Epistemic democratic theories refer to the capacity of the populace, either through deliberation or aggregation of knowledge, to track the truth and relies on mechanisms to synthesize and apply collective intelligence.[24]

The idea of collective intelligence also forms the framework for contemporary democratic theories often referred to as epistemic democracy. Epistemic democratic theories refer to the capacity of the populace, either through deliberation or aggregation of knowledge, to track the truth and relies on mechanisms to synthesize and apply collective intelligence.

集体智慧的思想也形成了当代民主理论的框架,通常被称为认知民主。认知民主理论是指民众通过审议或聚集知识来追踪真相的能力,并依靠机制来综合和应用集体智慧。

Collective intelligence was introduced into the machine learning community in the late 20th century,[25] and matured into a broader consideration of how to design "collectives" of self-interested adaptive agents to meet a system-wide goal.[26][27] This was related to single-agent work on "reward shaping"[28] and has been taken forward by numerous researchers in the game theory and engineering communities.[29]

Collective intelligence was introduced into the machine learning community in the late 20th century, and matured into a broader consideration of how to design "collectives" of self-interested adaptive agents to meet a system-wide goal. This was related to single-agent work on "reward shaping" and has been taken forward by numerous researchers in the game theory and engineering communities.

集体智能在20世纪后期被引入机器学习领域,并成熟为一种更广泛的思想,即如何设计自利的自适应代理的“集体”以满足系统范围的目标。这与单个代理人的“奖励塑造”工作有关,并已被博弈论和工程界的众多研究人员所推动。

Dimensions

Complex adaptive systems model

Howard Bloom has discussed mass behavior – collective behavior from the level of quarks to the level of bacterial, plant, animal, and human societies. He stresses the biological adaptations that have turned most of this earth's living beings into components of what he calls "a learning machine". In 1986 Bloom combined the concepts of apoptosis, parallel distributed processing, group selection, and the superorganism to produce a theory of how collective intelligence works.[30] Later he showed how the collective intelligences of competing bacterial colonies and human societies can be explained in terms of computer-generated "complex adaptive systems" and the "genetic algorithms", concepts pioneered by John Holland.[31]

thumb|Complex adaptive systems model Howard Bloom has discussed mass behavior – collective behavior from the level of quarks to the level of bacterial, plant, animal, and human societies. He stresses the biological adaptations that have turned most of this earth's living beings into components of what he calls "a learning machine". In 1986 Bloom combined the concepts of apoptosis, parallel distributed processing, group selection, and the superorganism to produce a theory of how collective intelligence works.Howard Bloom, The Lucifer Principle: A Scientific Expedition into the Forces of History, 1995 Later he showed how the collective intelligences of competing bacterial colonies and human societies can be explained in terms of computer-generated "complex adaptive systems" and the "genetic algorithms", concepts pioneered by John Holland.

复杂适应系统模型霍华德 · 布鲁姆讨论了从夸克到细菌、植物、动物和人类社会的大规模行为-集体行为。他强调了生物学上的适应性,这种适应性把地球上的大多数生物变成了他所说的“学习机器”的组成部分。1986年,Bloom 将细胞凋亡、并行分布式处理、群体选择和超个体等概念结合起来,提出了集体智慧是如何工作的理论。Howard Bloom,The Lucifer Principle: a Scientific Expedition into The Forces of History,1995后来,他展示了如何用计算机生成的“复杂适应系统”和“遗传算法”来解释相互竞争的细菌群落和人类社会的集体智能,这两个概念是由 John Holland 首创的。

Bloom traced the evolution of collective intelligence to our bacterial ancestors 1 billion years ago and demonstrated how a multi-species intelligence has worked since the beginning of life.[31] Ant societies exhibit more intelligence, in terms of technology, than any other animal except for humans and co-operate in keeping livestock, for example aphids for "milking".[31] Leaf cutters care for fungi and carry leaves to feed the fungi.[31]

Bloom traced the evolution of collective intelligence to our bacterial ancestors 1 billion years ago and demonstrated how a multi-species intelligence has worked since the beginning of life.Howard Bloom, Global Brain: The Evolution of Mass Mind from the Big Bang to the 21st Century, 2000 Ant societies exhibit more intelligence, in terms of technology, than any other animal except for humans and co-operate in keeping livestock, for example aphids for "milking". Leaf cutters care for fungi and carry leaves to feed the fungi.

布鲁姆追溯集体智慧的进化可以追溯到10亿年前我们的细菌祖先,并演示了从生命开始以来多物种智慧是如何工作的。霍华德 · 布鲁姆,《全球大脑: 从大爆炸到21世纪的大众思维进化》 ,2000年就技术而言,蚂蚁社会比除人类以外的任何其他动物表现出更多的智慧,并且在饲养牲畜方面进行合作,例如用于“挤奶”的蚜虫。切叶者照顾真菌,并携带叶子喂养真菌。

David Skrbina[32] cites the concept of a 'group mind' as being derived from Plato's concept of panpsychism (that mind or consciousness is omnipresent and exists in all matter). He develops the concept of a 'group mind' as articulated by Thomas Hobbes in "Leviathan" and Fechner's arguments for a collective consciousness of mankind. He cites Durkheim as the most notable advocate of a "collective consciousness"[33] and Teilhard de Chardin as a thinker who has developed the philosophical implications of the group mind.[34]

David SkrbinaSkrbina, D., 2001, Participation, Organization, and Mind: Toward a Participatory Worldview, ch. 8, Doctoral Thesis, Centre for Action Research in Professional Practice, School of Management, University of Bath: England cites the concept of a 'group mind' as being derived from Plato's concept of panpsychism (that mind or consciousness is omnipresent and exists in all matter). He develops the concept of a 'group mind' as articulated by Thomas Hobbes in "Leviathan" and Fechner's arguments for a collective consciousness of mankind. He cites Durkheim as the most notable advocate of a "collective consciousness" and Teilhard de Chardin as a thinker who has developed the philosophical implications of the group mind.

2001,Participation,Organization,and Mind: towards a Participatory Worldview,ch.8,博士论文,巴斯大学管理学院专业实践行动研究中心: 英国引用了“群体思维”的概念,它源自柏拉图的泛心理学概念(思维或意识无处不在,存在于所有事物中)。他发展了托马斯 · 霍布斯在《利维坦》和费希纳关于人类集体意识的论证中阐述的“群体心智”的概念。他认为涂尔干是“集体意识”最著名的倡导者,而 Chardin 是一位发展了集体意识的哲学含义的思想家。

Tom Atlee focuses primarily on humans and on work to upgrade what Howard Bloom calls "the group IQ". Atlee feels that collective intelligence can be encouraged "to overcome 'groupthink' and individual cognitive bias in order to allow a collective to cooperate on one process – while achieving enhanced intellectual performance." George Pór defined the collective intelligence phenomenon as "the capacity of human communities to evolve towards higher order complexity and harmony, through such innovation mechanisms as differentiation and integration, competition and collaboration."[35] Atlee and Pór state that "collective intelligence also involves achieving a single focus of attention and standard of metrics which provide an appropriate threshold of action".[36] Their approach is rooted in scientific community metaphor.[36]

Tom Atlee focuses primarily on humans and on work to upgrade what Howard Bloom calls "the group IQ". Atlee feels that collective intelligence can be encouraged "to overcome 'groupthink' and individual cognitive bias in order to allow a collective to cooperate on one process – while achieving enhanced intellectual performance." George Pór defined the collective intelligence phenomenon as "the capacity of human communities to evolve towards higher order complexity and harmony, through such innovation mechanisms as differentiation and integration, competition and collaboration."George Pór, Blog of Collective Intelligence Atlee and Pór state that "collective intelligence also involves achieving a single focus of attention and standard of metrics which provide an appropriate threshold of action". Their approach is rooted in scientific community metaphor.

汤姆 · 阿特利主要关注人类和提升霍华德 · 布鲁姆所说的“群智商”的工作。艾特利认为,可以鼓励集体智慧“克服‘群体思维’和个人认知偏见,以便允许集体在一个过程中进行合作——同时提高智力表现。”George Pór 将集体智慧现象定义为”人类社区通过差异化和整合、竞争和协作等创新机制朝着更高层次的复杂性和和谐发展的能力。“ George Pór,集体智慧博客 Atlee 和 Pór 指出,”集体智慧还包括实现单一关注焦点和提供适当行动门槛的标准”。他们的方法植根于科学共同体的隐喻。

The term group intelligence is sometimes used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Anita Woolley presents Collective intelligence as a measure of group intelligence and group creativity.[11] The idea is that a measure of collective intelligence covers a broad range of features of the group, mainly group composition and group interaction.[37] The features of composition that lead to increased levels of collective intelligence in groups include criteria such as higher numbers of women in the group as well as increased diversity of the group.[37]

The term group intelligence is sometimes used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Anita Woolley presents Collective intelligence as a measure of group intelligence and group creativity. The idea is that a measure of collective intelligence covers a broad range of features of the group, mainly group composition and group interaction. The features of composition that lead to increased levels of collective intelligence in groups include criteria such as higher numbers of women in the group as well as increased diversity of the group.

群体智慧这个术语有时与集体智慧这个术语可以互换使用。安妮塔 · 伍利将集体智慧作为衡量群体智慧和群体创造力的标准。这种观点认为,集体智慧的衡量标准涵盖了群体的广泛特征,主要是群体组成和群体互动。导致群体集体智慧水平提高的组成特征包括群体中妇女人数较多以及群体多样性增加等标准。

Atlee and Pór suggest that the field of collective intelligence should primarily be seen as a human enterprise in which mind-sets, a willingness to share and an openness to the value of distributed intelligence for the common good are paramount, though group theory and artificial intelligence have something to offer.[36] Individuals who respect collective intelligence are confident of their own abilities and recognize that the whole is indeed greater than the sum of any individual parts.[38] Maximizing collective intelligence relies on the ability of an organization to accept and develop "The Golden Suggestion", which is any potentially useful input from any member.[39] Groupthink often hampers collective intelligence by limiting input to a select few individuals or filtering potential Golden Suggestions without fully developing them to implementation.[36]

Atlee and Pór suggest that the field of collective intelligence should primarily be seen as a human enterprise in which mind-sets, a willingness to share and an openness to the value of distributed intelligence for the common good are paramount, though group theory and artificial intelligence have something to offer. Individuals who respect collective intelligence are confident of their own abilities and recognize that the whole is indeed greater than the sum of any individual parts. Maximizing collective intelligence relies on the ability of an organization to accept and develop "The Golden Suggestion", which is any potentially useful input from any member. Groupthink often hampers collective intelligence by limiting input to a select few individuals or filtering potential Golden Suggestions without fully developing them to implementation.

阿特利和波尔认为,集体智慧领域首先应该被视为一个人类事业,其中最重要的是思维定势、愿意分享以及对分布式智能的价值持开放态度,以实现共同利益,尽管群体理论和人工智能可以提供一些东西。尊重集体智慧的人对自己的能力有信心,并认识到整体的确比任何单个部分的总和要大。集体智慧的最大化依赖于一个组织接受和发展“黄金建议”的能力,这是任何成员提供的任何潜在有用的投入。群体思维通常会限制对少数人的输入,或者过滤潜在的黄金建议,从而阻碍集体智慧的发展。

Robert David Steele Vivas in The New Craft of Intelligence portrayed all citizens as "intelligence minutemen," drawing only on legal and ethical sources of information, able to create a "public intelligence" that keeps public officials and corporate managers honest, turning the concept of "national intelligence" (previously concerned about spies and secrecy) on its head.[40]

Robert David Steele Vivas in The New Craft of Intelligence portrayed all citizens as "intelligence minutemen," drawing only on legal and ethical sources of information, able to create a "public intelligence" that keeps public officials and corporate managers honest, turning the concept of "national intelligence" (previously concerned about spies and secrecy) on its head.

罗伯特·大卫·斯蒂尔 · 维瓦斯在《情报的新工艺》一书中将所有公民描绘成“情报一分钟人”,仅仅依靠法律和道德信息来源,能够创造一种“公共情报”,使公职人员和企业管理人员保持诚实,将“国家情报”的概念(以前关注间谍和保密)颠覆。

文件:Mass collaboration.jpg
Stigmergic Collaboration: a theoretical framework for mass collaboration

According to Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, collective intelligence is mass collaboration. In order for this concept to happen, four principles need to exist:[41]

thumb|Stigmergic Collaboration: a theoretical framework for mass collaboration According to Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, collective intelligence is mass collaboration. In order for this concept to happen, four principles need to exist:

大规模合作的理论框架根据 Don Tapscott 和 Anthony d. Williams 的研究,集体智慧是大规模合作。为了实现这个概念,需要存在四个原则:

- Openness - Sharing ideas and intellectual property: though these resources provide the edge over competitors more benefits accrue from allowing others to share ideas and gain significant improvement and scrutiny through collaboration.[41]

- Openness - Sharing ideas and intellectual property: though these resources provide the edge over competitors more benefits accrue from allowing others to share ideas and gain significant improvement and scrutiny through collaboration.

- 开放——分享思想和知识产权: 虽然这些资源比竞争对手有优势,但允许其他人分享思想并通过合作获得重大改进和审查,会带来更多好处。

- Peering - Horizontal organization as with the 'opening up' of the Linux program where users are free to modify and develop it provided that they make it available for others. Peering succeeds because it encourages self-organization – a style of production that works more effectively than hierarchical management for certain tasks.[41]

- Peering - Horizontal organization as with the 'opening up' of the Linux program where users are free to modify and develop it provided that they make it available for others. Peering succeeds because it encourages self-organization – a style of production that works more effectively than hierarchical management for certain tasks.

- 凝视——横向组织,如同 Linux 程序的”开放”一样,用户可以自由修改和开发该程序,只要他们为其他人提供该程序。之所以成功,是因为它鼓励自我组织---- 一种对某些任务比分层管理更有效的生产方式。

- Sharing - Companies have started to share some ideas while maintaining some degree of control over others, like potential and critical patent rights. Limiting all intellectual property shuts out opportunities, while sharing some expands markets and brings out products faster.[41]

- Sharing - Companies have started to share some ideas while maintaining some degree of control over others, like potential and critical patent rights. Limiting all intellectual property shuts out opportunities, while sharing some expands markets and brings out products faster.

- 分享-公司已经开始分享一些想法,同时对其他一些想法保持一定程度的控制,如潜在的和关键的专利权。限制所有的知识产权将机会拒之门外,而分享一些知识产权则可以更快地扩大市场和推出产品。

- Acting Globally - The advancement in communication technology has prompted the rise of global companies at low overhead costs. The internet is widespread, therefore a globally integrated company has no geographical boundaries and may access new markets, ideas and technology.[41]

- Acting Globally - The advancement in communication technology has prompted the rise of global companies at low overhead costs. The internet is widespread, therefore a globally integrated company has no geographical boundaries and may access new markets, ideas and technology.Tapscott, D., & Williams, A. D. (2008). Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything , USA: Penguin Group

- 全球行动-通信技术的进步促使全球公司以低廉的管理费用崛起。互联网是普遍的,因此一个全球性的综合性公司没有地理边界,可以进入新的市场,思想和技术。塔普斯科特,博士,威廉姆斯,公元(2008年)。维基经济学: 大规模协作如何改变一切,美国: 企鹅集团

Collective intelligence factor c

A new scientific understanding of collective intelligence defines it as a group's general ability to perform a wide range of tasks.[11] Definition, operationalization and statistical methods are similar to the psychometric approach of general individual intelligence. Hereby, an individual's performance on a given set of cognitive tasks is used to measure general cognitive ability indicated by the general intelligence factor g extracted via factor analysis.[42] In the same vein as g serves to display between-individual performance differences on cognitive tasks, collective intelligence research aims to find a parallel intelligence factor for groups 模板:'c factor'[11] (also called 'collective intelligence factor' (CI)[43]) displaying between-group differences on task performance. The collective intelligence score then is used to predict how this same group will perform on any other similar task in the future. Yet tasks, hereby, refer to mental or intellectual tasks performed by small groups[11] even though the concept is hoped to be transferable to other performances and any groups or crowds reaching from families to companies and even whole cities.[44] Since individuals' g factor scores are highly correlated with full-scale IQ scores, which are in turn regarded as good estimates of g,[12][13] this measurement of collective intelligence can also be seen as an intelligence indicator or quotient respectively for a group (Group-IQ) parallel to an individual's intelligence quotient (IQ) even though the score is not a quotient per se.


A new scientific understanding of collective intelligence defines it as a group's general ability to perform a wide range of tasks. Definition, operationalization and statistical methods are similar to the psychometric approach of general individual intelligence. Hereby, an individual's performance on a given set of cognitive tasks is used to measure general cognitive ability indicated by the general intelligence factor g extracted via factor analysis. In the same vein as g serves to display between-individual performance differences on cognitive tasks, collective intelligence research aims to find a parallel intelligence factor for groups c factor' (also called 'collective intelligence factor' (CI)) displaying between-group differences on task performance. The collective intelligence score then is used to predict how this same group will perform on any other similar task in the future. Yet tasks, hereby, refer to mental or intellectual tasks performed by small groups even though the concept is hoped to be transferable to other performances and any groups or crowds reaching from families to companies and even whole cities. Since individuals' g factor scores are highly correlated with full-scale IQ scores, which are in turn regarded as good estimates of g, this measurement of collective intelligence can also be seen as an intelligence indicator or quotient respectively for a group (Group-IQ) parallel to an individual's intelligence quotient (IQ) even though the score is not a quotient per se.

对集体智慧的一种新的科学理解将它定义为一个群体执行广泛任务的一般能力。定义、操作主义和统计方法类似于一般个体智力的心理测量学方法。据此,个体在一组给定的认知任务中的表现被用来测量通过因子分析提取的一般智力因子 g 所表示的一般认知能力。同样,集体智力研究的目的也是为了寻找群体 c 因子(又称“集体智力因子”)的平行智力因子,以揭示个体在认知任务上的表现差异。然后,集体智力分数被用来预测同一组人在未来任何其他类似任务中的表现。然而,任务,特此,指的是由小团体完成的精神或智力任务,即使这个概念被希望转移到其他表演和任何团体或人群,从家庭到公司甚至整个城市。由于个人的 g 因子得分与全面的 IQ 得分高度相关,而全面的 IQ 得分又被认为是对 g 的良好估计,这种对集体智力的测量也可以分别被看作是一个与个人的智商/智商(IQ)平行的群体(group-IQ)的智力指标或商,即使分数本身并不是商数。

Mathematically, c and g are both variables summarizing positive correlations among different tasks supposing that performance on one task is comparable with performance on other similar tasks.[45] c thus is a source of variance among groups and can only be considered as a group's standing on the c factor compared to other groups in a given relevant population.[13][46] The concept is in contrast to competing hypotheses including other correlational structures to explain group intelligence,[11] such as a composition out of several equally important but independent factors as found in individual personality research.[47]

Mathematically, c and g are both variables summarizing positive correlations among different tasks supposing that performance on one task is comparable with performance on other similar tasks. c thus is a source of variance among groups and can only be considered as a group's standing on the c factor compared to other groups in a given relevant population. The concept is in contrast to competing hypotheses including other correlational structures to explain group intelligence, such as a composition out of several equally important but independent factors as found in individual personality research.

数学上,c 和 g 都是变量,总结了不同任务之间的正相关性,假设一项任务的表现与其他类似任务的表现是可比的。因此,c 是各群体之间差异的来源,只能被视为一个群体在 c 系数上与某一特定相关人口中的其他群体相比的地位。这个概念与包括其他相关结构在内的竞争性假设相反,这些假设用来解释群体智力,例如个人人格研究中发现的由几个同样重要但独立的因素组成的成分。

Besides, this scientific idea also aims to explore the causes affecting collective intelligence, such as group size, collaboration tools or group members' interpersonal skills.[48] The MIT Center for Collective Intelligence, for instance, announced the detection of The Genome of Collective Intelligence[48] as one of its main goals aiming to develop a taxonomy of organizational building blocks, or genes, that can be combined and recombined to harness the intelligence of crowds.[48]

Besides, this scientific idea also aims to explore the causes affecting collective intelligence, such as group size, collaboration tools or group members' interpersonal skills. The MIT Center for Collective Intelligence, for instance, announced the detection of The Genome of Collective Intelligence as one of its main goals aiming to develop a taxonomy of organizational building blocks, or genes, that can be combined and recombined to harness the intelligence of crowds.

此外,这一科学思想还旨在探索影响集体智慧的原因,如群体规模、协作工具或群体成员的人际交往技能。例如,麻省理工学院集体智慧中心宣布,探测集体智慧的基因组作为其主要目标之一,旨在发展组织构件或基因的分类,这些基因可以被组合和重组,以利用群体的智慧。

Causes

Individual intelligence is shown to be genetically and environmentally influenced.[49][50] Analogously, collective intelligence research aims to explore reasons why certain groups perform more intelligently than other groups given that c is just moderately correlated with the intelligence of individual group members.[11] According to Woolley et al.'s results, neither team cohesion nor motivation or satisfaction is correlated with c. However, they claim that three factors were found as significant correlates: the variance in the number of speaking turns, group members' average social sensitivity and the proportion of females. All three had similar predictive power for c, but only social sensitivity was statistically significant (b=0.33, P=0.05).[11]

Individual intelligence is shown to be genetically and environmentally influenced. Analogously, collective intelligence research aims to explore reasons why certain groups perform more intelligently than other groups given that c is just moderately correlated with the intelligence of individual group members. According to Woolley et al.'s results, neither team cohesion nor motivation or satisfaction is correlated with c. However, they claim that three factors were found as significant correlates: the variance in the number of speaking turns, group members' average social sensitivity and the proportion of females. All three had similar predictive power for c, but only social sensitivity was statistically significant (b=0.33, P=0.05).

个人的智力被证明受到遗传和环境的影响。类似地,集体智力研究的目的是探索为什么某些群体比其他群体表现得更聪明,因为 c 只是与个体群体成员的智力适度相关。根据伍利等人的研究。研究结果表明,团队凝聚力、团队动机和团队满意度与 c 均无相关性,但有三个因素显著相关: 说话次数的差异、团队成员的平均社会敏感度和女性比例。三者对 c 的预测能力相似,但只有社会敏感性具有统计学意义(b = 0.33,p = 0.05)。

The number speaking turns indicates that "groups where a few people dominated the conversation were less collectively intelligent than those with a more equal distribution of conversational turn-taking".[43] Hence, providing multiple team members the chance to speak up made a group more intelligent.[11]

The number speaking turns indicates that "groups where a few people dominated the conversation were less collectively intelligent than those with a more equal distribution of conversational turn-taking". Hence, providing multiple team members the chance to speak up made a group more intelligent.

话轮转换的数字表明,“少数人主导谈话的群体,其总体智商要低于那些话轮转换分布更均衡的群体”。因此,为多个团队成员提供畅所欲言的机会会让一个团队变得更聪明。

Group members' social sensitivity was measured via the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test[51] (RME) and correlated .26 with c.[11] Hereby, participants are asked to detect thinking or feeling expressed in other peoples' eyes presented on pictures and assessed in a multiple choice format. The test aims to measure peoples' theory of mind (ToM), also called 'mentalizing'[52][53][54][55] or 'mind reading',[56] which refers to the ability to attribute mental states, such as beliefs, desires or intents, to other people and in how far people understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions or perspectives different from their own ones.[51] RME is a ToM test for adults[51] that shows sufficient test-retest reliability[57] and constantly differentiates control groups from individuals with functional autism or Asperger Syndrome.[51] It is one of the most widely accepted and well-validated tests for ToM within adults.[58] ToM can be regarded as an associated subset of skills and abilities within the broader concept of emotional intelligence.[43][59]

Group members' social sensitivity was measured via the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RME) and correlated .26 with c. Hereby, participants are asked to detect thinking or feeling expressed in other peoples' eyes presented on pictures and assessed in a multiple choice format. The test aims to measure peoples' theory of mind (ToM), also called 'mentalizing' Pdf. or 'mind reading', which refers to the ability to attribute mental states, such as beliefs, desires or intents, to other people and in how far people understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions or perspectives different from their own ones. RME is a ToM test for adults that shows sufficient test-retest reliability and constantly differentiates control groups from individuals with functional autism or Asperger Syndrome. It is one of the most widely accepted and well-validated tests for ToM within adults. ToM can be regarded as an associated subset of skills and abilities within the broader concept of emotional intelligence.

小组成员的社会敏感性是通过阅读眼睛中的思维测试(RME)来测量的,并且与 c 相关。据此,参与者被要求检测其他人的眼睛在图片上表达的思想或感觉,并且以多项选择的形式进行评估。这项测试旨在测量人们的心理理论(ToM) ,也被称为“心理化”Pdf。或者“读心术”,指的是将心理状态,如信仰、愿望或意图,归因于他人的能力,以及人们对他人的信仰、愿望、意图或观点与自己的信仰、愿望、意图或观点的理解程度。RME 是一种针对成年人的心理理论测试,它显示了足够的重测信度,并且不断地将对照组与有功能性自闭症或阿斯伯格综合征的个体区分开来。这是成人心理理论最广泛接受和有效的测试之一。心理理论可以被看作是情商这一更广泛概念中的一个相关的技能和能力子集。

The proportion of females as a predictor of c was largely mediated by social sensitivity (Sobel z = 1.93, P= 0.03)[11] which is in vein with previous research showing that women score higher on social sensitivity tests.[51] While a mediation, statistically speaking, clarifies the mechanism underlying the relationship between a dependent and an independent variable,[60] Wolley agreed in an interview with the Harvard Business Review that these findings are saying that groups of women are smarter than groups of men.[44] However, she relativizes this stating that the actual important thing is the high social sensitivity of group members.[44]

The proportion of females as a predictor of c was largely mediated by social sensitivity (Sobel z = 1.93, P= 0.03) which is in vein with previous research showing that women score higher on social sensitivity tests. While a mediation, statistically speaking, clarifies the mechanism underlying the relationship between a dependent and an independent variable, Wolley agreed in an interview with the Harvard Business Review that these findings are saying that groups of women are smarter than groups of men. However, she relativizes this stating that the actual important thing is the high social sensitivity of group members.

女性作为 c 的预测因子的比例很大程度上是由社会敏感性(Sobel z = 1.93,p = 0.03)介导的,这与之前的研究结果一致,即女性在社会敏感性测试中得分更高。尽管从统计学上讲,调解澄清了依赖变量和独立变量之间关系的基本机制,但沃利在接受《哈佛商业评论》(Harvard Business Review)采访时表示,这些发现表明,女性群体比男性群体更聪明。然而,她相对地说,真正重要的是团队成员的高度社会敏感性。

It is theorized that the collective intelligence factor c is an emergent property resulting from bottom-up as well as top-down processes.[37] Hereby, bottom-up processes cover aggregated group-member characteristics. Top-down processes cover group structures and norms that influence a group's way of collaborating and coordinating.[37]

It is theorized that the collective intelligence factor c is an emergent property resulting from bottom-up as well as top-down processes. Hereby, bottom-up processes cover aggregated group-member characteristics. Top-down processes cover group structures and norms that influence a group's way of collaborating and coordinating.

集体智力因素 c 是自下而上和自上而下过程共同作用的产物。据此,自底向上的过程涵盖了聚集的群成员特征。自上而下的过程包括影响团队合作和协调方式的团队结构和规范。

Processes

文件:Causes for c.png
Predictors for the collective intelligence factor c. Suggested by Woolley, Aggarwal & Malone[37] (2015)

thumb|Predictors for the collective intelligence factor c. Suggested by Woolley, Aggarwal & Malone (2015)

拇指 | 集体智慧因子 c 的预测因子,由 Woolley,Aggarwal & Malone (2015)提出

Top-down processes

Top-down processes cover group interaction, such as structures, processes, and norms.[61] An example of such top-down processes is conversational turn-taking.[11] Research further suggest that collectively intelligent groups communicate more in general as well as more equally; same applies for participation and is shown for face-to-face as well as online groups communicating only via writing.[43][62]

Top-down processes cover group interaction, such as structures, processes, and norms. An example of such top-down processes is conversational turn-taking. Research further suggest that collectively intelligent groups communicate more in general as well as more equally; same applies for participation and is shown for face-to-face as well as online groups communicating only via writing.

自顶向下的过程包括组交互,如结构、过程和规范。这种自顶向下流程的一个例子是会话转换。研究进一步表明,集体智慧群体的沟通更加普遍,也更加平等; 参与也是如此,表现在面对面的交流以及仅通过书面交流的在线群体上。

Bottom-up processes

Bottom-up processes include group composition,[61] namely the characteristics of group members which are aggregated to the team level.[37] An example of such bottom-up processes is the average social sensitivity or the average and maximum intelligence scores of group members.[11] Furthermore, collective intelligence was found to be related to a group's cognitive diversity[63] including thinking styles and perspectives.[64] Groups that are moderately diverse in cognitive style have higher collective intelligence than those who are very similar in cognitive style or very different. Consequently, groups where members are too similar to each other lack the variety of perspectives and skills needed to perform well. On the other hand, groups whose members are too different seem to have difficulties to communicate and coordinate effectively.[63]

Bottom-up processes include group composition, namely the characteristics of group members which are aggregated to the team level. An example of such bottom-up processes is the average social sensitivity or the average and maximum intelligence scores of group members. Furthermore, collective intelligence was found to be related to a group's cognitive diversity including thinking styles and perspectives. Groups that are moderately diverse in cognitive style have higher collective intelligence than those who are very similar in cognitive style or very different. Consequently, groups where members are too similar to each other lack the variety of perspectives and skills needed to perform well. On the other hand, groups whose members are too different seem to have difficulties to communicate and coordinate effectively.

自下而上的过程包括群体的组成,即群体成员的特征,这些特征集中体现在团队层面。这种自下而上的过程的一个例子是群体成员的平均社会敏感度或平均和最高智力分数。此外,集体智力与一个群体的认知多样性有关,包括思维方式和观点。认知方式适度多样化的群体比认知方式非常相似或非常不同的群体有更高的集体智慧。因此,成员太相似的群体缺乏表现良好所需的各种观点和技能。另一方面,成员差异太大的群体似乎难以有效地沟通和协调。

Serial vs Parallel processes

Serial vs Parallel processes

= = = 串行与并行处理 = = =

For most of human history, collective intelligence was confined to small tribal groups in which opinions were aggregated through real-time parallel interactions among members.[65] In modern times, mass communication, mass media, and networking technologies have enabled collective intelligence to span massive groups, distributed across continents and time-zones. To accommodate this shift in scale, collective intelligence in large-scale groups been dominated by serialized polling processes such as aggregating up-votes, likes, and ratings over time. In engineering, aggregating many engineering decisions allows for identifying typical good designs.[66] While modern systems benefit from larger group size, the serialized process has been found to introduce substantial noise that distorts the collective output of the group. In one significant study of serialized collective intelligence, it was found that the first vote contributed to a serialized voting system can distort the final result by 34%.[67]

For most of human history, collective intelligence was confined to small tribal groups in which opinions were aggregated through real-time parallel interactions among members. In modern times, mass communication, mass media, and networking technologies have enabled collective intelligence to span massive groups, distributed across continents and time-zones. To accommodate this shift in scale, collective intelligence in large-scale groups been dominated by serialized polling processes such as aggregating up-votes, likes, and ratings over time. In engineering, aggregating many engineering decisions allows for identifying typical good designs. While modern systems benefit from larger group size, the serialized process has been found to introduce substantial noise that distorts the collective output of the group. In one significant study of serialized collective intelligence, it was found that the first vote contributed to a serialized voting system can distort the final result by 34%.

在人类历史的大部分时间里,集体智慧仅限于小部落群体,在这些群体中,各种意见通过成员之间的实时并行互动得到汇总。在现代,大众传播、大众媒体和网络技术使得集体智慧能够跨越大规模的群体,分布在各大洲和各个时区。为了适应这种规模上的转变,大规模群体中的集体智慧被一系列投票过程所主导,比如随着时间的推移聚合最高票数、喜欢和评分。在工程学中,集合许多工程决策允许识别典型的优秀设计。虽然现代系统受益于更大的组规模,序列化过程已被发现引入了大量的噪音,扭曲了组的集体产出。在一项重要的集体智慧序列化研究中,发现序列化投票系统中的第一次投票可以扭曲34% 的最终结果。

To address the problems of serialized aggregation of input among large-scale groups, recent advancements collective intelligence have worked to replace serialized votes, polls, and markets, with parallel systems such as "human swarms" modeled after synchronous swarms in nature.[68][69] Based on natural process of Swarm Intelligence, these artificial swarms of networked humans enable participants to work together in parallel to answer questions and make predictions as an emergent collective intelligence.[70] In one high-profile example, a human swarm challenge by CBS Interactive to predict the Kentucky Derby. The swarm correctly predicted the first four horses, in order, defying 542–1 odds and turning a $20 bet into $10,800.[71]

To address the problems of serialized aggregation of input among large-scale groups, recent advancements collective intelligence have worked to replace serialized votes, polls, and markets, with parallel systems such as "human swarms" modeled after synchronous swarms in nature. Based on natural process of Swarm Intelligence, these artificial swarms of networked humans enable participants to work together in parallel to answer questions and make predictions as an emergent collective intelligence. In one high-profile example, a human swarm challenge by CBS Interactive to predict the Kentucky Derby. The swarm correctly predicted the first four horses, in order, defying 542–1 odds and turning a $20 bet into $10,800.

为了解决大规模群体之间连续集合输入的问题,最近的进展集体智慧已经致力于用类似“人类群体”这样的并行系统取代连续投票、投票和市场,这些系统是仿照自然界的同步群体建立的。基于群体智能的自然过程,这些人工网络人群使参与者能够并行地一起工作,回答问题,并作为一个新兴的集体智慧进行预测。在一个引人注目的例子中,哥伦比亚广播公司互动公司(CBS Interactive)发起了一场群体挑战赛,以预测肯塔基赛马会。蜂群正确地预测了前四匹马,排序,排除了542-1的赔率,把20美元的赌注变成了10800美元。

The value of parallel collective intelligence was demonstrated in medical applications by researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine and Unanimous AI in a set of published studies wherein groups of human doctors were connected by real-time swarming algorithms and tasked with diagnosing chest x-rays for the presence of pneumonia.[72][73] When working together as "human swarms," the groups of experienced radiologists demonstrated a 33% reduction in diagnostic errors as compared to traditional methods.[74][75]

The value of parallel collective intelligence was demonstrated in medical applications by researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine and Unanimous AI in a set of published studies wherein groups of human doctors were connected by real-time swarming algorithms and tasked with diagnosing chest x-rays for the presence of pneumonia. When working together as "human swarms," the groups of experienced radiologists demonstrated a 33% reduction in diagnostic errors as compared to traditional methods.

斯坦福大学医学院和人工智能协会的研究人员在一系列已发表的研究中证明了平行集体智能的价值,在这些研究中,一组人类医生通过实时的群集算法相互联系,并负责诊断肺炎的胸部 x 光。当作为“人群”一起工作时,这些有经验的放射科医生小组表明,与传统方法相比,诊断错误减少了33% 。

Evidence

 
Standardized Regression Coefficients for the collective intelligence factor c as found in Woolley et al.'s[11] (2010) two original studies. c and average (maximum) member intelligence scores are regressed on the criterion tasks.

Woolley, Chabris, Pentland, Hashmi, & Malone (2010),[11] the originators of this scientific understanding of collective intelligence, found a single statistical factor for collective intelligence in their research across 192 groups with people randomly recruited from the public. In Woolley et al.'s two initial studies, groups worked together on different tasks from the McGrath Task Circumplex,[76] a well-established taxonomy of group tasks. Tasks were chosen from all four quadrants of the circumplex and included visual puzzles, brainstorming, making collective moral judgments, and negotiating over limited resources. The results in these tasks were taken to conduct a factor analysis. Both studies showed support for a general collective intelligence factor c underlying differences in group performance with an initial eigenvalue accounting for 43% (44% in study 2) of the variance, whereas the next factor accounted for only 18% (20%). That fits the range normally found in research regarding a general individual intelligence factor g typically accounting for 40% to 50% percent of between-individual performance differences on cognitive tests.[45]

alt=Standardized Regression Coefficients for the collective intelligence factor c and group member intelligence regressed on the two criterion tasks as found in Woolley et al.'s (2010) two original studies.|thumb|Standardized Regression Coefficients for the collective intelligence factor c as found in Woolley et al.'s (2010) two original studies. c and average (maximum) member intelligence scores are regressed on the criterion tasks. Woolley, Chabris, Pentland, Hashmi, & Malone (2010), the originators of this scientific understanding of collective intelligence, found a single statistical factor for collective intelligence in their research across 192 groups with people randomly recruited from the public. In Woolley et al.'s two initial studies, groups worked together on different tasks from the McGrath Task Circumplex, a well-established taxonomy of group tasks. Tasks were chosen from all four quadrants of the circumplex and included visual puzzles, brainstorming, making collective moral judgments, and negotiating over limited resources. The results in these tasks were taken to conduct a factor analysis. Both studies showed support for a general collective intelligence factor c underlying differences in group performance with an initial eigenvalue accounting for 43% (44% in study 2) of the variance, whereas the next factor accounted for only 18% (20%). That fits the range normally found in research regarding a general individual intelligence factor g typically accounting for 40% to 50% percent of between-individual performance differences on cognitive tests.

Alt = 集体智力因子 c 和群体成员智力的标准化回归系数在伍利等人的两个标准任务上回归。在伍利等人的研究中发现的集体智慧因子 c 的标准化回归系数。2010年的两项原始研究。C 和平均(最大)成员智力得分回归于标准任务。Woolley,Chabris,彭特兰,Hashmi,and Malone (2010) ,集体智慧科学理解的发起者,在他们对192个随机从公众中招募的人的研究中发现了一个单一的集体智慧统计因素。在伍利等人的文章中。在麦格拉斯的两个初步研究中,研究小组共同完成了麦格拉斯环绕任务(McGrath Task Circumplex)中的不同任务。任务从复杂的四个象限中选择,包括视觉谜题、头脑风暴、做出集体道德判断以及在有限的资源上进行谈判。对这些任务的结果进行因子分析。两项研究都表明支持一般集体智力因素 c,在群体绩效的潜在差异中,最初的特征值占方差的43% (研究2中为44%) ,而下一个因素只占18% (20%)。这符合研究中通常发现的范围,一般个人智力因素 g 通常占个人认知测试成绩差异的40% 至50% 。

Afterwards, a more complex task was solved by each group to determine whether c factor scores predict performance on tasks beyond the original test. Criterion tasks were playing checkers (draughts) against a standardized computer in the first and a complex architectural design task in the second study. In a regression analysis using both individual intelligence of group members and c to predict performance on the criterion tasks, c had a significant effect, but average and maximum individual intelligence had not. While average (r=0.15, P=0.04) and maximum intelligence (r=0.19, P=0.008) of individual group members were moderately correlated with c, c was still a much better predictor of the criterion tasks. According to Woolley et al., this supports the existence of a collective intelligence factor c, because it demonstrates an effect over and beyond group members' individual intelligence and thus that c is more than just the aggregation of the individual IQs or the influence of the group member with the highest IQ.[11]

Afterwards, a more complex task was solved by each group to determine whether c factor scores predict performance on tasks beyond the original test. Criterion tasks were playing checkers (draughts) against a standardized computer in the first and a complex architectural design task in the second study. In a regression analysis using both individual intelligence of group members and c to predict performance on the criterion tasks, c had a significant effect, but average and maximum individual intelligence had not. While average (r=0.15, P=0.04) and maximum intelligence (r=0.19, P=0.008) of individual group members were moderately correlated with c, c was still a much better predictor of the criterion tasks. According to Woolley et al., this supports the existence of a collective intelligence factor c, because it demonstrates an effect over and beyond group members' individual intelligence and thus that c is more than just the aggregation of the individual IQs or the influence of the group member with the highest IQ.

然后,每个小组解决一个更复杂的任务,以确定 c 因子分数是否能预测超出原始测试的任务表现。标准任务是下棋(跳棋)对标准计算机在第一和复杂的建筑设计任务在第二个研究。在同时使用小组成员的个人智力和 c 来预测标准任务的表现的回归分析中,c 有显著的效果,但是平均和最大的个人智力没有。各组成员的平均智力(r = 0.15,p = 0.04)和最高智力(r = 0.19,p = 0.008)与 c 有中度相关,但 c 仍是标准任务的较好预测因子。根据 Woolley 等人的研究,这支持了集体智力因素 c 的存在,因为它证明了一种超越群体成员个人智力的影响,因此,c 不仅仅是个人智商的集合或者智商最高的群体成员的影响。

Engel et al.[43] (2014) replicated Woolley et al.'s findings applying an accelerated battery of tasks with a first factor in the factor analysis explaining 49% of the between-group variance in performance with the following factors explaining less than half of this amount. Moreover, they found a similar result for groups working together online communicating only via text and confirmed the role of female proportion and social sensitivity in causing collective intelligence in both cases. Similarly to Wolley et al.,[11] they also measured social sensitivity with the RME which is actually meant to measure people's ability to detect mental states in other peoples' eyes. The online collaborating participants, however, did neither know nor see each other at all. The authors conclude that scores on the RME must be related to a broader set of abilities of social reasoning than only drawing inferences from other people's eye expressions.[77]

Engel et al. (2014) replicated Woolley et al.'s findings applying an accelerated battery of tasks with a first factor in the factor analysis explaining 49% of the between-group variance in performance with the following factors explaining less than half of this amount. Moreover, they found a similar result for groups working together online communicating only via text and confirmed the role of female proportion and social sensitivity in causing collective intelligence in both cases. Similarly to Wolley et al., they also measured social sensitivity with the RME which is actually meant to measure people's ability to detect mental states in other peoples' eyes. The online collaborating participants, however, did neither know nor see each other at all. The authors conclude that scores on the RME must be related to a broader set of abilities of social reasoning than only drawing inferences from other people's eye expressions.

Engel et al.(2014)复制了 Woolley 等人的研究。在因素分析中,第一因素解释了组间绩效差异的49% ,而以下因素解释的差异不到这个数字的一半。此外,他们还发现了一个类似的结果,即只通过文本进行在线交流的群体,并证实了女性比例和社会敏感性在这两种情况下形成集体智慧方面的作用。与 Wolley 等人类似,他们也用 RME 来测量社会敏感度,这实际上是用来测量人们察觉别人眼睛里的精神状态的能力。然而,在线合作的参与者既不认识也根本看不见对方。作者得出结论,RME 的分数必须与一系列更广泛的社会推理能力相关,而不仅仅是从他人的眼神表达中得出推论。

A collective intelligence factor c in the sense of Woolley et al.[11] was further found in groups of MBA students working together over the course of a semester,[78] in online gaming groups[62] as well as in groups from different cultures[79] and groups in different contexts in terms of short-term versus long-term groups.[79] None of these investigations considered team members' individual intelligence scores as control variables.[62][78][79]

A collective intelligence factor c in the sense of Woolley et al. was further found in groups of MBA students working together over the course of a semester, in online gaming groups as well as in groups from different cultures and groups in different contexts in terms of short-term versus long-term groups. None of these investigations considered team members' individual intelligence scores as control variables.

一个集体智慧因素 c 的意义,伍利等人。在一个学期的课程中一起工作的 MBA 学生群体、在线游戏群体,以及来自不同文化背景和群体的短期与长期群体中,这种差异得到了进一步的发现。这些调查都没有将团队成员的个人智力分数作为控制变量。

Note as well that the field of collective intelligence research is quite young and published empirical evidence is relatively rare yet. However, various proposals and working papers are in progress or already completed but (supposedly) still in a scholarly peer reviewing publication process.[80][81][82][83]

Note as well that the field of collective intelligence research is quite young and published empirical evidence is relatively rare yet. However, various proposals and working papers are in progress or already completed but (supposedly) still in a scholarly peer reviewing publication process.

还要注意的是,集体智慧研究领域相当年轻,而且在21经验证明发表的论文相对较少。然而,各种建议和工作文件正在进行中或已经完成,但(据推测)仍在学术同行评审出版过程中。

Predictive validity

Next to predicting a group's performance on more complex criterion tasks as shown in the original experiments,[11] the collective intelligence factor c was also found to predict group performance in diverse tasks in MBA classes lasting over several months.[78] Thereby, highly collectively intelligent groups earned significantly higher scores on their group assignments although their members did not do any better on other individually performed assignments. Moreover, highly collective intelligent teams improved performance over time suggesting that more collectively intelligent teams learn better.[78] This is another potential parallel to individual intelligence where more intelligent people are found to acquire new material quicker.[13][84]

Next to predicting a group's performance on more complex criterion tasks as shown in the original experiments, the collective intelligence factor c was also found to predict group performance in diverse tasks in MBA classes lasting over several months. Thereby, highly collectively intelligent groups earned significantly higher scores on their group assignments although their members did not do any better on other individually performed assignments. Moreover, highly collective intelligent teams improved performance over time suggesting that more collectively intelligent teams learn better. This is another potential parallel to individual intelligence where more intelligent people are found to acquire new material quicker.

除了预测一个团队在更复杂的标准任务中的表现之外,集体智慧因子 c 也被发现可以预测一个团队在持续数月的 MBA 课程中在不同任务中的表现。因此,高度集体智力的小组在他们的小组作业中获得了显著的高分,尽管他们的成员在其他单独完成的作业中并没有表现得更好。此外,高度集体智慧的团队随着时间的推移提高了性能,这表明更多集体智慧的团队学得更好。这是另一个与个人智力相似的潜在因素,在个人智力中,越聪明的人获取新知识的速度越快。

Individual intelligence can be used to predict plenty of life outcomes from school attainment[85] and career success[86] to health outcomes[87] and even mortality.[87] Whether collective intelligence is able to predict other outcomes besides group performance on mental tasks has still to be investigated.

Individual intelligence can be used to predict plenty of life outcomes from school attainment and career success to health outcomes and even mortality. Whether collective intelligence is able to predict other outcomes besides group performance on mental tasks has still to be investigated.

个人智力可以用来预测从学业成就、事业成功到健康甚至死亡率等诸多生活结果。集体智力是否能够预测智力任务中的团体表现以外的其他结果还有待研究。

Potential connections to individual intelligence

Gladwell[88] (2008) showed that the relationship between individual IQ and success works only to a certain point and that additional IQ points over an estimate of IQ 120 do not translate into real life advantages. If a similar border exists for Group-IQ or if advantages are linear and infinite, has still to be explored. Similarly, demand for further research on possible connections of individual and collective intelligence exists within plenty of other potentially transferable logics of individual intelligence, such as, for instance, the development over time[89] or the question of improving intelligence.[90][91] Whereas it is controversial whether human intelligence can be enhanced via training,[90][91] a group's collective intelligence potentially offers simpler opportunities for improvement by exchanging team members or implementing structures and technologies.[44] Moreover, social sensitivity was found to be, at least temporarily, improvable by reading literary fiction[92] as well as watching drama movies.[93] In how far such training ultimately improves collective intelligence through social sensitivity remains an open question.[94]

Gladwell (2008) showed that the relationship between individual IQ and success works only to a certain point and that additional IQ points over an estimate of IQ 120 do not translate into real life advantages. If a similar border exists for Group-IQ or if advantages are linear and infinite, has still to be explored. Similarly, demand for further research on possible connections of individual and collective intelligence exists within plenty of other potentially transferable logics of individual intelligence, such as, for instance, the development over time or the question of improving intelligence. Whereas it is controversial whether human intelligence can be enhanced via training, a group's collective intelligence potentially offers simpler opportunities for improvement by exchanging team members or implementing structures and technologies. Moreover, social sensitivity was found to be, at least temporarily, improvable by reading literary fiction as well as watching drama movies. In how far such training ultimately improves collective intelligence through social sensitivity remains an open question.

格拉德威尔(2008年)指出,个人智商和成功之间的关系只在一定程度上起作用,超过估计智商120的额外智商点不会转化为现实生活中的优势。如果类似的边界存在的群体智商或优势是线性和无限的,仍然有待探索。同样,在许多其他可以转移的个体智慧逻辑中,也存在着对个体智慧和集体智慧之间可能存在的联系进一步研究的需求,例如,随着时间的推移而产生的发展或提高智力的问题。虽然人类的智力是否可以通过培训得到提高还存在争议,但是一个群体的集体智力可能通过交换团队成员或实施结构和技术提供更简单的改进机会。此外,社会敏感性被发现,至少是暂时的,可以通过阅读文学小说和观看戏剧电影来改善。在多大程度上这种培训最终通过社会敏感性提高集体智慧仍然是一个悬而未决的问题。

There are further more advanced concepts and factor models attempting to explain individual cognitive ability including the categorization of intelligence in fluid and crystallized intelligence[95][96] or the hierarchical model of intelligence differences.[97][98] Further supplementing explanations and conceptualizations for the factor structure of the Genomes of collective intelligence besides a general 模板:'c factor', though, are missing yet.[99]

There are further more advanced concepts and factor models attempting to explain individual cognitive ability including the categorization of intelligence in fluid and crystallized intelligence or the hierarchical model of intelligence differences. Further supplementing explanations and conceptualizations for the factor structure of the Genomes of collective intelligence besides a general c factor', though, are missing yet.

还有更进一步的更先进的概念和因素模型试图解释个体的认知能力,包括晶体智力的智力分类或智力差异的层次模型。然而,除了一般的 c 因子之外,对集体智慧基因组的因子结构的进一步解释和概念化仍然缺失。

Controversies

Other scholars explain team performance by aggregating team members' general intelligence to the team level[100][101] instead of building an own overall collective intelligence measure. Devine and Philips[102] (2001) showed in a meta-analysis that mean cognitive ability predicts team performance in laboratory settings (.37) as well as field settings (.14) – note that this is only a small effect. Suggesting a strong dependence on the relevant tasks, other scholars showed that tasks requiring a high degree of communication and cooperation are found to be most influenced by the team member with the lowest cognitive ability.[103] Tasks in which selecting the best team member is the most successful strategy, are shown to be most influenced by the member with the highest cognitive ability.[59]

Other scholars explain team performance by aggregating team members' general intelligence to the team level instead of building an own overall collective intelligence measure. Devine and Philips (2001) showed in a meta-analysis that mean cognitive ability predicts team performance in laboratory settings (.37) as well as field settings (.14) – note that this is only a small effect. Suggesting a strong dependence on the relevant tasks, other scholars showed that tasks requiring a high degree of communication and cooperation are found to be most influenced by the team member with the lowest cognitive ability. Tasks in which selecting the best team member is the most successful strategy, are shown to be most influenced by the member with the highest cognitive ability.

其他学者通过将团队成员的一般智力汇总到团队水平来解释团队表现,而不是建立一个自己的整体集体智力测量。Devine 和 Philips (2001)在一项荟萃分析中指出,认知能力可以预测实验室环境(0.37)和现场环境(0.14)下的团队表现。注意,这只是一个很小的影响。其他学者的研究表明,对相关任务的依赖性很强,需要高度沟通和合作的任务被认为受认知能力最低的团队成员影响最大。选择最好的团队成员是最成功的策略的任务,被证明受认知能力最高的成员的影响最大。

Since Woolley et al.'s[11] results do not show any influence of group satisfaction, group cohesiveness, or motivation, they, at least implicitly, challenge these concepts regarding the importance for group performance in general and thus contrast meta-analytically proven evidence concerning the positive effects of group cohesion,[104][105][106] motivation[107][108] and satisfaction[109] on group performance.

Since Woolley et al.'s results do not show any influence of group satisfaction, group cohesiveness, or motivation, they, at least implicitly, challenge these concepts regarding the importance for group performance in general and thus contrast meta-analytically proven evidence concerning the positive effects of group cohesion, motivation and satisfaction on group performance.

自从伍利等人。研究结果没有显示出任何群体满意度、群体凝聚力或动机的影响,它们至少隐含地挑战了这些概念对于群体绩效的重要性,因此对比元分析证明了群体凝聚力、动机和满意度对群体绩效的正面影响。

Noteworthy is also that the involved researchers among the confirming findings widely overlap with each other and with the authors participating in the original first study around Anita Woolley.[11][37][43][63][77]

Noteworthy is also that the involved researchers among the confirming findings widely overlap with each other and with the authors participating in the original first study around Anita Woolley.

值得注意的是,参与研究的研究人员在确认研究结果时,彼此之间以及参与最初围绕安妮塔 · 伍利进行的第一次研究的作者之间都有广泛的重叠。

Alternative mathematical techniques

Computational collective intelligence

文件:Computational collective intelligence.jpg
Computational Collective Intelligence, by Tadeusz Szuba

In 2001, Tadeusz (Tad) Szuba from the AGH University in Poland proposed a formal model for the phenomenon of collective intelligence. It is assumed to be an unconscious, random, parallel, and distributed computational process, run in mathematical logic by the social structure.[110]

thumb|Computational Collective Intelligence, by Tadeusz Szuba In 2001, Tadeusz (Tad) Szuba from the AGH University in Poland proposed a formal model for the phenomenon of collective intelligence. It is assumed to be an unconscious, random, parallel, and distributed computational process, run in mathematical logic by the social structure.Szuba T., Computational Collective Intelligence, 420 pages, Wiley NY, 2001

Ttadeusz Szuba 2001年,来自波兰 AGH 大学的 Tadeusz (Tad) Szuba 提出了一个集体智慧现象的正式模型。它被认为是一个无意识的、随机的、平行的、分布式的计算过程,通过社会结构在数理逻辑中运行。计算集体智能,420页,Wiley NY,2001

In this model, beings and information are modeled as abstract information molecules carrying expressions of mathematical logic.[110] They are quasi-randomly displacing due to their interaction with their environments with their intended displacements.[110] Their interaction in abstract computational space creates multi-thread inference process which we perceive as collective intelligence.[110] Thus, a non-Turing model of computation is used. This theory allows simple formal definition of collective intelligence as the property of social structure and seems to be working well for a wide spectrum of beings, from bacterial colonies up to human social structures. Collective intelligence considered as a specific computational process is providing a straightforward explanation of several social phenomena. For this model of collective intelligence, the formal definition of IQS (IQ Social) was proposed and was defined as "the probability function over the time and domain of N-element inferences which are reflecting inference activity of the social structure".[110] While IQS seems to be computationally hard, modeling of social structure in terms of a computational process as described above gives a chance for approximation.[110] Prospective applications are optimization of companies through the maximization of their IQS, and the analysis of drug resistance against collective intelligence of bacterial colonies.[110]

In this model, beings and information are modeled as abstract information molecules carrying expressions of mathematical logic. They are quasi-randomly displacing due to their interaction with their environments with their intended displacements. Their interaction in abstract computational space creates multi-thread inference process which we perceive as collective intelligence. Thus, a non-Turing model of computation is used. This theory allows simple formal definition of collective intelligence as the property of social structure and seems to be working well for a wide spectrum of beings, from bacterial colonies up to human social structures. Collective intelligence considered as a specific computational process is providing a straightforward explanation of several social phenomena. For this model of collective intelligence, the formal definition of IQS (IQ Social) was proposed and was defined as "the probability function over the time and domain of N-element inferences which are reflecting inference activity of the social structure". While IQS seems to be computationally hard, modeling of social structure in terms of a computational process as described above gives a chance for approximation. Prospective applications are optimization of companies through the maximization of their IQS, and the analysis of drug resistance against collective intelligence of bacterial colonies.

在这个模型中,生命和信息被模拟为带有数理逻辑表达式的抽象信息分子。由于它们与环境的相互作用以及预期的位移,它们是准随机位移。它们在抽象计算空间中的相互作用产生了我们称之为集体智能的多线程推理过程。因此,使用了一个非图灵计算模型。这个理论允许将集体智慧作为社会结构的属性进行简单的形式化定义,并且似乎对于从细菌群落到人类社会结构的广泛范围的生物都很有效。集体智慧被认为是一种特定的计算过程,它为几种社会现象提供了直接的解释。对于这种集体智力模型,提出了 IQS (IQ Social)的正式定义,并被定义为“ n 元素推理的时间和领域上的概率密度函数,反映了社会结构的推理活动”。尽管智商测试看起来很难计算,但是根据上面描述的计算过程对社会结构进行建模提供了一个近似的机会。前瞻性应用是通过最大化企业的智商,以及对细菌菌落集体智慧的耐药性分析,对企业进行优化。

Collective intelligence quotient

One measure sometimes applied, especially by more artificial intelligence focused theorists, is a "collective intelligence quotient"[111] (or "cooperation quotient") – which can be normalized from the "individual" intelligence quotient (IQ)[111] – thus making it possible to determine the marginal intelligence added by each new individual participating in the collective action, thus using metrics to avoid the hazards of group think and stupidity.[112]

One measure sometimes applied, especially by more artificial intelligence focused theorists, is a "collective intelligence quotient" (or "cooperation quotient") – which can be normalized from the "individual" intelligence quotient (IQ) – thus making it possible to determine the marginal intelligence added by each new individual participating in the collective action, thus using metrics to avoid the hazards of group think and stupidity.

有时候,特别是那些更注重人工智能的理论家们,会采用一种“集体智商”(或者“合作商数”)——可以从“个人”智商(IQ)中规范化——这样就可以确定每个新加入集体行动的个体所增加的边际智力,从而使用度量标准来避免集体思维和愚蠢的危害。

Applications

Applications

= 应用程序 =

There have been many recent applications of collective intelligence, including in fields such as crowd-sourcing, citizen science and prediction markets. The Nesta Centre for Collective Intelligence Design [113] was launched in 2018 and has produced many surveys of applications as well as funding experiments. In 2020 the UNDP Accelerator Labs [114] began using collective intelligence methods in their work to accelerate innovation for the Sustainable Development Goals.

There have been many recent applications of collective intelligence, including in fields such as crowd-sourcing, citizen science and prediction markets. The Nesta Centre for Collective Intelligence Design https://www.nesta.org.uk/project/centre-collective-intelligence-design/ was launched in 2018 and has produced many surveys of applications as well as funding experiments. In 2020 the UNDP Accelerator Labs https://acceleratorlabs.undp.org/ began using collective intelligence methods in their work to accelerate innovation for the Sustainable Development Goals.

集体智慧最近有许多应用,包括在众包、公民科学和预测市场等领域。内斯塔集体智慧设计中心于2018年成立,已经完成了许多申请调查以及资助实验 https://www.Nesta.org.uk/project/Centre-Collective-Intelligence-Design/。2020年,联合国开发计划署加速器实验室 https://acceleratorlabs.UNDP.org/开始在他们的工作中使用集体智慧的方法来加速可持续发展目标的创新。

Elicitation of point estimates

Here, the goal is to get an estimate (in a single value) of something. For example, estimating the weight of an object, or the release date of a product or probability of success of a project etc. as seen in prediction markets like Intrade, HSX or InklingMarkets and also in several implementations of crowdsourced estimation of a numeric outcome such as the Delphi method. Essentially, we try to get the average value of the estimates provided by the members in the crowd.

Here, the goal is to get an estimate (in a single value) of something. For example, estimating the weight of an object, or the release date of a product or probability of success of a project etc. as seen in prediction markets like Intrade, HSX or InklingMarkets and also in several implementations of crowdsourced estimation of a numeric outcome such as the Delphi method. Essentially, we try to get the average value of the estimates provided by the members in the crowd.

在这里,目标是得到一个估计(在一个单一的价值)的东西。例如,估计一个对象的重量,或者一个产品的发布日期,或者一个项目的成功概率等等。在 Intrade、 HSX 或 InklingMarkets 等预测市场,以及诸如德尔福(Delphi)方法等数字结果的众包估计实现中都可以看到这种情况。本质上,我们试图得到人群中成员提供的估计值的平均值。

Opinion aggregation

In this situation, opinions are gathered from the crowd regarding an idea, issue or product. For example, trying to get a rating (on some scale) of a product sold online (such as Amazon's star rating system). Here, the emphasis is to collect and simply aggregate the ratings provided by customers/users.

In this situation, opinions are gathered from the crowd regarding an idea, issue or product. For example, trying to get a rating (on some scale) of a product sold online (such as Amazon's star rating system). Here, the emphasis is to collect and simply aggregate the ratings provided by customers/users.

在这种情况下,从人群中收集关于一个想法、问题或产品的意见。例如,试图获得在线销售产品的评级(在一定规模上)(如亚马逊的星级评级系统)。这里的重点是收集并简单地汇总客户/用户提供的评级。

Idea Collection

In these problems, someone solicits ideas for projects, designs or solutions from the crowd. For example, ideas on solving a data science problem (as in Kaggle) or getting a good design for a T-shirt (as in Threadless) or in getting answers to simple problems that only humans can do well (as in Amazon's Mechanical Turk). The objective is to gather the ideas and devise some selection criteria to choose the best ideas.

In these problems, someone solicits ideas for projects, designs or solutions from the crowd. For example, ideas on solving a data science problem (as in Kaggle) or getting a good design for a T-shirt (as in Threadless) or in getting answers to simple problems that only humans can do well (as in Amazon's Mechanical Turk). The objective is to gather the ideas and devise some selection criteria to choose the best ideas.

在这些问题中,有人从人群中征求项目、设计或解决方案的想法。例如,解决一个数据科学问题(比如在 Kaggle)或者设计一件 t 恤衫(比如 Threadless) ,或者解决一些只有人类才能解决的简单问题(比如亚马逊的 Mechanical Turk)。目的是收集想法,并设计一些选择标准,以选择最好的想法。

James Surowiecki divides the advantages of disorganized decision-making into three main categories, which are cognition, cooperation and coordination.[115]模板:Full citation needed

James Surowiecki divides the advantages of disorganized decision-making into three main categories, which are cognition, cooperation and coordination.

James Surowiecki 将无组织决策的优势分为三大类,即认知、合作和协调。

Cognition

Market judgment

Because of the Internet's ability to rapidly convey large amounts of information throughout the world, the use of collective intelligence to predict stock prices and stock price direction has become increasingly viable.[116] Websites aggregate stock market information that is as current as possible so professional or amateur stock analysts can publish their viewpoints, enabling amateur investors to submit their financial opinions and create an aggregate opinion.[116] The opinion of all investor can be weighed equally so that a pivotal premise of the effective application of collective intelligence can be applied: the masses, including a broad spectrum of stock market expertise, can be utilized to more accurately predict the behavior of financial markets.[117][118]

Because of the Internet's ability to rapidly convey large amounts of information throughout the world, the use of collective intelligence to predict stock prices and stock price direction has become increasingly viable. Websites aggregate stock market information that is as current as possible so professional or amateur stock analysts can publish their viewpoints, enabling amateur investors to submit their financial opinions and create an aggregate opinion. The opinion of all investor can be weighed equally so that a pivotal premise of the effective application of collective intelligence can be applied: the masses, including a broad spectrum of stock market expertise, can be utilized to more accurately predict the behavior of financial markets.

由于互联网能够在全世界迅速传递大量信息,利用集体智慧预测股票价格和股票价格走向已变得越来越可行。网站聚合尽可能最新的股票市场信息,这样专业或业余股票分析师可以发表他们的观点,使业余投资者提交他们的金融意见和创造一个聚合的意见。所有投资者的意见可以平等权衡,以便有效应用集体智慧的关键前提可以应用: 群众,包括广泛的股票市场专业知识,可以用来更准确地预测金融市场的行为。

Collective intelligence underpins the efficient-market hypothesis of Eugene Fama[119] – although the term collective intelligence is not used explicitly in his paper. Fama cites research conducted by Michael Jensen[120] in which 89 out of 115 selected funds underperformed relative to the index during the period from 1955 to 1964. But after removing the loading charge (up-front fee) only 72 underperformed while after removing brokerage costs only 58 underperformed. On the basis of such evidence index funds became popular investment vehicles using the collective intelligence of the market, rather than the judgement of professional fund managers, as an investment strategy.[120]

Collective intelligence underpins the efficient-market hypothesis of Eugene Fama – although the term collective intelligence is not used explicitly in his paper. Fama cites research conducted by Michael Jensen in which 89 out of 115 selected funds underperformed relative to the index during the period from 1955 to 1964. But after removing the loading charge (up-front fee) only 72 underperformed while after removing brokerage costs only 58 underperformed. On the basis of such evidence index funds became popular investment vehicles using the collective intelligence of the market, rather than the judgement of professional fund managers, as an investment strategy.

集体智慧是尤金法玛效率市场假说的基础——尽管在他的论文中并没有明确使用集体智慧这个术语。法玛引用了迈克尔•詹森(Michael Jensen)进行的一项研究。在1955年至1964年期间,选定的115只基金中,有89只表现不及指数。但是,在去除加载费(预付费)后,只有72% 的股票表现不佳,而去除经纪成本后,只有58% 的股票表现不佳。在这些证据的基础上,指数基金成为流行的投资工具,利用市场的集体智慧,而不是专业基金经理的判断,作为一种投资策略。

Predictions in politics and technology

文件:U.S. states (and territories) by election methods, 2016.svg
Voting methods used in the United States 2016

Political parties mobilize large numbers of people to form policy, select candidates and finance and run election campaigns.[121] Knowledge focusing through various voting methods allows perspectives to converge through the assumption that uninformed voting is to some degree random and can be filtered from the decision process leaving only a residue of informed consensus.[121] Critics point out that often bad ideas, misunderstandings, and misconceptions are widely held, and that structuring of the decision process must favor experts who are presumably less prone to random or misinformed voting in a given context.[122]

thumb|Voting methods used in the United States 2016 Political parties mobilize large numbers of people to form policy, select candidates and finance and run election campaigns. Knowledge focusing through various voting methods allows perspectives to converge through the assumption that uninformed voting is to some degree random and can be filtered from the decision process leaving only a residue of informed consensus. Critics point out that often bad ideas, misunderstandings, and misconceptions are widely held, and that structuring of the decision process must favor experts who are presumably less prone to random or misinformed voting in a given context.

美国2016年选举中使用的投票方法政党动员大量民众制定政策、选择候选人、资助和开展竞选活动。通过各种投票方法聚焦的知识可以通过假设无知投票在某种程度上是随机的,并且可以从决策过程中过滤掉,只留下知情共识的残留,从而使观点趋于一致。批评人士指出,经常存在错误的想法、误解和误解,决策过程的结构必须有利于专家,因为他们可能不太容易在特定情况下进行随机或错误信息的投票。

Companies such as Affinnova (acquired by Nielsen), Google, InnoCentive, Marketocracy, and Threadless[123] have successfully employed the concept of collective intelligence in bringing about the next generation of technological changes through their research and development (R&D), customer service, and knowledge management.[123][124] An example of such application is Google's Project Aristotle in 2012, where the effect of collective intelligence on team makeup was examined in hundreds of the company's R&D teams.[125]

Companies such as Affinnova (acquired by Nielsen), Google, InnoCentive, Marketocracy, and Threadless have successfully employed the concept of collective intelligence in bringing about the next generation of technological changes through their research and development (R&D), customer service, and knowledge management. An example of such application is Google's Project Aristotle in 2012, where the effect of collective intelligence on team makeup was examined in hundreds of the company's R&D teams.

像 Affinnova (尼尔森收购)、 Google、 InnoCentive、 Marketocracy 和 Threadless 这样的公司已经成功地运用了集体智慧的概念,通过研发、客户服务和知识管理,带来了下一代的技术变革。这种应用的一个例子是2012年谷歌的亚里士多德项目,在该项目中,集体智慧对团队组成的影响在数百个公司的研发团队中进行了研究。

Cooperation

Networks of trust

文件:Application of collective intelligence in Millennium Project.png
Application of collective intelligence in the Millennium Project

In 2012, the Global Futures Collective Intelligence System (GFIS) was created by The Millennium Project,[126] which epitomizes collective intelligence as the synergistic intersection among data/information/knowledge, software/hardware, and expertise/insights that has a recursive learning process for better decision-making than the individual players alone.[127]

thumb|left|Application of collective intelligence in the Millennium Project In 2012, the Global Futures Collective Intelligence System (GFIS) was created by The Millennium Project, which epitomizes collective intelligence as the synergistic intersection among data/information/knowledge, software/hardware, and expertise/insights that has a recursive learning process for better decision-making than the individual players alone.

在千年项目中应用集体智慧2012年,全球未来集体智慧系统(GFIS)由千年项目创建,它集中体现了集体智慧,即数据/信息/知识、软件/硬件和专长/见解之间的协同交汇,具有一个递归的学习过程,比单个行为者更好地做出决策。

New media are often associated with the promotion and enhancement of collective intelligence. The ability of new media to easily store and retrieve information, predominantly through databases and the Internet, allows for it to be shared without difficulty. Thus, through interaction with new media, knowledge easily passes between sources 模板:Harv resulting in a form of collective intelligence. The use of interactive new media, particularly the internet, promotes online interaction and this distribution of knowledge between users.

New media are often associated with the promotion and enhancement of collective intelligence. The ability of new media to easily store and retrieve information, predominantly through databases and the Internet, allows for it to be shared without difficulty. Thus, through interaction with new media, knowledge easily passes between sources resulting in a form of collective intelligence. The use of interactive new media, particularly the internet, promotes online interaction and this distribution of knowledge between users.

新媒体往往与促进和提高集体智慧联系在一起。新媒体能够方便地存储和检索信息,主要是通过数据库和互联网,使它能够毫无困难地被共享。因此,通过与新媒体的互动,知识很容易在资源之间传递,从而形成一种集体智慧。互动新媒体的使用,特别是互联网,促进了在线互动和用户之间的知识传播。

Francis Heylighen, Valentin Turchin, and Gottfried Mayer-Kress are among those who view collective intelligence through the lens of computer science and cybernetics. In their view, the Internet enables collective intelligence at the widest, planetary scale, thus facilitating the emergence of a global brain.

Francis Heylighen, Valentin Turchin, and Gottfried Mayer-Kress are among those who view collective intelligence through the lens of computer science and cybernetics. In their view, the Internet enables collective intelligence at the widest, planetary scale, thus facilitating the emergence of a global brain.

弗朗西斯 · 海莱恩(Francis Heylighen)、瓦伦丁 · 图尔钦(Valentin Turchin)和戈特弗里德 · 梅耶-克雷斯(Gottfried Mayer-Kress)等人都是从计算机科学和控制论的角度来看待集体智慧的。在他们看来,互联网使集体智慧在最广泛的,全球规模,从而促进了全球大脑的出现。

The developer of the World Wide Web, Tim Berners-Lee, aimed to promote sharing and publishing of information globally. Later his employer opened up the technology for free use. In the early '90s, the Internet's potential was still untapped, until the mid-1990s when 'critical mass', as termed by the head of the Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA), Dr. J.C.R. Licklider, demanded more accessibility and utility.[128] The driving force of this Internet-based collective intelligence is the digitization of information and communication. Henry Jenkins, a key theorist of new media and media convergence draws on the theory that collective intelligence can be attributed to media convergence and participatory culture 模板:Harv. He criticizes contemporary education for failing to incorporate online trends of collective problem solving into the classroom, stating "whereas a collective intelligence community encourages ownership of work as a group, schools grade individuals". Jenkins argues that interaction within a knowledge community builds vital skills for young people, and teamwork through collective intelligence communities contribute to the development of such skills.[129] Collective intelligence is not merely a quantitative contribution of information from all cultures, it is also qualitative.[129]

The developer of the World Wide Web, Tim Berners-Lee, aimed to promote sharing and publishing of information globally. Later his employer opened up the technology for free use. In the early '90s, the Internet's potential was still untapped, until the mid-1990s when 'critical mass', as termed by the head of the Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA), Dr. J.C.R. Licklider, demanded more accessibility and utility.Weiss, A. (2005). The Power of Collective Intelligence. Collective Intelligence, pp. 19–23 The driving force of this Internet-based collective intelligence is the digitization of information and communication. Henry Jenkins, a key theorist of new media and media convergence draws on the theory that collective intelligence can be attributed to media convergence and participatory culture . He criticizes contemporary education for failing to incorporate online trends of collective problem solving into the classroom, stating "whereas a collective intelligence community encourages ownership of work as a group, schools grade individuals". Jenkins argues that interaction within a knowledge community builds vital skills for young people, and teamwork through collective intelligence communities contribute to the development of such skills. Collective intelligence is not merely a quantitative contribution of information from all cultures, it is also qualitative.

万维网的开发者,蒂姆伯纳斯李,旨在促进全球信息的共享和发布。后来,他的雇主开放了这项技术供免费使用。在90年代早期,互联网的潜力还没有被开发,直到90年代中期,高级研究计划局(ARPA)局长 j.c.r 博士称之为“临界质量”。Licklider,要求更多的可达性和实用性。(2005).集体智慧的力量。集体智慧,第页。19-23这种基于互联网的集体智慧的驱动力是信息和通信的数字化。新媒体和 media concentration 的核心理论家 Henry Jenkins 提出了集体智慧可以归因于 media concentration 和参与式文化的理论。他批评当代教育未能将集体解决问题的在线趋势纳入课堂,指出“而集体智慧社区鼓励作为一个团体、学校为个人工作的所有权”。詹金斯认为,知识社区内的互动为年轻人建立了重要的技能,通过集体智慧社区的团队合作有助于这些技能的发展。集体智慧不仅仅是来自所有文化的信息的定量贡献,它也是定性的。

Lévy and de Kerckhove consider CI from a mass communications perspective, focusing on the ability of networked information and communication technologies to enhance the community knowledge pool. They suggest that these communications tools enable humans to interact and to share and collaborate with both ease and speed (Flew 2008). With the development of the Internet and its widespread use, the opportunity to contribute to knowledge-building communities, such as Wikipedia, is greater than ever before. These computer networks give participating users the opportunity to store and to retrieve knowledge through the collective access to these databases and allow them to "harness the hive"模板:Sfn Researchers at the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence research and explore collective intelligence of groups of people and computers.[130]

Lévy and de Kerckhove consider CI from a mass communications perspective, focusing on the ability of networked information and communication technologies to enhance the community knowledge pool. They suggest that these communications tools enable humans to interact and to share and collaborate with both ease and speed (Flew 2008). With the development of the Internet and its widespread use, the opportunity to contribute to knowledge-building communities, such as Wikipedia, is greater than ever before. These computer networks give participating users the opportunity to store and to retrieve knowledge through the collective access to these databases and allow them to "harness the hive" Researchers at the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence research and explore collective intelligence of groups of people and computers.MIT Center for Collective Intelligence . Cci.mit.edu. Retrieved on 2013-07-13.

Lévy 和 de Kerckhove 从大众传播的角度考虑 CI,侧重于网络信息和通信技术增强社区知识库的能力。他们认为这些通信工具使人类能够轻松快捷地互动、分享和协作(Flew 2008)。随着互联网的发展及其广泛应用,向维基百科等知识建设社区作出贡献的机会比以往任何时候都大。这些计算机网络使参与的用户有机会通过集体访问这些数据库来存储和检索知识,并使他们能够“利用蜂群”。麻省理工学院集体智慧研究中心的研究人员研究并探索人群和计算机的集体智慧。Cci.mit.edu.2013-07-13.

In this context collective intelligence is often confused with shared knowledge. The former is the sum total of information held individually by members of a community while the latter is information that is believed to be true and known by all members of the community.[131] Collective intelligence as represented by Web 2.0 has less user engagement than collaborative intelligence. An art project using Web 2.0 platforms is "Shared Galaxy", an experiment developed by an anonymous artist to create a collective identity that shows up as one person on several platforms like MySpace, Facebook, YouTube and Second Life. The password is written in the profiles and the accounts named "Shared Galaxy" are open to be used by anyone. In this way many take part in being one.[132] Another art project using collective intelligence to produce artistic work is Curatron, where a large group of artists together decides on a smaller group that they think would make a good collaborative group. The process is used based on an algorithm computing the collective preferences[133] In creating what he calls 'CI-Art', Nova Scotia based artist Mathew Aldred follows Pierry Lévy's definition of collective intelligence.[134] Aldred's CI-Art event in March 2016 involved over four hundred people from the community of Oxford, Nova Scotia, and internationally.[135][136] Later work developed by Aldred used the UNU swarm intelligence system to create digital drawings and paintings.[137] The Oxford Riverside Gallery (Nova Scotia) held a public CI-Art event in May 2016, which connected with online participants internationally.[138]

 
Parenting social network and collaborative tagging as pillars for automatic IPTV content blocking system

In social bookmarking (also called collaborative tagging),[139] users assign tags to resources shared with other users, which gives rise to a type of information organisation that emerges from this crowdsourcing process. The resulting information structure can be seen as reflecting the collective knowledge (or collective intelligence) of a community of users and is commonly called a "Folksonomy", and the process can be captured by models of collaborative tagging.[139]

In this context collective intelligence is often confused with shared knowledge. The former is the sum total of information held individually by members of a community while the latter is information that is believed to be true and known by all members of the community.Jenkins, H. 2006. Convergence Culture. New York: New York University Press. Collective intelligence as represented by Web 2.0 has less user engagement than collaborative intelligence. An art project using Web 2.0 platforms is "Shared Galaxy", an experiment developed by an anonymous artist to create a collective identity that shows up as one person on several platforms like MySpace, Facebook, YouTube and Second Life. The password is written in the profiles and the accounts named "Shared Galaxy" are open to be used by anyone. In this way many take part in being one. Another art project using collective intelligence to produce artistic work is Curatron, where a large group of artists together decides on a smaller group that they think would make a good collaborative group. The process is used based on an algorithm computing the collective preferences In creating what he calls 'CI-Art', Nova Scotia based artist Mathew Aldred follows Pierry Lévy's definition of collective intelligence.Mathew Aldred, May 2016. Aldred's CI-Art event in March 2016 involved over four hundred people from the community of Oxford, Nova Scotia, and internationally.Amherst News Citizen Record, 17 March 2016. Oxford Regional Education Centre Later work developed by Aldred used the UNU swarm intelligence system to create digital drawings and paintings.UNU Interview with artist, 23 May 2016. The Oxford Riverside Gallery (Nova Scotia) held a public CI-Art event in May 2016, which connected with online participants internationally.Oxford Riverside Gallery News, May 2016. thumb|Parenting social network and collaborative tagging as pillars for automatic IPTV content blocking system In social bookmarking (also called collaborative tagging), users assign tags to resources shared with other users, which gives rise to a type of information organisation that emerges from this crowdsourcing process. The resulting information structure can be seen as reflecting the collective knowledge (or collective intelligence) of a community of users and is commonly called a "Folksonomy", and the process can be captured by models of collaborative tagging.

在这种情况下,集体智慧常常与共享知识相混淆。前者是社区成员个人掌握的信息的总和,而后者则是社区所有成员都相信是真实和了解的信息。2006.融合文化。纽约: 纽约大学出版社。以 Web 2.0为代表的集体智慧在用户参与度上要低于协同智能。一个使用 Web 2.0平台的艺术项目是“共享银河”(Shared Galaxy) ,这是一位匿名艺术家开发的一个实验,目的是创建一个集体身份,在 MySpace、 Facebook、 YouTube 和“第二人生”(Second Life)等多个平台上以一个人的身份出现。密码写在个人资料中,名为“ Shared Galaxy”的账户可供任何人使用。以这种方式,许多人参与成为一个。另一个利用集体智慧来创作艺术作品的艺术项目是 Curatron,在这个项目中,一大群艺术家一起决定组建一个较小的团队,他们认为这个团队可以成为一个很好的合作团队。这个过程是基于一个计算集体偏好的算法来进行的。在创造他所谓的“集体艺术”时,新斯科舍艺术家马修 · 奥尔德雷德遵循了皮埃里 · 莱维对集体智慧的定义。马修 · 奥尔德雷德,2016年5月。2016年3月,奥尔德雷德的 CI-Art 活动吸引了来自新斯科舍牛津和国际社区的400多人参与。阿姆赫斯特新闻公民记录,2016年3月17日。牛津区域教育中心后来由 Aldred 开发的作品使用联合国大学的群体智能系统创作数码绘画和绘画。2016年5月,牛津河畔美术馆(新斯科舍省)举办了一次公开的 CI-Art 活动,与国际在线参与者取得了联系。牛津河滨画廊新闻,2016年5月。拇指。为人父母的社交网络和分众分类法作为自动 IPTV 内容封锁系统的支柱在社会性书签,用户将标签分配给与其他用户共享的资源,这就产生了一种从众包过程中产生的信息组织。由此产生的信息结构可以被看作是反映了用户社区的集体知识(或集体智慧) ,通常被称为“大众分类法”,这个过程可以被分众分类法的模型捕捉到。

Recent research using data from the social bookmarking website Delicious, has shown that collaborative tagging systems exhibit a form of complex systems (or self-organizing) dynamics.[140][141][142] Although there is no central controlled vocabulary to constrain the actions of individual users, the distributions of tags that describe different resources has been shown to converge over time to a stable power law distributions.[140] Once such stable distributions form, examining the correlations between different tags can be used to construct simple folksonomy graphs, which can be efficiently partitioned to obtained a form of community or shared vocabularies.[143] Such vocabularies can be seen as a form of collective intelligence, emerging from the decentralised actions of a community of users. The Wall-it Project is also an example of social bookmarking.[144]

Recent research using data from the social bookmarking website Delicious, has shown that collaborative tagging systems exhibit a form of complex systems (or self-organizing) dynamics.Harry Halpin, Valentin Robu, Hana Shepherd The Complex Dynamics of Collaborative Tagging, Proceedings 6th International Conference on the World Wide Web (WWW'07), Banff, Canada, pp. 211–220, ACM Press, 2007. Although there is no central controlled vocabulary to constrain the actions of individual users, the distributions of tags that describe different resources has been shown to converge over time to a stable power law distributions. Once such stable distributions form, examining the correlations between different tags can be used to construct simple folksonomy graphs, which can be efficiently partitioned to obtained a form of community or shared vocabularies.Valentin Robu, Harry Halpin, Hana Shepherd Emergence of consensus and shared vocabularies in collaborative tagging systems, ACM Transactions on the Web (TWEB), Vol. 3(4), article 14, ACM Press, September 2009. Such vocabularies can be seen as a form of collective intelligence, emerging from the decentralised actions of a community of users. The Wall-it Project is also an example of social bookmarking.Carlos J. Costa, January 2012.

最近的研究使用了来自社会性书签美味书签网站的数据,表明分众分类法系统展示了一种复杂系统(或自组织)动态的形式。加拿大,班夫,第6届国际万维网会议论文集,复动力学分众分类法。211-220,ACM Press,2007.虽然没有中央受控词表来约束单个用户的行为,但是描述不同资源的标签的分布已经被证明会随着时间的推移逐渐趋于稳定的幂律分布。一旦形成了这种稳定的分布,检查不同标签之间的相关性就可以用来构建简单的大众分类法图表,这些图表可以有效地分割成一种社区或共享的词汇表。分众分类法系统中共识和共享词汇的出现,ACM Transactions on the Web (TWEB) ,Vol。3(4) ,article 14,ACM Press,September 2009.这样的词汇可以被看作是一种集体智慧的形式,来自于用户群体的分散行为。墙-it 项目也是社会性书签的一个例子,2012年1月 Carlos j. Costa。

P2P business

Research performed by Tapscott and Williams has provided a few examples of the benefits of collective intelligence to business:[41]

Research performed by Tapscott and Williams has provided a few examples of the benefits of collective intelligence to business:

泰普斯科特和威廉姆斯的研究提供了一些集体智慧对商业的好处的例子:

Talent utilization
At the rate technology is changing, no firm can fully keep up in the innovations needed to compete. Instead, smart firms are drawing on the power of mass collaboration to involve participation of the people they could not employ. This also helps generate continual interest in the firm in the form of those drawn to new idea creation as well as investment opportunities.[41]
Demand creation
Firms can create a new market for complementary goods by engaging in open source community. Firms also are able to expand into new fields that they previously would not have been able to without the addition of resources and collaboration from the community. This creates, as mentioned before, a new market for complementary goods for the products in said new fields.[41]
Costs reduction
Mass collaboration can help to reduce costs dramatically. Firms can release a specific software or product to be evaluated or debugged by online communities. The results will be more personal, robust and error-free products created in a short amount of time and costs. New ideas can also be generated and explored by collaboration of online communities creating opportunities for free R&D outside the confines of the company.[41]
Talent utilization
At the rate technology is changing, no firm can fully keep up in the innovations needed to compete. Instead, smart firms are drawing on the power of mass collaboration to involve participation of the people they could not employ. This also helps generate continual interest in the firm in the form of those drawn to new idea creation as well as investment opportunities.
Demand creation
Firms can create a new market for complementary goods by engaging in open source community. Firms also are able to expand into new fields that they previously would not have been able to without the addition of resources and collaboration from the community. This creates, as mentioned before, a new market for complementary goods for the products in said new fields.
Costs reduction
Mass collaboration can help to reduce costs dramatically. Firms can release a specific software or product to be evaluated or debugged by online communities. The results will be more personal, robust and error-free products created in a short amount of time and costs. New ideas can also be generated and explored by collaboration of online communities creating opportunities for free R&D outside the confines of the company.

人才利用: 按照技术变化的速度,没有一家公司能够完全跟上竞争所需的创新。相反,聪明的公司正在利用大规模合作的力量,让那些他们无法雇用的人参与进来。这也有助于产生持续的兴趣,在公司的形式,吸引到新的想法创造以及投资机会。需求创造: 公司可以通过参与开源社区为补充商品创造一个新的市场。企业也能够扩展到新的领域,如果没有来自社区的资源和合作,它们以前无法扩展到这些领域。如前所述,这为上述新领域的产品创造了一个新的补充商品市场。降低成本: 大规模合作可以帮助大幅降低成本。公司可以发布一个特定的软件或产品,由在线社区进行评估或调试。结果将是更加个性化,健壮和无错误的产品创建在短时间内和成本。通过在线社区的合作,也可以产生和探索新的想法,为公司之外的免费研发创造机会。

Open source software

Cultural theorist and online community developer, John Banks considered the contribution of online fan communities in the creation of the Trainz product. He argued that its commercial success was fundamentally dependent upon "the formation and growth of an active and vibrant online fan community that would both actively promote the product and create content- extensions and additions to the game software".[145]

Cultural theorist and online community developer, John Banks considered the contribution of online fan communities in the creation of the Trainz product. He argued that its commercial success was fundamentally dependent upon "the formation and growth of an active and vibrant online fan community that would both actively promote the product and create content- extensions and additions to the game software".John A.L. Banks. Negotiating Participatory Culture in the New Media Environment: Auran and the Trainz Online Community – An (Im)possible Relation, The University of Queensland. School of English, Media Studies and Art History. MelbourneDAC2003

作为文化理论家和在线社区开发者,约翰 · 班克斯考虑了在线粉丝社区对 Trainz 产品创造的贡献。他认为,其商业成功从根本上取决于“一个活跃而充满活力的在线粉丝社区的形成和发展,这个社区将积极推广该产品,并为游戏软件提供内容扩展和附加功能”。约翰 · a · l。银行。在新媒体环境下谈判参与式文化: Auran 和 Trainz 在线社区-可能的关系,昆士兰大学。英语、媒体研究与艺术史学院。墨尔本2003

The increase in user created content and interactivity gives rise to issues of control over the game itself and ownership of the player-created content. This gives rise to fundamental legal issues, highlighted by Lessig[146] and Bray and Konsynski,[147] such as intellectual property and property ownership rights.

The increase in user created content and interactivity gives rise to issues of control over the game itself and ownership of the player-created content. This gives rise to fundamental legal issues, highlighted by LessigL, Lessig,(2006)Code Version 2.0 (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books. and Bray and Konsynski,Bray, DA & Konsynski, BR, 2007, Virtual Worlds, Virtual Economies, Virtual Institutions, viewed 10 October 2008, p. 1-27 <http://ssrn.com/abstract=962501> such as intellectual property and property ownership rights.

用户创建的内容和交互性的增加引起了对游戏本身的控制和玩家创建的内容的所有权问题。这引起了一些基本的法律问题,lesigl,Lessig,(2006) Code Version 2.0(第2版)强调了这一点。纽约: 基础书籍。和 Bray and Konsynski,Bray,DA & Konsynski,BR,2007,Virtual Worlds,Virtual Economies,Virtual Institutions,viewed 10 October 102008,p. 1-27 </o > 如知识产权和 http://ssrn.com/abstract=962501所有权。

Gosney extends this issue of Collective Intelligence in videogames one step further in his discussion of alternate reality gaming. This genre, he describes as an "across-media game that deliberately blurs the line between the in-game and out-of-game experiences"[148] as events that happen outside the game reality "reach out" into the player's lives in order to bring them together. Solving the game requires "the collective and collaborative efforts of multiple players"; thus the issue of collective and collaborative team play is essential to ARG. Gosney argues that the Alternate Reality genre of gaming dictates an unprecedented level of collaboration and "collective intelligence" in order to solve the mystery of the game.[148]

Gosney extends this issue of Collective Intelligence in videogames one step further in his discussion of alternate reality gaming. This genre, he describes as an "across-media game that deliberately blurs the line between the in-game and out-of-game experiences"Gosney, J.W, 2005, Beyond Reality: A Guide to Alternate Reality Gaming, Thomson Course Technology, Boston. as events that happen outside the game reality "reach out" into the player's lives in order to bring them together. Solving the game requires "the collective and collaborative efforts of multiple players"; thus the issue of collective and collaborative team play is essential to ARG. Gosney argues that the Alternate Reality genre of gaming dictates an unprecedented level of collaboration and "collective intelligence" in order to solve the mystery of the game.

在讨论交替现实游戏时,戈斯尼将集体智慧这个问题在电子游戏中进一步扩展。他将这种游戏形容为“一种跨媒体的游戏,故意模糊了游戏内外体验之间的界限”。作为游戏之外的事件发生的现实“接触”到玩家的生活,以使他们走到一起。解决这个游戏需要“多个参与者的集体和协作努力”,因此集体和协作的团队游戏问题对 ARG 来说是必不可少的。戈斯尼认为,虚拟现实游戏的类型决定了前所未有的合作水平和“集体智慧”,以解决游戏的神秘性。

Benefits of co-operation

Co-operation helps to solve most important and most interesting multi-science problems. In his book, James Surowiecki mentioned that most scientists think that benefits of co-operation have much more value when compared to potential costs. Co-operation works also because at best it guarantees number of different viewpoints. Because of the possibilities of technology global co-operation is nowadays much easier and productive than before. It is clear that, when co-operation goes from university level to global it has significant benefits.

Co-operation helps to solve most important and most interesting multi-science problems. In his book, James Surowiecki mentioned that most scientists think that benefits of co-operation have much more value when compared to potential costs. Co-operation works also because at best it guarantees number of different viewpoints. Because of the possibilities of technology global co-operation is nowadays much easier and productive than before. It is clear that, when co-operation goes from university level to global it has significant benefits.

合作有助于解决最重要和最有趣的多学科问题。詹姆斯•索罗维茨基(James Surowiecki)在他的书中提到,大多数科学家认为,与潜在成本相比,合作的好处更有价值。合作之所以奏效,还因为它充其量只能保证不同观点的数量。由于技术的可能性,全球合作现在比以前更加容易和富有成效。很明显,当合作从大学层面进入全球层面时,它会带来显著的好处。

For example, why do scientists co-operate? Science has become more and more isolated and each science field has spread even more and it is impossible for one person to be aware of all developments. This is true especially in experimental research where highly advanced equipment requires special skills. With co-operation scientists can use information from different fields and use it effectively instead of gathering all the information just by reading by themselves."[115]模板:Full citation needed

For example, why do scientists co-operate? Science has become more and more isolated and each science field has spread even more and it is impossible for one person to be aware of all developments. This is true especially in experimental research where highly advanced equipment requires special skills. With co-operation scientists can use information from different fields and use it effectively instead of gathering all the information just by reading by themselves."Surowiecki, J., 2007 'The Wisdom of crowds. Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few'

例如,为什么科学家要合作?科学已经变得越来越孤立,每一个科学领域已经蔓延得更多,一个人不可能意识到所有的发展。这是真的,特别是在实验研究中,高度先进的设备需要特殊的技能。通过合作,科学家可以有效地利用不同领域的信息,而不仅仅是通过自己阅读来收集所有的信息。“ Surowiecki,j. ,2007‘ The Wisdom of crowds。为什么多数人比少数人聪明

Coordination

Ad-hoc communities

Military, trade unions, and corporations satisfy some definitions of CI – the most rigorous definition would require a capacity to respond to very arbitrary conditions without orders or guidance from "law" or "customers" to constrain actions. Online advertising companies are using collective intelligence to bypass traditional marketing and creative agencies.[149]

Military, trade unions, and corporations satisfy some definitions of CI – the most rigorous definition would require a capacity to respond to very arbitrary conditions without orders or guidance from "law" or "customers" to constrain actions. Online advertising companies are using collective intelligence to bypass traditional marketing and creative agencies.Lee, Sang M., et al. "Success factors of platform leadership in web 2.0 service business." Service Business 4.2 (2010): 89–103.

军事、工会和公司满足 CI 的某些定义——最严格的定义要求有能力对非常武断的条件作出反应,而不需要”法律”或”客户”的命令或指导来约束行动。在线广告公司正在利用集体智慧来绕过传统的市场营销和创意机构。“ web2.0服务业平台领导力的成功因素。”服务业4.2(2010) : 89-103。

The UNU open platform for "human swarming" (or "social swarming") establishes real-time closed-loop systems around groups of networked users molded after biological swarms, enabling human participants to behave as a unified collective intelligence.[150][151] When connected to UNU, groups of distributed users collectively answer questions and make predictions in real-time.[152] Early testing shows that human swarms can out-predict individuals.[150] In 2016, an UNU swarm was challenged by a reporter to predict the winners of the Kentucky Derby, and successfully picked the first four horses, in order, beating 540 to 1 odds.[153][154]

The UNU open platform for "human swarming" (or "social swarming") establishes real-time closed-loop systems around groups of networked users molded after biological swarms, enabling human participants to behave as a unified collective intelligence. When connected to UNU, groups of distributed users collectively answer questions and make predictions in real-time.Rosenberg, L.B., "Human swarming, a real-time method for parallel distributed intelligence," in Swarm/Human Blended Intelligence Workshop (SHBI), 2015, vol., no., pp.1–7, 28–29 Sept. 2015 doi: 10.1109/SHBI.2015.7321685 Early testing shows that human swarms can out-predict individuals. In 2016, an UNU swarm was challenged by a reporter to predict the winners of the Kentucky Derby, and successfully picked the first four horses, in order, beating 540 to 1 odds.

联合国大学用于”人类群集”(或”社会群集”)的开放平台在生物群集后形成的网络用户群周围建立了实时闭环系统,使人类参与者能够作为一个统一的集体智慧行事。当连接到联合国大学时,分布式用户组集体回答问题并实时作出预测。人类群集,一种并行分布式智能的实时方法”,载于《群/人混合智能工作室》 ,2015年,第1-7页,28-292015年9月,doi: 10.1109/SHBI. 2015.7321685早期测试表明,人类群集能够超越个体。2016年,联合国大学的一群马受到记者的挑战,预测肯塔基赛马会的胜利者,并成功挑选了前四匹马,击败了540比1的赔率。

Specialized information sites such as Digital Photography Review[155] or Camera Labs[156] is an example of collective intelligence. Anyone who has an access to the internet can contribute to distributing their knowledge over the world through the specialized information sites.

Specialized information sites such as Digital Photography Review or Camera Labs is an example of collective intelligence. Anyone who has an access to the internet can contribute to distributing their knowledge over the world through the specialized information sites.

专门的信息网站如数码摄影评论或相机实验室就是集体智慧的一个例子。任何能够上网的人都可以通过专门的信息网站在全世界传播他们的知识。

In learner-generated context a group of users marshal resources to create an ecology that meets their needs often (but not only) in relation to the co-configuration, co-creation and co-design of a particular learning space that allows learners to create their own context.[157][158][159] Learner-generated contexts represent an ad hoc community that facilitates coordination of collective action in a network of trust. An example of learner-generated context is found on the Internet when collaborative users pool knowledge in a "shared intelligence space". As the Internet has developed so has the concept of CI as a shared public forum. The global accessibility and availability of the Internet has allowed more people than ever to contribute and access ideas.模板:Sfn

In learner-generated context a group of users marshal resources to create an ecology that meets their needs often (but not only) in relation to the co-configuration, co-creation and co-design of a particular learning space that allows learners to create their own context.Luckin, R., du Boulay, B., Smith, H., Underwood, J., Fitzpatrick, G., Holmberg, J., Kerawalla, L., Tunley, H., Brewster, D. and Pearce, D. (2005), 'Using Mobile Technology to Create Flexible Learning Contexts '. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 22.Luckin, R. (2006), Understanding Learning Contexts as Ecologies of Resources: From the Zone of Proximal Development to Learner Generated Contexts. Paper presented at the Proceedings of World Conference on Elearning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education 2006.Luckin, R., Shurville, S. and Browne, T. (2007), 'Initiating e-learning by stealth, participation and consultation in a late majority institution '. Journal of Organisational Transformation and Social Change, 3 (3), 317–332. Learner-generated contexts represent an ad hoc community that facilitates coordination of collective action in a network of trust. An example of learner-generated context is found on the Internet when collaborative users pool knowledge in a "shared intelligence space". As the Internet has developed so has the concept of CI as a shared public forum. The global accessibility and availability of the Internet has allowed more people than ever to contribute and access ideas.

在学习者生成的环境中,一组用户调动资源创建一个生态系统,这个生态系统经常(但不仅仅是)满足学习者的需要,并且在特定的学习空间中进行共同配置、共同创造和共同设计,使学习者能够创建自己的环境。利用移动技术创造灵活的学习环境》(Using Mobile Technology to Create Flexible Learning context) ,。教育互动媒体杂志,22。理解作为资源生态的学习环境: 从近侧发展区间到学习者生成的环境。在2006年企业、政府、医疗保健和高等教育的电子学习世界会议论文集上发表的论文。Shurville,s. and Browne,t. (2007) ,‘通过秘密、参与和咨询在后期多数院校开始电子学习’。《组织变革与社会变革杂志》 ,3(3) ,317-332。学习者产生的环境代表了一个特殊的社区,促进了信任网络中集体行动的协调。在互联网上发现了一个学习者生成上下文的例子,即协作用户在”共享的智力空间”中汇集知识。随着互联网的发展,CI 作为一个共享的公共论坛的概念也随之产生。互联网的全球可及性和可用性使得比以往任何时候都更多的人能够贡献和获得想法。

Games such as The Sims Series, and Second Life are designed to be non-linear and to depend on collective intelligence for expansion. This way of sharing is gradually evolving and influencing the mindset of the current and future generations.[128] For them, collective intelligence has become a norm. In Terry Flew's discussion of 'interactivity' in the online games environment, the ongoing interactive dialogue between users and game developers,[160] he refers to Pierre Lévy's concept of Collective Intelligence 模板:Harv and argues this is active in videogames as clans or guilds in MMORPG constantly work to achieve goals. Henry Jenkins proposes that the participatory cultures emerging between games producers, media companies, and the end-users mark a fundamental shift in the nature of media production and consumption. Jenkins argues that this new participatory culture arises at the intersection of three broad new media trends.[161] Firstly, the development of new media tools/technologies enabling the creation of content. Secondly, the rise of subcultures promoting such creations, and lastly, the growth of value adding media conglomerates, which foster image, idea and narrative flow.

Games such as The Sims Series, and Second Life are designed to be non-linear and to depend on collective intelligence for expansion. This way of sharing is gradually evolving and influencing the mindset of the current and future generations. For them, collective intelligence has become a norm. In Terry Flew's discussion of 'interactivity' in the online games environment, the ongoing interactive dialogue between users and game developers,Flew, Terry and Humphreys, Sal (2005) "Games: Technology, Industry, Culture" in Terry Flew, New Media: An Introduction (2nd edn), Oxford University Press, South Melbourne 101–114. he refers to Pierre Lévy's concept of Collective Intelligence and argues this is active in videogames as clans or guilds in MMORPG constantly work to achieve goals. Henry Jenkins proposes that the participatory cultures emerging between games producers, media companies, and the end-users mark a fundamental shift in the nature of media production and consumption. Jenkins argues that this new participatory culture arises at the intersection of three broad new media trends.Henry Jenkins (2002) in Flew, Terry and Humphreys, Sal (2005) Games: Technology, Industry, Culture in Terry Flew, New Media: An Introduction (2nd edn), Oxford University Press, South Melbourne 101–114. Firstly, the development of new media tools/technologies enabling the creation of content. Secondly, the rise of subcultures promoting such creations, and lastly, the growth of value adding media conglomerates, which foster image, idea and narrative flow.

像模拟人生系列和第二人生这样的游戏被设计成非线性的,依靠集体智慧来扩展。这种分享方式正在逐渐演变,并影响着今世后代的心态。对他们来说,集体智慧已经成为一种常态。在 Terry Flew 关于在线游戏环境中“交互性”的讨论中,用户和游戏开发者之间正在进行的互动对话,Flew,Terry and Humphreys,Sal (2005)“ Games: Technology,Industry,Culture”在 Terry Flew,New Media: An Introduction (nd edn) ,Oxford University Press,South Melbourne 101-114中。他引用了 Pierre Lévy 的集体智慧的概念,并认为这在电子游戏中非常活跃,因为 MMORPG 中的部族或行会不断努力实现目标。亨利 · 詹金斯提出,游戏制作者、媒体公司和最终用户之间出现的参与性文化标志着媒体生产和消费性质的根本性转变。詹金斯认为,这种新的参与式文化产生于三大新媒体趋势的交汇点。亨利 · 詹金斯(2002) ,《弗洛伊德,特里和汉弗莱斯,萨尔(2005)游戏: 特里弗洛伊德的技术,工业,文化》 ,《新媒体: 介绍(第二版)》 ,牛津大学出版社,南墨尔本101-114。首先,开发新媒体工具/技术,使内容创作成为可能。其次,亚文化的兴起促进了这种创造,最后,传媒集团的价值增长,促进了形象、观念和叙事流程的形成。

Coordinating collective actions

 
The cast of After School Improv learns an important lesson about improvisation and life

Improvisational actors also experience a type of collective intelligence which they term "group mind", as theatrical improvisation relies on mutual cooperation and agreement,[162] leading to the unity of "group mind".[162][163]

thumb|The cast of After School Improv learns an important lesson about improvisation and life Improvisational actors also experience a type of collective intelligence which they term "group mind", as theatrical improvisation relies on mutual cooperation and agreement, leading to the unity of "group mind".

课后即兴表演的演员们学到了一堂关于即兴表演和生活的重要课程,即兴表演的演员们也体验到一种他们称之为“群体思维”的集体智慧,因为戏剧性的即兴表演依赖于相互合作和协议,从而导致“群体思维”的统一。

Growth of the Internet and mobile telecom has also produced "swarming" or "rendezvous" events that enable meetings or even dates on demand.[25] The full impact has yet to be felt but the anti-globalization movement, for example, relies heavily on e-mail, cell phones, pagers, SMS and other means of organizing.[164] The Indymedia organization does this in a more journalistic way.[165] Such resources could combine into a form of collective intelligence accountable only to the current participants yet with some strong moral or linguistic guidance from generations of contributors – or even take on a more obviously democratic form to advance shared goal.[165]

Growth of the Internet and mobile telecom has also produced "swarming" or "rendezvous" events that enable meetings or even dates on demand. The full impact has yet to be felt but the anti-globalization movement, for example, relies heavily on e-mail, cell phones, pagers, SMS and other means of organizing. The Indymedia organization does this in a more journalistic way. Such resources could combine into a form of collective intelligence accountable only to the current participants yet with some strong moral or linguistic guidance from generations of contributors – or even take on a more obviously democratic form to advance shared goal.

互联网和移动电信的发展也产生了”蜂拥”或”汇合”活动,使会议甚至日期按需而定。全面的影响还没有显现出来,但是举例来说,反全球化运动电子邮件,手机,寻呼机,短信和其他组织方式的依赖程度很高。印第媒体以一种更新闻化的方式做到了这一点。这种资源可以结合成一种只对当前参与者负责的集体智慧形式,再加上几代捐助者提供的一些强有力的道德或语言指导,或者甚至采取一种更明显的民主形式来推进共同目标。

A further application of collective intelligence is found in the "Community Engineering for Innovations".[166] In such an integrated framework proposed by Ebner et al., idea competitions and virtual communities are combined to better realize the potential of the collective intelligence of the participants, particularly in open-source R&D.[167] In management theory the use of collective intelligence and crowd sourcing leads to innovations and very robust answers to quantitative issues.[168] Therefore, collective intelligence and crowd sourcing is not necessaryly leading to the best solution to economic problems, but to a stable, good solution.

A further application of collective intelligence is found in the "Community Engineering for Innovations".Jan Marco Leimeister, Michael Huber, Ulrich Bretschneider, Helmut Krcmar (2009): Leveraging Crowdsourcing: Activation-Supporting Components for IT-Based Ideas Competition. In: Journal of Management Information Systems (2009), Volume: 26, Issue: 1, Publisher: M.E. Sharpe Inc., Pages: 197–224, , , Winfried Ebner; Jan Marco Leimeister; Helmut Krcmar (2009): Community Engineering for Innovations – The Ideas Competition as a method to nurture a Virtual Community for Innovations. In: R&D Management, 39 (4), pp 342–356 In such an integrated framework proposed by Ebner et al., idea competitions and virtual communities are combined to better realize the potential of the collective intelligence of the participants, particularly in open-source R&D. In management theory the use of collective intelligence and crowd sourcing leads to innovations and very robust answers to quantitative issues. Therefore, collective intelligence and crowd sourcing is not necessaryly leading to the best solution to economic problems, but to a stable, good solution.

集体智慧的进一步应用可以在“创新社区工程”中找到。Jan Marco Leimeister,Michael Huber,Ulrich Bretschneider,Helmut Krcmar (2009) : 撬动众包: 激活支持组件为基于信息技术的创意竞赛。在: 管理信息系统期刊(2009) ,卷: 26,期刊: 1,出版商: 法医。Sharpe inc. ,Pages: 197-224,,,Winfried Ebner; Jan Marco Leimeister; Helmut Krcmar (2009) : 社区工程促进创新——以创意竞赛作为培育创新虚拟社区的方法。在: r & d Management,39(4) ,pp 342-356由 Ebner 等人提出的这样一个集成框架中,创意竞争和虚拟社区被结合起来,以更好地实现参与者集体智慧的潜力,特别是在开放源代码的 r & d 中。在管理理论中,集体智慧和群体外包的使用导致了创新和对量化问题非常有力的答案。因此,集体智慧和众包并不是解决经济问题的最佳方案,而是一个稳定、良好的解决方案。

Coordination in different types of tasks

Collective actions or tasks require different amounts of coordination depending on the complexity of the task. Tasks vary from being highly independent simple tasks that require very little coordination to complex interdependent tasks that are built by many individuals and require a lot of coordination. In the article written by Kittur, Lee and Kraut the writers introduce a problem in cooperation: "When tasks require high coordination because the work is highly interdependent, having more contributors can increase process losses, reducing the effectiveness of the group below what individual members could optimally accomplish". Having a team too large the overall effectiveness may suffer even when the extra contributors increase the resources. In the end the overall costs from coordination might overwhelm other costs.[169]

Collective actions or tasks require different amounts of coordination depending on the complexity of the task. Tasks vary from being highly independent simple tasks that require very little coordination to complex interdependent tasks that are built by many individuals and require a lot of coordination. In the article written by Kittur, Lee and Kraut the writers introduce a problem in cooperation: "When tasks require high coordination because the work is highly interdependent, having more contributors can increase process losses, reducing the effectiveness of the group below what individual members could optimally accomplish". Having a team too large the overall effectiveness may suffer even when the extra contributors increase the resources. In the end the overall costs from coordination might overwhelm other costs.Kittur, A., Lee, B. and Kraut, R. E. (2009) 'Coordination in collective intelligence: The role of team structure and task interdependence', Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, pp. 1495–1504.

集体行动或任务需要不同程度的协调,这取决于任务的复杂程度。任务从高度独立的简单任务到复杂的相互依赖的任务,这些任务是由许多个人构建的,需要大量的协调。在 Kittur、 Lee 和 Kraut 撰写的文章中,作者介绍了合作中的一个问题:”当任务需要高度协调,因为工作是高度相互依赖的,有更多的贡献者可能会增加流程损失,降低团队的效率,低于个人成员可以最佳完成的水平”。即使额外的捐助者增加了资源,如果团队过于庞大,整体效率可能会受到影响。最后,协调的总成本可能会超过其他成本。“集体智慧中的协调: 团队结构和任务相互依赖的作用”,计算机系统中的人为因素会议论文集,页。1495–1504.

Group collective intelligence is a property that emerges through coordination from both bottom-up and top-down processes. In a bottom-up process the different characteristics of each member are involved in contributing and enhancing coordination. Top-down processes are more strict and fixed with norms, group structures and routines that in their own way enhance the group's collective work.[170]

Group collective intelligence is a property that emerges through coordination from both bottom-up and top-down processes. In a bottom-up process the different characteristics of each member are involved in contributing and enhancing coordination. Top-down processes are more strict and fixed with norms, group structures and routines that in their own way enhance the group's collective work.[18] Woolley, A. W., Aggarwal, I. and Malone, T. W. (2015) 'Collective Intelligence and Group Performance', Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24(6), pp. 420–424.

群体集体智慧是通过自下而上和自上而下过程的协调而产生的一种属性。在自下而上的过程中,每个成员的不同特点都参与促进和加强协调。自上而下的程序更加严格,并且有规范、群体结构和例行程序,以自己的方式加强了群体的集体工作。[18] Woolley,A.w. ,Aggarwal,i. and Malone,T.w. (2015)‘ Collective Intelligence and Group Performance’,Current Directions I. Psychological Science,24(6) ,pp。420–424.

Alternative views

A tool for combating self-preservation

A tool for combating self-preservation

= = 打击自我保存的工具 =

Tom Atlee reflects that, although humans have an innate ability to gather and analyze data, they are affected by culture, education and social institutions.[171]模板:Self-published inline A single person tends to make decisions motivated by self-preservation. Therefore, without collective intelligence, humans may drive themselves into extinction based on their selfish needs.[39]

Tom Atlee reflects that, although humans have an innate ability to gather and analyze data, they are affected by culture, education and social institutions. A single person tends to make decisions motivated by self-preservation. Therefore, without collective intelligence, humans may drive themselves into extinction based on their selfish needs.Atlee, T. (2008). Reflections on the evolution of choice and collective intelligence , Retrieved 26 August 2008

汤姆 · 阿特利认为,虽然人类天生就有收集和分析数据的能力,但是他们受到文化、教育和社会制度的影响。一个人倾向于做出由自我保存驱动的决定。因此,如果没有集体智慧,人类可能会因为自私的需要而将自己逼入灭绝的境地。关于选择和集体智慧的演变的思考,检索于2008年8月26日

Separation from IQism

Phillip Brown and Hugh Lauder quotes Bowles and Gintis (1976) that in order to truly define collective intelligence, it is crucial to separate 'intelligence' from IQism.[172] They go on to argue that intelligence is an achievement and can only be developed if allowed to.[172] For example, earlier on, groups from the lower levels of society are severely restricted from aggregating and pooling their intelligence. This is because the elites fear that the collective intelligence would convince the people to rebel. If there is no such capacity and relations, there would be no infrastructure on which collective intelligence is built.模板:Sfn This reflects how powerful collective intelligence can be if left to develop.[172]

Phillip Brown and Hugh Lauder quotes Bowles and Gintis (1976) that in order to truly define collective intelligence, it is crucial to separate 'intelligence' from IQism. They go on to argue that intelligence is an achievement and can only be developed if allowed to. For example, earlier on, groups from the lower levels of society are severely restricted from aggregating and pooling their intelligence. This is because the elites fear that the collective intelligence would convince the people to rebel. If there is no such capacity and relations, there would be no infrastructure on which collective intelligence is built. This reflects how powerful collective intelligence can be if left to develop.

菲利普 · 布朗和休 · 兰黛引用鲍尔斯和金蒂斯(1976)的话说,为了真正定义集体智慧,将“智慧”与智商分开是至关重要的。他们继续争辩说,智力是一种成就,只有在被允许的情况下才能得到发展。例如,早些时候,来自社会底层的群体在聚集和汇集他们的智力方面受到严格限制。这是因为精英们害怕集体智慧会说服人民起来反抗。如果没有这种能力和关系,就不会有建立集体智慧的基础设施。这反映了如果任其发展,集体智慧是多么强大。

Artificial intelligence views

Skeptics, especially those critical of artificial intelligence and more inclined to believe that risk of bodily harm and bodily action are the basis of all unity between people, are more likely to emphasize the capacity of a group to take action and withstand harm as one fluid mass mobilization, shrugging off harms the way a body shrugs off the loss of a few cells.[173][174] This train of thought is most obvious in the anti-globalization movement and characterized by the works of John Zerzan, Carol Moore, and Starhawk, who typically shun academics.[173][174] These theorists are more likely to refer to ecological and collective wisdom and to the role of consensus process in making ontological distinctions than to any form of "intelligence" as such, which they often argue does not exist, or is mere "cleverness".[173][174]

Skeptics, especially those critical of artificial intelligence and more inclined to believe that risk of bodily harm and bodily action are the basis of all unity between people, are more likely to emphasize the capacity of a group to take action and withstand harm as one fluid mass mobilization, shrugging off harms the way a body shrugs off the loss of a few cells. This train of thought is most obvious in the anti-globalization movement and characterized by the works of John Zerzan, Carol Moore, and Starhawk, who typically shun academics. These theorists are more likely to refer to ecological and collective wisdom and to the role of consensus process in making ontological distinctions than to any form of "intelligence" as such, which they often argue does not exist, or is mere "cleverness".

怀疑论者,尤其是那些批评人工智能的人,更倾向于相信身体伤害和身体行为的风险是人与人之间所有团结的基础,更可能强调一个群体采取行动和承受伤害的能力,就像一个体液政治动员一样,无视身体对少数细胞损失的危害。这种思路在反全球化运动和拥有属性的 John Zerzan,Carol Moore 和 Starhawk 的著作中最为明显,他们通常回避学者。这些理论家更可能提到生态和集体智慧以及协商一致进程在作出本体论区分方面的作用,而不是任何形式的”智慧”本身,因为他们常常认为这种智慧并不存在,或者仅仅是”聪明”。

Harsh critics of artificial intelligence on ethical grounds are likely to promote collective wisdom-building methods, such as the new tribalists and the Gaians.[175] Whether these can be said to be collective intelligence systems is an open question. Some, e.g. Bill Joy, simply wish to avoid any form of autonomous artificial intelligence and seem willing to work on rigorous collective intelligence in order to remove any possible niche for AI.[176]

Harsh critics of artificial intelligence on ethical grounds are likely to promote collective wisdom-building methods, such as the new tribalists and the Gaians. Whether these can be said to be collective intelligence systems is an open question. Some, e.g. Bill Joy, simply wish to avoid any form of autonomous artificial intelligence and seem willing to work on rigorous collective intelligence in order to remove any possible niche for AI.

基于道德理由对人工智能的严厉批评可能会促进集体智慧建设方法的发展,比如新部落主义者和盖亚人。这些是否可以说是集体智慧系统还是一个悬而未决的问题。有些,例如。比尔 · 乔伊只是希望避免任何形式的自主人工智能,并且似乎愿意致力于严格的集体智能,以便为人工智能去除任何可能的利基。

In contrast to these views, companies such as Amazon Mechanical Turk and CrowdFlower are using collective intelligence and crowdsourcing or consensus-based assessment to collect the enormous amounts of data for machine learning algorithms.

In contrast to these views, companies such as Amazon Mechanical Turk and CrowdFlower are using collective intelligence and crowdsourcing or consensus-based assessment to collect the enormous amounts of data for machine learning algorithms.

与这些观点相反,亚马逊土耳其机器人(Amazon Mechanical Turk)和 CrowdFlower 等公司正在利用集体智慧、众包或基于共识的评估,为机器学习算法收集大量数据。

Solving climate change

Global collective intelligence is seen as the key in solving the challenges humankind faces now and in the future. Climate change is an example of a global issue which collective intelligence is currently trying to tackle. With the help of collective intelligence applications such as online crowdsourcing, people across the globe are collaborating in developing solutions to climate change.[177]

Global collective intelligence is seen as the key in solving the challenges humankind faces now and in the future. Climate change is an example of a global issue which collective intelligence is currently trying to tackle. With the help of collective intelligence applications such as online crowdsourcing, people across the globe are collaborating in developing solutions to climate change.

全球集体智慧被视为解决人类现在和未来面临的挑战的关键。气候变化是集体智慧目前正在努力解决的一个全球性问题的一个例子。在诸如在线众包等集体智慧应用的帮助下,全球各地的人们正在合作开发应对气候变化的解决方案。

See also

Similar concepts and applications

  • Citizen science
  • Civic intelligence
  • Collaborative filtering
  • Collaborative innovation network
  • Collective decision-making
  • Collective effervescence
  • Collective memory
  • Collective problem solving
  • Crowd psychology
  • Global Consciousness Project
  • Group behaviour
  • Group mind (science fiction)
  • Knowledge ecosystem
  • Open source intelligence
  • Recommendation system
  • Smart mob
  • Social commerce
  • Social information processing
  • Stigmergy
  • Syntality
  • The Wisdom of Crowds
  • Think tank
  • Wiki


  • 公民科学
  • 公民智慧
  • 协同过滤
  • 合作创新网络
  • 集体兴奋
  • 集体决策
  • 集体记忆
  • 集体问题解决
  • 群体心理学
  • 全球意识项目
  • 群体行为
  • 群体智慧(科幻小说)
  • 知识生态系统
  • 开源智能
  • 推荐系统
  • 智能群体
  • 社会商务
  • 社会信息处理
  • 时尚
  • 群体智慧
  • 集体兴奋
  • 群体智慧
  • 智囊团
  • Wiki

Computation and computer science

  • Bees algorithm
  • Cellular automaton
  • Collaborative human interpreter
  • Collaborative software
  • Connectivity (graph theory)
  • Enterprise bookmarking
  • Human-based computation
  • Open-source software
  • Organismic computing
  • Preference elicitation


  • Bees 算法
  • 细胞自动机
  • 协同人力翻译
  • 协作软件
  • 连通性(图论)
  • 企业书签
  • 人类计算
  • 开源软件
  • 有机计算
  • 偏好启发

Others

  • Customer engagement
  • Dispersed knowledge
  • Distributed cognition
  • Facilitation (business)
  • Facilitator
  • Hundredth monkey effect
  • Keeping up with the Joneses
  • Library
  • Library of Alexandria
  • Meme
  • Open-space meeting


  • 客户参与
  • 分散知识
  • 分布式认知
  • 促进(商业)
  • 主持人
  • 第一百次猴子效应
  • 间谍大邻演
  • 图书馆
  • 亚历山大图书馆
  • 开放空间会议

References

模板:Reflist

Works cited


Further reading

模板:Refbegin

模板:Refend


  • CIA. (2008). The World Factbook. (accessed 3 September 2008)
  • Leiner, Barry, Cerf, Vinton, Clark, David, Kahn, Robert, Kleinrock, Leonard, Lynch, Daniel, Postel, Jon, Roberts, Larry and Wolff, Stephen. 2003. A Brief History of the Internet. Version 3.32 (accessed 3 September 2008)
  • Noubel, Jean-François; (2004, rev. 2007), "Collective Intelligence: the Invisible Revolution"
  • Rosenberg, L. (2015). Human Swarms, a real time method for Collective Intelligence. Proceedings of the European Conference on Artificial Life (ECAL 2015), pp. 658–659.
  • Stephen R. Diasio, Nuria Agell, "The evolution of expertise in decision support technologies: A challenge for organizations," cscwd, pp. 692–697, 2009 13th International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design, 2009. https://web.archive.org/web/20121009235747/http://www.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/doi/10.1109/CSCWD.2009.4968139
  • Kaiser, C., Kröckel, J., Bodendorf, F. (2010). Swarm Intelligence for Analyzing Opinions in Online Communities. Proceedings of the 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 1–9.



External links

模板:Library resources box

  • Blog of Collective Intelligence
  • GFIS – Global Futures Intelligence System
  • CIRI – the Collective Intelligence Research Institute – a R&D non-profit organization on collective intelligence
  • An application of Collective Intelligence for the Global Climate Change Situation Room designed and implemented by The Millennium Project in Gimcheon, South Korea in 2009.
  • MIT Handbook of Collective Intelligence
  • Cultivating Society's Civic Intelligence Doug Schuler Journal of Society, Information and Communication, vol 4 No. 2.
  • Jennifer H. Watkins (2007). Prediction Markets as an Aggregation Mechanism for Collective Intelligence Los Alamos National Laboratory article on Collective Intelligence
  • Hideyasu Sasaki (2010). International Journal of Organizational and Collective Intelligence (IJOCI), vol 1 No. 1.
  • Olivier Zara, Managing Collective Intelligence, Toward a New Corporate Governance, Axiopole editions, 2004
  • The collective intelligence framework, open-source framework for leveraging collective intelligence
  • Raimund Minichbauer (2012). Fragmented Collectives. On the Politics of "Collective Intelligence" in Electronic Networks, transversal 01 12, 'unsettling knowledges'


  • 集体智慧博客
  • GFIS-全球未来智慧系统
  • CIRI-集体智慧研究所-集体智慧研发非营利组织
  • 集体智慧应用于全球气候变化情况室,由金泉千禧计划于2009年设计和实施。
  • 麻省理工学院集体智慧手册
  • 培养社会公民智慧道格 · 舒勒社会、信息与通信杂志,第4卷第1期。2.
  • Jennifer h. Watkins (2007).预测市场作为集体智慧的聚合机制洛斯阿拉莫斯国家实验室文章集体智慧
  • Hideyasu Sasaki (2010)。国际组织和集体智慧杂志,第1卷第1期。1.
  • Olivier Zara,Managing Collective Intelligence,towards a New Corporate Governance,Axiopole editions,2004
  • The Collective Intelligence framework,open-source framework for leveraged Collective Intelligence
  • Raimund Minichbauer (2012).支离破碎的集体。论电子网络中的“集体智慧”政治,横向0112,“令人不安的知识”

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Category:Artificial intelligence Category:Multi-robot systems

类别: 人工智能类别: 多机器人系统


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Collective intelligence. Its edit history can be viewed at 群体智能/edithistory