自创生理论

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文件:3D-SIM-4 Anaphase 3 color.jpg
3D representation of a living cell during the process of mitosis, example of an autopoietic system

3D representation of a living cell during the process of mitosis, example of an autopoietic system

【图1:3D representation of a living cell during the process of mitosis, example of an autopoietic system 3D形式的有丝分裂过程中的活细胞——自创生系统的示例】


The term autopoiesis (模板:Ety) refers to a system capable of reproducing and maintaining itself.

The term autopoiesis refers to a system capable of reproducing and maintaining itself.

“自创生”是指一个能够自我繁殖和维持的系统。

The original definition can be found in Autopoiesis and Cognition: The Realization of the Living (1st edition 1973, 2nd 1980):[1]

The original definition can be found in “Autopoiesis and Cognition: The Realization of the Living” (1st edition 1973, 2nd 1980):

最初的定义可以在《自创生和认知:生命的实现》(1973年第1版,1980年第2版)中找到:

Page 16: It was in these circumstances ... in which he analyzed Don Quixote's dilemma of whether to follow the path of arms (praxis, action) or the path of letters (poiesis, creation, production), I understood for the first time the power of the word "poiesis" and invented the word that we needed: autopoiesis. This was a word without a history, a word that could directly mean what takes place in the dynamics of the autonomy proper to living systems. quotation

Page 89: ... the space defined by an autopoietic system is self-contained and cannot be described by using dimensions that define another space. When we refer to our interactions with a concrete autopoietic system, however, we project this system on the space of our manipulations and make a description of this projection.}}

第89页: ... 由自创生系统定义的空间是独立的,不能用定义另一个空间的维度来描述。然而,当我们提到我们与一个具体的自创生系统的相互作用时,我们将这个系统投射到我们操作的空间中,并对这个投射进行描述


The term was introduced in 1972 by Chilean biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela to define the self-maintaining chemistry of living cells. Since then the concept has been also applied to the fields of cognition, systems theory, architecture and sociology.

The term was introduced in 1972 by Chilean biologists Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela to define the self-maintaining chemistry of living cells. Since then the concept has been also applied to the fields of cognition, systems theory, architecture and sociology.

这个术语是由智利生物学家温贝托 · 马图拉纳和弗朗西斯科 · 瓦雷拉于1972年提出的,用来定义活细胞的自我维持化学物质。从那时起,这个概念也被应用到认知、系统论、建筑学和社会学领域。


Meaning

Autopoiesis was originally presented as a system description that was said to define and explain the nature of living systems. A canonical example of an autopoietic system is the biological cell. The eukaryotic cell, for example, is made of various biochemical components such as nucleic acids and proteins, and is organized into bounded structures such as the cell nucleus, various organelles, a cell membrane and cytoskeleton. These structures, based on an external flow of molecules and energy, produce the components which, in turn, continue to maintain the organized bounded structure that gives rise to these components (not unlike a wave propagating through a medium).

Autopoiesis was originally presented as a system description that was said to define and explain the nature of living systems. A canonical example of an autopoietic system is the biological cell. The eukaryotic cell, for example, is made of various biochemical components such as nucleic acids and proteins, and is organized into bounded structures such as the cell nucleus, various organelles, a cell membrane and cytoskeleton. These structures, based on an external flow of molecules and energy, produce the components which, in turn, continue to maintain the organized bounded structure that gives rise to these components (not unlike a wave propagating through a medium).

自创生最初是作为一种系统描述提出来的,据说是用来定义和解释生命系统的性质。自创生系统的一个典型例子是生物细胞。例如,真核细胞由核酸和蛋白质等多种生化成分组成,并被组织成有限的结构,如细胞核、各种细胞器、细胞膜和细胞骨架。这些结构以分子和能量的外部流动为基础,产生各种组分,这些组分反过来又继续维持产生这些组分的有组织的有限结构(就像通过介质传播的波一样)。


An autopoietic system is to be contrasted with an allopoietic system, such as a car factory, which uses raw materials (components) to generate a car (an organized structure) which is something other than itself (the factory). However, if the system is extended from the factory to include components in the factory's "environment", such as supply chains, plant / equipment, workers, dealerships, customers, contracts, competitors, cars, spare parts, and so on, then as a total viable system it could be considered to be autopoietic.[3]

An autopoietic system is to be contrasted with an allopoietic system, such as a car factory, which uses raw materials (components) to generate a car (an organized structure) which is something other than itself (the factory). However, if the system is extended from the factory to include components in the factory's "environment", such as supply chains, plant / equipment, workers, dealerships, customers, contracts, competitors, cars, spare parts, and so on, then as a total viable system it could be considered to be autopoietic.

自动生成系统与同种异体生成系统形成对比,如汽车工厂,它使用原材料(组件)生成一辆汽车(一个有组织的结构) ,而汽车本身(工厂)不是汽车。然而,如果该系统从工厂扩展到包括工厂“环境”中的零部件,如供应链、厂房/设备、工人、经销商、客户、合同、竞争对手、汽车、备件等等,那么作为一个完全可行的系统,它可以被认为是自动生产。


Though others have often used the term as a synonym for self-organization, Maturana himself stated he would "[n]ever use the notion of self-organization ... Operationally it is impossible. That is, if the organization of a thing changes, the thing changes".[4] Moreover, an autopoietic system is autonomous and operationally closed, in the sense that there are sufficient processes within it to maintain the whole. Autopoietic systems are "structurally coupled" with their medium, embedded in a dynamic of changes that can be recalled as sensory-motor coupling.[5] This continuous dynamic is considered as a rudimentary form of knowledge or cognition and can be observed throughout life-forms.

Though others have often used the term as a synonym for self-organization, Maturana himself stated he would "[n]ever use the notion of self-organization ... Operationally it is impossible. That is, if the organization of a thing changes, the thing changes". Moreover, an autopoietic system is autonomous and operationally closed, in the sense that there are sufficient processes within it to maintain the whole. Autopoietic systems are "structurally coupled" with their medium, embedded in a dynamic of changes that can be recalled as sensory-motor coupling. This continuous dynamic is considered as a rudimentary form of knowledge or cognition and can be observed throughout life-forms.

虽然其他人经常使用这个词作为自我组织的同义词,Maturana 自己表示,他会“永远使用自我组织的概念... ..。从操作上讲,这是不可能的。也就是说,如果一个事物的组织发生了变化,那么这个事物也就发生了变化。”。此外,自创生系统是自主的,操作上是封闭的,也就是说,系统内部有足够的过程来维持整体。自创生系统在结构上与他们的媒介相结合,嵌入在一种动态的变化中,这种变化可以被回忆为感觉-动作关系。这种连续的动态被认为是知识或认知的一种基本形式,可以在整个生命形式中观察到。


An application of the concept of autopoiesis to sociology can be found in Niklas Luhmann's Systems Theory, which was subsequently adapted by Bob Jessop in his studies of the capitalist state system. Marjatta Maula adapted the concept of autopoiesis in a business context.[6] The theory of autopoiesis has also been applied in the context of legal systems by not only Niklas Luhmann, but also Gunther Teubner.[7][8]

An application of the concept of autopoiesis to sociology can be found in Niklas Luhmann's Systems Theory, which was subsequently adapted by Bob Jessop in his studies of the capitalist state system. Marjatta Maula adapted the concept of autopoiesis in a business context. The theory of autopoiesis has also been applied in the context of legal systems by not only Niklas Luhmann, but also Gunther Teubner.

自创生的概念在社会学中的应用可以在尼克拉斯 · 卢曼的系统论中找到,这一理论后来被鲍勃 · 杰索普在他对资本主义国家制度的研究中采用。Marjatta Maula 将自创生的概念应用到商业环境中。自创生理论不仅被尼克拉斯 · 卢曼,而且被冈瑟 · 特乌布纳应用于法律体系。


In the context of textual studies, Jerome McGann argues that texts are "autopoietic mechanisms operating as self-generating feedback systems that cannot be separated from those who manipulate and use them".[9] Citing Maturana and Varela, he defines an autopoietic system as "a closed topological space that 'continuously generates and specifies its own organization through its operation as a system of production of its own components, and does this in an endless turnover of components模板:'", concluding that "Autopoietic systems are thus distinguished from allopoietic systems, which are Cartesian and which 'have as the product of their functioning something different from themselves模板:'". Coding and markup appear allopoietic", McGann argues, but are generative parts of the system they serve to maintain, and thus language and print or electronic technology are autopoietic systems.[10]

In the context of textual studies, Jerome McGann argues that texts are "autopoietic mechanisms operating as self-generating feedback systems that cannot be separated from those who manipulate and use them". Citing Maturana and Varela, he defines an autopoietic system as "a closed topological space that 'continuously generates and specifies its own organization through its operation as a system of production of its own components, and does this in an endless turnover of components, concluding that "Autopoietic systems are thus distinguished from allopoietic systems, which are Cartesian and which 'have as the product of their functioning something different from themselves. Coding and markup appear allopoietic", McGann argues, but are generative parts of the system they serve to maintain, and thus language and print or electronic technology are autopoietic systems.

在文本研究的背景下,杰罗姆 · 麦克甘认为,文本是”作为自我生成反馈系统运作的自创生机制,不能与那些操纵和使用它们的人分离开来”。引用 Maturana 和 Varela 的话,他将自创生系统定义为一个封闭的拓扑空间系统,它通过自身组件的生产系统,不断地生成和指定自己的组织,并且这样做是在一个无休止的组件周转中完成的,他总结道,“自创生系统因此区别于异体生成系统,后者是笛卡尔的,并且作为其功能的产物与自身有所不同。编码和标记看起来是异质生物体” ,麦克甘认为,但它们是它们服务于维护的系统的生成部分,因此语言和印刷或电子技术是自创生系统。


In his discussion of Hegel, the philosopher Slavoj Žižek argues, "Hegel is – to use today's terms – the ultimate thinker of autopoiesis, of the process of the emergence of necessary features out of chaotic contingency, the thinker of contingency's gradual self-organisation, of the gradual rise of order out of chaos."[11]

In his discussion of Hegel, the philosopher Slavoj Žižek argues, "Hegel is – to use today's terms – the ultimate thinker of autopoiesis, of the process of the emergence of necessary features out of chaotic contingency, the thinker of contingency's gradual self-organisation, of the gradual rise of order out of chaos."

在他对黑格尔的讨论中,哲学家斯拉沃吉 · 伊克认为,“黑格尔——用今天的术语来说——是自创生的终极思想家,是从混沌的偶然性中产生必要特征的过程,是偶然性的渐进自组织的思想家,是从混沌中逐渐崛起的秩序的思想家。”


Relation to complexity

Autopoiesis can be defined as the ratio between the complexity of a system and the complexity of its environment.[12]


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An extensive discussion of the connection of autopoiesis to cognition is provided by Thompson. The basic notion of autopoiesis as involving constructive interaction with the environment is extended to include cognition. Initially, Maturana defined cognition as behavior of an organism "with relevance to the maintenance of itself". However, computer models that are self-maintaining but non-cognitive have been devised, so some additional restrictions are needed, and the suggestion is that the maintenance process, to be cognitive, involves readjustment of the internal workings of the system in some metabolic process. On this basis it is claimed that autopoiesis is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for cognition. Thompson (p. 127) takes the view that this distinction may or may not be fruitful, but what matters is that living systems involve autopoiesis and (if it is necessary to add this point) cognition as well. It can be noted that this definition of 'cognition' is restricted, and does not necessarily entail any awareness or consciousness by the living system.

汤普森对自创生与认知之间的联系进行了广泛的讨论。自创生的基本概念涉及与环境的建设性互动,这一概念被扩展到包括认知。最初,Maturana 将认知定义为有机体“与维持自身相关”的行为。然而,人们已经设计出了可以自我维持但不具有认知能力的计算机模型,因此还需要一些额外的限制,这个建议认为,维护过程需要在某些代谢重新调整系统的内部工作。在此基础上,认为自创生是认知的一个必要条件,但不是充分条件。汤普森(第127页)认为,这种区分可能是有益的,也可能没有,但重要的是,生命系统涉及自创生和(如果有必要增加这一点)认知。可以注意到,这个“认知”的定义是有限的,并不一定要求生命系统有任何意识或觉知。

Relation to cognition

An extensive discussion of the connection of autopoiesis to cognition is provided by Thompson.[13] The basic notion of autopoiesis as involving constructive interaction with the environment is extended to include cognition. Initially, Maturana defined cognition as behavior of an organism "with relevance to the maintenance of itself".[14] However, computer models that are self-maintaining but non-cognitive have been devised, so some additional restrictions are needed, and the suggestion is that the maintenance process, to be cognitive, involves readjustment of the internal workings of the system in some metabolic process. On this basis it is claimed that autopoiesis is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for cognition.[15] Thompson (p. 127) takes the view that this distinction may or may not be fruitful, but what matters is that living systems involve autopoiesis and (if it is necessary to add this point) cognition as well. It can be noted that this definition of 'cognition' is restricted, and does not necessarily entail any awareness or consciousness by the living system.


Relation to consciousness

The connection of autopoiesis to cognition, or if necessary, of living systems to cognition, is an objective assessment ascertainable by observation of a living system.

There are multiple criticisms of the use of the term in both its original context, as an attempt to define and explain the living, and its various expanded usages, such as applying it to self-organizing systems in general or social systems in particular. Critics have argued that the concept and its theory fail to define or explain living systems and that, because of the extreme language of self-referentiality it uses without any external reference, it is really an attempt to give substantiation to Maturana's radical constructivist or solipsistic epistemology, or what Danilo Zolo has called instead a "desolate theology". An example is the assertion by Maturana and Varela that "We do not see what we do not see and what we do not see does not exist". The autopoietic model, said Rod Swenson, is "miraculously decoupled from the physical world by its progenitors ... (and thus) grounded on a solipsistic foundation that flies in the face of both common sense and scientific knowledge".

对于在其原始上下文中使用这一术语,试图界定和解释生活及其各种扩大的用法,例如将其应用于一般的自组织系统或具体的社会系统,有多种批评意见。批评家们认为,这一概念及其理论未能界定或解释生命系统,而且由于它在没有任何外部参照的情况下使用的自指向性的极端语言,它实际上是试图为马图拉纳激进的建构主义或唯我认识论或达尼洛 · 佐罗所称的“荒凉神学”提供实证。一个例子是 Maturana 和 Varela 的断言,即”我们看不到我们看不到的东西,我们看不到的东西不存在”。罗德•斯文森说,自创生模型“奇迹般地与物质世界分离... ... (因此)建立在唯我论的基础上,与常识和科学知识背道而驰”。


One question that arises is about the connection between cognition seen in this manner and consciousness. The separation of cognition and consciousness recognizes that the organism may be unaware of the substratum where decisions are made. What is the connection between these realms? Thompson refers to this issue as the "explanatory gap", and one aspect of it is the hard problem of consciousness, how and why we have qualia.[16]


A second question is whether autopoiesis can provide a bridge between these concepts. Thompson discusses this issue from the standpoint of enactivism. An autopoietic cell actively relates to its environment. Its sensory responses trigger motor behavior governed by autopoiesis, and this behavior (it is claimed) is a simplified version of a nervous system behavior. The further claim is that real-time interactions like this require attention, and an implication of attention is awareness.[17]


Criticism

There are multiple criticisms of the use of the term in both its original context, as an attempt to define and explain the living, and its various expanded usages, such as applying it to self-organizing systems in general or social systems in particular.[18] Critics have argued that the concept and its theory fail to define or explain living systems and that, because of the extreme language of self-referentiality it uses without any external reference, it is really an attempt to give substantiation to Maturana's radical constructivist or solipsistic epistemology,[19] or what Danilo Zolo[20][21] has called instead a "desolate theology". An example is the assertion by Maturana and Varela that "We do not see what we do not see and what we do not see does not exist".[22] The autopoietic model, said Rod Swenson,[23] is "miraculously decoupled from the physical world by its progenitors ... (and thus) grounded on a solipsistic foundation that flies in the face of both common sense and scientific knowledge".


See also

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Notes and references

  1. Maturana, Varela, 1980, p. 89.
  2. Maturana, Varela, 1980, p. 78.
  3. Koskinen, Kaj U (2013). Knowledge production in organizations : a processual autopoietic view. Heidelberg: Springer. ISBN 9783319001043. OCLC 846465493. 
  4. Maturana, Humberto (1987). "Everything is said by an observer". In Thompson, William Irwin. Gaia, a Way of Knowing: Political Implications of the New Biology. Great Barrington, MA: Lindisfarne Press. pp. 65–82, 71. ISBN 978-0-940262-23-2. OCLC 15792540. 
  5. Allen M, Friston KJ (2018-06-01). "From cognitivism to autopoiesis: towards a computational framework for the embodied mind". Synthese. 195 (6): 2459–2482. doi:10.1007/s11229-016-1288-5. PMC 5972168. PMID 29887647.
  6. Organizations as learning systems: 'Living composition' as an enabling infrastructure.. Advanced Series in Management. Emerald Group Publishing. 2006. 
  7. Teubner, Gunther (1992). Law as an Autopoietic System. The European University Institute Press. 
  8. For a discussion on the evolution and development of autopoietic legal systems, see, Lyons, Neil T. (2011). "Autopoiesis: Evolution, Assimilation, and Causation of Normative Closure". Law, Justice, and Miscommunications: Essays in Applied Legal Philosophy. Vanderplas Publishing. ISBN 978-1-60042-152-5. 
  9. The Textual Condition. Princeton University Press. 1986. p. 15. 
  10. "Marking Texts of Many Dimensions". A Companion to Digital Humanities. John Wiley & Sons. 2000. pp. 200–201. 
  11. Žižek, Slavoj (2012). Less Than Nothing. Verso. p. 467. 
  12. Autopoiesis can be defined as the ratio between the complexity of a system and the complexity of its environment. 自创生可以定义为一个系统的复杂性与其所处环境的复杂性之间的比率。 "Chapter 2: Information Measures of Complexity, Emergence, Self-organization, Homeostasis, and Autopoiesis". Guided self-organization: Inception. Springer. 2013. pp. 19–51. arXiv:1304.1842. Bibcode 2013arXiv1304.1842F. ISBN 978-3-642-53734-9. 
  13. Thompson, Evan (2007). "Chapter 5: Autopoiesis: The organization of the living". Mind in Life: Biology, Phenomenology, and the Sciences of Mind. Harvard University Press. pp. 91–127. ISBN 978-0-674-02511-0. https://books.google.com/books?id=OVGna4ZEpWwC&pg=PA91.  The connection of autopoiesis to cognition, or if necessary, of living systems to cognition, is an objective assessment ascertainable by observation of a living system. 自创生与认知的联系,或者如果必要的话,生命系统与认知的联系,是一个可以通过观察生命系统来确定的客观评估。
  14. "The cognitive process". Autopoiesis and cognition: The realization of the living. Springer Science & Business Media. 1980. p. 13. ISBN 978-90-277-1016-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=nVmcN9Ja68kC&pg=PA13.  One question that arises is about the connection between cognition seen in this manner and consciousness. The separation of cognition and consciousness recognizes that the organism may be unaware of the substratum where decisions are made. What is the connection between these realms? Thompson refers to this issue as the "explanatory gap", and one aspect of it is the hard problem of consciousness, how and why we have qualia. 出现的一个问题是关于以这种方式看到的认知和意识之间的联系。认知和意识的分离意识到有机体可能不知道作出决定的底层。这些领域之间的联系是什么?汤普森把这个问题称为“解释缺口” ,其中一个方面就是意识这个难题,我们如何以及为什么有感受。
  15. Bitbol M, Luisi PL (November 2004). "Autopoiesis with or without cognition: defining life at its edge". Journal of the Royal Society, Interface. 1 (1): 99–107. doi:10.1098/rsif.2004.0012. PMC 1618936. PMID 16849156. A second question is whether autopoiesis can provide a bridge between these concepts. Thompson discusses this issue from the standpoint of enactivism. An autopoietic cell actively relates to its environment. Its sensory responses trigger motor behavior governed by autopoiesis, and this behavior (it is claimed) is a simplified version of a nervous system behavior. The further claim is that real-time interactions like this require attention, and an implication of attention is awareness. 第二个问题是,自创生能否在这些概念之间架起一座桥梁。汤普森从能动主义的角度讨论了这个问题。自创生细胞与周围环境密切相关。它的感觉反应触发由自创生控制的运动行为,这种行为(据称)是神经系统行为的简化版本。进一步的说法是,像这样的实时互动需要注意力,而注意力的含义就是意识。
  16. Thompson, Evan (2007). "Cognitivism". Mind in Life: Biology, Phenomenology, and the Sciences of Mind. Harvard University Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-674-02511-0. https://books.google.com/books?id=OVGna4ZEpWwC&pg=PA7.  {{columns-list|colwidth=35em| { column-list | colwidth = 35em |
  17. Thompson, Evan (2007). "Sensorimotor subjectivity". Mind in Life: Biology, Phenomenology, and the Sciences of Mind. Harvard University Press. pp. 243 ff. ISBN 978-0-674-02511-0. https://books.google.com/books?id=OVGna4ZEpWwC&pg=PA243. 
  18. Fleischaker G (1992). "Autopoiesis in Systems Analysis: A Debate". International Journal of General Systems. 21 (2): 131–271. doi:10.1080/03081079208945065.
  19. Swenson R (1992). "Autocatakinetics, Yes—Autopoiesis, No: Steps Toward a Unified Theory of Evolutionary Ordering". International Journal of General Systems. 21 (2): 207–208. doi:10.1080/03081079208945072.
  20. Kenny V, Gardner G (1988). "The constructions of self-organizing systems". The Irish Journal of Psychology. 9 (1): 1–24. doi:10.1080/03033910.1988.10557704.
  21. Wolfe, Cary (1998). Critical environments: postmodern theory and the pragmatics of the "outside". University of Minnesota Press. pp. 62–3. ISBN 978-0-8166-3019-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=tBQSBBWVg2cC&pg=PT85&lpg=PT85&dq=Zolo+Autopoiesis#v=onepage. 
  22. The Tree of Knowledge.. New Science Library. Boston: Shambhala Publications. 1988. p. 242. 
  23. Swenson R (1992). "Galileo, Babel, and Autopoiesis (It's Turtles All The Way Down)". International Journal of General Systems. 21 (2): 267–269. doi:10.1080/03081079208945080.


Further reading

  • Goosseff, Kyrill A. (2010). "Autopoeisis and meaning: a biological approach to Bakhtin's superaddressee". Journal of Organizational Change Management. 23 (2): 145–151. doi:10.1108/09534811011031319. Unknown parameter |name-list-style= ignored (help)
  • Dyke, Charles (1988). The Evolutionary Dynamics of Complex Systems: A Study in Biosocial Complexity. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  • Livingston, Ira (2006). Between Science and Literature: An Introduction to Autopoetics. University of Illinois Press.. ISBN 978-0-252-07254-3.  —an adaptation of autopoiesis to language.
  • Luhmann, Niklas (1990). Essays on Self-Reference. Columbia University Press.  —Luhmann's adaptation of autopoiesis to social systems
  • Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. 42. Dordecht: D. Reidel Publishing Co.. 30 April 1980. ISBN 978-90-277-1015-4.  —the main published reference on autopoiesis
  • Mingers, John (1994). Self-Producing Systems. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. ISBN 978-0-306-44797-6.  —a book on the autopoiesis concept in many different areas
  • Robb, Fenton F. (1991). "Accounting – A Virtual Autopoietic System?". Systems Practice. 4 (3): 215–235. doi:10.1007/BF01059566. Unknown parameter |name-list-style= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help)
  • Tabbi, Joseph (2002). Cognitive Fictions. 2002. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-3557-3.  — draws on systems theory and cognitive science to introduce autopoiesis to literary studies
  • Varela, Francisco J.; Maturana, Humberto R.; Uribe, R (1974). "Autopoiesis: the organization of living systems, its characterization and a model". Biosystems. 5 (4): 187–196. doi:10.1016/0303-2647(74)90031-8. PMID 4407425. Unknown parameter |name-list-style= ignored (help) —one of the original papers on the concept of autopoiesis.

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Category:Systems theory

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Category:Philosophy of mind

类别: 心灵哲学

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类别: 生物学假说


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Autopoiesis. Its edit history can be viewed at 自创生理论/edithistory