集体智能

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集体智能的类型

模板:Group intelligence

模板:Recommender systems

Collective intelligence (CI) is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making. The term appears in sociobiology, political science and in context of mass peer review and crowdsourcing applications. It may involve consensus, social capital and formalisms such as voting systems, social media and other means of quantifying mass activity. Collective IQ is a measure of collective intelligence, although it is often used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Collective intelligence has also been attributed to bacteriaand animals.

Collective intelligence (CI) is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, and competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making. The term appears in sociobiology, political science and in context of mass peer review and crowdsourcing applications. It may involve consensus, social capital and formalisms such as voting systems, social media and other means of quantifying mass activity. Collective IQ is a measure of collective intelligence, although it is often used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Collective intelligence has also been attributed to bacteria and animals.

集体智能 Collective intelligence(简称CI,或称为 集体智力 集体智慧等)指的是共享的或群体的智慧,源于众多个体的协作、共同努力和竞争,最终在决策中达到共识。其术语经常出现在社会生物学,政治科学以及大规模同行评议和众包应用中。它可能牵涉到 大众共识 社会资本和形式体系,例如 投票系统,社交媒体和其他方式的群众活动。另一个概念是 群体智商 Collective IQ,它是用来度量集体智能的,尽管它通常会与集体智能一词互换使用。集体智能也可以在细菌和动物群体中形成。


It can be understood as an emergent property from the synergies among: 1) data-information-knowledge; 2) software-hardware; and 3) experts (those with new insights as well as recognized authorities) that continually learns from feedback to produce just-in-time knowledge for better decisions than these three elements acting alone; or more narrowly as an emergent property between people and ways of processing information. This notion of collective intelligence is referred to as "symbiotic intelligence" by Norman Lee Johnson. The concept is used in sociology, business, computer science and mass communications: it also appears in science fiction. Pierre Lévy defines collective intelligence as, "It is a form of universally distributed intelligence, constantly enhanced, coordinated in real time, and resulting in the effective mobilization of skills. I'll add the following indispensable characteristic to this definition: The basis and goal of collective intelligence is mutual recognition and enrichment of individuals rather than the cult of fetishized or hypostatized communities." According to researchers Pierre Lévy and Derrick de Kerckhove, it refers to capacity of networked ICTs (Information communication technologies) to enhance the collective pool of social knowledge by simultaneously expanding the extent of human interactions.

It can be understood as an emergent property from the synergies among: 1) data-information-knowledge; 2) software-hardware; and 3) experts (those with new insights as well as recognized authorities) that continually learns from feedback to produce just-in-time knowledge for better decisions than these three elements acting alone; or more narrowly as an emergent property between people and ways of processing information. This notion of collective intelligence is referred to as "symbiotic intelligence" by Norman Lee Johnson. The concept is used in sociology, business, computer science and mass communications: it also appears in science fiction. Pierre Lévy defines collective intelligence as, "It is a form of universally distributed intelligence, constantly enhanced, coordinated in real time, and resulting in the effective mobilization of skills. I'll add the following indispensable characteristic to this definition: The basis and goal of collective intelligence is mutual recognition and enrichment of individuals rather than the cult of fetishized or hypostatized communities." According to researchers Pierre Lévy and Derrick de Kerckhove, it refers to capacity of networked ICTs (Information communication technologies) to enhance the collective pool of social knowledge by simultaneously expanding the extent of human interactions.

以下三个要素在经过 协同作用后,产生的增效现象被理解为一种 涌现特性

  1. 数据信息知识;
  2. 软硬件;
  3. 专家(具有最新见解且公认权威的专家)

通过不断从反馈中学习并产生实时性知识,这三个要素的 协同增效作用比它们单独采取行动来说,做出的决策会更好[1][2];或更狭义地讲,这是人与信息处理方式之间的一种涌现特性[3]。诺曼·李·约翰逊 Norman Lee Johnson将这种集体智能的概念称为 共生智能 symbiotic intelligence[4]。该概念用于社会学,商业,计算机科学和大众传播学:当然,它也出现在科幻小说中。皮埃尔·列维 Pierre Lévy给出了集体智能另一个定义:“它是一种普遍的分布式智慧,通过不断增强和实时合作来有效地调动技能。我将在此定义中添加以下必不可少的特征:集体智能的基本原则和目标是相互认可并实现个体自身的丰富,而不是什么拜物主义或者原质主义的邪教团体。”[5]根据研究人员ierre Lévy和德里克·德·科克霍夫Derrick de Kerckhove的说法,它指的是网络 ICTs(信息通信技术Information communication technologies)通过扩大人类互动范围来增强社会知识群体的能力。一个更广泛的定义是由 Geoff Mulgan 在一系列讲座和报告中提出的,从2006年开始,在阿德莱德系列讲座‘关于集体智慧和 http://www.thinkers.sa.gov.au/images/mulgan_final_report.pdf 的集体智慧’和在《 Big Mind Mulgan,Geoff Big Mind: How Collective Intelligence can Change our World 》一书中提出了一个分析任何思维系统的框架,包括人类和机器智能,在功能元素方面(观察,预测,创造力,判断等)。)、学习循环和组织形式。其目的是提供一种方法来诊断和改善一个城市、商业、非政府组织或议会的集体智慧。


Collective intelligence strongly contributes to the shift of knowledge and power from the individual to the collective. According to Eric S. Raymond (1998) and JC Herz (2005), open source intelligence will eventually generate superior outcomes to knowledge generated by proprietary software developed within corporations (Flew 2008). Media theorist Henry Jenkins sees collective intelligence as an 'alternative source of media power', related to convergence culture. He draws attention to education and the way people are learning to participate in knowledge cultures outside formal learning settings. Henry Jenkins criticizes schools which promote 'autonomous problem solvers and self-contained learners' while remaining hostile to learning through the means of collective intelligence. Both Pierre Lévy (2007) and Henry Jenkins (2008) support the claim that collective intelligence is important for democratization, as it is interlinked with knowledge-based culture and sustained by collective idea sharing, and thus contributes to a better understanding of diverse society.

Collective intelligence strongly contributes to the shift of knowledge and power from the individual to the collective. According to Eric S. Raymond (1998) and JC Herz (2005), open source intelligence will eventually generate superior outcomes to knowledge generated by proprietary software developed within corporations (Flew 2008). Media theorist Henry Jenkins sees collective intelligence as an 'alternative source of media power', related to convergence culture. He draws attention to education and the way people are learning to participate in knowledge cultures outside formal learning settings. Henry Jenkins criticizes schools which promote 'autonomous problem solvers and self-contained learners' while remaining hostile to learning through the means of collective intelligence. Both Pierre Lévy (2007) and Henry Jenkins (2008) support the claim that collective intelligence is important for democratization, as it is interlinked with knowledge-based culture and sustained by collective idea sharing, and thus contributes to a better understanding of diverse society.

集体智能极大地促进了知识和权力从个人到集体的转移。埃里克·雷蒙德Eric S. Raymond(1998)和杰西·赫兹JC Herz(2005)认为,相较于一个公司通过内部开发专有软件来创造知识,开源智慧则终将产生更优异的成果(Flew 2008)。媒体理论家亨利·詹金斯Henry Jenkins将集体智能视为与融合文化相关的“媒体力量的替代来源”。他提请人们关注教育,特别是基于传统教育设置之外的知识文化参与方式。Henry Jenkins批评学校提倡的“自主解决问题者和独立学习者”,同时又反对通过集体智能来学习[6]。Pierre Lévy(2007)和Henry Jenkins(2008)也都支持这样的说法,即集体智能对民主化很重要,因为它与以知识为基础的文化相互联系,并通过群体的思想共享来维持,从而有助于更好地理解多元化社会。


Similar to the g factor (g) for general individual intelligence, a new scientific understanding of collective intelligence aims to extract a general collective intelligence factor c factor for groups indicating a group's ability to perform a wide range of tasks. Definition, operationalization and statistical methods are derived from g. Similarly as g is highly interrelated with the concept of IQ, this measurement of collective intelligence can be interpreted as intelligence quotient for groups (Group-IQ) even though the score is not a quotient per se. Causes for c and predictive validity are investigated as well.

Similar to the g factor (g) for general individual intelligence, a new scientific understanding of collective intelligence aims to extract a general collective intelligence factor c factor for groups indicating a group's ability to perform a wide range of tasks. Definition, operationalization and statistical methods are derived from g. Similarly as g is highly interrelated with the concept of IQ, this measurement of collective intelligence can be interpreted as intelligence quotient for groups (Group-IQ) even though the score is not a quotient per se. Causes for c and predictive validity are investigated as well.

与测试个人智力的 g因子相似,对群体智力的最新科学理解主要是提取群体的综合智力因子”c因子”,以表明一个群体执行各种任务的能力[7]。其定义,操作方式和统计方法均同于 g因子测试法。同样地,由于g与IQ的概念高度相关[8][9],因此这种群体智力的度量也可以解释为 群体的智商(Group-IQ),即使该分数自身不是商。另外,还研究c值的成因和预测其有效性。


Collective intelligence is used to help create widely known platforms including Google, Wikipedia and political groups. Google is a major search engine that is made of millions of websites that have been created by people all around the world. It has the ability to share knowledge and creativity with each other to collaborate and expand thoughts and expressions. Google includes five key dynamics within their teams to create a well-collaborated system. Dynamics include psychological safety, dependability, structure & clarity, meaning of work and impact of work. Their ideas behind their rediscovery of collective intelligence is to ensure that all workers can express themselves without any fear of potential embarrassment. Google's teamwork is said to be one of the main reasons for their success by including the use of emotional and collective intelligence to ensure teamwork is involved in any discussions. The system behind Google exemplifies the combining of knowledge of the web-to-people not just knowledge of people-to-people.

Collective intelligence is used to help create widely known platforms including Google, Wikipedia and political groups. Google is a major search engine that is made of millions of websites that have been created by people all around the world. It has the ability to share knowledge and creativity with each other to collaborate and expand thoughts and expressions. Google includes five key dynamics within their teams to create a well-collaborated system. Dynamics include psychological safety, dependability, structure & clarity, meaning of work and impact of work. Their ideas behind their rediscovery of collective intelligence is to ensure that all workers can express themselves without any fear of potential embarrassment. Google's teamwork is said to be one of the main reasons for their success by including the use of emotional and collective intelligence to ensure teamwork is involved in any discussions. The system behind Google exemplifies the combining of knowledge of the web-to-people not just knowledge of people-to-people.

集体智能可用于帮助创建广为人知的平台,包括Google,Wikipedia和政治团体。Google就是主打搜索引擎的例子,它可以看作是由世界各地的人们共同创建数百万个网站的集合。它能够通过彼此共享知识和创造力,来协作并拓展思维与表达。Google团队包含五大关键动力,以创建一个协作良好的系统。它们是:心理安全性,可靠性,架构和清晰度,工作的含义以及工作的影响。他们重新发现集体智能的核心价值其实是确保所有员工都能够表达自己的意见,而不必担心其带来的尴尬。据说Google的团队合作是其成功的主要原因之一,其中包括运用情绪管理和集体智能来确保合作团队能参与任何讨论。Google背后的系统例证了网络与人知识的结合,而不仅仅是人与人知识的结合。


Writers who have influenced the idea of collective intelligence include Francis Galton, Douglas Hofstadter (1979), Peter Russell (1983), Tom Atlee (1993), Pierre Lévy (1994), Howard Bloom (1995), Francis Heylighen (1995), Douglas Engelbart, Louis Rosenberg, Cliff Joslyn, Ron Dembo, Gottfried Mayer-Kress (2003).

Writers who have influenced the idea of collective intelligence include Francis Galton, Douglas Hofstadter (1979), Peter Russell (1983), Tom Atlee (1993), Pierre Lévy (1994), Howard Bloom (1995), Francis Heylighen (1995), Douglas Engelbart, Louis Rosenberg, Cliff Joslyn, Ron Dembo, Gottfried Mayer-Kress (2003).

影响集体智能思想的作家包括弗朗西斯·加尔顿Francis Galton,道格拉斯·霍夫斯塔特Douglas Hofstadter(1979),彼得·罗素Peter Russell(1983),汤姆·阿特利Tom Atlee(1993),Pierre Lévy(1994),霍华德·布鲁姆Howard Bloom(1995),弗朗西斯·海里根Francis Heylighen(1995),道格拉斯·恩格巴特Douglas Engelbart,路易·罗森伯格Louis Rosenberg,克里夫·乔斯林Cliff Joslyn,罗恩·丹博Ron Dembo,戈特弗里德·梅耶·克雷斯Gottfried Mayer-Kress(2003)。

模板:TOC limit


History 历史

世界脑 H.G. Wells (1936–1938)

The concept (although not so named) originated in 1785 with the Marquis de Condorcet, whose "jury theorem" states that if each member of a voting group is more likely than not to make a correct decision, the probability that the highest vote of the group is the correct decision increases with the number of members of the group (see Condorcet's jury theorem). Many theorists have interpreted Aristotle's statement in the Politics that "a feast to which many contribute is better than a dinner provided out of a single purse" to mean that just as many may bring different dishes to the table, so in a deliberation many may contribute different pieces of information to generate a better decision. Recent scholarship, however, suggests that this was probably not what Aristotle meant but is a modern interpretation based on what we now know about team intelligence.

The concept (although not so named) originated in 1785 with the Marquis de Condorcet, whose "jury theorem" states that if each member of a voting group is more likely than not to make a correct decision, the probability that the highest vote of the group is the correct decision increases with the number of members of the group (see Condorcet's jury theorem). Many theorists have interpreted Aristotle's statement in the Politics that "a feast to which many contribute is better than a dinner provided out of a single purse" to mean that just as many may bring different dishes to the table, so in a deliberation many may contribute different pieces of information to generate a better decision. Recent scholarship, however, suggests that this was probably not what Aristotle meant but is a modern interpretation based on what we now know about team intelligence.

这个概念(尽管没有如此命名)起源于1785年的侯爵·孔多塞Marquis de Condorcet,其 陪审原理指出,如果一个投票组的每个成员更有可能做出正确的决定,则该组中最高的票数是正确决定的概率会随着该组成员的数量增加而增加(请参考Condorcet's jury theorem 孔多塞陪审团原理.[10])。许多理论学家已经解释了亚里士多德 Aristotle在他的著作《政治》中的说法,即“集体盛宴相比较独自晚餐更加美味”,意思是每个人都可以带来各自的菜肴摆在餐桌上.[11][12]。引申为许多人可能会提供不同的信息片段以产生更好的决策。然而,最近的一项研究表明[13],这可能不是亚里士多德的原意,而是根据目前我们对团队智能的了解做出的现代解释[14]


A precursor of the concept is found in entomologist William Morton Wheeler's observation that seemingly independent individuals can cooperate so closely as to become indistinguishable from a single organism (1910). Wheeler saw this collaborative process at work in ants that acted like the cells of a single beast he called a superorganism.

A precursor of the concept is found in entomologist William Morton Wheeler's observation that seemingly independent individuals can cooperate so closely as to become indistinguishable from a single organism (1910). Wheeler saw this collaborative process at work in ants that acted like the cells of a single beast he called a superorganism.

一开始昆虫学家威廉·莫顿·惠勒William Morton Wheeler意识到了这一概念(1910),他观察到独立的个体之间可以紧密合作,以至于无法与某单个生物区分开[15]。他在蚂蚁身上看到了这种协作过程,它们就像野兽的细胞一样,他称其为 超有机体


In 1912 Émile Durkheim identified society as the sole source of human logical thought. He argued in "The Elementary Forms of Religious Life" that society constitutes a higher intelligence because it transcends the individual over space and time. Other antecedents are Vladimir Vernadsky and Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's concept of "noosphere" and H.G. Wells's concept of "world brain" (see also the term "global brain"). Peter Russell, Elisabet Sahtouris, and Barbara Marx Hubbard (originator of the term "conscious evolution") are inspired by the visions of a noosphere – a transcendent, rapidly evolving collective intelligence – an informational cortex of the planet. The notion has more recently been examined by the philosopher Pierre Lévy. In a 1962 research report, Douglas Engelbart linked collective intelligence to organizational effectiveness, and predicted that pro-actively 'augmenting human intellect' would yield a multiplier effect in group problem solving: "Three people working together in this augmented mode [would] seem to be more than three times as effective in solving a complex problem as is one augmented person working alone". In 1994, he coined the term 'collective IQ' as a measure of collective intelligence, to focus attention on the opportunity to significantly raise collective IQ in business and society.

In 1912 Émile Durkheim identified society as the sole source of human logical thought. He argued in "The Elementary Forms of Religious Life" that society constitutes a higher intelligence because it transcends the individual over space and time. Other antecedents are Vladimir Vernadsky and Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's concept of "noosphere" and H.G. Wells's concept of "world brain" (see also the term "global brain"). Peter Russell, Elisabet Sahtouris, and Barbara Marx Hubbard (originator of the term "conscious evolution") are inspired by the visions of a noosphere – a transcendent, rapidly evolving collective intelligence – an informational cortex of the planet. The notion has more recently been examined by the philosopher Pierre Lévy. In a 1962 research report, Douglas Engelbart linked collective intelligence to organizational effectiveness, and predicted that pro-actively 'augmenting human intellect' would yield a multiplier effect in group problem solving: "Three people working together in this augmented mode [would] seem to be more than three times as effective in solving a complex problem as is one augmented person working alone". In 1994, he coined the term 'collective IQ' as a measure of collective intelligence, to focus attention on the opportunity to significantly raise collective IQ in business and society.

1912年,埃米尔·涂尔干Émile Durkheim将社会定义为人类逻辑思维的唯一来源。他在《宗教生活的基本形式》一书中指出[16],社会构成了一种更高的智慧,因为它在时空上超越了个人。其他先例还有弗拉基米尔·韦尔纳斯基Vladimir Vernadsky和皮埃尔·泰尔哈德·德·夏尔丁Pierre Teilhard de Chardin的 智能圈概念以及赫伯特·乔治·威尔斯H.G. Wells的“ 世界脑World brain”概念(另请参见“ 全球大脑 Global brain“)。Peter Russell,伊丽莎白·萨赫图里斯Elisabet Sahtouris和芭芭拉·马克思·哈伯德Barbara Marx Hubbard( 意识演化一词的发起者)受到了 智能圈的启发,即超自然的,迅速发展的集体智能,相当于地球的大脑信息皮质层。哲学家Pierre Lévy最近对该概念进行了研究[17]。在1962年的一份研究报告中,Douglas Engelbart将集体智能与组织有效性联系起来,并预测说,积极地“增强人类智慧”将在解决群体问题方面产生事半功倍的效果:“以这种增强模式工作的三个人在解决复杂问题上的效率似乎是一个单独工作的人(同等增强幅度)的三倍以上”[18]。1994年,他创造了 群体智商一词来衡量集体智能,以集中精力在商业和社会中寻找显著提高群体智商的机会[19]


The idea of collective intelligence also forms the framework for contemporary democratic theories often referred to as epistemic democracy. Epistemic democratic theories refer to the capacity of the populace, either through deliberation or aggregation of knowledge, to track the truth and relies on mechanisms to synthesize and apply collective intelligence.

The idea of collective intelligence also forms the framework for contemporary democratic theories often referred to as epistemic democracy. Epistemic democratic theories refer to the capacity of the populace, either through deliberation or aggregation of knowledge, to track the truth and relies on mechanisms to synthesize and apply collective intelligence.

集体智能的概念也构成了当代民主理论的框架,这些理论通常被称为 认知民主Epistemic democracy。指的是民众的能力,即通过审议或汇总知识来追踪真相,并依靠这种机制来综合运用集体智能[20]


Collective intelligence was introduced into the machine learning community in the late 20th century, and matured into a broader consideration of how to design "collectives" of self-interested adaptive agents to meet a system-wide goal. This was related to single-agent work on "reward shaping" and has been taken forward by numerous researchers in the game theory and engineering communities.

Collective intelligence was introduced into the machine learning community in the late 20th century, and matured into a broader consideration of how to design "collectives" of self-interested adaptive agents to meet a system-wide goal. This was related to single-agent work on "reward shaping" and has been taken forward by numerous researchers in the game theory and engineering communities.

集体智能在20世纪后期被引入机器学习社区[21],后被广泛认作为一种方法,即如何设计自利的自适应主体“群落”来满足系统范围内的目标要求[22][23]。这与有关“奖励设计”的单主体工作有关[24],并已被博弈论和工程界的许多研究人员所推广[25]

Dimensions 维度

复杂自适应系统模型l

Howard Bloom has discussed mass behavior – collective behavior from the level of quarks to the level of bacterial, plant, animal, and human societies. He stresses the biological adaptations that have turned most of this earth's living beings into components of what he calls "a learning machine". In 1986 Bloom combined the concepts of apoptosis, parallel distributed processing, group selection, and the superorganism to produce a theory of how collective intelligence works. Later he showed how the collective intelligences of competing bacterial colonies and human societies can be explained in terms of computer-generated "complex adaptive systems" and the "genetic algorithms", concepts pioneered by John Holland.

Howard Bloom has discussed mass behavior – collective behavior from the level of quarks to the level of bacterial, plant, animal, and human societies. He stresses the biological adaptations that have turned most of this earth's living beings into components of what he calls "a learning machine". In 1986 Bloom combined the concepts of apoptosis, parallel distributed processing, group selection, and the superorganism to produce a theory of how collective intelligence works. Later he showed how the collective intelligences of competing bacterial colonies and human societies can be explained in terms of computer-generated "complex adaptive systems" and the "genetic algorithms", concepts pioneered by John Holland.

Howard Bloom曾讨论过大众行为(从夸克到细菌,植物,动物和人类社会的群体行为)。他强调说,生物适应性使得地球上大多数生物已经变成了所谓的“学习机器”。1986年,Bloom将 细胞凋亡Apoptosis 并行分布处理Parallel distributed processing 群体选择Group selection 超有机体Superorganism的概念结合在一起,产生了关于集体智能如何运作的理论[26]。后来,他展示了如何用计算机生成的 复杂自适应系统Complex adaptive systems 遗传算法Genetic algorithms( 由约翰·霍兰德John Holland所开创的概念)来解释竞争性细菌群落和人类社会的集体智能[27]


Bloom traced the evolution of collective intelligence to our bacterial ancestors 1 billion years ago and demonstrated how a multi-species intelligence has worked since the beginning of life. Ant societies exhibit more intelligence, in terms of technology, than any other animal except for humans and co-operate in keeping livestock, for example aphids for "milking".

Bloom traced the evolution of collective intelligence to our bacterial ancestors 1 billion years ago and demonstrated how a multi-species intelligence has worked since the beginning of life. Ant societies exhibit more intelligence, in terms of technology, than any other animal except for humans and co-operate in keeping livestock, for example aphids for "milking". Leaf cutters care for fungi and carry leaves to feed the fungi.

Bloom追溯了10亿年前我们细菌祖先集体智能的演变过程,并展现出自生命开始以来多物种智慧是如何发挥作用的[28]。类似蚂蚁社会在技术层面上,表现出了比人类社群以外的任何动物更多的智慧。它们合作饲养牲畜,例如“挤奶”的蚜虫[29]。切叶蚁负责护理真菌,并用叶子喂食真菌[30]


David Skrbina cites the concept of a 'group mind' as being derived from Plato's concept of panpsychism (that mind or consciousness is omnipresent and exists in all matter). He develops the concept of a 'group mind' as articulated by Thomas Hobbes in "Leviathan" and Fechner's arguments for a collective consciousness of mankind. He cites Durkheim as the most notable advocate of a "collective consciousness" and Teilhard de Chardin as a thinker who has developed the philosophical implications of the group mind.

David Skrbina cites the concept of a 'group mind' as being derived from Plato's concept of panpsychism (that mind or consciousness is omnipresent and exists in all matter). He develops the concept of a 'group mind' as articulated by Thomas Hobbes in "Leviathan" and Fechner's arguments for a collective consciousness of mankind. He cites Durkheim as the most notable advocate of a "collective consciousness" and Teilhard de Chardin as a thinker who has developed the philosophical implications of the group mind.

大卫·斯科宾纳 David Skrbina 引用了 群体心智(Group mind)的概念[31],该概念源自柏拉图的 泛心论 Panpsychism(即思想或意识无所不在,并存在于所有事物中)。他进一步发展了托马斯·霍布斯Thomas Hobbes在 利维坦中表达的“群体意识 collective consciousness”的概念[32],以及费希纳关于人类集体意识的论点。他认为Durkheim是“集体意识”最著名的拥护者,并且认为Teilhard de Chardin作为思想家,曾提出了 群体心智(Group mind)的哲学含义[33]


Tom Atlee focuses primarily on humans and on work to upgrade what Howard Bloom calls "the group IQ". Atlee feels that collective intelligence can be encouraged "to overcome 'groupthink' and individual cognitive bias in order to allow a collective to cooperate on one process – while achieving enhanced intellectual performance." George Pór defined the collective intelligence phenomenon as "the capacity of human communities to evolve towards higher order complexity and harmony, through such innovation mechanisms as differentiation and integration, competition and collaboration." Atlee and Pór state that "collective intelligence also involves achieving a single focus of attention and standard of metrics which provide an appropriate threshold of action". Their approach is rooted in scientific community metaphor.

Tom Atlee focuses primarily on humans and on work to upgrade what Howard Bloom calls "the group IQ". Atlee feels that collective intelligence can be encouraged "to overcome 'groupthink' and individual cognitive bias in order to allow a collective to cooperate on one process – while achieving enhanced intellectual performance." George Pór defined the collective intelligence phenomenon as "the capacity of human communities to evolve towards higher order complexity and harmony, through such innovation mechanisms as differentiation and integration, competition and collaboration." Atlee and Pór state that "collective intelligence also involves achieving a single focus of attention and standard of metrics which provide an appropriate threshold of action". Their approach is rooted in scientific community metaphor.

Tom Atlee则主要关注人类,以及如何提升Howard Bloom所说的 群体智商。Atlee认为,可以鼓励集体智能去“克服‘群体思维'和个人的认知偏见,以使集体在一个过程中进行合作,同时产生更高的智力表现。”乔治·珀尔George Pór将集体智能现象定义为一种能力,即“人类社区通过差异化,融合,竞争和协作等创新机制,向更高层次复杂性协调发展”[34]。 Atlee和Pór指出“集体智能还涉及实现注意力集中和度量标准的统一,从而提供适当的行动阈值”[35]他们的方法植根于科学共同体的隐喻[36]


The term group intelligence is sometimes used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Anita Woolley presents Collective intelligence as a measure of group intelligence and group creativity.The features of composition that lead to increased levels of collective intelligence in groups include criteria such as higher numbers of women in the group as well as increased diversity of the group.

The term group intelligence is sometimes used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Anita Woolley presents Collective intelligence as a measure of group intelligence and group creativity. The idea is that a measure of collective intelligence covers a broad range of features of the group, mainly group composition and group interaction. The features of composition that lead to increased levels of collective intelligence in groups include criteria such as higher numbers of women in the group as well as increased diversity of the group.

术语 团体智慧Collective intelligence有时可以与 集体智能Collective intelligence一词互换使用。安妮塔·伍利Anita Woolley认为集体智能,可以衡量集体智慧和创造力[37]。即集体智能的度量能涵盖群体的广泛特征,主要包括群体组成和群体互动[38]。导致群体中集体智能水平提高的组成特征包括:群体中女性人数增加以及群体内多样性增加等[39]


Atlee and Pór suggest that the field of collective intelligence should primarily be seen as a human enterprise in which mind-sets, a willingness to share and an openness to the value of distributed intelligence for the common good are paramount, though group theory and artificial intelligence have something to offer. Individuals who respect collective intelligence are confident of their own abilities and recognize that the whole is indeed greater than the sum of any individual parts. Maximizing collective intelligence relies on the ability of an organization to accept and develop "The Golden Suggestion", which is any potentially useful input from any member.Groupthink often hampers collective intelligence by limiting input to a select few individuals or filtering potential Golden Suggestions without fully developing them to implementation.

Atlee and Pór suggest that the field of collective intelligence should primarily be seen as a human enterprise in which mind-sets, a willingness to share and an openness to the value of distributed intelligence for the common good are paramount, though group theory and artificial intelligence have something to offer. Maximizing collective intelligence relies on the ability of an organization to accept and develop "The Golden Suggestion", which is any potentially useful input from any member. Groupthink often hampers collective intelligence by limiting input to a select few individuals or filtering potential Golden Suggestions without fully developing them to implementation.

Atlee和Pór还认为,集体智能领域应首先被视为是全体人类的事业。尽管群体理论和人工智能可以提供一些帮助,但是当我们在这个巨大的公司内协作时,为了共同利益,观念模式、分享意愿,以及对分布式智能的开明尤为重要[40]。尊重集体智能的个体对自己的能力充满信心,并承认整体确实大于任何单个部分的总和[41]。最大化集体智能取决于组织接受和发展“黄金建议”的能力,即任何成员都可能提供有用的信息[42]。然而,若将输入限制为少数几个人,或过滤掉潜在的“黄金建议”,团体思考通常阻碍集体智能的发展和实施[43]


Robert David Steele Vivas in The New Craft of Intelligence portrayed all citizens as "intelligence minutemen," drawing only on legal and ethical sources of information, able to create a "public intelligence" that keeps public officials and corporate managers honest, turning the concept of "national intelligence" (previously concerned about spies and secrecy) on its head.

Robert David Steele Vivas in The New Craft of Intelligence portrayed all citizens as "intelligence minutemen," drawing only on legal and ethical sources of information, able to create a "public intelligence" that keeps public officials and corporate managers honest, turning the concept of "national intelligence" (previously concerned about spies and secrecy) on its head.

罗伯特·戴维·斯蒂尔·维瓦斯Robert David Steele Vivas在《智慧前沿The New Craft of Intelligence》中将所有公民描绘为“情报干事”,描绘了仅利用法律和道德信息,就能够创造出使公共官员和公司经理保持诚信的“公共情报”,从而改变高层的“国家情报”(以前涉及间谍和保密系统)[44]


多智能系统协作Stigmergic Collaboration:大规模协作的理论框架

According to Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, collective intelligence is mass collaboration. In order for this concept to happen, four principles need to exist;

According to Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, collective intelligence is mass collaboration. In order for this concept to happen, four principles need to exist;

根据唐·塔普斯科特Don Tapscott和安东尼·威廉姆斯Anthony D. Williams的说法,集体智能就是大规模协作。为了使这个概念成立,需要满足以下四个原则[45]

Openness
Sharing ideas and intellectual property: though these resources provide the edge over competitors more benefits accrue from allowing others to share ideas and gain significant improvement and scrutiny through collaboration.
Openness: Sharing ideas and intellectual property: though these resources provide the edge over competitors more benefits accrue from allowing others to share ideas and gain significant improvement and scrutiny through collaboration.

开放性

共享想法和知识产权:尽管这些资源为竞争者提供了优势,但允许其他人共享想法可以带来更多好处,并通过协作获得重大改进和审查。

Peering
Horizontal organization as with the 'opening up' of the Linux program where users are free to modify and develop it provided that they make it available for others. Peering succeeds because it encourages self-organization – a style of production that works more effectively than hierarchical management for certain tasks.
Peering: Horizontal organization as with the 'opening up' of the Linux program where users are free to modify and develop it provided that they make it available for others. Peering succeeds because it encourages self-organization – a style of production that works more effectively than hierarchical management for certain tasks.

对等性

横向组织具有和Linux程序一样的“开放性”,用户在被允许的情况下,可以自由修改和开发该程序。这种对等性的成功是因为它鼓励自组织形式,这种形式的生产方式比某些任务的分层管理更有效。

Sharing
Companies have started to share some ideas while maintaining some degree of control over others, like potential and critical patent rights. Limiting all intellectual property shuts out opportunities, while sharing some expands markets and brings out products faster.
Sharing: Companies have started to share some ideas while maintaining some degree of control over others, like potential and critical patent rights. Limiting all intellectual property shuts out opportunities, while sharing some expands markets and brings out products faster.

共享

一些公司已经开始分享他们的想法,但是同时又对其部分想法保持一定程度的控制,例如潜在的和关键的专利权。限制所有知识产权会失去一些机会,而共享则会扩大市场并更快地推出产品。

Acting Globally
The advancement in communication technology has prompted the rise of global companies at low overhead costs. The internet is widespread, therefore a globally integrated company has no geographical boundaries and may access new markets, ideas and technology.
Acting Globally: The advancement in communication technology has prompted the rise of global companies at low overhead costs. The internet is widespread, therefore a globally integrated company has no geographical boundaries and may access new markets, ideas and technology.

全球行动

通信技术的进步以较低的间接成本促使了全球公司的兴起。互联网遍布全球,因此一家全球一体化的公司打破了地域限制,他们可以访问任何新市场,新思想和新技术。

Collective intelligence factor c 集体智力因子c

陡坡图显示了伍利等人(2010)的两项初始研究成果,其中包括第一因素的可释方差百分比。

A new scientific understanding of collective intelligence defines it as a group's general ability to perform a wide range of tasks. Definition, operationalization and statistical methods are similar to the psychometric approach of general individual intelligence. Hereby, an individual's performance on a given set of cognitive tasks is used to measure general cognitive ability indicated by the general intelligence factor g extracted via factor analysis. In the same vein as g serves to display between-individual performance differences on cognitive tasks, collective intelligence research aims to find a parallel intelligence factor for groups) displaying between-group differences on task performance. The collective intelligence score then is used to predict how this same group will perform on any other similar task in the future. Yet tasks, hereby, refer to mental or intellectual tasks performed by small groups even though the concept is hoped to be transferable to other performances and any groups or crowds reaching from families to companies and even whole cities. Since individuals' g factor scores are highly correlated with full-scale IQ scores, which are in turn regarded as good estimates of g, this measurement of collective intelligence can also be seen as an intelligence indicator or quotient respectively for a group (Group-IQ) parallel to an individual's intelligence quotient (IQ) even though the score is not a quotient per se.

A new scientific understanding of collective intelligence defines it as a group's general ability to perform a wide range of tasks. Definition, operationalization and statistical methods are similar to the psychometric approach of general individual intelligence. Hereby, an individual's performance on a given set of cognitive tasks is used to measure general cognitive ability indicated by the general intelligence factor g extracted via factor analysis. In the same vein as g serves to display between-individual performance differences on cognitive tasks, collective intelligence research aims to find a parallel intelligence factor for groups c factor') displaying between-group differences on task performance. The collective intelligence score then is used to predict how this same group will perform on any other similar task in the future. Yet tasks, hereby, refer to mental or intellectual tasks performed by small groups Since individuals' g factor scores are highly correlated with full-scale IQ scores, which are in turn regarded as good estimates of g, this measurement of collective intelligence can also be seen as an intelligence indicator or quotient respectively for a group (Group-IQ) parallel to an individual's intelligence quotient (IQ) even though the score is not a quotient per se.

对集体智能最新的科学理解,是将其定义为一个团队执行各种任务的综合能力[46]。定义,可操作性和统计方法类似于G因素(心理测量学,常规个人智力的计量方法)。因此,在给定的一组认知任务上的个人表现被用于计量综合认知能力,通过因子分析法算出其智力因子g[47]。同理,g用于表达认知任务与个体之间的表现差异,集体智能研究的目的是为群体“c因子”(也称为“集体智力因子”(CI)[48])找到一个类似的智力因子,以显示任务表现上群体间的差异。然后,将集体智力得分用于预测该组将来执行其他类似任务的表现。然而,目前任务的内容设置还局限在针对小团体的心智任务[49],尽管一开始的概念是希望能涉及的更广泛,比如说从家庭到公司甚至整个城市的任何团体或人群[50]。由于个体的 g因子得分与全方位IQ得分密切相关,并且后者还可以恰当的估计 g因子[51][52],因此集体智能测量的结果同样可以被视为是一个群体的智力指标或商(Group-IQ),类似于个人智商(IQ),虽然该分数本身不是商。


Mathematically, c and g are both variables summarizing positive correlations among different tasks supposing that performance on one task is comparable with performance on other similar tasks. c thus is a source of variance among groups and can only be considered as a group's standing on the c factor compared to other groups in a given relevant population. The concept is in contrast to competing hypotheses including other correlational structures to explain group intelligence, such as a composition out of several equally important but independent factors as found in individual personality research.

Mathematically, c and g are both variables summarizing positive correlations among different tasks supposing that performance on one task is comparable with performance on other similar tasks. c thus is a source of variance among groups and can only be considered as a group's standing on the c factor compared to other groups in a given relevant population. The concept is in contrast to competing hypotheses including other correlational structures to explain group intelligence, such as a composition out of several equally important but independent factors as found in individual personality research.


从数学上讲,c和g都是变量,假设不同团队或个人在不同任务(但相似)中的表现具有可比性,这两个变量均描述了该团队或个人在不同任务之间的正相关性[53]因此,c表示的是团队之间的差异,在给定相关人口设置的其他组相比,它仅被视为该组在c因子上的设置结果[54][55]。g需要注意的是,该概念与竞争假设(包括其他可以解释群体智能的相关结构)形成对比[56],例如由个体人格研究中发现的一些同样重要但相互独立的因素组合[57]


Besides, this scientific idea also aims to explore the causes affecting collective intelligence, such as group size, collaboration tools or group members' interpersonal skills. The MIT Center for Collective Intelligence, for instance, announced the detection of The Genome of Collective Intelligence as one of its main goals aiming to develop a taxonomy of organizational building blocks, or genes, that can be combined and recombined to harness the intelligence of crowds.

Besides, this scientific idea also aims to explore the causes affecting collective intelligence, such as group size, collaboration tools or group members' interpersonal skills. The MIT Center for Collective Intelligence, for instance, announced the detection of The Genome of Collective Intelligence as one of its main goals aiming to develop a taxonomy of organizational building blocks, or genes, that can be combined and recombined to harness the intelligence of crowds.

此外,这一科学思想还旨在探讨影响集体智能的原因,例如小组规模,协作工具或小组成员的人际交往能力。例如,麻省理工学院的集体智能中心宣布检测“集体智能的基因组”是其主要目标之一,旨在建立一种分类法,可以组织构建模块或基因组,并对其进行重组,以利用群体的智力[58]


Causes 原因

Individual intelligence is shown to be genetically and environmentally influenced. Analogously, collective intelligence research aims to explore reasons why certain groups perform more intelligent than other groups given that c is just moderately correlated with the intelligence of individual group members. According to Woolley et al.'s results, neither team cohesion nor motivation or satisfaction is correlated with c. However, they claim that three factors were found as significant correlates: the variance in the number of speaking turns, group members' average social sensitivity and the proportion of females. All three had similar predictive power for c, but only social sensitivity was statistically significant (b=0.33, P=0.05).

Individual intelligence is shown to be genetically and environmentally influenced. Analogously, collective intelligence research aims to explore reasons why certain groups perform more intelligent than other groups given that c is just moderately correlated with the intelligence of individual group members. According to Woolley et al.'s results, neither team cohesion nor motivation or satisfaction is correlated with c. However, they claim that three factors were found as significant correlates: the variance in the number of speaking turns, group members' average social sensitivity and the proportion of females. All three had similar predictive power for c, but only social sensitivity was statistically significant (b=0.33, P=0.05).

个体智力受到遗传与环境影响[59][60]。类似地,集体智力的研究目的是探索为什么某些群体比其他群体表现地更聪明,假设因子c与群体中单个成员的智力适度相关[61]。根据Woolley等人的结果,团队凝聚力,动机或满意度都与因子c无关。但是,他们声称发现了三个非常重要的相关因素:成员发表意见的次数,成员社会敏感度平均值和女性比例。这三者对因子c具有相似的预测能力,但目前只有社会敏感度具有统计学意义(b = 0.33,P = 0.05)[62]


The number speaking turns indicates that "groups where a few people dominated the conversation were less collectively intelligent than those with a more equal distribution of conversational turn-taking". Hence, providing multiple team members the chance to speak up made a group more intelligent.

The number speaking turns indicates that "groups where a few people dominated the conversation were less collectively intelligent than those with a more equal distribution of conversational turn-taking". Hence, providing multiple team members the chance to speak up made a group more intelligent.

成员发表意见的次数表明“由少数人主导的群体,其集体智力不及那些对话轮流分配更为平均的群体。”[63]因此,为多个团队成员提供发言的机会可以让团队更加聪明[62]


Group members' social sensitivity was measured via the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RME) and correlated .26 with c. or 'mind reading', which refers to the ability to attribute mental states, such as beliefs, desires or intents, to other people and in how far people understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions or perspectives different from their own ones. and constantly differentiates control groups from individuals with functional autism or Asperger Syndrome. ToM can be regarded as an associated subset of skills and abilities within the broader concept of emotional intelligence.

Group members' social sensitivity was measured via the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RME) and correlated .26 with c. or 'mind reading', which refers to the ability to attribute mental states, such as beliefs, desires or intents, to other people and in how far people understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions or perspectives different from their own ones. and constantly differentiates control groups from individuals with functional autism or Asperger Syndrome. ToM can be regarded as an associated subset of skills and abilities within the broader concept of emotional intelligence.

小组成员的社交敏感度通过“ 眼神阅读测试Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test[64](RME)并与c关联(0.26)[65] 读心术进行测量。这里要求参与者检测图片中呈现的其他人眼中表达的思维或感觉,并以选择题形式进行评估。该测试旨在衡量人们的 心智理论Theory of mind(ToM),也称为“心理化”[66][67][68][69]或“思想阅读”[70],指的是感受他人心理状态的能力(例如信念,欲望或意图),当他们的信念,欲望,意图或观点与自己有所不同时,能在多大程度上理解他人。RME是针对成人的ToM测试,显示出足够的重测信度,并不断将对照组与患有功能性自闭症或阿斯伯格综合症[71]的个体区分开来。它是成人ToM最广泛接受和验证良好的测试之一[72]。在更宽泛的情商概念中,ToM可被视为技能的相关子集[73][74]


The proportion of females as a predictor of c was largely mediated by social sensitivity (Sobel z = 1.93, P= 0.03) which is in vein with previous research showing that women score higher on social sensitivity tests. While a mediation, statistically speaking, clarifies the mechanism underlying the relationship between a dependent and an independent variable,Wolley agreed in an interview with the Harvard Business Review that these findings are saying that groups of women are smarter than groups of men.[46] However, she relativizes this stating that the actual important thing is the high social sensitivity of group members.[46]

The proportion of females as a predictor of c was largely mediated by social sensitivity (Sobel z = 1.93, P= 0.03) Wolley agreed in an interview with the Harvard Business Review that these findings are saying that groups of women are smarter than groups of men. However, she relativizes this stating that the actual important thing is the high social sensitivity of group members.

女性占比作为因子c的预测因素主要是通过社会敏感性介导(Sobel z = 1.93,P = 0.03)[75],这与之前的研究结果相符,即女性在社会敏感性测试中得分更高[76]。从统计学上讲,介导,从统计学上讲,澄清了因变量和自变量之间关系的基本机制[77]。伍利在接受《哈佛商业评论》采访时曾表示这个发现说明了女性群体比男性群体更聪明。但是,她也就这个结论做了相对化的陈述,实际上重要的是团体成员的高度社会敏感性[78]


It is theorized that the collective intelligence factor c is an emergent property resulting from bottom-up as well as top-down processes. Hereby, bottom-up processes cover aggregated group-member characteristics. Top-down processes cover group structures and norms that influence a group's way of collaborating and coordinating.

It is theorized that the collective intelligence factor c is an emergent property resulting from bottom-up as well as top-down processes. Hereby, bottom-up processes cover aggregated group-member characteristics. Top-down processes cover group structures and norms that influence a group's way of collaborating and coordinating.

从理论上讲,集体智力因子c是由自下而上和自上而下共同产生的 涌现特性。因此,自下而上的过程涉及聚合组成员的特征,自上而下的过程涉及团队结构,以及协作协调方式对团队风格的影响[79]


Processes 处理程序

集体智能因子c的预测。Woolley,Aggarwal和Malone建议(2015)

Top-down processes 自上而下

Top-down processes cover group interaction, such as structures, processes, and norms. Research further suggest that collectively intelligent groups communicate more in general as well as more equally; same applies for participation and is shown for face-to-face as well as online groups communicating only via writing.

Top-down processes cover group interaction, such as structures, processes, and norms. An example of such top-down processes is conversational turn-taking. Research further suggest that collectively intelligent groups communicate more in general as well as more equally; same applies for participation and is shown for face-to-face as well as online groups communicating only via writing.

自上而下的处理包括团队交互分析,涉及例如结构,程序和规范[80]。这种自上而下的过程的一个例子是话轮转换机制。研究进一步表明,集体智慧的群体大体上能进行平等地交流。此过程同样适用于参与形式的沟通,类似面对面以及通过书面形式进行的在线小组交流[81][82]


Bottom-up processes 自下而上

Bottom-up processes include group composition, namely the characteristics of group members which are aggregated to the team level. An example of such bottom-up processes is the average social sensitivity or the average and maximum intelligence scores of group members. Furthermore, collective intelligence was found to be related to a group's cognitive diversity including thinking styles and perspectives. Groups that are moderately diverse in cognitive style have higher collective intelligence than those who are very similar in cognitive style or very different. Consequently, groups where members are too similar to each other lack the variety of perspectives and skills needed to perform well. On the other hand, groups whose members are too different seem to have difficulties to communicate and coordinate effectively.

Bottom-up processes include group composition, including thinking styles and perspectives. Groups that are moderately diverse in cognitive style have higher collective intelligence than those who are very similar in cognitive style or very different. Consequently, groups where members are too similar to each other lack the variety of perspectives and skills needed to perform well. On the other hand, groups whose members are too different seem to have difficulties to communicate and coordinate effectively.

自下而上的处理包括小组组成分析,即小组成员的特征,这些特征汇总直接影响到团队级别[83]。例子之一包括社会敏感度平均值或小组成员的平均和最大智力得分。此外,人们发现集体智能与一个群体的认知多样性有关,包括思维方式和观点[84]。认知风格适度的群体,相比较认知风格非常相似或非常不同的群体,具有更高的集体智能。因为成员彼此之间过于相似会造成该群体缺乏不同的观点(往往团队任务表现好的具有各种观点)和技能。另一方面,成员差异太大的团体可能会难以有效地沟通和协调[85]


Serial vs Parallel processes 串行与并行

For most of human history, collective intelligence was confined to small tribal groups in which opinions were aggregated through real-time parallel interactions among members. In modern times, mass communication, mass media, and networking technologies have enabled collective intelligence to span massive groups, distributed across continents and time-zones. To accommodate this shift in scale, collective intelligence in large-scale groups been dominated by serialized polling processes such as aggregating up-votes, likes, and ratings over time. While modern systems benefit from larger group size, the serialized process has been found to introduce substantial noise that distorts the collective output of the group. In one significant study of serialized collective intelligence, it was found that the first vote contributed to a serialized voting system can distort the final result by 34%.

For most of human history, collective intelligence was confined to small tribal groups in which opinions were aggregated through real-time parallel interactions among members. In modern times, mass communication, mass media, and networking technologies have enabled collective intelligence to span massive groups, distributed across continents and time-zones. To accommodate this shift in scale, collective intelligence in large-scale groups been dominated by serialized polling processes such as aggregating up-votes, likes, and ratings over time. While modern systems benefit from larger group size, the serialized process has been found to introduce substantial noise that distorts the collective output of the group. In one significant study of serialized collective intelligence, it was found that the first vote contributed to a serialized voting system can distort the final result by 34%.

在大多数人类历史中,集体智能都局限于少数部落群体,它们通过成员之间的实时并行互动来收集意见。而现代,因为大众传播,媒体和网络技术的发展使集体智能可以跨越各大洲和时区,这是一个极其庞大的群体。为了适应规模上的这种变化,大规模集体智能被序列化投票过程所控制,例如随着时间的推移去汇总投票,赞赏和评级。在工程领域中,汇总各种工程决策可以识别分析优秀的经典设计[86]。尽管现代系统受益于更大的群规模,但事实上发现串行化处理过程会引入大量噪声,从而使群组的集体输出失真。在一项有关序列化集体智能的重要研究中发现,对序列化投票系统做出贡献的第一票可能使最终结果失真34%[87]


To address the problems of serialized aggregation of input among large-scale groups, recent advancements collective intelligence have worked to replace serialized votes, polls, and markets, with parallel systems such as "human swarms" modeled after synchronous swarms in nature. Based on natural process of Swarm Intelligence, these artificial swarms of networked humans enable participants to work together in parallel to answer questions and make predictions as an emergent collective intelligence. In one high-profile example, a human swarm challenge by CBS Interactive to predict the Kentucky Derby. The swarm correctly predicted the first four horses, in order, defying 542–1 odds and turning a $20 bet into $10,800.

To address the problems of serialized aggregation of input among large-scale groups, recent advancements collective intelligence have worked to replace serialized votes, polls, and markets, with parallel systems such as "human swarms" modeled after synchronous swarms in nature. Based on natural process of Swarm Intelligence, these artificial swarms of networked humans enable participants to work together in parallel to answer questions and make predictions as an emergent collective intelligence. In one high-profile example, a human swarm challenge by CBS Interactive to predict the Kentucky Derby. The swarm correctly predicted the first four horses, in order, defying 542–1 odds and turning a $20 bet into $10,800.

为了解决大规模群体之间因为输入序列化汇总的问题,目前的进展是,集体智能已经淘汰了序列化的选票,民意测验和市场,进而采用了以自然群体为蓝本的并行系统,例如“人类集群Human swarms”[88][89]。基于 群体智能Swarm Intelligence(注意区分Collective intelligence)的自然执行过程,这些由人类联网组成的人工集群使参与者可以并行工作来解决问题,并为涌现集体智能做出预测[90]。在一个引人注目的示例中,CBS Interactive(美国著名媒体公司)进行了人类集群的挑战以预测肯塔基德比(美国著名跑马赛)。这群人正确地预测了前四匹马,顺次击败了542-1的赔率,将20美元的赌注变成了10,800美元[91]


The value of parallel collective intelligence was demonstrated in medical applications by researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine and Unanimous AI in a set of published studies wherein groups of human doctors were connected by real-time swarming algorithms and tasked with diagnosing chest x-rays for the presence of pneumonia. When working together as "human swarms," the groups of experienced radiologists demonstrated a 33% reduction in diagnostic errors as compared to traditional methods.

The value of parallel collective intelligence was demonstrated in medical applications by researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine and Unanimous AI in a set of published studies wherein groups of human doctors were connected by real-time swarming algorithms and tasked with diagnosing chest x-rays for the presence of pneumonia. When working together as "human swarms," the groups of experienced radiologists demonstrated a 33% reduction in diagnostic errors as compared to traditional methods.

斯坦福大学医学院和Unanimous A.I.的研究人员证明了在医学应用中并行集体智能的价值,在已发表的研究中,它们采用了实时集群算法将一组人类医生联系在一起,运用胸部X射线来诊断肺炎的存在[92][93]。当作为“人类集群”一起工作时,经验丰富的放射科医生小组相比较传统方法,诊断错误减少了33%.[94][95]


Evidence 证据

伍利等人(2010年)的两项初始研究中发现了集体智力因子c的标准化回归系数。c和平均(最高)成员智力得分在判据任务上得到回归。

Woolley, Chabris, Pentland, Hashmi, & Malone (2010), the originators of this scientific understanding of collective intelligence, found a single statistical factor for collective intelligence in their research across 192 groups with people randomly recruited from the public. In Woolley et al.'s two initial studies, groups worked together on different tasks from the McGrath Task Circumplex, a well-established taxonomy of group tasks. Tasks were chosen from all four quadrants of the circumplex and included visual puzzles, brainstorming, making collective moral judgments, and negotiating over limited resources. The results in these tasks were taken to conduct a factor analysis. Both studies showed support for a general collective intelligence factor c underlying differences in group performance with an initial eigenvalue accounting for 43% (44% in study 2) of the variance, whereas the next factor accounted for only 18% (20%). That fits the range normally found in research regarding a general individual intelligence factor g typically accounting for 40% to 50% percent of between-individual performance differences on cognitive tests.

Woolley, Chabris, Pentland, Hashmi, & Malone (2010), a well-established taxonomy of group tasks. Tasks were chosen from all four quadrants of the circumplex and included visual puzzles, brainstorming, making collective moral judgments, and negotiating over limited resources. The results in these tasks were taken to conduct a factor analysis. Both studies showed support for a general collective intelligence factor c underlying differences in group performance with an initial eigenvalue accounting for 43% (44% in study 2) of the variance, whereas the next factor accounted for only 18% (20%). That fits the range normally found in research regarding a general individual intelligence factor g typically accounting for 40% to 50% percent of between-individual performance differences on cognitive tests.

伍利,察布里斯,彭特兰,哈什米(2010)是集体智能这一科学概念的创始人[96]。他们在192个群体的研究中发现了集体智能的单一统计因子,这192个群体的成员均是从公众中随机招募的。研究中,每个组群都是基于 麦格拉思任务环McGrath Task Circumplex(一种完善的小组任务分类法)[97]进行合作。这些任务是从四个象限中选择的,包括视觉难题,头脑风暴,集体道德判断以及就有限的资源进行谈判。将这些任务中的结果用于因子分析。两项研究均显示出了综合集群智力因子c的特征,并且根据群体的不同表现出了一定的差异,其初始特征值约占这些差异的43%(研究2中为44%),而另一个因子仅占18%(20%)。该数据与综合个体智力因子g的范围相符,通常在认知测验中占个体间性能差异的40%至50%[98]


Afterwards, a more complex criterion task was absolved by each group measuring whether the extracted c factor had predictive power for performance outside the original task batteries. Criterion tasks were playing checkers (draughts) against a standardized computer in the first and a complex architectural design task in the second study. In a regression analysis using both individual intelligence of group members and c to predict performance on the criterion tasks, c had a significant effect, but average and maximum individual intelligence had not. While average (r=0.15, P=0.04) and maximum intelligence (r=0.19, P=0.008) of individual group members were moderately correlated with c, c was still a much better predictor of the criterion tasks. According to Woolley et al., this supports the existence of a collective intelligence factor c, because it demonstrates an effect over and beyond group members' individual intelligence and thus that c is more than just the aggregation of the individual IQs or the influence of the group member with the highest IQ.

Afterwards, a more complex criterion task was absolved by each group measuring whether the extracted c factor had predictive power for performance outside the original task batteries. Criterion tasks were playing checkers (draughts) against a standardized computer in the first and a complex architectural design task in the second study. In a regression analysis using both individual intelligence of group members and c to predict performance on the criterion tasks, c had a significant effect, but average and maximum individual intelligence had not. While average (r=0.15, P=0.04) and maximum intelligence (r=0.19, P=0.008) of individual group members were moderately correlated with c, c was still a much better predictor of the criterion tasks. According to Woolley et al., this supports the existence of a collective intelligence factor c, because it demonstrates an effect over and beyond group members' individual intelligence and thus that c is more than just the aggregation of the individual IQs or the influence of the group member with the highest IQ.

后来每个小组进行测试,验证提取c因子是否具有预测原始任务以外的能力,进而解决了更为复杂的判据任务。在第一个研究中,判据任务是在标准计算机上玩跳棋(国际跳棋),在第二个研究中则是复杂的建筑设计任务。在使用组员个人智力和c因子来预测判据任务执行情况的回归分析中,c具有显著作用,而平均和最大的个人智力则没有。虽然单个组成员的平均智力(r = 0.15,P = 0.04)和最高智力(r = 0.19,P = 0.008)与c有中等程度的相关性,但是c仍然是判据任务更好的预测指标。根据伍利等人的说法,该结果支持了集群智力因子c的存在,因为它证明了超出小组成员个人智力外的影响,因此c不仅仅是个人智商的累加,或单纯受到智商最高组员的影响[99]


Engel et al. (2014) replicated Woolley et al.'s findings applying an accelerated battery of tasks with a first factor in the factor analysis explaining 49% of the between-group variance in performance with the following factors explaining less than half of this amount. Moreover, they found a similar result for groups working together online communicating only via text and confirmed the role of female proportion and social sensitivity in causing collective intelligence in both cases. Similarly to Wolley et al., they also measured social sensitivity with the RME which is actually meant to measure people's ability to detect mental states in other peoples' eyes. The online collaborating participants, however, did neither know nor see each other at all. The authors conclude that scores on the RME must be related to a broader set of abilities of social reasoning than only drawing inferences from other people's eye expressions.

Engel et al. (2014) replicated Woolley et al.'s findings applying an accelerated battery of tasks with a first factor in the factor analysis explaining 49% of the between-group variance in performance with the following factors explaining less than half of this amount. Moreover, they found a similar result for groups working together online communicating only via text and confirmed the role of female proportion and social sensitivity in causing collective intelligence in both cases. Similarly to Wolley et al., they also measured social sensitivity with the RME which is actually meant to measure people's ability to detect mental states in other peoples' eyes. The online collaborating participants, however, did neither know nor see each other at all. The authors conclude that scores on the RME must be related to a broader set of abilities of social reasoning than only drawing inferences from other people's eye expressions.

恩格尔等人的研究(2014)在重复了伍利组员之前的研究发现[100],将加速任务组合与因子分析中的第一因素结合在一起,可以解释组间表现差异的49%,而其他因素解释占该比例一半以下。此外,他们在仅通过文本进行在线交流的小组中发现了相似的结果,并证实了女性比例和社会敏感性在两种情况下引起集体智能的作用[101]。他们还模仿伍利小组使用RME来衡量社会敏感度,为了衡测试者感受他人眼中心理状态的能力。但是,在线合作参与者根本不认识也不见面。作者得出的结论是,RME的分数必须与更广泛的社会推理能力相关,而不仅仅是从其他人的眼神表情中得出推论[102]


A collective intelligence factor c in the sense of Woolley et al. was further found in groups of MBA students working together over the course of a semester, as well as in groups from different cultures and groups in different contexts in terms of short-term versus long-term groups. None of these investigations considered team members' individual intelligence scores as control variables.

A collective intelligence factor c in the sense of Woolley et al. in online gaming groups as well as in groups from different cultures and groups in different contexts in terms of short-term versus long-term groups. None of these investigations considered team members' individual intelligence scores as control variables.

伍利他们进一步在MBA学生群体中(时间跨度为一学期)[103],在线游戏玩家群体中以及来自不同文化和不同背景的其他群体中(时间跨度分别为短期和长期组)发现了集体智力因子c。这些调查均未将团队成员的个人智力得分视为控制变量[104][105][106]


Note as well that the field of collective intelligence research is quite young and published empirical evidence is relatively rare yet. However, various proposals and working papers are in progress or already completed but (supposedly) still in a scholarly peer reviewing publication process.

Note as well that the field of collective intelligence research is quite young and published empirical evidence is relatively rare yet. However, various proposals and working papers are in progress or already completed but (supposedly) still in a scholarly peer reviewing publication process.

注意的是,集体智能研究领域仍处在初始阶段,而且公开的经验证据还很少。各种提议和文章正在进行或已经完成,但(据说)仍处于学术同行评审出版过程中[107][108][109][110]

Predictive validity 预测有效性

Next to predicting a group's performance on more complex criterion tasks as shown in the original experiments, the collective intelligence factor c was also found to predict group performance in diverse tasks in MBA classes lasting over several months. Thereby, highly collectively intelligent groups earned significantly higher scores on their group assignments although their members did not do any better on other individually performed assignments. Moreover, highly collective intelligent teams improved performance over time suggesting that more collectively intelligent teams learn better. This is another potential parallel to individual intelligence where more intelligent people are found to acquire new material quicker.

Next to predicting a group's performance on more complex criterion tasks as shown in the original experiments, the collective intelligence factor c was also found to predict group performance in diverse tasks in MBA classes lasting over several months. Thereby, highly collectively intelligent groups earned significantly higher scores on their group assignments although their members did not do any better on other individually performed assignments. Moreover, highly collective intelligent teams improved performance over time suggesting that more collectively intelligent teams learn better. This is another potential parallel to individual intelligence where more intelligent people are found to acquire new material quicker.

集体智力因子c除了能预测团队在判据任务(初始实验中相对较复杂任务)上的表现外,还能够预测持续数月的MBA课程中各种任务的团队绩效[111]。因此,尽管组员在其他单独执行任务上没有做得很好,但具有高度集体智能的小组在团队任务上得分明显更高。此外,具有高度集体智能的团队会随着时间推移逐渐提高能力,这表明团队智力的集合性越高,其本身的学习能力约好。这类似于个人智力的性质,即聪明人越多,团队可以更快地获取新材料[112][113]


Individual intelligence can be used to predict plenty of life outcomes from school attainment to health outcomes Whether collective intelligence is able to predict other outcomes besides group performance on mental tasks has still to be investigated.

Individual intelligence can be used to predict plenty of life outcomes from school attainment and career success to health outcomes and even mortality. Whether collective intelligence is able to predict other outcomes besides group performance on mental tasks has still to be investigated.

个体智力可以用来预测从学业事业的成功到健康甚至死亡的大量生活场景[114]。除了在智力任务上的表现外,集体智能是否能够预测其他结果尚待研究。


Potential connections to individual intelligence 与个人智力的潜在联系

Gladwell (2008) showed that the relationship between individual IQ and success works only to a certain point and that additional IQ points over an estimate of IQ 120 do not translate into real life advantages. If a similar border exists for Group-IQ or if advantages are linear and infinite, has still to be explored. Similarly, demand for further research on possible connections of individual and collective intelligence exists within plenty of other potentially transferable logics of individual intelligence, such as, for instance, the development over time a group's collective intelligence potentially offers simpler opportunities for improvement by exchanging team members or implementing structures and technologies. as well as watching drama movies.In how far such training ultimately improves collective intelligence through social sensitivity remains an open question.

Gladwell (2008) showed that the relationship between individual IQ and success works only to a certain point and that additional IQ points over an estimate of IQ 120 do not translate into real life advantages. If a similar border exists for Group-IQ or if advantages are linear and infinite, has still to be explored. Similarly, demand for further research on possible connections of individual and collective intelligence exists within plenty of other potentially transferable logics of individual intelligence, such as, for instance, the development over time or the question of improving intelligence. Whereas it is controversial whether human intelligence can be enhanced via training, as well as watching drama movies. In how far such training ultimately improves collective intelligence through social sensitivity remains an open question.

格拉德威尔Gladwell(2008)[115]指出,个人智商与成功之间的关系仅在一定程度上起作用,而且智商超过120以上的其他智力点并不能转化为现实生活中的优势。是否Group-IQ存在相似的边界?或者优势是线性的和无限的?这仍然有待探索。同样,对个人智力和集体智力之间的联系也需要进一步探究,是否存在个人智力其他潜在因素可以转移到集体智力中?例如随着时间的推移自我进化或智力提高[116][117]。尽管目前对于是否能通过培训来增强人类智力这一论点存在争议,但一个团队的集体智力是可以潜在性地通过交换组员或实施结构和技术上的提升来改进的。此外,人们发现阅读文学小说[118]以及看戏曲电影[119]至少可以暂时改善社会敏感性。但是社会敏感性培训最终是否能提高集体智力以及在多大程度上提高集体智力,这仍然是一个悬而未决的问题[120]


There are further more advanced concepts and factor models attempting to explain individual cognitive ability including the categorization of intelligence in fluid and crystallized intelligence or the hierarchical model of intelligence differences. Further supplementing explanations and conceptualizations for the factor structure of the Genomes of collective intelligence besides a general c factor', though, are missing yet.

There are further more advanced concepts and factor models attempting to explain individual cognitive ability including the categorization of intelligence in fluid and crystallized intelligence or the hierarchical model of intelligence differences. Further supplementing explanations and conceptualizations for the factor structure of the Genomes of collective intelligence besides a general c factor', though, are missing yet.

还有更多更高级的概念和因子模型试图解释个体的认知能力,包括流体智力和晶体智力[121][122]或智力差异的分层模型.[123][124]。但是,除了通用的“c因子”外,目前并没有对集体智力基因组的因子结构采取进一步补充说明和概念化[125]


Controversies 争议

Other scholars explain team performance by aggregating team members' general intelligence to the team level instead of building an own overall collective intelligence measure. Devine and Philips (2001) showed in a meta-analysis that mean cognitive ability predicts team performance in laboratory settings (.37) as well as field settings (.14) – note that this is only a small effect. Suggesting a strong dependence on the relevant tasks, other scholars showed that tasks requiring a high degree of communication and cooperation are found to be most influenced by the team member with the lowest cognitive ability. Tasks in which selecting the best team member is the most successful strategy, are shown to be most influenced by the member with the highest cognitive ability.

Other scholars explain team performance by aggregating team members' general intelligence to the team level instead of building an own overall collective intelligence measure. Devine and Philips (2001) showed in a meta-analysis that mean cognitive ability predicts team performance in laboratory settings (.37) as well as field settings (.14) – note that this is only a small effect. Suggesting a strong dependence on the relevant tasks, other scholars showed that tasks requiring a high degree of communication and cooperation are found to be most influenced by the team member with the lowest cognitive ability. Tasks in which selecting the best team member is the most successful strategy, are shown to be most influenced by the member with the highest cognitive ability.

有的学者通过将团队成员的综合智力进行汇总到团队级别来解释团队能力,而不是建立团队自身的集群智力指标[126][127]。迪瓦恩Devine和飞利浦Philips(2001)在一项Meta综合分析中表明[128],认知能力可以预测团队在实验室环境(.37)和现场环境(.14)中的表现,但是请注意,这只是很小的影响。其他学者认为这相当依赖于不同的相关任务,他们表示那些需要高度沟通与合作的任务其实受认知能力最低组员的影响最大[129]。因此选择最佳组员是成功的关键策略,这些任务受认知能力最高的成员影响最大[130]


Since Woolley et al.'s results do not show any influence of group satisfaction, group cohesiveness, or motivation, they, at least implicitly, challenge these concepts regarding the importance for group performance in general and thus contrast meta-analytically proven evidence concerning the positive effects of group cohesion, motivation and satisfaction on group performance.

Since Woolley et al.'s[9] results do not show any influence of group satisfaction, group cohesiveness, or motivation, they, at least implicitly, challenge these concepts regarding the importance for group performance in general and thus contrast meta-analytically proven evidence concerning the positive effects of group cohesion,[106][107][108] motivation[109][110] and satisfaction[111] on group performance.

由于伍利等人的结果并未显示出团队满意度,团队凝聚力或动机的任何影响,因此他们仅隐含地挑战了这些观点,并表示了其总体上对团队绩效的重要性。通过Meta综合分析,他们证明了团队凝聚力[131][132][133],动机[134][135]和满意度[136]对团队绩效的积极影响。


Noteworthy is also that the involved researchers among the confirming findings widely overlap with each other and with the authors participating in the original first study around Anita Woolley.

Noteworthy is also that the involved researchers among the confirming findings widely overlap with each other and with the authors participating in the original first study around Anita Woolley.

值得一提的是,确认结果中涉及的研究人员之间,以及与参与有关Anita Woolley最初第一项研究的作者之间也存在广泛的重叠[137][138][139][140][141]


Alternative mathematical techniques 其他数学替代技术

Computational collective intelligence 计算集体智能

计算集体智能

In 2001, Tadeusz (Tad) Szuba from the AGH University in Poland proposed a formal model for the phenomenon of collective intelligence. It is assumed to be an unconscious, random, parallel, and distributed computational process, run in mathematical logic by the social structure.

In 2001, Tadeusz (Tad) Szuba from the AGH University in Poland proposed a formal model for the phenomenon of collective intelligence. It is assumed to be an unconscious, random, parallel, and distributed computational process, run in mathematical logic by the social structure.

2001年,来自波兰AGH科技大学的Tadeusz(Tad)Szuba提出了一种具有集体智能现象的正式模型。模型假定是一个无意识,随机,并行和分布式的计算程序,其社会结构以数学逻辑方式运行[142]


In this model, beings and information are modeled as abstract information molecules carrying expressions of mathematical logic. They are quasi-randomly displacing due to their interaction with their environments with their intended displacements. Their interaction in abstract computational space creates multi-thread inference process which we perceive as collective intelligence. Thus, a non-Turing model of computation is used. This theory allows simple formal definition of collective intelligence as the property of social structure and seems to be working well for a wide spectrum of beings, from bacterial colonies up to human social structures. Collective intelligence considered as a specific computational process is providing a straightforward explanation of several social phenomena. For this model of collective intelligence, the formal definition of IQS (IQ Social) was proposed and was defined as "the probability function over the time and domain of N-element inferences which are reflecting inference activity of the social structure". While IQS seems to be computationally hard, modeling of social structure in terms of a computational process as described above gives a chance for approximation. Prospective applications are optimization of companies through the maximization of their IQS, and the analysis of drug resistance against collective intelligence of bacterial colonies.

In this model, beings and information are modeled as abstract information molecules carrying expressions of mathematical logic. They are quasi-randomly displacing due to their interaction with their environments with their intended displacements. Their interaction in abstract computational space creates multi-thread inference process which we perceive as collective intelligence. Thus, a non-Turing model of computation is used. This theory allows simple formal definition of collective intelligence as the property of social structure and seems to be working well for a wide spectrum of beings, from bacterial colonies up to human social structures. Collective intelligence considered as a specific computational process is providing a straightforward explanation of several social phenomena. For this model of collective intelligence, the formal definition of IQS (IQ Social) was proposed and was defined as "the probability function over the time and domain of N-element inferences which are reflecting inference activity of the social structure". While IQS seems to be computationally hard, modeling of social structure in terms of a computational process as described above gives a chance for approximation. Prospective applications are optimization of companies through the maximization of their IQS, and the analysis of drug resistance against collective intelligence of bacterial colonies.

在此模型中,将真实环境中的生物和信息两部分进行建模,表示为带有数学逻辑表达式的抽象信息分子。由于它们与环境之间的相互作用,以及它们自身带有的目标位移属性,会准随机地进行挪动。随后,它们会在抽象的计算空间中交互,进而创建多线程推导处理程序,其过程则被视为集体智能。因此,非图灵计算模型被采用。该理论将集体智能简单定义为社会结构的属性,而且似乎对于各类生物(从细菌菌落到人类社会结构)均适用。集体智能被视为是一种特定的计算过程,它为几种社会现象提供了直接的解释。对于这种集体智能模型,科学家们提出了IQS(即IQ社会)的正式定义,并将其定义为“在时间和N元素推理域(反映社会结构推理活动)上的概率函数”。IQS在计算上似乎很难,但是根据如上所述的计算过程对社会结构进行建模的话,可以得到近似的结果。通过最大化IQS,公司可以优化其潜在的应用,另外医学上,也可以对细菌菌落的集体智能进行建模,来分析耐药性。


Collective intelligence quotient 集体智商

One measure sometimes applied, especially by more artificial intelligence focused theorists, is a "collective intelligence quotient" (or "cooperation quotient") – which can be normalized from the "individual" intelligence quotient (IQ) – thus making it possible to determine the marginal intelligence added by each new individual participating in the collective action, thus using metrics to avoid the hazards of group think and stupidity.

One measure sometimes applied, especially by more artificial intelligence focused theorists, is a "collective intelligence quotient" (or "cooperation quotient") – which can be normalized from the "individual" intelligence quotient (IQ) – thus making it possible to determine the marginal intelligence added by each new individual participating in the collective action, thus using metrics to avoid the hazards of group think and stupidity

有时候我们会采用另一种度量方式表达,称为“ 集体智商Collective intelligence quotient” (或“ 合作商Cooperation quotient”)[143],它特别受到以人工智能为研究重点的理论家的青睐。它可以由“个体”智商归一化处理后得到。因此可以进一步确定参加集体行动的新增组员所带来的额外边际智商,还可以使用度量标准来避免由群体愚蠢思维带来的危险[144]


Applications 应用

集体智慧最近有许多应用,包括在众包、公民科学和预测市场等领域。内斯塔集体智慧设计中心[145]于2018年成立,已经完成了许多申请调查以及资助实验

Elicitation of point estimates 评估点提取

Here, the goal is to get an estimate (in a single value) of something. For example, estimating the weight of an object, or the release date of a product or probability of success of a project etc. as seen in prediction markets like Intrade, HSX or InklingMarkets and also in several implementations of crowdsourced estimation of a numeric outcome. Essentially, we try to get the average value of the estimates provided by the members in the crowd.

Here, the goal is to get an estimate (in a single value) of something. For example, estimating the weight of an object, or the release date of a product or probability of success of a project etc. as seen in prediction markets like Intrade, HSX or InklingMarkets and also in several implementations of crowdsourced estimation of a numeric outcome. Essentially, we try to get the average value of the estimates provided by the members in the crowd.

关于集体智能,其应用目标之一是获得某个变量的估计值(单个值)。例如估算物体的重量,产品的发布日期或项目成功的概率等。其应用场景可以是在Intrade,HSX或InklingMarkets等预测市场中,亦或在对数字结果进行众包估计的几种实操过程中。从本质上讲是尝试获取指定群体中成员提供的估计平均值。


Opinion aggregation 意见汇总

In this situation, opinions are gathered from the crowd regarding an idea, issue or product. For example, trying to get a rating (on some scale) of a product sold online (such as Amazon's star rating system). Here, the emphasis is to collect and simply aggregate the ratings provided by customers/users.

In this situation, opinions are gathered from the crowd regarding an idea, issue or product. For example, trying to get a rating (on some scale) of a product sold online (such as Amazon's star rating system). Here, the emphasis is to collect and simply aggregate the ratings provided by customers/users.

在这种场景下,集体智能可用于收集人群中相关的不同想法,问题或产品的意见。例如,尝试对在线销售的产品(例如亚马逊的星级评分系统)进行某种程度的评级。这里重点是收集并简单地汇总客户/用户提供的评级。


Idea Collection 想法收集

In these problems, someone solicits ideas for projects, designs or solutions from the crowd. For example, ideas on solving a data science problem (as in Kaggle) or getting a good design for a T-shirt (as in Threadless) or in getting answers to simple problems that only humans can do well (as in Amazon's Mechanical Turk). The objective is to gather the ideas and devise some selection criteria to choose the best ideas.

In these problems, someone solicits ideas for projects, designs or solutions from the crowd. For example, ideas on solving a data science problem (as in Kaggle) or getting a good design for a T-shirt (as in Threadless) or in getting answers to simple problems that only humans can do well (as in Amazon's Mechanical Turk). The objective is to gather the ideas and devise some selection criteria to choose the best ideas.

在处理问题的时候,集体智能也可以用于从人群中收集相关项目的想法,设计或解决方案。例如,关于解决数据科学问题的想法(类似在Kaggle中),获得T恤衫良好设计的想法(类似在Threadless中),或者收集仅人类能处理的简单问题的答案(类似在Amazon的Mechanical Turk中)。这里的目标是收集各种想法并设计选择标准来从中筛选出最佳方案。


James Surowiecki divides the advantages of disorganized decision-making into three main categories, which are cognition, cooperation and coordination.

James Surowiecki divides the advantages of disorganized decision-making into three main categories, which are cognition, cooperation and coordination.

纽约客商业专栏作家詹姆斯·苏洛维奇James Surowiecki将无组织决策的优势分为三个主要类别,即认知,合作和协调[146]

Cognition 认知

Market judgment 市场判断

Because of the Internet's ability to rapidly convey large amounts of information throughout the world, the use of collective intelligence to predict stock prices and stock price direction has become increasingly viable. Websites aggregate stock market information that is as current as possible so professional or amateur stock analysts can publish their viewpoints, enabling amateur investors to submit their financial opinions and create an aggregate opinion. The opinion of all investor can be weighed equally so that a pivotal premise of the effective application of collective intelligence can be applied: the masses, including a broad spectrum of stock market expertise, can be utilized to more accurately predict the behavior of financial markets.

Because of the Internet's ability to rapidly convey large amounts of information throughout the world, the use of collective intelligence to predict stock prices and stock price direction has become increasingly viable. Websites aggregate stock market information that is as current as possible so professional or amateur stock analysts can publish their viewpoints, enabling amateur investors to submit their financial opinions and create an aggregate opinion.The opinion of all investor can be weighed equally so that a pivotal premise of the effective application of collective intelligence can be applied: the masses, including a broad spectrum of stock market expertise, can be utilized to more accurately predict the behavior of financial markets.

由于英特网具有在全球范围内快速传递大量信息的能力,因此使用集体智能来预测股票价格和股票价格方向已变得越来越可行。网站汇总了尽可能最新的股票市场信息,以便专业或业余股票分析师可以发布其观点,从而使业余投资者可以提交其金融见解并创建汇总意见[147]。这些投资者的意见可以加权平均,以便将有效地运用集体智能作为关键前提:利用群众,包括广泛的股市专业知识,来更准确地预测金融市场的行为[148]


Collective intelligence underpins the efficient-market hypothesis of Eugene Fama in which 89 out of 115 selected funds underperformed relative to the index during the period from 1955 to 1964. But after removing the loading charge (up-front fee) only 72 underperformed while after removing brokerage costs only 58 underperformed. On the basis of such evidence index funds became popular investment vehicles using the collective intelligence of the market, rather than the judgement of professional fund managers, as an investment strategy.

Collective intelligence underpins the efficient-market hypothesis of Eugene Fama – although the term collective intelligence is not used explicitly in his paper. Fama cites research conducted by Michael Jensen in which 89 out of 115 selected funds underperformed relative to the index during the period from 1955 to 1964. But after removing the loading charge (up-front fee) only 72 underperformed while after removing brokerage costs only 58 underperformed. On the basis of such evidence index funds became popular investment vehicles using the collective intelligence of the market, rather than the judgement of professional fund managers, as an investment strategy.

集体智能巩固了尤金·法玛Eugene Fama的有效市场假说[149],尽管集体智能这个词在他的论文中并未明确使用。法玛引用了迈克尔·詹森Michael Jensen的研究,在1955年至1964年期间,115个精选基金中有89个相对于该指数表现不佳。但是,在取消了加载费用(前期费用)之后,只有72个基金表现不佳,而在去除经纪费用之后,剩下了58个。在这些证据的基础上,指数基金成为了市场投资工具,使用市场的集体智能而不是专业基金经理的判断作为投资策略[150]


Predictions in politics and technology 政治和技术预测

美国2016年使用的投票方法

Political parties mobilize large numbers of people to form policy, select candidates and finance and run election campaigns. Knowledge focusing through various voting methods allows perspectives to converge through the assumption that uninformed voting is to some degree random and can be filtered from the decision process leaving only a residue of informed consensus. Critics point out that often bad ideas, misunderstandings, and misconceptions are widely held, and that structuring of the decision process must favor experts who are presumably less prone to random or misinformed voting in a given context.

Political parties mobilize large numbers of people to form policy, select candidates and finance and run election campaigns. Knowledge focusing through various voting methods allows perspectives to converge through the assumption that uninformed voting is to some degree random and can be filtered from the decision process leaving only a residue of informed consensus.Critics point out that often bad ideas, misunderstandings, and misconceptions are widely held, and that structuring of the decision process must favor experts who are presumably less prone to random or misinformed voting in a given context.

政党动员了大量人力制定政策,选拔候选人和资助并开展竞选活动[151]。通过各种投票方法集中信息,使观点融合假设,不知情者的投票在某种程度上可视为是随机的,可以从决策过程中过滤掉,仅留下有共识的知情者的投票。批评家指出,坏主意,误解和谬见通常会广泛存在,因此决策过程的结构必须有利于那些在给定背景下,不大可能出现随机或者误导投票的专家[152]


Companies such as Affinnova (acquired by Nielsen), Google, InnoCentive, Marketocracy, and Threadless have successfully employed the concept of collective intelligence in bringing about the next generation of technological changes through their research and development (R&D), customer service, and knowledge management. An example of such application is Google's Project Aristotle in 2012, where the effect of collective intelligence on team makeup was examined in hundreds of the company's R&D teams.

Companies such as Affinnova (acquired by Nielsen), Google, InnoCentive, Marketocracy, and Threadless have successfully employed the concept of collective intelligence in bringing about the next generation of technological changes through their research and development (R&D), customer service, and knowledge management. An example of such application is Google's Project Aristotle in 2012, where the effect of collective intelligence on team makeup was examined in hundreds of the company's R&D teams.

诸如Affinnova(被尼尔森收购),Google,InnoCentive,Marketocracy和Threadless[153]等公司已经成功地采用了集体智能的概念[154],通过其研发(R&D),客户服务和知识管理实现了下一代技术变革[155]。这种应用的一个例子是2012年谷歌的亚里士多德项目,在该项目中,集体智慧对团队组成的影响在数百个公司的研发团队中进行了研究[156]

Cooperation 合作

Networks of trust 信任网络

集体智能在千年计划中的应用

In 2012, the Global Futures Collective Intelligence System (GFIS) was created by The Millennium Project, which epitomizes collective intelligence as the synergistic intersection among data/information/knowledge, software/hardware, and expertise/insights that has a recursive learning process for better decision-making than the individual players alone.

In 2012, the Global Futures Collective Intelligence System (GFIS) was created by The Millennium Project, which epitomizes collective intelligence as the synergistic intersection among data/information/knowledge, software/hardware, and expertise/insights that has a recursive learning process for better decision-making than the individual players alone.

2012年,千年计划[157]创建了 全球集体智能系统Global Futures Collective Intelligence System(GFIS),因为它将数据/信息/知识,软件/硬件以及技术/见解进行了协同处理,使其成为了集体智能最贴切的代表。与单独的各项参与模块相比,它具有递归学习的处理能力,可以更好地进行决策[158]


New media are often associated with the promotion and enhancement of collective intelligence. The ability of new media to easily store and retrieve information, predominantly through databases and the Internet, allows for it to be shared without difficulty. Thus, through interaction with new media, knowledge easily passes between sources 模板:Harv resulting in a form of collective intelligence. The use of interactive new media, particularly the internet, promotes online interaction and this distribution of knowledge between users.

New media are often associated with the promotion and enhancement of collective intelligence. The ability of new media to easily store and retrieve information, predominantly through databases and the Internet, allows for it to be shared without difficulty. Thus, through interaction with new media, knowledge easily passes between sources resulting in a form of collective intelligence. The use of interactive new media, particularly the internet, promotes online interaction and this distribution of knowledge between users.

另外新媒体也可以促进增强集体智能。其通过数据库和英特网轻松存储和检索信息的能力使得信息共享毫无困难。因此,通过与新媒体的互动,知识很容易在资源之间传递(Flew 2008),从而形成了集体智能。交互式新媒体(尤其是互联网)的使用促进了在线互动以及用户之间的知识分配。


Francis Heylighen, Valentin Turchin, and Gottfried Mayer-Kress are among those who view collective intelligence through the lens of computer science and cybernetics. In their view, the Internet enables collective intelligence at the widest, planetary scale, thus facilitating the emergence of a global brain.

Francis Heylighen, Valentin Turchin, and Gottfried Mayer-Kress are among those who view collective intelligence through the lens of computer science and cybernetics. In their view, the Internet enables collective intelligence at the widest, planetary scale, thus facilitating the emergence of a global brain.

弗朗西斯·海里格森Francis Heylighen,瓦伦丁·图尔钦Valentin Turchin和Gottfried Mayer-Kress都是通过计算机科学和控制论的视角看待集体智能。他们认为,互联网可以在最广泛的地球尺度上实现集体智能,从而促进全球大脑的出现[159]


The developer of the World Wide Web, Tim Berners-Lee, aimed to promote sharing and publishing of information globally. Later his employer opened up the technology for free use. In the early '90s, the Internet's potential was still untapped, until the mid-1990s when 'critical mass', as termed by the head of the Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA), Dr. J.C.R. Licklider, demanded more accessibility and utility. The driving force of this Internet-based collective intelligence is the digitization of information and communication. Henry Jenkins, a key theorist of new media and media convergence draws on the theory that collective intelligence can be attributed to media convergence and participatory culture 模板:Harv. He criticizes contemporary education for failing to incorporate online trends of collective problem solving into the classroom, stating "whereas a collective intelligence community encourages ownership of work as a group, schools grade individuals". Jenkins argues that interaction within a knowledge community builds vital skills for young people, and teamwork through collective intelligence communities contribute to the development of such skills.

The developer of the World Wide Web, Tim Berners-Lee, aimed to promote sharing and publishing of information globally. Later his employer opened up the technology for free use. In the early '90s, the Internet's potential was still untapped, until the mid-1990s when 'critical mass', as termed by the head of the Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA), Dr. J.C.R. Licklider, demanded more accessibility and utility. The driving force of this Internet-based collective intelligence is the digitization of information and communication. Henry Jenkins, a key theorist of new media and media convergence draws on the theory that collective intelligence can be attributed to media convergence and participatory culture . He criticizes contemporary education for failing to incorporate online trends of collective problem solving into the classroom, stating "whereas a collective intelligence community encourages ownership of work as a group, schools grade individuals". Jenkins argues that interaction within a knowledge community builds vital skills for young people, and teamwork through collective intelligence communities contribute to the development of such skills. Collective intelligence is not merely a quantitative contribution of information from all cultures, it is also qualitative.

万维网创始人蒂姆·伯纳斯·李Tim Berners-Lee,曾以促进全球信息共享和发作为目标开发了万维网。后来,他的雇主开放了该技术以供大家免费使用。在90年代初期,互联网的潜力一直没有得到开发,直到1990年代中期,高级研究计划局(ARPA)负责人J.C.R. Licklider博士将其称为“临界质量”,并要求其具有更强的可访问性和实用性[160]。这种基于互联网的集体智能驱动力是信息和通信的数字化。研究新媒体出现和媒体融合的关键理论家Henry Jenkins借鉴了其概念,认为集体智能可以归因于媒体融合和参与性文化(Flew 2008)。他批判当代教育未能将集体智能理念的趋势纳入课堂,比如说可以通过在线集群智慧解决问题这一思想。并指出“通过集体智能社区鼓励以集体为单位进行工作学习,而学校则需要对个人评分”。詹金斯认为,知识社区内的互动为年轻人创造了至关重要的技能,而通过集体智能社区的团队合作则有助于此类技能的发展。集体智能不仅是来自所有文化信息的定量贡献,同样也是定性存在[161]


Lévy and de Kerckhove consider CI from a mass communications perspective, focusing on the ability of networked information and communication technologies to enhance the community knowledge pool. They suggest that these communications tools enable humans to interact and to share and collaborate with both ease and speed (Flew 2008). With the development of the Internet and its widespread use, the opportunity to contribute to knowledge-building communities, such as Wikipedia, is greater than ever before. These computer networks give participating users the opportunity to store and to retrieve knowledge through the collective access to these databases and allow them to "harness the hive" Press.|year=2008|isbn=|location=Melbourne|pages=|quote=|via=}}</ref> Researchers at the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence research and explore collective intelligence of groups of people and computers.

Lévy and de Kerckhove consider CI from a mass communications perspective, focusing on the ability of networked information and communication technologies to enhance the community knowledge pool. They suggest that these communications tools enable humans to interact and to share and collaborate with both ease and speed (Flew 2008). With the development of the Internet and its widespread use, the opportunity to contribute to knowledge-building communities, such as Wikipedia, is greater than ever before. These computer networks give participating users the opportunity to store and to retrieve knowledge through the collective access to these databases and allow them to "harness the hive" Researchers at the MIT Center for Collective Intelligence research and explore collective intelligence of groups of people and computers.

莱维Lévy和德克霍夫de Kerckhove从大众传播的角度考虑了CI,特别是专注用网络信息和通信技术来增强社区知识库的能力。他们认为,这些通信工具可以使人们能够轻松快捷地进行交互,共享和协作(Flew 2008)。随着互联网的发展及其广泛使用,为诸如Wikipedia之类的知识社区做出贡献的机会比以往任何时候都要大。这些计算机网络使参与活动的用户有机会通过对这些数据库的集体式访问来存储和检索知识,同时还允许他们“驾驭蜂巢”,这是麻省理工学院集体智能中心的研究人员的任务,它们一直在探索人和计算机群体的集体智能[162]


In this context collective intelligence is often confused with shared knowledge. The former is the sum total of information held individually by members of a community while the latter is information that is believed to be true and known by all members of the community. Collective intelligence as represented by Web 2.0 has less user engagement than collaborative intelligence. An art project using Web 2.0 platforms is "Shared Galaxy", an experiment developed by an anonymous artist to create a collective identity that shows up as one person on several platforms like MySpace, Facebook, YouTube and Second Life. The password is written in the profiles and the accounts named "Shared Galaxy" are open to be used by anyone. In this way many take part in being one. Another art project using collective intelligence to produce artistic work is Curatron, where a large group of artists together decides on a smaller group that they think would make a good collaborative group. The process is used based on an algorithm computing the collective preferences In creating what he calls 'CI-Art', Nova Scotia based artist Mathew Aldred follows Pierry Lévy's definition of collective intelligence. Aldred's CI-Art event in March 2016 involved over four hundred people from the community of Oxford, Nova Scotia, and internationally. Later work developed by Aldred used the UNU swarm intelligence system to create digital drawings and paintings. The Oxford Riverside Gallery (Nova Scotia) held a public CI-Art event in May 2016, which connected with online participants internationally.

In this context collective intelligence is often confused with shared knowledge. The former is the sum total of information held individually by members of a community while the latter is information that is believed to be true and known by all members of the community. Collective intelligence as represented by Web 2.0 has less user engagement than collaborative intelligence. An art project using Web 2.0 platforms is "Shared Galaxy", an experiment developed by an anonymous artist to create a collective identity that shows up as one person on several platforms like MySpace, Facebook, YouTube and Second Life. The password is written in the profiles and the accounts named "Shared Galaxy" are open to be used by anyone. In this way many take part in being one. Another art project using collective intelligence to produce artistic work is Curatron, where a large group of artists together decides on a smaller group that they think would make a good collaborative group. The process is used based on an algorithm computing the collective preferences In creating what he calls 'CI-Art', Nova Scotia based artist Mathew Aldred follows Pierry Lévy's definition of collective intelligence. Aldred's CI-Art event in March 2016 involved over four hundred people from the community of Oxford, Nova Scotia, and internationally. Later work developed by Aldred used the UNU swarm intelligence system to create digital drawings and paintings. The Oxford Riverside Gallery (Nova Scotia) held a public CI-Art event in May 2016, which connected with online participants internationally.

在这种情况下,集体智能常常与共享知识相混淆。前者是社区成员单独持有的信息的总和,而后者是社区所有成员都认为是真实且已知的信息[163]。以Web 2.0为代表的集体智能比协作智能具有更少的用户参与度。使用Web 2.0平台的艺术项目“共享银河”,是一个由匿名艺术家开发的实验,目的是创建一个集体身份,并在MySpace,Facebook,YouTube和Second Life等多个平台上以这个集体身份出现。密码将写在配置文件中,并且名为“ Shared Galaxy”的帐户开放给任何人使用。通过这种方式,许多人成为一体[164]。Curatron是另一个利用集体智能创作艺术作品的艺术项目,其中一大批艺术家共同决定建立一个较小的团队,他们对其团队的协作表现非常自信。该项目基于一种计算集体偏好的算法[165]。在创建他所谓的“ CI艺术”时,新斯科舍省的艺术家马修·阿尔德雷德Mathew Aldred遵循了皮耶·列维对集体智能的定义[166]。2016年3月,奥尔德雷德的CI-Art活动吸引了来自牛津,新斯科舍省和全球的400多人参加。奥尔德雷德后来开发的工作使用联合国大学群体智能系统来创建数字绘图。牛津河畔画廊(新斯科舍省)于2016年5月举办了一次公共CI艺术活动,与国际在线参与者建立联系[167]


育儿社交网络和协作标签是自动IPTV内容阻止系统的基础

In social bookmarking (also called collaborative tagging), users assign tags to resources shared with other users, which gives rise to a type of information organisation that emerges from this crowdsourcing process. The resulting information structure can be seen as reflecting the collective knowledge (or collective intelligence) of a community of users and is commonly called a "Folksonomy", and the process can be captured by models of collaborative tagging.

In social bookmarking (also called collaborative tagging), users assign tags to resources shared with other users, which gives rise to a type of information organisation that emerges from this crowdsourcing process. The resulting information structure can be seen as reflecting the collective knowledge (or collective intelligence) of a community of users and is commonly called a "Folksonomy", and the process can be captured by models of collaborative tagging.

在社交书签(也称为协作标签)中,用户将标签分配给与其他用户共享的资源中,继而从这种众包过程中产生了一种信息组织。最终的信息结构可以看作反映用户社区的集体知识(或集体智能),通常被称为“大众分类”,这个过程可以通过协作标记模型来捕获[168]


Recent research using data from the social bookmarking website Delicious, has shown that collaborative tagging systems exhibit a form of complex systems (or self-organizing) dynamics.Harry Halpin, Valentin Robu, Hana Shepherd Although there is no central controlled vocabulary to constrain the actions of individual users, the distributions of tags that describe different resources has been shown to converge over time to a stable power law distributions. Once such stable distributions form, examining the correlations between different tags can be used to construct simple folksonomy graphs, which can be efficiently partitioned to obtained a form of community or shared vocabularies.Valentin Robu, Harry Halpin,

Recent research using data from the social bookmarking website Delicious, has shown that collaborative tagging systems exhibit a form of complex systems (or self-organizing) dynamics. Although there is no central controlled vocabulary to constrain the actions of individual users, the distributions of tags that describe different resources has been shown to converge over time to a stable power law distributions. Such vocabularies can be seen as a form of collective intelligence, emerging from the decentralised actions of a community of users. The Wall-it Project is also an example of social bookmarking.

近期,通过对社会书签网站Delicious的数据的研究表明,协作标签系统表现出一种复杂的系统(或自组织)动态形式。尽管没有中央控制来约束单个用户的操作,但是不同资源标签的分布已显示出会随着时间推移,逐渐收敛到稳定的幂律分布[169]。一旦这种稳定的分布形成,就可以利用不同标签之间的相关性来构建简单的大众分类图,进而可以对其有效的划分,以获得社区或共享词汇表的形式[170]。这些词汇可以看作是集体智能的一种形式,它源于用户社区的分散行动。Wall-it项目也是社交书签的一个示例[171]


P2P business P2P业务

Research performed by Tapscott and Williams has provided a few examples of the benefits of collective intelligence to business:

Research performed by Tapscott and Williams has provided a few examples of the benefits of collective intelligence to business:

Tapscott和Williams进行的研究提供了一些示例,说明了集体智能对企业的好处[172]


Talent utilization

Talent utilization

人才利用

At the rate technology is changing, no firm can fully keep up in the innovations needed to compete. Instead, smart firms are drawing on the power of mass collaboration to involve participation of the people they could not employ. This also helps generate continual interest in the firm in the form of those drawn to new idea creation as well as investment opportunities.[45]

At the rate technology is changing, no firm can fully keep up in the innovations needed to compete. Instead, smart firms are drawing on the power of mass collaboration to involve participation of the people they could not employ. This also helps generate continual interest in the firm in the form of those drawn to new idea creation as well as investment opportunities.

随着技术发展速率的变化,没有一家公司能够完全跟上竞争所需的创新。相反,聪明的公司正在利用大规模协作的力量来吸引他们无法雇用的人员。这也有助于公司持续地有兴趣去吸引新创意和投资机会的出现。


Demand creation

Demand creation

需求创造

Firms can create a new market for complementary goods by engaging in open source community. Firms also are able to expand into new fields that they previously would not have been able to without the addition of resources and collaboration from the community. This creates, as mentioned before, a new market for complementary goods for the products in said new fields.[45]

Firms can create a new market for complementary goods by engaging in open source community. Firms also are able to expand into new fields that they previously would not have been able to without the addition of resources and collaboration from the community. This creates, as mentioned before, a new market for complementary goods for the products in said new fields.

企业可以通过参与开放源代码社区来创建互补商品的新市场。即使没有社区的资源和协作,企业也可以扩展到以前无法实现的新领域。如前所述,这为所述新领域中商品的互补产品创造了新市场。


Costs reduction

Costs reduction

降低成本

Mass collaboration can help to reduce costs dramatically. Firms can release a specific software or product to be evaluated or debugged by online communities. The results will be more personal, robust and error-free products created in a short amount of time and costs. New ideas can also be generated and explored by collaboration of online communities creating opportunities for free R&D outside the confines of the company.[45]

Mass collaboration can help to reduce costs dramatically. Firms can release a specific software or product to be evaluated or debugged by online communities. The results will be more personal, robust and error-free products created in a short amount of time and costs. New ideas can also be generated and explored by collaboration of online communities creating opportunities for free R&D outside the confines of the company.

大规模协作可以帮助大幅降低成本。公司可以发布特定软件或产品,以供在线社区进行评估或调试。最终将会在较短的时间和成本下生产出更具个性化,功能强大且无失误的产品。在线社区的协作也可以产生和探索新的想法,从而为公司范围之外的免费研发创造机会。


Open source software 开源软件

Cultural theorist and online community developer, John Banks considered the contribution of online fan communities in the creation of the Trainz product. He argued that its commercial success was fundamentally dependent upon "the formation and growth of an active and vibrant online fan community that would both actively promote the product and create content- extensions and additions to the game software".

Cultural theorist and online community developer, John Banks considered the contribution of online fan communities in the creation of the Trainz product. He argued that its commercial success was fundamentally dependent upon "the formation and growth of an active and vibrant online fan community that would both actively promote the product and create content- extensions and additions to the game software".

文化理论家和在线社区开发人员约翰·班克斯John Banks考虑在线粉丝社区对Trainz产品创作的贡献。他认为,其商业上的成功从根本上取决于“一个活跃在线粉丝社区的形成和发展,既可以积极地推广该产品,也可以为游戏软件创建内容扩展”[173]


The increase in user created content and interactivity gives rise to issues of control over the game itself and ownership of the player-created content. This gives rise to fundamental legal issues, highlighted by Lessig and Bray and Konsynski, such as intellectual property and property ownership rights.

The increase in user created content and interactivity gives rise to issues of control over the game itself and ownership of the player-created content. This gives rise to fundamental legal issues, highlighted by Lessig and Bray and Konsynski, such as intellectual property and property ownership rights.

随着用户创建的内容和用户之间的交互性持续增加,会引发了对游戏自身和玩家的控制权问题,因为大量内容是由玩家创造。lessig[174],Bray和Konsynski[175]对此列出一系列相关法律问题,例如知识产权和财产所有权。


Gosney extends this issue of Collective Intelligence in videogames one step further in his discussion of alternate reality gaming. This genre, he describes as an "across-media game that deliberately blurs the line between the in-game and out-of-game experiences" as events that happen outside the game reality "reach out" into the player's lives in order to bring them together. Solving the game requires "the collective and collaborative efforts of multiple players"; thus the issue of collective and collaborative team play is essential to ARG. Gosney argues that the Alternate Reality genre of gaming dictates an unprecedented level of collaboration and "collective intelligence" in order to solve the mystery of the game.

Gosney extends this issue of Collective Intelligence in videogames one step further in his discussion of alternate reality gaming. This genre, he describes as an "across-media game that deliberately blurs the line between the in-game and out-of-game experiences" as events that happen outside the game reality "reach out" into the player's lives in order to bring them together. Solving the game requires "the collective and collaborative efforts of multiple players"; thus the issue of collective and collaborative team play is essential to ARG. Gosney argues that the Alternate Reality genre of gaming dictates an unprecedented level of collaboration and "collective intelligence" in order to solve the mystery of the game.

戈斯尼Gosney在他对替代现实游戏的讨论中,将集体智能扩展到了电子游戏中。他将这种类型描述为“一种跨媒体游戏,故意模糊游戏内体验与游戏外体验之间的界线”[176],因为发生在游戏现实之外的事件会“渗透”到玩家的生活中。为了使他们在一起。游戏需要“多个玩家的集体和协作”;因此,集体和协作团队合作的问题对于ARG至关重要。戈斯尼认为,游戏的替代现实类型要求了前所未有的协作水平和“集体智慧”,以解决游戏的奥秘。


Benefits of co-operation 合作受益

Co-operation helps to solve most important and most interesting multi-science problems. In his book, James Surowiecki mentioned that most scientists think that benefits of co-operation have much more value when compared to potential costs. Co-operation works also because at best it guarantees number of different viewpoints. Because of the possibilities of technology global co-operation is nowadays much easier and productive than before. It is clear that, when co-operation goes from university level to global it has significant benefits.

Co-operation helps to solve most important and most interesting multi-science problems. In his book, James Surowiecki mentioned that most scientists think that benefits of co-operation have much more value when compared to potential costs. Co-operation works also because at best it guarantees number of different viewpoints. Because of the possibilities of technology global co-operation is nowadays much easier and productive than before. It is clear that, when co-operation goes from university level to global it has significant benefits.

合作有助于解决最重要且最有趣的多学科问题。詹姆斯·苏洛维奇James Surowiecki在他的书中提到,大多数科学家认为与潜在成本相比,合作带来的益处具有更大的价值。合作之所以有效,是因为它保证许多不同观点的存在。如今由于技术带来的可能性越来越大,全球合作比以往更加容易而且富有成效。显然,合作从学术研究延申到了全球合作实践,此时它会带来的收益将越来越重要。


For example, why do scientists co-operate? Science has become more and more isolated and each science field has spread even more and it is impossible for one person to be aware of all developments. This is true especially in experimental research where highly advanced equipment requires special skills. With co-operation scientists can use information from different fields and use it effectively instead of gathering all the information just by reading by themselves."

For example, why do scientists co-operate? Science has become more and more isolated and each science field has spread even more and it is impossible for one person to be aware of all developments. This is true especially in experimental research where highly advanced equipment requires special skills. With co-operation scientists can use information from different fields and use it effectively instead of gathering all the information just by reading by themselves."

例如,科学家为什么要合作?科学变得越来越孤立,因为每个科学领域的传播越来越广泛,一个人不可能意识到所有的发展。尤其是需要特殊技能的实验研究,因为高度先进的设备操作需要一定的知识背景。通过合作,科学家们可以利用不同领域的信息并有效地利用它,而不仅仅是靠自己阅读来收集所有信息[177]


Coordination 协调

Ad-hoc communities 临时社区

Military, trade unions, and corporations satisfy some definitions of CI – the most rigorous definition would require a capacity to respond to very arbitrary conditions without orders or guidance from "law" or "customers" to constrain actions. Online advertising companies are using collective intelligence to bypass traditional marketing and creative agencies.

Military, trade unions, and corporations satisfy some definitions of CI – the most rigorous definition would require a capacity to respond to very arbitrary conditions without orders or guidance from "law" or "customers" to constrain actions. Online advertising companies are using collective intelligence to bypass traditional marketing and creative agencies.

军事,贸易协会和公司一定程度上都满足CI的某些定义,其最严格的定义是要求能够对任意条件做出响应反馈,而不须要“法律”或“客户”的命令或指导来限制行动。在线广告公司正在利用集体智能绕过传统的营销和创意代理[178]


The UNU open platform for "human swarming" (or "social swarming") establishes real-time closed-loop systems around groups of networked users molded after biological swarms, enabling human participants to behave as a unified collective intelligence. When connected to UNU, groups of distributed users collectively answer questions and make predictions in real-time. Early testing shows that human swarms can out-predict individuals. In 2016, an UNU swarm was challenged by a reporter to predict the winners of the Kentucky Derby, and successfully picked the first four horses, in order, beating 540 to 1 odds.

The UNU open platform for "human swarming" (or "social swarming") establishes real-time closed-loop systems around groups of networked users molded after biological swarms, enabling human participants to behave as a unified collective intelligence. When connected to UNU, groups of distributed users collectively answer questions and make predictions in real-time. Early testing shows that human swarms can out-predict individuals.

联合国大学的“人类集群”(或“社会集群)开放平台,围绕生物集群网络用户建立了实时闭环系统,使人类参与者能够模拟集体智能一样行动.[179][180]。当连接到联合国大学后,成群的散户共同回答问题并实时做出预测[181]。早期测试表明,人类集群可以预测个体。2016年,一名记者向联合国大学群发起挑战,以预测肯塔基德比的获胜者,并成功选出了前四匹马,以540比1的优势胜出[182][183]


Specialized information sites such as Digital Photography Review or Camera Labs is an example of collective intelligence. Anyone who has an access to the internet can contribute to distributing their knowledge over the world through the specialized information sites.

Specialized information sites such as Digital Photography Review or Camera Labs is an example of collective intelligence. Anyone who has an access to the internet can contribute to distributing their knowledge over the world through the specialized information sites.

诸如Digital Photography Review[184]或Camera Labs[185]之类的专业信息网站就是集体智能的一个例子。任何可以访问互联网的人都可以通过专门的信息站点为世界范围内传播知识做出贡献。


In learner-generated context a group of users marshal resources to create an ecology that meets their needs often (but not only) in relation to the co-configuration, co-creation and co-design of a particular learning space that allows learners to create their own context. Learner-generated contexts represent an ad hoc community that facilitates coordination of collective action in a network of trust. An example of learner-generated context is found on the Internet when collaborative users pool knowledge in a "shared intelligence space". As the Internet has developed so has the concept of CI as a shared public forum. The global accessibility and availability of the Internet has allowed more people than ever to contribute and access ideas. (Flew 2008)

In learner-generated context a group of users marshal resources to create an ecology that meets their needs often (but not only) in relation to the co-configuration, co-creation and co-design of a particular learning space that allows learners to create their own context. Learner-generated contexts represent an ad hoc community that facilitates coordination of collective action in a network of trust. An example of learner-generated context is found on the Internet when collaborative users pool knowledge in a "shared intelligence space". As the Internet has developed so has the concept of CI as a shared public forum. The global accessibility and availability of the Internet has allowed more people than ever to contribute and access ideas. (Flew 2008)

在“学以创用环境 Learner-generated contexts”下,一组用户调配资源以创建其生态来满足它们的需求(但不仅如此),即特定学习空间的共同配置,创造和设计。它们允许学习者创建自己的环境[186][187][188]。“学以创用环境”代表一个特设社区,可促进在信任网络中协调集体行动。当协作用户在“共享智能空间”中的汇总知识时,可以在互联网上找到学习者生成的具有上下文的一个示例。随着互联网的发展,CI作为共享论坛的概念也不断发展。互联网的全球可访问性和可使用性比以往任何时候都更欢迎群众贡献和获取想法。(2008年Flew)


- RIcky:不明白为什么Learner-generated contexts 翻译成 学以创用环境

Games such as The Sims Series, and Second Life are designed to be non-linear and to depend on collective intelligence for expansion. This way of sharing is gradually evolving and influencing the mindset of the current and future generations.[128] For them, collective intelligence has become a norm. In Terry Flew's discussion of 'interactivity' in the online games environment, the ongoing interactive dialogue between users and game developers,[161] he refers to Pierre Lévy's concept of Collective Intelligence (Lévy 1998) and argues this is active in videogames as clans or guilds in MMORPG constantly work to achieve goals. Henry Jenkins proposes that the participatory cultures emerging between games producers, media companies, and the end-users mark a fundamental shift in the nature of media production and consumption. Jenkins argues that this new participatory culture arises at the intersection of three broad new media trends.[162] Firstly, the development of new media tools/technologies enabling the creation of content. Secondly, the rise of subcultures promoting such creations, and lastly, the growth of value adding media conglomerates, which foster image, idea and narrative flow.

Games such as The Sims Series, and Second Life are designed to be non-linear and to depend on collective intelligence for expansion. This way of sharing is gradually evolving and influencing the mindset of the current and future generations. he refers to Pierre Lévy's concept of Collective Intelligence and argues this is active in videogames as clans or guilds in MMORPG constantly work to achieve goals. Henry Jenkins proposes that the participatory cultures emerging between games producers, media companies, and the end-users mark a fundamental shift in the nature of media production and consumption. Jenkins argues that this new participatory culture arises at the intersection of three broad new media trends. Firstly, the development of new media tools/technologies enabling the creation of content. Secondly, the rise of subcultures promoting such creations, and lastly, the growth of value adding media conglomerates, which foster image, idea and narrative flow.

《模拟人生》系列和《第二人生》等游戏的设计是非线性的,并依靠集体智能进行扩展。这种共享方式会自我进化,并同步影响当前及未来新生代产品的思维方式。对于他们来说,集体智能已经成为了一种常态[189]。在特里·弗尔Terry Flew关于对网络游戏环境“交互性”的讨论中(即用户与游戏开发人员之间的交互对话)[190],他提到了Pierre Lévy的“集体智能”概念(Lévy 1998),并认为这在电子游戏中非常活跃,就像是MMORPG中的部族或公会一样,会不断努力去实现目标。Henry Jenkins提出,游戏生产商,媒体公司和终端用户之间形成的参与式文化,标志着媒体的生产消费性质在根本性转变。詹金斯认为,这种新的参与式文化源于三大新媒体趋势的交融[191]。首先,开发的新媒体工具/技术促使内容的创建。然后亚文化的兴起促进了这种创造,最后,增值媒体集团壮大了形象,思想和叙事的传播。


Coordinating collective actions 协调集体行动

After School Improv的演员学习了有关即兴创作和表演的重要课程

Improvisational actors also experience a type of collective intelligence which they term "group mind", as theatrical improvisation relies on mutual cooperation and agreement, leading to the unity of "group mind".

Improvisational actors also experience a type of collective intelligence which they term "group mind", as theatrical improvisation relies on mutual cooperation and agreement, leading to the unity of "group mind".

即兴表演也相当于一种集体智能,他们称之为“集体思维”,因为戏剧即兴表演依靠演员相互合作并达成共识,从而导致“集体思维”的统一[192][193]


Growth of the Internet and mobile telecom has also produced "swarming" or "rendezvous" events that enable meetings or even dates on demand. The full impact has yet to be felt but the anti-globalization movement, for example, relies heavily on e-mail, cell phones, pagers, SMS and other means of organizing. Such resources could combine into a form of collective intelligence accountable only to the current participants yet with some strong moral or linguistic guidance from generations of contributors – or even take on a more obviously democratic form to advance shared goal.

Growth of the Internet and mobile telecom has also produced "swarming" or "rendezvous" events that enable meetings or even dates on demand. The Indymedia organization does this in a more journalistic way. Such resources could combine into a form of collective intelligence accountable only to the current participants yet with some strong moral or linguistic guidance from generations of contributors – or even take on a more obviously democratic form to advance shared goal.

互联网和移动电信的发展也产生了“聚集”或“约会”的事件,这些事件使即时会议甚至约会成为可能[194]。反全球化运动目前尚未产生全面的影响,但是它在很大程度上依赖于电子邮件,手机,传呼机,SMS和其他组织方式[195]。Indymedia组织以更具新闻性的方式进行此操作。这些资源可以合并为仅对当前参与者负责的集体智能形式,但需要几代贡献者提供强有力的道德或语言指导,甚至可以采取更为明显的民主形式来推进共同目标。


A further application of collective intelligence is found in the "Community Engineering for Innovations". In such an integrated framework proposed by Ebner et al., idea competitions and virtual communities are combined to better realize the potential of the collective intelligence of the participants, particularly in open-source R&D. In management theory the use of collective intelligence and crowd sourcing leads to innovations and very robust answers to quantitative issues. Therefore, collective intelligence and crowd sourcing is not necessaryly leading to the best solution to economic problems, but to a stable, good solution.

A further application of collective intelligence is found in the "Community Engineering for Innovations". In such an integrated framework proposed by Ebner et al., idea competitions and virtual communities are combined to better realize the potential of the collective intelligence of the participants, particularly in open-source R&D. In management theory the use of collective intelligence and crowd sourcing leads to innovations and very robust answers to quantitative issues. Therefore, collective intelligence and crowd sourcing is not necessaryly leading to the best solution to economic problems, but to a stable, good solution.

在“创新的社区工程”中可以找到集体智能的进一步应用[196]。在埃布纳Ebner等人提出的这种集成框架中,将创意竞赛和虚拟社区相结合,可以更好地实现参与者集体智能的潜力,尤其是在开源研发中[197]。在管理理论中,集体智能和众包带来了创新,并为定量问题提供了非常有力的答案[198]。因此,集体智能和众包并不一定会创造出一系列针对经济问题的最佳解决方案,但是会提供一种稳定而良好的解决方案。


Coordination in different types of tasks 协调不同类型的任务

Collective actions or tasks require different amounts of coordination depending on the complexity of the task. Tasks vary from being highly independent simple tasks that require very little coordination to complex interdependent tasks that are built by many individuals and require a lot of coordination. In the article written by Kittur, Lee and Kraut the writers introduce a problem in cooperation: "When tasks require high coordination because the work is highly interdependent, having more contributors can increase process losses, reducing the effectiveness of the group below what individual members could optimally accomplish". Having a team too large the overall effectiveness may suffer even when the extra contributors increase the resources. In the end the overall costs from coordination might overwhelm other costs.

Collective actions or tasks require different amounts of coordination depending on the complexity of the task. Tasks vary from being highly independent simple tasks that require very little coordination to complex interdependent tasks that are built by many individuals and require a lot of coordination. In the article written by Kittur, Lee and Kraut the writers introduce a problem in cooperation: "When tasks require high coordination because the work is highly interdependent, having more contributors can increase process losses, reducing the effectiveness of the group below what individual members could optimally accomplish". Having a team too large the overall effectiveness may suffer even when the extra contributors increase the resources. In the end the overall costs from coordination might overwhelm other costs.

当进行集体行动时,需要根据任务内容的复杂程度进行相应的协调。从独立的简单任务(几乎不需要协调)到复杂的互助任务(由多人构建且需要大量协调)。在Kittur,Lee和Kraut撰写的文章中,作者引出了合作中的一个问题:“当处理复杂任务需要高度协调时,安排更多的贡献者会造成过程损失增加,降低团队的效率,反而不如单个成员完成任务理想”。如果团队规模太大,即使额外的贡献者增加了资源,总体效率也会受到影响。最后,协调产生的总成本可能超过其他成本[199]


Group collective intelligence is a property that emerges through coordination from both bottom-up and top-down processes. In a bottom-up process the different characteristics of each member are involved in contributing and enhancing coordination. Top-down processes are more strict and fixed with norms, group structures and routines that in their own way enhance the group's collective work.

Group collective intelligence is a property that emerges through coordination from both bottom-up and top-down processes. In a bottom-up process the different characteristics of each member are involved in contributing and enhancing coordination. Top-down processes are more strict and fixed with norms, group structures and routines that in their own way enhance the group's collective work.

团队集体智能是通过自下而上和自上而下的过程的协调而出现的一种特性。在自下而上的过程中,每个不同特性的成员都参与了贡献并加强整体协调能力。而自上而下的过程更加严格,并根据规范,结构和例行程序加以巩固,以自身特有的方式加强小组的集体工作效率[200]


Alternative views 其他观点

A tool for combating self-preservation 打击自我保护的工具

Tom Atlee reflects that, although humans have an innate ability to gather and analyze data, they are affected by culture, education and social institutions.A single person tends to make decisions motivated by self-preservation. Therefore, without collective intelligence, humans may drive themselves into extinction based on their selfish needs.


Tom Atlee reflects that, although humans have an innate ability to gather and analyze data, they are affected by culture, education and social institutions. A single person tends to make decisions motivated by self-preservation. Therefore, without collective intelligence, humans may drive themselves into extinction based on their selfish needs.

汤姆·阿特利Tom Atlee反映,尽管人类具有天生的收集和分析数据的能力,但他们同时也受到文化,教育和社会制度的影响[201]。一个人会倾向于自我保护而做出决策。因此,在没有集体智慧的情况下,人类可能会基于自私的需求而使自己灭绝[202]


Separation from IQism 区别于智商主义

Phillip Brown and Hugh Lauder quotes Bowles and Gintis (1976) that in order to truly define collective intelligence, it is crucial to separate 'intelligence' from IQism. They go on to argue that intelligence is an achievement and can only be developed if allowed to. For example, earlier on, groups from the lower levels of society are severely restricted from aggregating and pooling their intelligence. This is because the elites fear that the collective intelligence would convince the people to rebel. If there is no such capacity and relations, there would be no infrastructure on which collective intelligence is built. This reflects how powerful collective intelligence can be if left to develop.

Phillip Brown and Hugh Lauder quotes Bowles and Gintis (1976) that in order to truly define collective intelligence, it is crucial to separate 'intelligence' from IQism. They go on to argue that intelligence is an achievement and can only be developed if allowed to. For example, earlier on, groups from the lower levels of society are severely restricted from aggregating and pooling their intelligence. This is because the elites fear that the collective intelligence would convince the people to rebel. If there is no such capacity and relations, there would be no infrastructure on which collective intelligence is built . This reflects how powerful collective intelligence can be if left to develop.

菲利普·布朗Phillip Brown和休·劳德Hugh Lauder引述鲍尔斯Bowles和金蒂斯Gintis(1976)的观点[203],为了真正定义集体智能,它们认为将“智能”和智商主义分开是至关重要的。他们争辩说,智力其实是需要经过允许才能够得到发展的成就。例如,早期来自社会底层的群体受到严格限制,它们无法聚集头脑风暴提高它们的智力。这是因为精英们担心集体智能会造成人民叛乱。如果没有这样的资格和关系,就不会有建立集体智能的基础设施(Brown&Lauder 2000,第230页)。很明显如果任其发展,集体智能将会变得异常强大。


Artificial intelligence views 人工智能观点

Skeptics, especially those critical of artificial intelligence and more inclined to believe that risk of bodily harm and bodily action are the basis of all unity between people, are more likely to emphasize the capacity of a group to take action and withstand harm as one fluid mass mobilization, shrugging off harms the way a body shrugs off the loss of a few cells. This strain of thought is most obvious in the anti-globalization movement and characterized by the works of John Zerzan, Carol Moore, and Starhawk, who typically shun academics. These theorists are more likely to refer to ecological and collective wisdom and to the role of consensus process in making ontological distinctions than to any form of "intelligence" as such, which they often argue does not exist, or is mere "cleverness".

Skeptics, especially those critical of artificial intelligence and more inclined to believe that risk of bodily harm and bodily action are the basis of all unity between people, are more likely to emphasize the capacity of a group to take action and withstand harm as one fluid mass mobilization, shrugging off harms the way a body shrugs off the loss of a few cells. This strain of thought is most obvious in the anti-globalization movement and characterized by the works of John Zerzan, Carol Moore, and Starhawk, who typically shun academics. These theorists are more likely to refer to ecological and collective wisdom and to the role of consensus process in making ontological distinctions than to any form of "intelligence" as such, which they often argue does not exist, or is mere "cleverness".

怀疑论者,特别是那些对人工智能持批评态度的人,更倾向于相信人身体上的行为和伤害是人与人之间一切团结的基础,他们更倾向于强调一个群体采取行动和承受伤害的能力是一种流动物质,就像耸耸肩甩掉细胞一样甩掉所有伤害他们的东西[204][205]。这种思想张力在反全球化运动中最为明显,约翰·泽赞John Zerzan,卡罗尔·摩尔Carol Moore和星鹰Starhawk的作品强调了这个属性,他们通常会避开学术方面的思考。这些理论家更倾向于提及生态和集体智慧,以及共识过程中进行本体论区分,他们通常认为不存在仅仅是“聪明”的任何形式的“智能”。


Harsh critics of artificial intelligence on ethical grounds are likely to promote collective wisdom-building methods, such as the new tribalists and the Gaians. Whether these can be said to be collective intelligence systems is an open question. Some, e.g. Bill Joy, simply wish to avoid any form of autonomous artificial intelligence and seem willing to work on rigorous collective intelligence in order to remove any possible niche for AI.

Harsh critics of artificial intelligence on ethical grounds are likely to promote collective wisdom-building methods, such as the new tribalists and the Gaians. Whether these can be said to be collective intelligence systems is an open question. Some, e.g. Bill Joy, simply wish to avoid any form of autonomous artificial intelligence and seem willing to work on rigorous collective intelligence in order to remove any possible niche for AI.

出于道德考虑,对人工智能的严厉批评很可能会促使集体智慧的方法建立,例如新部落主义者New tribalists和盖亚主义者Gaians。这些是否可以说是集体智能系统是一个待解决的问题。例如比尔·乔伊Bill Joy等学者希望能避免使用任何形式的自主人工智能,并且似乎愿意研究严格的集体智能,以消除AI的任何潜在利基[206]


In contrast to these views, Artificial Intelligence companies such as Amazon Mechanical Turk and CrowdFlower are using collective intelligence and crowdsourcing or consensus-based assessment to collect the enormous amounts of data for machine learning algorithms such as Keras and IBM Watson.

In contrast to these views, Artificial Intelligence companies such as Amazon Mechanical Turk and CrowdFlower are using collective intelligence and crowdsourcing or consensus-based assessment to collect the enormous amounts of data for machine learning algorithms such as Keras and IBM Watson.

与这些观点相反,Amazon Mechanical Turk和CrowdFlower等公司正在使用集体智能和众包或基于共识的评估系统来收集用于机器学习算法的大量数据。


Solving climate change 解决气候变化

Global collective intelligence is seen as the key in solving the challenges humankind faces now and in the future. Climate change is an example of a global issue which collective intelligence is currently trying to tackle. With the help of collective intelligence applications such as online crowdsourcing, people across the globe are collaborating in developing solutions to climate change.

Global collective intelligence is seen as the key in solving the challenges humankind faces now and in the future. Climate change is an example of a global issue which collective intelligence is currently trying to tackle. With the help of collective intelligence applications such as online crowdsourcing, people across the globe are collaborating in developing solutions to climate change.

全球集体智能被认为是解决人类现在和将来面临挑战的关键。气候变化就是这个全球性问题的例子,目前集体智能正在努力解决这一问题[207]


See also 其他参考资料


Similar concepts and applications 相似概念及应用

  • 全民科学
  • 公民智力
  • 协同过滤
  • 合作创新网络
  • 群体决策
  • 集体欢腾
  • 集体泡腾
  • 集体记忆
  • 解决集体问题
  • 群众心理学
  • 全球意识项目
  • 群体行为
  • 集体思维(科幻小说)
  • 知识生态系统
  • 心里演化-智力的涌现与发展
  • 开源智力
  • 推荐系统
  • 聪明行动族
  • 社会商务
  • 社会信息处理
  • 共识主动性
  • 群体个性
  • 群众智慧
  • 智囊团
  • 维基百科


Computation and computer science 计算与计算机科学

  • 蜂群算法
  • 元胞自动机
  • 协同人力翻译
  • 协同软件
  • 连通性(图论)
  • 企业书签
  • 基于人员的计算
  • 开源软件
  • 有机计算
  • 偏好诱导


Others 其他

  • 客户参与
  • 分散性知识
  • 分布式认知
  • 便利(商业)
  • 促进者
  • 第一百只猴子效应
  • 跟上琼斯
  • 图书馆
  • 亚历山大图书馆
  • 模因(模仿传递行为)
  • 开放空间会议


Notes and references 参考文献

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参考书籍

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