集体行为

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The expression collective behavior was first used by Franklin Henry 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。 and employed later by Robert E. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。, Herbert 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。, Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian (1957), and Neil 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。 to refer to social processes and events which do not reflect existing social structure (laws, conventions, and institutions), but which emerge in a "spontaneous" way. Use of the term has been expanded to include reference to cells, social animals like birds and fish, and insects including ants 模板:Harv. Collective behavior takes many forms but generally violates societal norms (脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。; 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。). Collective behavior can be tremendously destructive, as with riots or mob violence, silly, as with fads, or anywhere in between. Collective behavior is always driven by group dynamics, encouraging people to engage in acts they might consider unthinkable under typical social circumstances 模板:Harv.

The expression collective behavior was first used by Franklin Henry and employed later by Robert E. Park, Herbert , Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian (1957), and Neil Smelser to refer to social processes and events which do not reflect existing social structure (laws, conventions, and institutions), but which emerge in a "spontaneous" way. Use of the term has been expanded to include reference to cells, social animals like birds and fish, and insects including ants. Collective behavior takes many forms but generally violates societal norms (; ). Collective behavior can be tremendously destructive, as with riots or mob violence, silly, as with fads, or anywhere in between. Collective behavior is always driven by group dynamics, encouraging people to engage in acts they might consider unthinkable under typical social circumstances .

集体行为最早由富兰克林 · 亨利(Franklin Henry)提出,后来罗伯特 · 帕克(Robert E. Park)、赫伯特(Herbert)、拉尔夫 · 特纳(Ralph Turner)和刘易斯 · 基利安(Lewis Killian)(1957)和尼尔·斯梅尔塞(Neil Smelser)加以沿用,指不反映现有社会结构(法律、惯例和制度)而是以“自发”方式出现的社会过程和事件。也可以用这个术语描述细胞、鸟类和鱼类等群居动物、蚂蚁等昆虫。集体行为有多种形式,但通常违背社会规范(;)。集体行为有时破坏力极强(如暴动或暴民暴力),有时极其愚蠢(如时尚),或者介于破坏性和愚蠢之间。集体行为总是受到群体动力的驱动,人们会做出他们认为在典型社会环境下不可想象的行为。


Defining the field

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Turner and Killian (1957) were the first sociologists to back their theoretical propositions with visual evidence in the form of photographs and motion pictures of collective behavior in action. Prior to that sociologists relied heavily upon eyewitness accounts, which turned out to be far less reliable than one would hope.

Turner and Killian (1957) were the first sociologists to back their theoretical propositions with visual evidence in the form of photographs and motion pictures of collective behavior in action. Prior to that sociologists relied heavily upon eyewitness accounts, which turned out to be far less reliable than one would hope.

特纳和基利安(1957年)是第一个社会学家支持他们的理论主张的视觉证据形式的照片和动作图片的集体行为的行动。在此之前,社会学家严重依赖于目击者的描述,而事实证明这些描述远不如人们所希望的那样可靠。


Turner and Killian's approach is based largely upon the arguments of Blumer, who argued that social "forces" are not really forces. The actor is active: He creates an interpretation of the acts of others, and acts on the basis of this interpretation.

Turner and Killian's approach is based largely upon the arguments of Blumer, who argued that social "forces" are not really forces. The actor is active: He creates an interpretation of the acts of others, and acts on the basis of this interpretation.

特纳和基利安的方法在很大程度上是基于布鲁默的论点,他认为社会“力量”不是真正的力量。行为者是积极的: 他创造了一种对他人行为的解释,并且在这种解释的基础上行动。


Examples 例子

Here are some instances of collective behavior: the Los Angeles riot of 1992, the hula-hoop fad of 1958, the stock market crashes of 1929, and the "phantom gasser" episodes in Virginia in 1933–34 and Mattoon, IL in 1944 (脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。; 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。). The claim that such diverse episodes all belong to a single field of inquiry is a theoretical assertion, and not all sociologists would agree with it. But Blumer and Neil Smelser did agree, as did others, indicating that the formulation has satisfied some leading sociological thinkers.

Here are some instances of collective behavior: the Los Angeles riot of 1992, the hula-hoop fad of 1958, the stock market crashes of 1929, and the "phantom gasser" episodes in Virginia in 1933–34 and Mattoon, IL in 1944 (; ). The claim that such diverse episodes all belong to a single field of inquiry is a theoretical assertion, and not all sociologists would agree with it. But Blumer and Neil Smelser did agree, as did others, indicating that the formulation has satisfied some leading sociological thinkers.

以下是一些集体行为的例子: 1992年的洛杉矶骚乱,1958年的呼啦圈风潮,1929年的股市崩盘,以及1933-34年弗吉尼亚州和1944年伊利诺伊州马顿的“幽灵气球”事件(;)。声称如此多样的事件都属于一个单一的研究领域是一个理论断言,并不是所有的社会学家都会同意它。但是布卢默和尼尔 · 斯梅尔泽和其他人都同意这个观点,这表明这个公式已经让一些社会学的主要思想家感到满意。


Four forms

Although there are several other schema that may be used to classify forms of collective behavior the following four categories from 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。 are generally considered useful by most sociologists.

Although there are several other schema that may be used to classify forms of collective behavior the following four categories from are generally considered useful by most sociologists.

尽管还有一些其他的图式可以用来对集体行为的形式进行分类,但是下面的四个范畴通常被大多数社会学家认为是有用的。


The crowd

Scholars differ about what classes of social events fall under the rubric of collective behavior. In fact, the only class of events which all authors include is crowds. Clark McPhail is one of those who treats crowds and collective behavior as synonyms. Although some consider McPhail's work 模板:Harv overly simplistic 模板:Harv, his important contribution is to have gone beyond the speculations of others to carry out pioneering empirical studies of crowds. He finds them to form an elaborate set of types.

Scholars differ about what classes of social events fall under the rubric of collective behavior. In fact, the only class of events which all authors include is crowds. Clark McPhail is one of those who treats crowds and collective behavior as synonyms. Although some consider McPhail's work overly simplistic , his important contribution is to have gone beyond the speculations of others to carry out pioneering empirical studies of crowds. He finds them to form an elaborate set of types.

学者们对于什么类型的社会事件属于集体行为的范畴存在分歧。事实上,所有作者包含的唯一一类事件就是人群。克拉克 · 麦克菲尔是把群体和集体行为当作同义词的人之一。尽管有些人认为麦克菲尔的工作过于简单化,但他的重要贡献是超越了其他人的猜测,开展了对群体的开创性实证研究。他发现它们构成了一套精致的字体。


The classic treatment of crowds is Gustave LeBon, The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind 模板:Harv, in which the author interpreted the crowds of the French Revolution as irrational reversions to animal emotion, and inferred from this that such reversion is characteristic of crowds in general. LeBon believed that crowds somehow induced people to lose their ability to think rationally and to somehow recover this ability once they had left the crowd. He speculated, but could not explain how this might occur. Freud expressed a similar view in Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego (1922). Such authors have thought that their ideas were confirmed by various kinds of crowds, one of these being the economic bubble. In Holland, during the tulip mania (1637), the prices of tulip bulbs rose to astronomical heights. An array of such crazes and other historical oddities is narrated in Charles MacKay's Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds 模板:Harv.

The classic treatment of crowds is Gustave LeBon, The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind , in which the author interpreted the crowds of the French Revolution as irrational reversions to animal emotion, and inferred from this that such reversion is characteristic of crowds in general. LeBon believed that crowds somehow induced people to lose their ability to think rationally and to somehow recover this ability once they had left the crowd. He speculated, but could not explain how this might occur. Freud expressed a similar view in Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego (1922). Such authors have thought that their ideas were confirmed by various kinds of crowds, one of these being the economic bubble. In Holland, during the tulip mania (1637), the prices of tulip bulbs rose to astronomical heights. An array of such crazes and other historical oddities is narrated in Charles MacKay's Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds .

古斯塔夫 · 勒邦在《群体: 大众心理的研究》一书中对群体的经典处理,作者将法国大革命时期的群体解释为对动物情感的非理性回归,并从中推断出这种回归是群体的普遍特征。相信人群在某种程度上会导致人们失去理性思考的能力,并且一旦他们离开人群,就会以某种方式恢复这种能力。他推测,但无法解释这是如何发生的。弗洛伊德在《群体心理学》和《自我分析》(1922)中表达了类似的观点。这些作者认为,他们的观点得到了各种群体的证实,其中之一就是经济泡沫。在荷兰,在郁金香狂热(1637年)期间,郁金香球茎的价格上升到了天文数字的高度。在查尔斯 · 麦凯的《非同寻常的大众幻想和群众的疯狂》一书中,叙述了一系列这样的疯狂和其他历史奇闻异事。


At the University of Chicago, Robert Park and Herbert Blumer agreed with the speculations of LeBon and other that crowds are indeed emotional. But to them a crowd is capable of any emotion, not only the negative ones of anger and fear.

At the University of Chicago, Robert Park and Herbert Blumer agreed with the speculations of LeBon and other that crowds are indeed emotional. But to them a crowd is capable of any emotion, not only the negative ones of anger and fear.

在芝加哥大学,罗伯特 · 帕克和赫伯特 · 布鲁默同意勒本和其他人的推测,即人群确实是情绪化的。但是对他们来说,人群可以有任何情绪,不仅仅是愤怒和恐惧的消极情绪。


A number of authors modify the common-sense notion of the crowd to include episodes during which the participants are not assembled in one place but are dispersed over a large area. Turner and Killian refer to such episodes as diffuse crowds, examples being Billy Graham's revivals, panics about sexual perils, witch hunts and Red scares. Their expanded definition of the crowd is justified if propositions which hold true among compact crowds do so for diffuse crowds as well.

A number of authors modify the common-sense notion of the crowd to include episodes during which the participants are not assembled in one place but are dispersed over a large area. Turner and Killian refer to such episodes as diffuse crowds, examples being Billy Graham's revivals, panics about sexual perils, witch hunts and Red scares. Their expanded definition of the crowd is justified if propositions which hold true among compact crowds do so for diffuse crowds as well.

一些作者修改了人群的常识概念,将参与者不是聚集在一个地方,而是分散在一个很大的区域的片段包括在内。特纳和基利安把这些情节称为分散的群体,比如比利 · 格雷厄姆的复兴,关于性危机的恐慌,政治迫害和红色恐慌。他们的扩大定义的群体是合理的,如果命题中持有真实的紧凑群体这样做,以及扩散的群体。


Some psychologists have claimed that there are three fundamental human emotions: fear, joy, and anger. Neil Smelser, John 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。, and others have proposed three corresponding forms of the crowd: the panic (an expression of fear), the craze (an expression of joy), and the hostile outburst (an expression of anger). Each of the three emotions can characterize either a compact or a diffuse crowd, the result being a scheme of six types of crowds. Lofland has offered the most explicit discussion of these types.

Some psychologists have claimed that there are three fundamental human emotions: fear, joy, and anger. Neil Smelser, John , and others have proposed three corresponding forms of the crowd: the panic (an expression of fear), the craze (an expression of joy), and the hostile outburst (an expression of anger). Each of the three emotions can characterize either a compact or a diffuse crowd, the result being a scheme of six types of crowds. Lofland has offered the most explicit discussion of these types.

一些心理学家声称有三种基本的人类情感: 恐惧、喜悦和愤怒。尼尔 · 斯梅尔泽、约翰和其他人提出了三种相应的人群形式: 恐慌(表示恐惧)、狂热(表示高兴)和敌意爆发(表示愤怒)。这三种情绪中的每一种都可以描述一个紧凑的群体或一个分散的群体,其结果是一个由六种类型的群体组成的方案。洛夫兰提供了这些类型的最明确的讨论。


The public

Boom distinguishes the crowd, which expresses a common emotion, from a public, which discusses a single issue. Thus, a public is not equivalent to all of the members of a society. Obviously, this is not the usual use of the word, "public." To Park and Blumer, there are as many publics as there are issues. A public comes into being when discussion of an issue begins, and ceases to be when it reaches a decision on it.

Boom distinguishes the crowd, which expresses a common emotion, from a public, which discusses a single issue. Thus, a public is not equivalent to all of the members of a society. Obviously, this is not the usual use of the word, "public." To Park and Blumer, there are as many publics as there are issues. A public comes into being when discussion of an issue begins, and ceases to be when it reaches a decision on it.

布姆将表达共同情感的群体与讨论单一问题的公众区分开来。因此,公众并不等同于一个社会的所有成员。显然,这不是“公共”这个词的通常用法对朴槿惠和布鲁默来说,公众的人数和问题的人数一样多。当一个问题的讨论开始时,公众就产生了,当它达成一个决定时,公众就不复存在了。


The mass

To the crowd and the public Blumer adds a third form of collective behavior, the mass. It differs from both the crowd and the public in that it is defined not by a form of interaction but by the efforts of those who use the mass media to address an audience. The first mass medium was printing.

To the crowd and the public Blumer adds a third form of collective behavior, the mass. It differs from both the crowd and the public in that it is defined not by a form of interaction but by the efforts of those who use the mass media to address an audience. The first mass medium was printing.

对于群众和公众来说,Blumer 增加了第三种形式的集体行为---- 群众。它与人群和公众的不同之处在于,它的定义不是通过一种互动的形式,而是通过那些利用大众媒体向受众发表演讲的人的努力。第一个大众媒介是印刷术。


The social movement

We change intellectual gears when we confront Blumer's final form of collective behavior, the social movement. He identifies several types of these, among which are active social movements such as the French Revolution and expressive ones such as Alcoholics Anonymous. An active movement tries to change society; an expressive one tries to change its own members.

We change intellectual gears when we confront Blumer's final form of collective behavior, the social movement. He identifies several types of these, among which are active social movements such as the French Revolution and expressive ones such as Alcoholics Anonymous. An active movement tries to change society; an expressive one tries to change its own members.

当我们面对布鲁默集体行为的最终形式---- 社会运动时,我们改变了思维方式。他指出了这些运动的几种类型,其中包括活跃的社会运动,如法国大革命和有表现力的运动,如匿名戒酒会。一个积极的运动试图改变社会; 一个富有表现力的运动试图改变自己的成员。


The social movement is the form of collective behavior which satisfies least well the first definition of it which was offered at the beginning of this article. These episodes are less fluid than the other forms, and do not change as often as other forms do. Furthermore, as can be seen in the history of the labor movement and many religious sects, a social movement may begin as collective behavior but over time become firmly established as a social institution.

The social movement is the form of collective behavior which satisfies least well the first definition of it which was offered at the beginning of this article. These episodes are less fluid than the other forms, and do not change as often as other forms do. Furthermore, as can be seen in the history of the labor movement and many religious sects, a social movement may begin as collective behavior but over time become firmly established as a social institution.

社会运动是集体行为的一种形式,它最不能满足本文开头提出的第一个集体行为的定义。这些阶段的流动性比其他形式少,并且不像其他形式那样经常改变。此外,从劳工运动和许多宗教派别的历史中可以看出,一场社会运动可能开始时是集体行为,但随着时间的推移,会成为一种牢固的社会制度。


For this reason, social movements are often considered a separate field of sociology. The books and articles about them are far more numerous than the sum of studies of all the other forms of collective behavior put together. Social movements are considered in many Wikipedia articles, and an article on the field of social movements as a whole would be much longer than this essay.

For this reason, social movements are often considered a separate field of sociology. The books and articles about them are far more numerous than the sum of studies of all the other forms of collective behavior put together. Social movements are considered in many Wikipedia articles, and an article on the field of social movements as a whole would be much longer than this essay.

由于这个原因,社会运动通常被认为是社会学的一个独立领域。关于他们的书籍和文章远远多于所有其他形式的集体行为的总和。维基百科的许多文章都考虑到了社会运动,而一篇关于社会运动的文章作为一个整体要比这篇文章长得多。


The study of collective behavior spun its wheels for many years, but began to make progress with the appearance of Turner and Killian's "Collective Behavior" (1957) and Smelser's Theory of Collective Behavior (1962). Both books pushed the topic of collective behavior back into the consciousness of American sociologists and both theories contributed immensely to our understanding of collective behavior (脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。; 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。). Social disturbances in the U. S. and elsewhere in the late '60s and early '70s inspired another surge of interest in crowds and social movements. These studies presented a number of challenges to the armchair sociology of earlier students of collective behavior.

The study of collective behavior spun its wheels for many years, but began to make progress with the appearance of Turner and Killian's "Collective Behavior" (1957) and Smelser's Theory of Collective Behavior (1962). Both books pushed the topic of collective behavior back into the consciousness of American sociologists and both theories contributed immensely to our understanding of collective behavior (; ). Social disturbances in the U. S. and elsewhere in the late '60s and early '70s inspired another surge of interest in crowds and social movements. These studies presented a number of challenges to the armchair sociology of earlier students of collective behavior.

集体行为的研究已经进行了很多年,但随着特纳和基利安的《集体行为》(1957)和斯麦尔瑟的《集体行为理论》(1962)的出现,集体行为的研究开始取得进展。这两本书都把集体行为的主题推回到美国社会学家的意识中,并且这两个理论都极大地促进了我们对集体行为的理解。60年代末70年代初,美国和其他地方的社会动乱激发了人们对人群和社会运动的兴趣。这些研究对早期学生关于集体行为的纸上谈兵的社会学提出了许多挑战。


Theories developed to explain

Social scientists have developed theories to explain crowd behavior.

Social scientists have developed theories to explain crowd behavior.

社会科学家已经发展出一些理论来解释群体行为。


  1. Contagion theory – the Contagion Theory was formulated by Gustave Le Bon. According to Le Bon crowds exert a hypnotic influence over their members. Shielded by their anonymity, large numbers of people abandon personal responsibility and surrender to the contagious emotions of the crowd. A crowd thus assumes a life of its own, stirring up emotions and driving people toward irrational, even violent action 模板:Harv. Le Bon's Theory, although one of the earliest explanations of crowd behavior, is still accepted by many people outside of sociology (脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。; 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。; 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。). However, critics argue that the "collective mind" has not been documented by systematic studies. Furthermore, although collective behavior may involve strong emotions, such feelings are not necessarily irrational. Turner and Killian (1957) argue convincingly that the "contagion" never actually occurs and participants in collective behavior do not lose their ability to think rationally.

Contagion theory – the Contagion Theory was formulated by Gustave Le Bon. According to Le Bon crowds exert a hypnotic influence over their members. Shielded by their anonymity, large numbers of people abandon personal responsibility and surrender to the contagious emotions of the crowd. A crowd thus assumes a life of its own, stirring up emotions and driving people toward irrational, even violent action . Le Bon's Theory, although one of the earliest explanations of crowd behavior, is still accepted by many people outside of sociology (; ; ). However, critics argue that the "collective mind" has not been documented by systematic studies. Furthermore, although collective behavior may involve strong emotions, such feelings are not necessarily irrational. Turner and Killian (1957) argue convincingly that the "contagion" never actually occurs and participants in collective behavior do not lose their ability to think rationally.

传染理论——传染理论是古斯塔夫 · 勒庞提出的。根据勒庞的观点,群众对他们的成员施加催眠的影响。由于匿名的保护,很多人放弃了个人责任,屈服于具有传染性的人群情绪。这样一来,群体就拥有了自己的生活,激起人们的情绪,驱使人们采取非理性的、甚至是暴力的行动。勒庞的理论,尽管是对群体行为最早的解释之一,仍然被许多社会学以外的人所接受(; ; ;)。然而,批评家认为“集体思维”并没有被系统的研究记录下来。此外,虽然集体行为可能涉及强烈的情绪,这样的感觉不一定是非理性的。特纳和基利安(1957)令人信服地指出,“传染”从未真正发生过,集体行为的参与者并没有失去理性思考的能力。

  1. Convergence theory – whereas the Contagion Theory states that crowds cause people to act in a certain way, Convergence theory states that people who want to act in a certain way come together to form crowds. Developed by Floyd 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。 and later expanded upon by Neil Miller and John Dollard (1941) as "Learning Theory," the central argument of all convergence theories is that collective behavior reveals the otherwise hidden tendencies of the individuals who take part in the episode. It asserts that people with similar attributes find other like-minded persons with whom they can release these underlying tendencies. People sometimes do things in a crowd that they would not have the courage to do alone because crowds can diffuse responsibility but the behavior itself is claimed to originate within the individuals. Crowds, in addition, can intensify a sentiment simply by creating a critical mass of like-minded people.

Convergence theory – whereas the Contagion Theory states that crowds cause people to act in a certain way, Convergence theory states that people who want to act in a certain way come together to form crowds. Developed by Floyd and later expanded upon by Neil Miller and John Dollard (1941) as "Learning Theory," the central argument of all convergence theories is that collective behavior reveals the otherwise hidden tendencies of the individuals who take part in the episode. It asserts that people with similar attributes find other like-minded persons with whom they can release these underlying tendencies. People sometimes do things in a crowd that they would not have the courage to do alone because crowds can diffuse responsibility but the behavior itself is claimed to originate within the individuals. Crowds, in addition, can intensify a sentiment simply by creating a critical mass of like-minded people.

趋同理论——传染理论认为群体导致人们以某种方式行动,而趋同理论则认为,想以某种方式行动的人们会聚集在一起形成群体。由弗洛伊德提出,后来由尼尔 · 米勒和约翰 · 多拉德(1941)扩展为“学习理论” ,所有趋同理论的核心论点是,集体行为揭示了参与这一事件的个体的其他隐藏倾向。它断言,性格相似的人会找到其他志同道合的人,与他们一起释放这些潜在的倾向。人们有时会在一群人中做一些他们没有勇气独自做的事情,因为群体可以分散责任,但是这种行为本身被声称起源于个体。此外,群体可以通过创造一批志同道合的人群来增强情绪。

  1. Emergent-norm theory – according to Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian (1957), crowds begin as collectivities composed of people with mixed interests and motives. Especially in the case of less stable crowds—expressive, acting and protest crowds—norms may be vague and changing, as when one person decides to break the glass windows of a store and others join in and begin looting merchandise. When people find themselves in a situation that is vague, ambiguous, or confusing new norms "emerge" on the spot and people follow those emergent norms, which may be at odds with normal social behavior. Turner and Killian further argue that there are several different categories of participants, all of whom follow different patterns of behavior due to their differing motivations.

Emergent-norm theory – according to Ralph Turner and Lewis Killian (1957), crowds begin as collectivities composed of people with mixed interests and motives. Especially in the case of less stable crowds—expressive, acting and protest crowds—norms may be vague and changing, as when one person decides to break the glass windows of a store and others join in and begin looting merchandise. When people find themselves in a situation that is vague, ambiguous, or confusing new norms "emerge" on the spot and people follow those emergent norms, which may be at odds with normal social behavior. Turner and Killian further argue that there are several different categories of participants, all of whom follow different patterns of behavior due to their differing motivations.

新兴规范理论——根据拉尔夫 · 特纳和刘易斯 · 基利安(1957) ,群体最初是由兴趣和动机不同的人组成的集体。特别是在情绪不稳定的人群——表达、表演和抗议人群——的情况下,规范可能是模糊和变化的,比如一个人决定打破一家商店的玻璃窗,而其他人加入抢劫商品。当人们发现自己处于一个模糊、模糊或混乱的新规范当场“出现” ,人们遵循这些涌现的规范,这可能与正常的社会行为不一致。特纳和基利安进一步认为,有几种不同类型的参与者,由于他们不同的动机,他们都遵循不同的行为模式。

  1. Value-added theory – Neil 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。 argues that collective behavior is actually a sort of release valve for built-up tension ("strain") within the social system, community, or group. If the proper determinants are present then collective behavior becomes inevitable. Conversely, if any of the key determinants are not present no collective behavior will occur unless and until the missing determinants fall into place. These are primarily social, although physical factors such as location and weather may also contribute to or hinder the development of collective behavior.

Value-added theory – Neil argues that collective behavior is actually a sort of release valve for built-up tension ("strain") within the social system, community, or group. If the proper determinants are present then collective behavior becomes inevitable. Conversely, if any of the key determinants are not present no collective behavior will occur unless and until the missing determinants fall into place. These are primarily social, although physical factors such as location and weather may also contribute to or hinder the development of collective behavior.

增值理论——尼尔认为,集体行为实际上是一种释放社会系统、社区或群体内积聚的紧张(“压力”)的阀门。如果适当的决定因素存在,那么集体行为就不可避免。相反,如果任何一个关键决定因素不存在,那么除非或直到缺失的决定因素到位,否则就不会发生集体行为。这些主要是社会因素,虽然物理因素,如地点和天气也可能有助于或阻碍集体行为的发展。

  1. Complex Adaptive Systems theory – Dutch scholar Jaap van Ginneken claims that contagion, convergence and emergent norms are just instances of the synergy, emergence and autopoiesis or self-creation of patterns and new entities typical for the newly discovered meta-category of complex adaptive systems. This also helps explain the key role of salient details and path-dependence in rapid shifts.

Complex Adaptive Systems theory – Dutch scholar Jaap van Ginneken claims that contagion, convergence and emergent norms are just instances of the synergy, emergence and autopoiesis or self-creation of patterns and new entities typical for the newly discovered meta-category of complex adaptive systems. This also helps explain the key role of salient details and path-dependence in rapid shifts.

复杂适应系统理论——荷兰学者 Jaap van Ginneken 声称,传染、聚合和涌现的规范只是协同、涌现和自创生的实例,或者是模式和新实体的自我创造,这些模式和实体是新发现的复杂适应系统元范畴的典型。这也有助于解释突出细节和路径依赖在快速转变中的关键作用。


See also

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Bibliography

  • Gordon, Deborah M. (11 March 2014). "The Ecology of Collective Behavior". PLOS Biol. 12 (3): e1001805. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001805. PMC 3949665. PMID 24618695.
  • Jaap van Ginneken, Collective behavior and public opinion – Rapid shifts in opinion and communication, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2003.
  • Miller, Neil and John Dollard. 1941. Social Learning and Imitation. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Naldi, Giovanni, Lorenzo Pareschi, and Giuseppe Toscani, Mathematical modelling of collective behavior in socio-economic and life sciences, Birkhauser, (2010).
  • Rule, James B. Theories of Civil Violence, Berkeley, University of California, 1988.
  • Turner, Ralph H., and Lewis M. Killian, Collective Behavior, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., Prentice-Hall, 1957 1st ed., 2d ed., 1972; 3d. ed. 1987; 4th ed. 1993.


External links

Category:Crowd psychology

分类: 群体心理学

Category:Social movements

类别: 社会运动

Category:Sociological theories

范畴: 社会学理论


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Collective behavior. Its edit history can be viewed at 集体行为/edithistory