集群机器人

来自集智百科
跳到导航 跳到搜索

此词条已由Jie初步翻译 已由Zengsihang初步审校


文件:RechargingSwarm.jpg
Swarm of open-source Jasmine micro-robots recharging themselves

Swarm of open-source Jasmine micro-robots recharging themselves

一群开源茉莉微型机器人正在自行充电

A team of iRobot Create robots at the Georgia Institute of Technology

佐治亚理工学院的iRobot Create机器人团队


Swarm robotics is an approach to the coordination of multiple robots as a system which consist of large numbers of mostly simple physical robots. It is supposed that a desired collective behavior emerges from the interactions between the robots and interactions of robots with the environment. This approach emerged on the field of artificial swarm intelligence, as well as the biological studies of insects, ants and other fields in nature, where swarm behaviour occurs.

集群机器人技术 Swarm Robotics是一种将多个简单机器人协调为一个系统的方法。该方法假定,在机器人之间以及机器人与环境之间的相互作用中会产生一种预期的集体行为。该方法经常出现在人工群体智能领域和昆虫,蚂蚁等自然界中有群体行为的生物学研究领域。

Definition 定义

The research of swarm robotics is to study the design of robots, their physical body and their controlling behaviours. It is inspired but not limited by[1] the emergent behaviour observed in social insects, called swarm intelligence. Relatively simple individual rules can produce a large set of complex swarm behaviours. A key-component is the communication between the members of the group that build a system of constant feedback. The swarm behaviour involves constant change of individuals in cooperation with others, as well as the behaviour of the whole group.

The research of swarm robotics is to study the design of robots, their physical body and their controlling behaviours. It is inspired but not limited by the emergent behaviour observed in social insects, called swarm intelligence. Relatively simple individual rules can produce a large set of complex swarm behaviours. A key-component is the communication between the members of the group that build a system of constant feedback. The swarm behaviour involves constant change of individuals in cooperation with others, as well as the behaviour of the whole group.

集群机器人技术的研究包括:设计机器人,物理构造及其行为控制。它受到社会性昆虫中观察到的被称为集群智能的涌现行为的启发,并在此基础上进行了扩展。相对简单的个体规则会产生大量复杂的群体行为。这种现象的关键在于系统各部分进行沟通,从而建立起有持续反馈的系统。群体行为包含了个体在合作中不断产生的变化,同时也包括了整个群体展现出的行为表现。


Unlike distributed robotic systems in general, swarm robotics emphasizes a large number of robots, and promotes scalability, for instance by using only local communication.[2] That local communication for example can be achieved by wireless transmission systems, like radio frequency or infrared.[3]

Unlike distributed robotic systems in general, swarm robotics emphasizes a large number of robots, and promotes scalability, for instance by using only local communication. That local communication for example can be achieved by wireless transmission systems, like radio frequency or infrared.

与一般的 分布式机器人系统Distributed Robotic Systems不同,集群机器人技术强调使用大量机器人并提高其可扩展性,例如仅使用局部通信连接。局部通信可以通过射频或红外等无线传输系统实现。


Goals and applications 目标与应用

Miniaturization and cost are key factors in swarm robotics. These are the constraints in building large groups of robots; therefore the simplicity of the individual team member should be emphasized. This should motivate a swarm-intelligent approach to achieve meaningful behavior at swarm-level, instead of the individual level.
Much research has been directed at this goal of simplicity at the individual robot level. Being able to use actual hardware in research of Swarm Robotics rather than simulations allows researchers to encounter and resolve many more issues and broaden the scope of Swarm Research. Thus, development of simple robots for Swarm intelligence research is a very important aspect of the field. The goals include keeping the cost of individual robots low to allow scalability, making each member of the swarm less demanding of resources and more power/energy efficient.

Miniaturization and cost are key factors in swarm robotics. These are the constraints in building large groups of robots; therefore the simplicity of the individual team member should be emphasized. This should motivate a swarm-intelligent approach to achieve meaningful behavior at swarm-level, instead of the individual level.
Much research has been directed at this goal of simplicity at the individual robot level. Being able to use actual hardware in research of Swarm Robotics rather than simulations allows researchers to encounter and resolve many more issues and broaden the scope of Swarm Research. Thus, development of simple robots for Swarm intelligence research is a very important aspect of the field. The goals include keeping the cost of individual robots low to allow scalability, making each member of the swarm less demanding of resources and more power/energy efficient.

微型化和成本是集群机器人技术的两大关键因素。它们制约着机器人的大规模发展;因此,群体中个体的简单性就显得尤为重要。这些机器人应当从群体层面激发出群体智能方法,以产生有意义的行为,而非在个体层面各自运行。当下有很多针对于机器人简单性的个体层面的研究。如果能够使用实际硬件操作而非仿真实现在集群机器人技术研究,研究人员就可以遇到并解决更多问题,从而促进集群行为的研究。因此,开发用于集群智能研究的简单机器人是该领域发展中非常重要的环节。目标包括:降低单个机器人的成本和提升它的可扩展性,从而使集群中的每个机器人的资源消耗更少,从而提高其功效。


Compared with individual robots, a swarm can commonly decompose its given missions to their subtasks; A swarm is more robust to partial swarm failure and is more flexible with regard to different missions

与单个机器人不同,集群机器人通常将其给定的任务分解为子任务;对于部分集群指令失效的情况,集群机器人更加稳定,它们在执行不同任务时更为灵活。

One such swarm system is the LIBOT Robotic System[4] that involves a low cost robot built for outdoor swarm robotics. The robots are also made with provisions for indoor use via Wi-Fi, since the GPS sensors provide poor communication inside buildings. Another such attempt is the micro robot (Colias),[5] built in the Computer Intelligence Lab at the University of Lincoln, UK. This micro robot is built on a 4 cm circular chassis and is low-cost and open platform for use in a variety of Swarm Robotics applications.

One such swarm system is the LIBOT Robotic System that involves a low cost robot built for outdoor swarm robotics. The robots are also made with provisions for indoor use via Wi-Fi, since the GPS sensors provide poor communication inside buildings. Another such attempt is the micro robot (Colias), built in the Computer Intelligence Lab at the University of Lincoln, UK. This micro robot is built on a 4 cm circular chassis and is low-cost and open platform for use in a variety of Swarm Robotics applications.

集群系统的一个例子是一个用于户外的低成本的机器人组成的机器人群体,叫做 LIBOT机器人系统LIBOT Robotic System的集群机器人。由于GPS传感器在建筑物内部通讯不畅,这些机器人同时配备了Wi-Fi设备。另外一个进行此类尝试的是个叫做 Colias的微型机器人,该机器人由英国林肯大学的计算机智能实验室研发。这款微型机器人建立在4厘米的圆形底盘上,其低成本和开放的平台使它兼容于各种集群机器人的应用。


Applications 应用

Potential applications for swarm robotics are many. They include tasks that demand miniaturization (nanorobotics, microbotics), like distributed sensing tasks in micromachinery or the human body. One of the most promising uses of swarm robotics is in disaster rescue missions. Swarms of robots of different sizes could be sent to places rescue workers can't reach safely, to detect the presence of life via infra-red sensors. On the other hand, swarm robotics can be suited to tasks that demand cheap designs, for instance mining or agricultural foraging tasks.

Potential applications for swarm robotics are many. They include tasks that demand miniaturization (nanorobotics, microbotics), like distributed sensing tasks in micromachinery or the human body. One of the most promising uses of swarm robotics is in disaster rescue missions. Swarms of robots of different sizes could be sent to places rescue workers can't reach safely, to detect the presence of life via infra-red sensors. On the other hand, swarm robotics can be suited to tasks that demand cheap designs, for instance mining or agricultural foraging tasks.

集群机器人技术的潜在应用很多,如执行微型化需求的任务(纳米级机器人,微米级机器人),比如微型机械或人体中的分布式传感任务。集群机器人技术最有前景的应用之一是在灾难救援任务中,大量不同尺寸的机器人可以被送到救援人员无法安全到达的地方,用红外传感器探测存活的生命。另一方面,集群机器人技术也适合低消费的设计任务,例如采矿或农业采掘。


More controversially, swarms of military robots can form an autonomous army. U.S. Naval forces have tested a swarm of autonomous boats that can steer and take offensive actions by themselves. The boats are unmanned and can be fitted with any kind of kit to deter and destroy enemy vessels.[6]

More controversially, swarms of military robots can form an autonomous army. U.S. Naval forces have tested a swarm of autonomous boats that can steer and take offensive actions by themselves. The boats are unmanned and can be fitted with any kind of kit to deter and destroy enemy vessels.

除此之外,有争议的是军事集群机器人,它可以组成一支自主部队。美国海军已经对一大批可以自行操纵并采取进攻行为的自主舰艇进行了测试。这些船是无人驾驶的,可以安装任何种类的工具来威慑和摧毁敌方船只。


During the Syrian Civil War, Russian forces in the region reported attacks on their main air force base in the country by swarms of fixed-wing drones loaded with explosives.[7]

During the Syrian Civil War, Russian forces in the region reported attacks on their main air force base in the country by swarms of fixed-wing drones loaded with explosives.

在叙利亚内战期间,该地区的俄罗斯部队报告指出,该国主要空军基地遭到装有炸药的固定翼无人机群袭击。

Most efforts have focused on relatively small groups of machines. However, a swarm consisting of 1,024 individual robots was demonstrated by Harvard in 2014, the largest to date.[8]

Most efforts have focused on relatively small groups of machines. However, a swarm consisting of 1,024 individual robots was demonstrated by Harvard in 2014, the largest to date.

目前大多数研究成果都集中在相对小规模的集群机体上。而哈佛大学在2014年展示了由1,024个机器人组成的群体,这是迄今为止规模最大的机器人群体。

Another large set of applications may be solved using swarms of micro air vehicles, which are also broadly investigated nowadays. In comparison with the pioneering studies of swarms of flying robots using precise motion capture systems in laboratory conditions,[9] current systems such as Shooting Star can control teams of hundreds of micro aerial vehicles in outdoor environment[10] using GNSS systems (such as GPS) or even stabilize them using onboard localization systems[11] where GPS is unavailable.[12][13] Swarms of micro aerial vehicles have been already tested in tasks of autonomous surveillance,[14] plume tracking,[15] and reconnaissance in a compact phalanx.[16] Numerous works on cooperative swarms of unmanned ground and aerial vehicles have been conducted with target applications of cooperative environment monitoring,[17] simultaneous localization and mapping,[18] convoy protection,[19] and moving target localization and tracking.[20]

Another large set of applications may be solved using swarms of micro air vehicles, which are also broadly investigated nowadays. In comparison with the pioneering studies of swarms of flying robots using precise motion capture systems in laboratory conditions, current systems such as Shooting Star can control teams of hundreds of micro aerial vehicles in outdoor environment using GNSS systems (such as GPS) or even stabilize them using onboard localization systems where GPS is unavailable. Swarms of micro aerial vehicles have been already tested in tasks of autonomous surveillance, plume tracking, and reconnaissance in a compact phalanx. Numerous works on cooperative swarms of unmanned ground and aerial vehicles have been conducted with target applications of cooperative environment monitoring, simultaneous localization and mapping, convoy protection, and moving target localization and tracking.

通过集群飞行器还可以解决另一大类应用,该主题目前也得到了非常广泛的研究。在实验室条件下,相比较于过去使用的精密运动捕捉系统对飞行机器集群进行开创性研究,当前的系统(例如射星系统)则可以使用 GNSS全球导航卫星系统(Galeru Nagari Sujala Sravanthi Project, 如GPS全球定位系统)在室外环境条件下,控制数百台微型飞机集群,甚至可以使用GPS无法做到的机载定位系统来稳定它们。成群的微型飞行器已经可以在密集方阵中进行自主监视、羽毛跟踪以及侦察任务中进行测试。在协同无人驾驶地面和空中飞行器集群的大量工作中,已经涉及的应用包括:协同环境监测、即时定位与制图、车队保护、运动目标定位以及跟踪。

Drone displays 无人机显示器

A drone display commonly uses multiple, lighted drones at night for an artistic display or advertising.

A drone display commonly uses multiple, lighted drones at night for an artistic display or advertising.

无人机显示器通常在夜间使用,通过多个点亮的无人机组合图像来进行艺术展示或广告宣传。

In popular culture 大众文化

A major subplot of Disney's Big Hero 6 involved the use of swarms of microbots to form structures.

A major subplot of Disney's Big Hero 6 involved the use of swarms of microbots to form structures.

迪士尼《超能陆战队》中有一个情节涉及使用成群的微型机器人来构建场景。


Swarm robotics is used in the Tamil film, Enthiran, and its sequel 2.0.

Swarm robotics is used in the Tamil film, Enthiran, and its sequel 2.0.

在泰米尔语电影《宝莱坞机器人》及其续集2.0中使用了集群机器人技术。

 --趣木木讨论)只需要标注专业性较强的名词即可 超能陆战队和宝莱坞机器人这种类型的不需要标记  学术性的名词再进行标记 - 已修改

See also 其他参考资料


{ columns-list
The unnamed parameter 2= is no longer supported. Please see the documentation for {{columns-list}}.
colwidth 22em

}}

 --趣木木讨论)这里的这些名词记得在新的自审清单中的词库进行查证和补充 - 已补充

References 参考文献

  1. Hunt, Edmund R. (2019-03-27). "The social animals that are inspiring new behaviours for robot swarms". The Conversation (in English). Retrieved 2019-03-28.
  2. Hamann, H. (2018). Swarm Robotics: A Formal Approach. New York: Springer International Publishing. ISBN 978-3-319-74528-2. https://books.google.com/books?id=pnNLDwAAQBAJ. 
  3. N. Correll, D. Rus. Architectures and control of networked robotic systems. In: Serge Kernbach (Ed.): Handbook of Collective Robotics, pp. 81-104, Pan Stanford, Singapore, 2013.
  4. Zahugi, Emaad Mohamed H.; Shabani, Ahmed M.; Prasad, T. V. (2012), "Libot: Design of a low cost mobile robot for outdoor swarm robotics", 2012 IEEE International Conference on Cyber Technology in Automation, Control, and Intelligent Systems (CYBER), pp. 342–347, doi:10.1109/CYBER.2012.6392577, ISBN 978-1-4673-1421-3
  5. Arvin, F.; Murray, J.C.; Licheng Shi; Chun Zhang; Shigang Yue, "Development of an autonomous micro robot for swarm robotics," Mechatronics and Automation (ICMA), 2014 IEEE International Conference on , vol., no., pp.635,640, 3-6 Aug. 2014 doi: 10.1109/ICMA.2014.6885771
  6. Lendon, Brad. "U.S. Navy could 'swarm' foes with robot boats". CNN.
  7. Madrigal, Alexis C. (2018-03-07). "Drone Swarms Are Going to Be Terrifying and Hard to Stop". The Atlantic (in English). Retrieved 2019-03-07.
  8. "A self-organizing thousand-robot swarm". Harvard. 14 August 2014. Retrieved 16 August 2014.
  9. Kushleyev, A.; Mellinger, D.; Powers, C.; Kumar, V., "Towards a swarm of agile micro quadrotors" Autonomous Robots, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 287-300, November 2013
  10. Vasarhelyi, G.; Virágh, C.; Tarcai, N.; Somorjai, G.; Vicsek, T. Outdoor flocking and formation flight with autonomous aerial robots. IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2014), 2014
  11. Faigl, J.; Krajnik, T.; Chudoba, J.; Preucil, L.; Saska, M. Low-Cost Embedded System for Relative Localization in Robotic Swarms. In ICRA2013: Proceedings of 2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. 2013.
  12. Saska, M.; Vakula, J.; Preucil, L. Swarms of Micro Aerial Vehicles Stabilized Under a Visual Relative Localization. In ICRA2014: Proceedings of 2014 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. 2014.
  13. Saska, M. MAV-swarms: unmanned aerial vehicles stabilized along a given path using onboard relative localization. In Proceedings of 2015 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS). 2015
  14. Saska, M.; Chudoba, J.; Preucil, L.; Thomas, J.; Loianno, G.; Tresnak, A.; Vonasek, V.; Kumar, V. Autonomous Deployment of Swarms of Micro-Aerial Vehicles in Cooperative Surveillance. In Proceedings of 2014 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS). 2014.
  15. Saska, M.; Langr J.; L. Preucil. Plume Tracking by a Self-stabilized Group of Micro Aerial Vehicles. In Modelling and Simulation for Autonomous Systems, 2014.
  16. Saska, M.; Kasl, Z.; Preucil, L. Motion Planning and Control of Formations of Micro Aerial Vehicles. In Proceedings of the 19th World Congress of the International Federation of Automatic Control. 2014.
  17. Saska, M.; Vonasek, V.; Krajnik, T.; Preucil, L. Coordination and Navigation of Heterogeneous UAVs-UGVs Teams Localized by a Hawk-Eye Approach. In Proceedings of 2012 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. 2012.
  18. Chung, Soon-Jo, et al. "A survey on aerial swarm robotics." IEEE Transactions on Robotics 34.4 (2018): 837-855.
  19. Saska, M.; Vonasek, V.; Krajnik, T.; Preucil, L. Coordination and Navigation of Heterogeneous MAV–UGV Formations Localized by a ‘hawk-eye’-like Approach Under a Model Predictive Control Scheme. International Journal of Robotics Research 33(10):1393–1412, September 2014.
  20. Kwon, H; Pack, D. J. A Robust Mobile Target Localization Method for Cooperative Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Sensor Fusion Quality. Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, Volume 65, Issue 1, pp 479-493, January 2012.

External links 相关链接

用于进行群体搜索和探测的全分布式机器人集群–应用复杂性群体和运动 - 新加坡科技设计大学能源控制实验室

集群机器人:自组装构件的集群 – 欧盟IST-FET项目(2001–2005)

在AAAI 2007上获奖的swarm-bot视频


模板:Collective animal behaviour

模板:Robotics

模板:Emerging technologies

Category:Multi-robot systems

类别: 多机器人系统

Category:Emerging technologies

类别: 新兴技术


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Swarm robotics. Its edit history can be viewed at 集群机器人/edithistory