B-Z反应

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此词条暂由Solitude初步翻译。

Computer simulation of the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction

Computer simulation of the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction

贝洛索夫-扎博廷斯基Belousov–Zhabotinsky反应的计算机模拟

文件:Bzr raum.jpg
Patterns shown in a Petri dish

Patterns shown in a Petri dish

在培养皿中显示的图案


A Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction, or BZ reaction, is one of a class of reactions that serve as a classical example of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, resulting in the establishment of a nonlinear chemical oscillator. The only common element in these oscillators is the inclusion of bromine and an acid. The reactions are important to theoretical chemistry in that they show that chemical reactions do not have to be dominated by equilibrium thermodynamic behavior. These reactions are far from equilibrium and remain so for a significant length of time and evolve chaotically.[1] In this sense, they provide an interesting chemical model of nonequilibrium biological模板:Clarify phenomena; as such, mathematical models and simulations of the BZ reactions themselves are of theoretical interest, showing phenomenon as noise-induced order.[2]


An essential aspect of the BZ reaction is its so called "excitability"; under the influence of stimuli, patterns develop in what would otherwise be a perfectly quiescent medium. Some clock reactions such as Briggs–Rauscher and BZ using the tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chloride as catalyst can be excited into self-organising activity through the influence of light.

BZ反应的一个重要方面是其所谓的 "可激发性";在刺激物的影响下,在原本完全静止的介质中形成图案。一些时钟反应,如布里格斯-劳舍尔Briggs-Rauscher反应和使用三(联吡啶)氯化钌(II)作为催化剂的BZ反应,可以通过光的影响激发出自组织活性。

文件:BZ voltage plot.png
Plot of the electrode potential of a BZ reaction, using silver electrodes against an Ag/AgNO3 half-cell

An essential aspect of the BZ reaction is its so called "excitability"; under the influence of stimuli, patterns develop in what would otherwise be a perfectly quiescent medium. Some clock reactions such as Briggs–Rauscher and BZ using the tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chloride as catalyst can be excited into self-organising activity through the influence of light.

Plot of the electrode potential of a BZ reaction, using silver electrodes against an Ag/AgNO3 half-cell

用银电极对抗 Ag/AgNO < sub > 3 半电池进行BZ反应的电极电位图。


History

历史

文件:Bzr fotos.jpg
A stirred BZ reaction mixture showing changes in color over time

A stirred BZ reaction mixture showing changes in color over time

搅拌的BZ反应混合物显示颜色随时间变化

The discovery of the phenomenon is credited to Boris Belousov. In 1951, while trying to find the non-organic analog to the Krebs cycle, he noted that in a mix of potassium bromate, cerium(IV) sulfate, malonic acid, and citric acid in dilute sulfuric acid, the ratio of concentration of the cerium(IV) and cerium(III) ions oscillated, causing the colour of the solution to oscillate between a yellow solution and a colorless solution. This is due to the cerium(IV) ions being reduced by malonic acid to cerium(III) ions, which are then oxidized back to cerium(IV) ions by bromate(V) ions.

The discovery of the phenomenon is credited to Boris Belousov. In 1951, while trying to find the non-organic analog to the Krebs cycle, he noted that in a mix of potassium bromate, cerium(IV) sulfate, malonic acid, and citric acid in dilute sulfuric acid, the ratio of concentration of the cerium(IV) and cerium(III) ions oscillated, causing the colour of the solution to oscillate between a yellow solution and a colorless solution. This is due to the cerium(IV) ions being reduced by malonic acid to cerium(III) ions, which are then oxidized back to cerium(IV) ions by bromate(V) ions.

这一现象的发现要归功于鲍里斯 · 贝洛索夫Boris Belousov。1951年,他在试图寻找克雷布斯循环的非有机类似物时,注意到在溴酸钾、硫酸铈(IV)、丙二酸和柠檬酸在稀硫酸中的混合液中,铈(IV)离子和铈(III)离子的浓度比值发生振荡,使溶液的颜色在黄色溶液和无色溶液之间振荡。这是由于铈(IV)离子被丙二酸还原成铈(III)离子,再被溴酸(V)离子氧化回铈(IV)离子。

Belousov made two attempts to publish his finding, but was rejected on the grounds that he could not explain his results to the satisfaction of the editors of the journals to which he submitted his results.[3] Soviet biochemist Simon El'evich Shnoll encouraged Belousov to continue his efforts to publish his results. In 1959 his work was finally published in a less respectable, nonreviewed journal.[4]

Belousov made two attempts to publish his finding, but was rejected on the grounds that he could not explain his results to the satisfaction of the editors of the journals to which he submitted his results. Soviet biochemist Simon El'evich Shnoll encouraged Belousov to continue his efforts to publish his results. In 1959 his work was finally published in a less respectable, nonreviewed journal.

Belousov 曾两次试图发表他的发现,但都被拒绝了,理由是他无法对自己的结果给出令他提交的期刊编辑满意的解释。苏联生物化学家西蒙 · 艾尔耶维奇 · 什诺尔Simon El'evich Shnoll鼓励Belousov继续努力发表他的研究成果。1959年,他的研究成果终于在一本不太受人尊敬、未经审阅的期刊上发表了。

After Belousov's publication, Shnoll gave the project in 1961 to a graduate student, Anatol Zhabotinsky, who investigated the reaction sequence in detail;[5] however, the results of these men's work were still not widely disseminated, and were not known in the West until a conference in Prague in 1968.

After Belousov's publication, Shnoll gave the project in 1961 to a graduate student, Anatol Zhabotinsky, who investigated the reaction sequence in detail; however, the results of these men's work were still not widely disseminated, and were not known in the West until a conference in Prague in 1968.

在Belousov发表后,Shnoll 在1961年把这个项目交给了研究生 阿纳托尔•扎博廷斯基 Anatol Zhabotinsky,他详细研究了这个反应序列; 然而,这些人的研究成果仍然没有被广泛传播,直到1968年在布拉格召开的一次会议上,西方人才知道。

A number of BZ cocktails are available in the chemical literature and on the web. Ferroin, a complex of phenanthroline and iron, is a common indicator. These reactions, if carried out in petri dishes, result in the formation first of colored spots. These spots grow into a series of expanding concentric rings or perhaps expanding spirals similar to the patterns generated by a cyclic cellular automaton. The colors disappear if the dishes are shaken, and then reappear. The waves continue until the reagents are consumed. The reaction can also be performed in a beaker using a magnetic stirrer.

A number of BZ cocktails are available in the chemical literature and on the web. Ferroin, a complex of phenanthroline and iron, is a common indicator. These reactions, if carried out in petri dishes, result in the formation first of colored spots. These spots grow into a series of expanding concentric rings or perhaps expanding spirals similar to the patterns generated by a cyclic cellular automaton. The colors disappear if the dishes are shaken, and then reappear. The waves continue until the reagents are consumed. The reaction can also be performed in a beaker using a magnetic stirrer.

一些 BZ 混合物可以在化学文献和网络上找到。亚铁灵是一种常见的指示剂,它是菲咯啉和铁的络合物。这些反应如果在培养皿中进行,首先会形成彩色斑点。这些斑点成长为一系列扩大的同心环或可能扩大的螺旋形,类似于循环细胞自动机产生的模式。如果摇动培养皿,颜色就会消失,然后重新出现。这种波一直持续到试剂消耗完为止。反应也可以在烧杯中使用磁力搅拌器进行。

Andrew Adamatzky,[6] a computer scientist in the University of the West of England, reported on liquid logic gates using the BZ reaction.[7]

Andrew Adamatzky, a computer scientist in the University of the West of England, reported on ’’’<liquid logic gates>’’’using the BZ reaction.

西英格兰大学的计算机科学家 Andrew Adamatzky 报道了使用 BZ 反应的 ’’’<液体逻辑门>’’’。

Strikingly similar oscillatory spiral patterns appear elsewhere in nature, at very different spatial and temporal scales, for example the growth pattern of Dictyostelium discoideum, a soil-dwelling amoeba colony.[8] In the BZ reaction, the size of the interacting elements is molecular and the time scale of the reaction is minutes. In the case of the soil amoeba, the size of the elements is typical of single-celled organisms and the times involved are on the order of days to years.

Strikingly similar oscillatory spiral patterns appear elsewhere in nature, at very different spatial and temporal scales, for example the growth pattern of Dictyostelium discoideum, a soil-dwelling amoeba colony. In the BZ reaction, the size of the interacting elements is molecular and the time scale of the reaction is minutes. In the case of the soil amoeba, the size of the elements is typical of single-celled organisms and the times involved are on the order of days to years.

自然界的其他地方也出现了惊人相似的振荡螺旋模式,但空间和时间尺度却截然不同,例如居住在土壤中的变形虫群落盘基网柄菌的生长模式。在BZ反应中,相互作用元素的大小是分子,反应的时间尺度是分钟。就土壤变形虫而言,元素的大小是典型的单细胞生物,所涉及的时间是几天到几年。

Investigators are also exploring the creation of a "wet computer", using self-creating "cells" and other techniques to mimic certain properties of neurons.[9]

Investigators are also exploring the creation of a "wet computer", using self-creating "cells" and other techniques to mimic certain properties of neurons.

研究人员还在探索创造“潮湿计算机”,利用自创“细胞”和其他技术来模仿神经元的某些特性。


Chemical mechanism

化学机理

The mechanism for this reaction is very complex and is thought to involve around 18 different steps which have been the subject of a number of research papers.[10][11]

The mechanism for this reaction is very complex and is thought to involve around 18 different steps which have been the subject of a number of research papers.

这种反应的机理非常复杂,被认为涉及大约18个不同的步骤,这些步骤已经成为很多研究论文的主题。

In a way similar to the Briggs–Rauscher reaction, two key processes (both of which are auto-catalytic) occur; process A generates molecular bromine, giving the red colour, and process B consumes the bromine to give bromide ions.[12]

In a way similar to the Briggs–Rauscher reaction, two key processes (both of which are auto-catalytic) occur; process A generates molecular bromine, giving the red colour, and process B consumes the bromine to give bromide ions.

与 布里格斯-劳舍尔 Briggs-Rauscher 反应类似,发生了两个关键过程(两者都是自催化的) : 过程A生成分子溴,使其呈红色,过程B消耗溴产生溴离子。

One of the most common variations on this reaction uses malonic acid (CH2(CO2H)2) as the acid and potassium bromate (KBrO3) as the source of bromine. The overall equation is:[12]

One of the most common variations on this reaction uses malonic acid (CH2(CO2H)2) as the acid and potassium bromate (KBrO3) as the source of bromine. The overall equation is:

该反应中最常见的变化之一是使用丙二酸(CH < sub > 2 (CO < sub > 2 h) < sub > 2 )作为酸,溴酸钾(KBrO < sub > 3 )为溴源。总体方程式是:

3 CH2(CO2H)2 + 4 模板:Chem → 4 Br + 9 CO2 + 6 H2O


Variants

变体

Many variants of the reaction exist. The only key chemical is the bromate oxidizer. The catalyst ion is most often cerium, but it can be also manganese, or complexes of iron, ruthenium, cobalt, copper, chromium, silver, nickel and osmium. Many different reductants can be used. (Zhabotinsky, 1964b; Field and Burger, 1985)[13]

Many variants of the reaction exist. The only key chemical is the bromate oxidizer. The catalyst ion is most often cerium, but it can be also manganese, or complexes of iron, ruthenium, cobalt, copper, chromium, silver, nickel and osmium. Many different reductants can be used. (Zhabotinsky, 1964b; Field and Burger, 1985) 该反应存在许多变体。唯一的关键化学品是溴酸盐氧化剂。催化剂离子通常是铈,但也可以是锰,或铁、钌、钴、铜、铬、银、镍和锇的复合物。可以使用许多不同的还原剂。(Zhabotinsky,1964年b;Field和Burger,1985年)。

Many different patterns can be observed when the reaction is run in a microemulsion.

Many different patterns can be observed when the reaction is run in a microemulsion.

当反应在微乳液中进行时,可以观察到许多不同的图案。


See also

另请参阅

  • Alan Turing who mathematically predicted oscillating chemical reactions in the early 1950s 艾伦·图灵(Alan Turing)在数学上预测了1950年代初期的振荡化学反应


References

  1. Hudson, J.L.; Mankin, J.C. (1981). "Chaos in the Belousov–Zhabotinskii reaction A Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction, or BZ reaction, is one of a class of reactions that serve as a classical example of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, resulting in the establishment of a nonlinear chemical oscillator. The only common element in these oscillators is the inclusion of bromine and an acid. The reactions are important to theoretical chemistry in that they show that chemical reactions do not have to be dominated by equilibrium thermodynamic behavior. These reactions are far from equilibrium and remain so for a significant length of time and evolve chaotically. In this sense, they provide an interesting chemical model of nonequilibrium biological phenomena; as such, mathematical models and simulations of the BZ reactions themselves are of theoretical interest, showing phenomenon as noise-induced order. Belousov-Zhabotinsky反应,或BZ反应,是一类作为非平衡热力学经典例子的反应之一,导致非线性化学振荡器的建立。这些振荡器中唯一的共同元素是包含溴和一种酸。这些反应对理论化学很重要,因为它们表明化学反应不一定非要以平衡热力学行为为主。这些反应远离平衡,并在相当长的时间内保持平衡,而且是混沌地发展。在这个意义上,它们为非平衡的生物现象提供了一个有趣的化学模型;因此,BZ反应本身的数学模型和模拟具有理论意义,表现为噪声诱导的有序现象。". J. Chem. Phys. 74 (11): 6171–6177. doi:10.1063/1.441007. line feed character in |title= at position 44 (help)
  2. Matsumoto, K.; Tsuda, I. (1983). "Noise-induced order". J Stat Phys. 31 (1): 87–106. doi:10.1007/BF01010923. Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help)
  3. Winfree, A. T. (1984). "The Prehistory of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky Oscillator". Journal of Chemical Education. 61 (8): 661–663. Bibcode:1984JChEd..61..661W. doi:10.1021/ed061p661.
  4. B. P. Belousov (1959). "Периодически действующая реакция и ее механизм" [Periodically acting reaction and its mechanism]. Сборник рефератов по радиационной медицине. 147: 145.
  5. A. M. Zhabotinsky (1964). "Периодический процесс окисления малоновой кислоты растворе" [Periodical process of oxidation of malonic acid solution]. Биофизика. 9: 306–311.
  6. "Andy Adamatzky". University of the West of England, Bristol. Archived from the original on 2019-04-12. Retrieved 2006-10-23.
  7. Motoike, Ikuko N.; Adamatzky, Andrew (2005). "Three-valued logic gates in reaction–diffusion excitable media". Chaos, Solitons & Fractals. 24 (1): 107–14. Bibcode:2005CSF....24..107M. doi:10.1016/j.chaos.2004.07.021.
  8. "Picture Gallery". Department of Biophysics, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg.
  9. Palmer, J. (2010-01-11). "Chemical computer that mimics neurons to be created". BBC (Science News).
  10. Field, Richard J.; Foersterling, Horst Dieter (1986). "On the oxybromine chemistry rate constants with cerium ions in the Field-Körös-Noyes mechanism of the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction: The equilibrium HBrO2 + BrO3 + H+ → 2 BrO2• + H2O". The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 90 (21): 5400–7. doi:10.1021/j100412a101.
  11. Sirimungkala, Atchara; Försterling, Horst-Dieter; Dlask, Vladimir; Field, Richard J. (1999). "Bromination Reactions Important in the Mechanism of the Belousov−Zhabotinsky System". The Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 103 (8): 1038–43. Bibcode:1999JPCA..103.1038S. doi:10.1021/jp9825213.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Lister, Ted (1995). Classic Chemistry Demonstrations. London: Education Division, The Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-1-870343-38-1. Archived from the original on 2014-08-16. https://web.archive.org/web/20140816215935/http://www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry/content/filerepository/CMP/00/001/001/Classicdemos_full.pdf. 
  13. Zhabotinsky, Anatol (2007). "Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction". Scholarpedia. 2 (9): 1435. doi:10.4249/scholarpedia.1435.


Further reading

  • Pabian, R. K.; Zarins, A.. Banded Agates, Origins and Inclusions. Educational Circular. 12. University of Nebraska-Lincoln. 
  • Ichino, T.; Asahi, T.; Kitahata, H.; Magome, N.; Agladze, K.; Yoshikawa, K. (2008). "Microfreight Delivered by Chemical Waves". Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 112 (8): 3032–5. doi:10.1021/jp7097922.


External links

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Category:Name reactions

分类: 名字反应


Category:Non-equilibrium thermodynamics

类别: 非平衡态热力学

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Category:Pattern formation

类别: 模式形成


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction. Its edit history can be viewed at B-Z反应/edithistory