自治系统理论

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Autonomous agency theory (AAT) is a viable system theory (VST) which models autonomous social complex adaptive systems. It can be used to model the relationship between an agency and its environment(s), and these may include other interactive agencies. The nature of that interaction is determined by both the agency's external and internal attributes and constraints. Internal attributes may include immanent dynamic "self" processes that drive agency change.

Autonomous agency theory (AAT) is a viable system theory (VST) which models autonomous social complex adaptive systems. It can be used to model the relationship between an agency and its environment(s), and these may include other interactive agencies. The nature of that interaction is determined by both the agency's external and internal attributes and constraints. Internal attributes may include immanent dynamic "self" processes that drive agency change.

自治代理理论(AAT)是一种可行的系统理论(VST) ,它对自治的社会复杂适应系统进行建模。它可以用来模拟一个机构与其环境之间的关系,这些可能包括其他互动机构。这种相互作用的性质是由机构的外部和内部属性和制约因素决定的。内部属性可能包括内在的动态“自我”过程,推动机构变化。


History

Stafford Beer coined the term viable systems in the 1950s, and developed it within his management cybernetics theories. He designed his viable system model as a diagnostic tool for organisational pathologies (conditions of social ill-health). This model involves a system concerned with operations and their direct management, and a meta-system that "observes" the system and controls it. Beer's work refers to Maturana's concept of autopoiesis,[1] which explains why living systems actually live. However, Beer did not make general use of the concept in his modelling process.

Stafford Beer coined the term viable systems in the 1950s, and developed it within his management cybernetics theories. He designed his viable system model as a diagnostic tool for organisational pathologies (conditions of social ill-health). This model involves a system concerned with operations and their direct management, and a meta-system that "observes" the system and controls it. Beer's work refers to Maturana's concept of autopoiesis, which explains why living systems actually live. However, Beer did not make general use of the concept in his modelling process.

斯塔福德 · 比尔在20世纪50年代创造了可行系统这个术语,并在他的管理控制论理论中发展了它。他设计了自己可行的系统模型,作为组织病理学(社会不健康状况)的诊断工具。这个模型包括一个与操作及其直接管理相关的系统,以及一个“观察”系统并控制它的元系统。比尔的工作引用了 Maturana 的自创生概念,这个概念解释了为什么生命系统是真实存在的。然而,比尔在他的建模过程中并没有充分利用这一概念。


In the 1980s Eric Schwarz developed an alternative model from the principles of complexity science. This not only embraces the ideas of autopoiesis (self-production), but also autogenesis (self-creation) which responds to a proposition that living systems also need to learn to maintain their viability. Self-production and self-creation are both networks of processes that connect an operational system of agency structure from which behaviour arises, an observing relational meta-system, this itself observed by an "existential" meta-meta-system. As such Schwarz' VST constitutes a different paradigm from that of Beer.

In the 1980s Eric Schwarz developed an alternative model from the principles of complexity science. This not only embraces the ideas of autopoiesis (self-production), but also autogenesis (self-creation) which responds to a proposition that living systems also need to learn to maintain their viability. Self-production and self-creation are both networks of processes that connect an operational system of agency structure from which behaviour arises, an observing relational meta-system, this itself observed by an "existential" meta-meta-system. As such Schwarz' VST constitutes a different paradigm from that of Beer.

在20世纪80年代,埃里克 · 施瓦茨从复杂性科学的原理中发展了一个替代模型。这不仅包含了自创生(自我生产)的概念,而且也包含了自我生成(自我创造) ,它回应了一个命题,即生命系统也需要学会维持其生存能力。自我生产和自我创造都是过程的网络,这些过程连接着一个行为产生的机构结构的操作系统,一个观察关系的元系统,这个系统本身由一个”存在的”元系统观察到。因此,施瓦茨的 VST 构成了不同于比尔的范式。


AAT is a development of Schwarz' paradigm through the addition of propositions setting it in a knowledge context.[2]

AAT is a development of Schwarz' paradigm through the addition of propositions setting it in a knowledge context.

AAT 是施瓦茨范式的发展,是通过在知识语境中增加命题来实现的。


Development

AAT is a generic modelling approach that has the capacity to anticipate future potentials for behaviour. Such anticipation occurs because behaviour in the agency as a living system is "structure determined",[3] where the structure itself of the agency is responsible for that anticipation. This is like anticipating the behaviour of both a tiger or a giraffe when faced with food options. The tiger has a structure that allows it to have speed, strength and sharp inbuilt weapons to kill moving prey, but the giraffe has a structure that allows it to acquire its food in high places in a way the tiger could not duplicate. Even if a giraffe has the speed to chase prey, it does not have the resources to kill and eat it.

AAT is a generic modelling approach that has the capacity to anticipate future potentials for behaviour. Such anticipation occurs because behaviour in the agency as a living system is "structure determined", where the structure itself of the agency is responsible for that anticipation. This is like anticipating the behaviour of both a tiger or a giraffe when faced with food options. The tiger has a structure that allows it to have speed, strength and sharp inbuilt weapons to kill moving prey, but the giraffe has a structure that allows it to acquire its food in high places in a way the tiger could not duplicate. Even if a giraffe has the speed to chase prey, it does not have the resources to kill and eat it.

学习能力测验是一种通用的建模方法,具有预测未来行为潜力的能力。这种预期之所以发生,是因为作为一个生命系统的行为是”结构决定的” ,行为机构的结构本身负责这种预期。这就像在面对食物选择时,预测老虎或长颈鹿的行为一样。老虎有一个结构,让它有速度,力量和锋利的内置武器杀死移动的猎物,但长颈鹿有一个结构,让它可以获得食物在高处的方式,老虎无法复制。即使长颈鹿有追捕猎物的速度,它也没有足够的资源杀死并吃掉猎物。

Agency generic structure is a substructure defined by three systems that are, in general terms, referred to as:

Agency generic structure is a substructure defined by three systems that are, in general terms, referred to as:

代理类属结构是由三个系统定义的子结构,一般称为:

  • existential (pattern of thematic relevance that is the consequence of experience);
  • noumenal (representing the nature of a phenomenal effect subjectively through conceptual relationships)
  • phenomenal (maintaining patterns of context related structural relevance connected with action, and constituting an origin for experience).

These generic systems are ontologically distinct; their natures being determined by the context in which the autonomous agency exists. The substructure also maintains a superstructure that is constructed through context related propositional theory. Superstructural theory may include attributes of collective identity, cognition, emotion, personality; purpose and intention; self-reference, self-awareness, self-reflection, self-regulation and self-organisation. The substructural systems are connected by autopoietic and autogenetic networks of processes as shown in Figure 1 below.

These generic systems are ontologically distinct; their natures being determined by the context in which the autonomous agency exists. The substructure also maintains a superstructure that is constructed through context related propositional theory. Superstructural theory may include attributes of collective identity, cognition, emotion, personality; purpose and intention; self-reference, self-awareness, self-reflection, self-regulation and self-organisation. The substructural systems are connected by autopoietic and autogenetic networks of processes as shown in Figure 1 below.

这些通用系统在本体论上是截然不同的; 它们的性质由自治机构存在的环境所决定。子结构也维持上层建筑是通过上下文相关命题理论建造的。超结构理论包括集体认同、认知、情感、人格、目的和意图、自我参照、自我意识、自我反思、自我调节和自我组织等属性。子结构系统通过自生和自生过程网络相连,如下图1所示。


Figure 1 - Living System formulated as a set of ontologically independent but interconnected substructural subsystems
Figure 1 - Living System formulated as a set of ontologically independent but interconnected substructural subsystems

图1-生活系统制定为一套本体独立但互相关联的子结构子系统


The terminology becomes simplified when the existential system is taken to be culture, and it is recognised that Piaget's[4] concept of operative intelligence is equivalent to autopoiesis, and his figurative intelligence to autogenesis. The noumenal system now becomes a personality system, and autonomous agency theory now becomes cultural agency theory (CAT).[5] This is normally used to model plural situations like organisations or a nation states, when its personality system is taken to have normative characteristics (see also Normative personality),[6][7] that is, driven by cultural norms as represented in Figure 2 below. This has developed further through mindset agency theory[8] enabling agency behaviour to be anticipated.[9]

The terminology becomes simplified when the existential system is taken to be culture, and it is recognised that Piaget's concept of operative intelligence is equivalent to autopoiesis, and his figurative intelligence to autogenesis. The noumenal system now becomes a personality system, and autonomous agency theory now becomes cultural agency theory (CAT). This is normally used to model plural situations like organisations or a nation states, when its personality system is taken to have normative characteristics (see also Normative personality), that is, driven by cultural norms as represented in Figure 2 below. This has developed further through mindset agency theory enabling agency behaviour to be anticipated.

当把存在系统看作文化时,术语就变得简单化了,人们认识到皮亚杰的操作智能概念相当于自创生,他的比喻智能相当于自生。本体系统成为人格系统,自治机构理论成为文化机构理论。这通常用于模拟组织或民族国家等多元情况,当其人格体系被视为具有规范性特征(也见规范性人格)时,即由下文图2所示的文化规范所驱动。这通过思维心态进一步发展了机构理论,使机构行为能够预期。


Figure 2 - Substructural Schema

Figure 2 - Substructural Schema

图2-子结构模式


A feature of this modelling approach is that the properties of the cultural system act as an attractor for the agency as a whole, providing constraint for the properties of its personality and operative systems. This attraction ceases with cultural instability, when CAT reduces to instrumentality with no capacity to learn. Another feature is driven by possibilities of recursion permitted using Beer's proposition of viability law: every viable system contains and is contained in a viable system.[10]

A feature of this modelling approach is that the properties of the cultural system act as an attractor for the agency as a whole, providing constraint for the properties of its personality and operative systems. This attraction ceases with cultural instability, when CAT reduces to instrumentality with no capacity to learn. Another feature is driven by possibilities of recursion permitted using Beer's proposition of viability law: every viable system contains and is contained in a viable system.

这种建模方法的一个特点是,文化系统的属性作为整个机构的吸引力,对其个性和运作系统的属性提供约束。当 CAT 变成没有学习能力的工具时,这种吸引力就会随着文化的不稳定而停止。另一个特征是由使用比尔的生存法则的命题允许的递归的可能性驱动的: 每个可行的系统包含并包含在一个可行的系统中。


Cultural agency theory

Cultural agency theory (CAT) as a development of AAT.[11] It is principally used to model organisational contexts that have at least potentially stable cultures. The existential system of AAT becomes the cultural system, the figurative system become a normative personality,[12] and the operative system now represents the organisational structure that facilitates and constrains behaviour.

Cultural agency theory (CAT) as a development of AAT. It is principally used to model organisational contexts that have at least potentially stable cultures. The existential system of AAT becomes the cultural system, the figurative system become a normative personality, and the operative system now represents the organisational structure that facilitates and constrains behaviour.

文化代理理论(CAT) : 学习行为理论的发展。它主要用于建立至少具有潜在稳定文化的组织环境模型。学习能力测验的生存系统成为文化系统,形象系统成为规范性人格,操作系统现在代表了促进和约束行为的组织结构。


The cultural system may be regarded as a (second order) "observer" of the instrumental couple that occurs between the normative personality and the operative system. The function of this couple is to manifest figurative attributes of the personality, like goals or ideology, operatively consequently influencing behaviour. This instrumental nature occurs through feedforward processes such that personality attributes can be processed for operative action. Where there are issues in doing this, feedback processes create imperatives for adjustment. This is like having a goal, and finding that it cannot be implemented, thereby having to reconsider the goal. This instrumental couple can also be seen in terms of the operative system and its first order "observing" system, the normative personality. So, while personality is a first order "observer" of CAT's operative system, it is ultimately directed by its second order cultural "observer" system.

The cultural system may be regarded as a (second order) "observer" of the instrumental couple that occurs between the normative personality and the operative system. The function of this couple is to manifest figurative attributes of the personality, like goals or ideology, operatively consequently influencing behaviour. This instrumental nature occurs through feedforward processes such that personality attributes can be processed for operative action. Where there are issues in doing this, feedback processes create imperatives for adjustment. This is like having a goal, and finding that it cannot be implemented, thereby having to reconsider the goal. This instrumental couple can also be seen in terms of the operative system and its first order "observing" system, the normative personality. So, while personality is a first order "observer" of CAT's operative system, it is ultimately directed by its second order cultural "observer" system.

文化系统可以被看作是规范人格与操作系统之间的工具性夫妻的(二阶)“观察者”。这对夫妻的功能是显示人格的比喻属性,如目标或意识形态,因此合作影响行为。这种工具性通过前馈过程发生,这样人格属性可以被处理为操作行动。如果这样做存在问题,反馈过程就会产生必要的调整。这就像有了一个目标,却发现它无法实现,因此不得不重新考虑这个目标。这对工具性夫妻也可以从操作系统及其一阶“观察”系统——规范性人格来看待。因此,虽然人格是 CAT 操作系统的一级“观察者” ,但它最终还是受到其二级文化“观察者”系统的指导。


A development of this has occurred using trait theory from psychology. Unlike other trait theories of personality, this adopts epistemic traits[13] that centres on values, an approach that tends to be more stable (since basic values tend to be stable) in terms of personality testing and retesting, than other approaches that use (for instance) agency preferences (like Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) that may change between test and retest. This trait theory for the normative personality is called mindset agency theory,[14] and is a development of Maruyama's Mindscape Theory.[15]

A development of this has occurred using trait theory from psychology. Unlike other trait theories of personality, this adopts epistemic traits that centres on values, an approach that tends to be more stable (since basic values tend to be stable) in terms of personality testing and retesting, than other approaches that use (for instance) agency preferences (like Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) that may change between test and retest. This trait theory for the normative personality is called mindset agency theory, and is a development of Maruyama's Mindscape Theory.

利用心理学中的特质理论对此进行了发展。与其他人格特质理论不同,这种理论采用了以价值观为中心的认知性特质,这种方法在人格测试和重测方面往往更稳定(因为基本价值观往往是稳定的) ,而不是采用其他方法,例如使用可能在测试和重测之间变化的代理偏好(如迈尔斯-布里格斯性格分类法偏好)。这种规范性人格的特质理论被称为心态代理理论,是丸山心理景观理论的发展。


The cognitive process by which personality is represented through epistemic trait functions (called types), can be explained through both instrumental and epistemic rationality,模板:Fact where instrumental rationality (also referred to as utilitarian,[16] and related to the expectations about the behaviour of other human beings or objects in the environment given some cognitive basis for those expectation) is independent of, if constrained by, epistemic rationality (related to the formation of beliefs in an unbiased manner, normally set in terms of believable propositions: due to their being strongly supported by evidence, as opposed to being agnostic towards propositions that are unsupported by "sufficient" evidence, whatever this means). Applications of CAT could be found in social, political and economical sciences, for instance recend studies analyzed Donald Trump and Theresa May personalities.

The cognitive process by which personality is represented through epistemic trait functions (called types), can be explained through both instrumental and epistemic rationality, where instrumental rationality (also referred to as utilitarian, and related to the expectations about the behaviour of other human beings or objects in the environment given some cognitive basis for those expectation) is independent of, if constrained by, epistemic rationality (related to the formation of beliefs in an unbiased manner, normally set in terms of believable propositions: due to their being strongly supported by evidence, as opposed to being agnostic towards propositions that are unsupported by "sufficient" evidence, whatever this means). Applications of CAT could be found in social, political and economical sciences, for instance recend studies analyzed Donald Trump and Theresa May personalities.

人格通过认知特征函数(称为类型)来表现的认知过程,可以通过工具理性和认知理性来解释,其中工具理性(也被称为功利主义,与给予这些期望某些认知基础的环境中其他人或物体的行为预期相关)是独立的,如果受到认知理性的约束(与以不偏不倚的方式形成的信念相关,通常以命题的形式出现: 因为它们得到了可信的证据的有力支持,而不是被不可知论者的命题得不到“充分”证据的支持,无论这意味着什么)。计算机辅助翻译的应用可以在社会、政治和经济科学中找到,例如,重新研究分析了唐纳德 · 特朗普和特蕾莎 · 梅的个性。


Higher orders of autonomous agency

Stafford Beer's (1979) viable system model is a well-known diagnostic model that comes out of his management cybernetics paradigm. Related to this is the idea of first order and second order cybernetics. Cybernetics is concerned with feedforward and feedback processes, and first order cybernetics is concerned with this relationship between the system and its environment. Second order cybernetics is concerned with the relationship between the system and its internal meta-system (that some refer to as "the observer" of the system). Von Foerster[17] has referred to second order cybernetics as the "cybernetics of cybernetics". While attempts to explore higher orders of cybernetics have been made,[18] no development into a general theory of higher cybernetic orders has emerged from this paradigm.

Stafford Beer's (1979) viable system model is a well-known diagnostic model that comes out of his management cybernetics paradigm. Related to this is the idea of first order and second order cybernetics. Cybernetics is concerned with feedforward and feedback processes, and first order cybernetics is concerned with this relationship between the system and its environment. Second order cybernetics is concerned with the relationship between the system and its internal meta-system (that some refer to as "the observer" of the system). Von Foerster has referred to second order cybernetics as the "cybernetics of cybernetics". While attempts to explore higher orders of cybernetics have been made, no development into a general theory of higher cybernetic orders has emerged from this paradigm.

Stafford Beer (1979)的可行系统模型是一个众所周知的诊断模型,这个模型来自于他的管理控制论模型。与此相关的是一阶和二阶控制论的思想。控制论研究的是前馈和反馈过程,一阶控制论研究的是系统与环境之间的关系。二阶控制论研究的是系统与其内部元系统(有些人称之为系统的“观察者”)之间的关系。冯 · 福尔斯特将二阶控制论称为“控制论的控制论”。虽然试图探索更高阶的控制论已经作出,没有发展成为一般理论的更高的控制论秩序已经从这一范式出现。

In contrast, extending the principles of autonomous agency theory, a generic model has been formulated for the generation of higher cybernetic orders,[19] developed using the concepts of recursion and incursion as proposed by Dubois.[20][21] The model is reflective, for instance, of processes of knowledge creation for community learning[22] and symbolic convergence theory.[23] This nth order theory of cybernetics links with "the cybernetics of cybernetics" by assigning to its second order cybernetic concept inferences that may arise from any higher order cybernetics that may exist, if unperceived. The network of processes in this general representation of higher cybernetic orders is expressed in terms of orders of autopoiesis, so that for instance autogenesis may be seen as a second order of autopoiesis.

In contrast, extending the principles of autonomous agency theory, a generic model has been formulated for the generation of higher cybernetic orders, developed using the concepts of recursion and incursion as proposed by Dubois. The model is reflective, for instance, of processes of knowledge creation for community learning and symbolic convergence theory. This nth order theory of cybernetics links with "the cybernetics of cybernetics" by assigning to its second order cybernetic concept inferences that may arise from any higher order cybernetics that may exist, if unperceived. The network of processes in this general representation of higher cybernetic orders is expressed in terms of orders of autopoiesis, so that for instance autogenesis may be seen as a second order of autopoiesis.

相比之下,扩展自治机构理论的原则,一个通用模型已经制定了更高的控制论秩序的产生,发展使用概念递归和入侵,由杜布瓦提出。该模型反映了社区学习的知识创造过程和符号收敛理论。这个控制论的 n 阶理论与“控制论的控制论”联系在一起,通过赋予它的二阶控制论概念推论,这些推论可能产生于任何可能存在的高阶控制论,如果没有被察觉的话。在这种高级控制论秩序的一般表示中,过程的网络是以自发生成的秩序来表示的,例如,自发生成可以被看作是自发生成的二级。


See also


References

  1. Maturana H.R., Varela F.J (1979). Autopoiesis and Cognition. Boston: Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science
  2. Yolles, M.I., 2006, Organizations as Complex Systems: an introduction to knowledge cybernetics, Information Age Publishing, Inc., Greenwich, CT, USA
  3. Maturana, H.R., 1988, Reality: the search for objectivity or the Quest for a compelling argument. Irish J. Psych. 9:25-82
  4. Piaget, J. (1950). The Psychology of Intelligence, Harcourt and Brace, New York
  5. G.A.N.D. blog http://blog.gand.biz/2016/10/cultural-agency-theory-autonomous-agency-theory/ -{zh-cn:互联网档案馆; zh-tw:網際網路檔案館; zh-hk:互聯網檔案館;}-存檔,存档日期2016-10-09.
  6. Yolles, M.I., Fink, G., Frieden, R. (2012). Organisations as Emergent Normative Personalities: part 2, predicting the unpredictable, Kybernetes, 41(7/8)1014-1050)
  7. Fink, G. Yolles, M. (2014) The Affective Agency: An Agency with Feelings and Emotions, http://ssrn.com/abstract=2463283
  8. Yolles, M.I.; Fink, G. (2014). "Personality, pathology and mindsets: part 1 – Agency, Personality and Mindscapes". Kybernetes. 43 (1): 92–112. doi:10.1108/k-01-2013-0011.
  9. Yolles, M.I, Fink, G. (2014). Personality, pathology and mindsets: part 1 – Agency, Personality and Mindscapes, Kybernetes, 43(1) 92-112
  10. Beer, S., (1959), Cybernetics and Management, English U. Press, London.
  11. Gua, K.; Yolles, M.; Fink, G.; Iles, P. (2016). The Changing Organisation: Agency Theory in a Cross-cultural Context. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 
  12. Yolles, M. (2009). "Migrating Personality Theories Part 1: Creating Agentic Trait Psychology?". Kybernetes. 38 (6): 897–924. doi:10.1108/03684920910973153.
  13. Yolles, M.; Fink, G. "An Introduction to Mindset Agency Theory". ResearchGate. Organisational Coherence and Trajectory Project. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  14. Gua, K.; Yolles, M.; Fink, G.; Iles, P. (2016). The Changing Organisation: Agency Theory in a Cross-cultural Context. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 
  15. Mauyama, M. (1980). "Mindscapes and Science Theories" (PDF). Current Anthropology. 21 (5): 589–608. doi:10.1086/202539. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  16. Von Glasersfeld, Ernest. "Aspects of Radical Constructivism" (PDF). Radical Constructivism. University of Vienna, Austria. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
  17. Von Foerster, H (1975). The Cybernetics of Cybernetics, Biological Computer Laboratory, Champaign/Urbana, republished (1995), Future Systems Inc., Minneaopolis, MN
  18. Boxer, P.J., Cohen, B. (2000). Doing time: the emergence of irreversibility, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 901(1):13–25
  19. Yolles, M.I, Fink, G., 2015, A general theory of generic modelling and paradigm shifts: part 2 - cybernetic orders, Kybernetes, 44(2)299-310
  20. Dubois D. M. (1996), Introduction to the Symposium on General Methods for Modelling and Control, Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Cybernetics, Namur, 1995, Published by the International Association of Cybernetics, pp. 383-388)
  21. Dubois, D, 2000, Review of Incursive Hyperincursive and Anticipatory Systems - Foundation of Anticipation in Electromagnetism, CASYS'99 - Third International Conference. Edited by Dubois, D.M. Published by The American Institute of Physics, AIP Conference Proceedings 517, pp3-30
  22. Conceição, S.C., Baldor, M.J., Desnoyers, C.A. (2009). Factors Influencing Individual Construction of Knowledge in an Online Community of Learning and Inquiry Using Concept Maps. Lupion Torres, P (Ed.) Handbook of Research on Collaborative Learning Using Concept Mapping (pp.100-117). Information Science Reference: Hershey, NY.
  23. Bormann, E. G. (1996). Symbolic convergence theory and communication in group decision making. In Hirokawa, RY, Scott Poole, M (Ed.), Communication and group decision making, Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA. pp. 2, 81-113

Category:Cybernetics

类别: 控制论


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Autonomous agency theory. Its edit history can be viewed at 自治系统理论/edithistory