艾伦·图灵

来自集智百科 - 复杂系统|人工智能|复杂科学|复杂网络|自组织
跳到导航 跳到搜索

此词条由范星辰翻译。

Alan Turing

文件:Alan Turing Aged 16.jpg
Turing 模板:Circa 1928 at age 16
Born
Alan Mathison Turing

(1912-模板:MONTHNUMBER-23)23 1912
Maida Vale, London, England
Died7 June 1954(1954-06-07) (aged 41)
Wilmslow, Cheshire, England
Cause of deathSuicide (disputed) by cyanide poisoning
Resting placeAshes scattered in gardens of Woking Crematorium
EducationSherborne School
Alma mater
Known for
AwardsSmith's Prize (1936)
Scientific career
Fields
Institutions
ThesisSystems of Logic Based on Ordinals (1938)
Doctoral studentsRobin Gandy,[2][3] Beatrice Worsley[4]
InfluencesMax Newman[5]
Signature
150px

Alan Mathison Turing ( 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, computer scientist, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.[6][7] Turing was highly influential in the development of theoretical computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general-purpose computer.[8][9][10] Turing is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.[11]

艾伦·图灵(1912年6月23日至1954年6月7日)是英国数学家、计算机科学家、逻辑学家、密码专家、哲学家和理论生物学家。图灵在理论计算机科学的发展中有着巨大的影响力,通过图灵机器提供了算法和计算概念的形式化,图灵机器可以被视为通用计算机的模型。图灵被广泛认为是理论计算机科学和人工智能之父。

【最终版】艾伦·麦席森·图灵(Alan Mathison Turing, 1912年6月23日- 1954年6月7日),英国数学家、计算机科学家、逻辑学家、密码专家、哲学家和理论生物学家。图灵对理论计算机科学的发展产生了巨大的影响,他用图灵机(可以被认为是通用计算机的模型)将算法和计算的概念形式化。图灵被广泛认为是理论计算机科学和人工智能之父。

Born in Maida Vale, London, Turing was raised in southern England. He graduated at King's College, Cambridge, with a degree in mathematics. Whilst he was a fellow at Cambridge, he published a proof demonstrating that some purely mathematical yes–no questions can never be answered by computation and defined a Turing machine, and went on to prove the halting problem for Turing machines is undecidable. In 1938, he obtained his PhD from the Department of Mathematics at Princeton University. During the Second World War, Turing worked for the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park, Britain's codebreaking centre that produced Ultra intelligence. For a time he led Hut 8, the section that was responsible for German naval cryptanalysis. Here, he devised a number of techniques for speeding the breaking of German ciphers, including improvements to the pre-war Polish bombe method, an electromechanical machine that could find settings for the Enigma machine. Turing played a crucial role in cracking intercepted coded messages that enabled the Allies to defeat the Axis powers in many crucial engagements, including the Battle of the Atlantic.[12][13]A number of sources state that Winston Churchill said that Turing made the single biggest contribution to Allied victory in the war against Nazi Germany. However, both The Churchill Centre and Turing's biographer Andrew Hodges have stated they know of no documentary evidence to support this claim, nor of the date or context in which Churchill supposedly said it, and the Churchill Centre lists it among their Churchill 'Myths', see and A BBC News profile piece that repeated the Churchill claim has subsequently been amended to say there is no evidence for it. See Official war historian Harry Hinsley estimated that this work shortened the war in Europe by more than two years but added the caveat that this did not account for the use of the atomic bomb and other eventualities. Transcript of a lecture given on Tuesday 19 October 1993 at Cambridge University

图灵出生于梅达韦尔,在英格兰南部长大。他毕业于剑桥大学国王学院,获得数学学位。当他还是剑桥大学的研究员时,他发表了一篇论文,证明了一些纯粹的数学上的是非问题永远不能用计算机来回答,并定义了一个图灵机,并继续证明图灵机的停机问题是不可判定的。1938年,他获得了普林斯顿大学数学系的博士学位。第二次世界大战期间,图灵在 Bletchley Park 的英国政府通讯总部情报局工作,这是英国产生超级情报的密码破译中心。有一段时间,他领导第八小组,该小组负责德国海军密码破译。在这里,他设计了一系列加速破解德国密码的技术,包括改进战前的波兰轰炸机方法,这种机电式机器可以找到英格玛密码机的设置。图灵在破译截获的加密信息中扮演了关键角色,这些信息使得盟军在许多关键战役中击败轴心国,包括大西洋战役。一些消息来源称,温斯顿·丘吉尔称图灵为盟军在对抗纳粹德国的战争中取得胜利做出了最大贡献。然而,丘吉尔中心和图灵的传记作者安德鲁 · 霍奇斯都表示,他们不知道任何文件证据来支持这一说法,也不知道据说丘吉尔说这话的日期或背景,丘吉尔中心将其列为他们的丘吉尔神话之一。参见官方战争历史学家哈里 · 辛斯利的估计,这项工作将欧洲战争缩短了两年多,但是补充说明,这并没有考虑到原子弹的使用和其他不测事件。1993年10月19日星期二在剑桥大学演讲的文字稿

【最终版】图灵出生在伦敦的梅达韦尔(Maida Vale),在英格兰南部长大。他毕业于剑桥大学国王学院,获得了数学学位。当他还是剑桥大学的一名研究员时,他发表了一个证明,证明了一些纯数学的是非问题永远不能通过计算来回答,并定义了一个图灵机,并继续证明了图灵机的停机问题是不可判定的。1938年,他在普林斯顿大学数学系获得了博士学位。第二次世界大战期间,图灵在布莱切利公园的政府密码与密码学校(GC&CS)工作,这是英国的密码破译中心,并且产生了“超级智能”。有一段时间,他领导8号营房,该部门负责德国海军的密码分析工作。在这里,他设计了许多加速破译德国密码的技术,包括对战前的波兰炸弹法的改进,一种可以为恩尼格玛机找到系统设置的机电机器。图灵在破解被截获的编码信息方面发挥了至关重要的作用,这使得盟军在许多关键战役中击败了轴心国,包括大西洋战役。一些消息来源称,温斯顿·丘吉尔曾说过,图灵为盟军战胜纳粹德国做出了最大的贡献。然而,丘吉尔中心和图灵的传记作者安德鲁·霍奇斯都表示,他们不知道任何文件证据来支持这一说法,也不知道丘吉尔说这句话的日期和背景,丘吉尔中心把这句话列为丘吉尔的“神话”之一。BBC新闻的一篇人物简介文章重复了丘吉尔的说法,但后来被修改为没有证据证明这一点。官方战争历史学家哈里·欣斯利估计,这项工作将欧洲战争缩短了两年多,但他补充说,这项工作没有考虑到原子弹的使用和其他可能性。1993年10月19日星期二在剑桥大学的一次演讲的讲稿。

After the war, Turing worked at the National Physical Laboratory, where he designed the Automatic Computing Engine (ACE), one of the first designs for a stored-program computer. In 1948, Turing joined Max Newman's Computing Machine Laboratory, at the Victoria University of Manchester, where he helped develop the Manchester computers[14] and became interested in mathematical biology. He wrote a paper on the chemical basis of morphogenesis[1] and predicted oscillating chemical reactions such as the Belousov–Zhabotinsky reaction, first observed in the 1960s. Despite these accomplishments, he was never fully recognised in his home country during his lifetime because much of his work was covered by the Official Secrets Act.[15]Olinick, M. (2021). Simply Turing. United States: Simply Charly, ch. 15.

战后,图灵在国家物理实验室工作,在那里他设计了自动计算机引擎(ACE) ,这是储存程式计算机的第一个设计。1948年,图灵加入了曼彻斯特维多利亚大学马克斯 · 纽曼的计算机实验室,在那里他帮助开发了曼彻斯特计算机,并对数学生物学产生了兴趣。他写了一篇关于形态形成的化学基础的论文,并预言了一些振荡的化学反应,如1960年代首次观察到的 Belousov-Zhabotinsky 反应。尽管取得了这些成就,但在他有生之年,他在祖国从未得到充分认可,因为他的大部分工作都受到《官方保密法》的保护。奥林尼克,m.(2021)。简单的图灵。美国: 简称 Charly,ch.15.

【最终版】战后,图灵在国家物理实验室工作,在那里他设计了自动计算引擎(ACE),这是存储程序计算机的第一批设计之一。1948年,图灵加入了曼彻斯特维多利亚大学的马克斯·纽曼计算机器实验室,在那里,他帮助开发了曼彻斯特计算机,并对数学生物学产生了兴趣。他写了一篇关于形态发生的化学基础的论文,并预测了振荡的化学反应,如在20世纪60年代首次观察到的别洛乌索夫-扎博茨基反应。尽管取得了这些成就,但在他的一生中,他在自己的祖国从未得到充分认可,因为他的大部分工作都受到了《官方保密法》(Official Secrets Act)的保护。

Turing was prosecuted in 1952 for homosexual acts. He accepted chemical castration treatment, with DES, as an alternative to prison. Turing died in 1954, 16 days before his 42nd birthday, from cyanide poisoning. An inquest determined his death as a suicide, but it has been noted that the known evidence is also consistent with accidental poisoning.

灵在1952年因同性恋行为被起诉。他接受了药物洗脱支架的化学阉割治疗,作为监狱的替代方案。图灵1954年死于氰化物中毒,距他42岁生日还有16天。调查确定他的死因是自杀,但已知的证据也与意外中毒相符。

【最终版】1952年,图灵因同性恋行为被起诉。他接受了化学阉割治疗,用DES来替代监狱。1954年,离他42岁生日还有16天,图灵死于氰化物中毒。调查确定他的死亡为自杀,但已指出,已知的证据也与意外中毒相一致。

In 2009, following an Internet campaign, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown made an official public apology on behalf of the British government for "the appalling way he was treated". Queen Elizabeth II granted Turing a posthumous pardon in 2013. The "Alan Turing law" is now an informal term for a 2017 law in the United Kingdom that retroactively pardoned men cautioned or convicted under historical legislation that outlawed homosexual acts.[16] Turing has an extensive legacy with statues of him and many things named after him, including an annual award for computer science innovations. He appears on the current Bank of England £50 note, which was released to coincide with his birthday. A 2019 BBC series, as voted by the audience, named him the greatest person of the 20th century.

2009年,在一场网络运动之后,英国首相戈登 · 布朗代表英国政府就“他受到的骇人听闻的对待”发表了正式的公开道歉。伊丽莎白二世在2013年给予图灵死后赦免。“阿兰 · 图灵法”现在是英国2017年一项法律的非正式术语,该法律追溯性地赦免了那些根据历史法律被警告或定罪的同性恋行为。图灵有着广泛的遗产,雕像和许多以他的名字命名的东西,包括一个年度计算机科学创新奖。他出现在当前英格兰银行发行的50英镑纸币上,这张纸币是在他生日那天发行的。2019年 BBC 的一个系列节目,经过观众投票,将他评为20世纪最伟大的人物。

【最终版】2009年,在一场网络运动之后,英国首相戈登·布朗代表英国政府就“他受到的恶劣对待”正式公开道歉。2013年,英国女王伊丽莎白二世赦免了图灵。“艾伦·图灵法”现在是英国2017年颁布的一项法律的非正式用语,该法律对在历史上禁止同性恋行为的法律中被警告或被定罪的人进行追溯性赦免。图灵留下了很多他的雕像和许多以他命名的东西,包括年度计算机科学创新奖。他出现在英格兰银行50英镑纸币上,这张纸币是为了配合他的生日而发行的。在2019年的BBC系列节目中,观众投票选出他为20世纪最伟大的人。

Early life and education早年生活和教育

Family家庭

Turing was born in Maida Vale, London,[7] while his father, Julius Mathison Turing (1873–1947), was on leave from his position with the Indian Civil Service (ICS) at Chatrapur, then in the Madras Presidency and presently in Odisha state, in India.[17][18] Turing's father was the son of a clergyman, the Rev. John Robert Turing, from a Scottish family of merchants that had been based in the Netherlands and included a baronet. Turing's mother, Julius's wife, was Ethel Sara Turing (模板:Nee; 1881–1976),[7] daughter of Edward Waller Stoney, chief engineer of the Madras Railways. The Stoneys were a Protestant Anglo-Irish gentry family from both County Tipperary and County Longford, while Ethel herself had spent much of her childhood in County Clare.[19]Phil Maguire, "An Irishman's Diary", p. 5. The Irish Times, 23 June 2012.

图灵出生于梅达韦尔,而他的父亲朱利叶斯 · 马西森 · 图灵(1873-1947)正在杰德拉布尔的印度公务员部门休假,然后在印度马德拉斯省服役,目前在 Odisha。图灵的父亲是牧师的儿子。约翰 · 罗伯特 · 图灵,来自一个苏格兰商人家庭,家庭的基地在荷兰,包括一个准男爵。图灵的母亲,朱利叶斯的妻子,埃塞尔 · 萨拉 · 图灵(Ethel Sara Turing; 1881-1976) ,是马德拉斯铁路公司总工程师爱德华 · 沃勒 · 斯托尼(Edward Waller Stoney)的女儿。斯通伊斯是一个来自蒂珀雷里郡和 County Longford 的盎格鲁-爱尔兰新教贵族家庭,而埃塞尔本人在克莱尔郡度过了她童年的大部分时光。菲尔 · 马奎尔,《一个爱尔兰人的日记》 ,第5页。爱尔兰时报,2012年6月23日。

【最终版】图灵出生在伦敦的Maida Vale,当时他的父亲朱利叶斯·马西森·图灵(Julius Mathison Turing, 1873 - 1947)正在离开他的职位,到印度的查塔布尔进行公务员(ICS)休假,然后在马德拉斯做总裁,马德拉斯目前在印度奥里萨邦。图灵的父亲是牧师约翰·罗伯特·图灵(John Robert Turing)的儿子,他来自一个苏格兰商人家族,家族总部设在荷兰,其中包括一位准男爵。图灵的母亲,朱利叶斯的妻子,是埃塞尔·萨拉·图灵(模板:Nee;1881 - 1976),马德拉斯铁路总工程师爱德华·沃勒·斯托尼的女儿。斯通夫妇是来自蒂珀雷里郡和朗福德郡的一个信奉新教的盎格鲁-爱尔兰贵族家庭,而埃塞尔本人则在克莱尔郡度过了她大部分的童年时光。

Julius's work with the ICS brought the family to British India, where his grandfather had been a general in the Bengal Army. However, both Julius and Ethel wanted their children to be brought up in Britain, so they moved to Maida Vale,[20] London, where Alan Turing was born on 23 June 1912, as recorded by a blue plaque on the outside of the house of his birth,[21][22] The Scientific Tourist In London: #17 Alan Turing's Birth Place , Nature. London Blog later the Colonnade Hotel. Turing had an elder brother, John (the father of Sir John Dermot Turing, 12th Baronet of the Turing baronets).Sir John Dermot Turing on the Bletchley Park website.

朱利叶斯在 ICS 的工作将他的家庭带到了英属印度,他的祖父曾是孟加拉军队的一名将军。然而,朱利叶斯和埃塞尔都希望他们的孩子在英国长大,所以他们搬到了梅达韦尔,阿兰图灵于1912年6月23日在那里出生,正如他出生房子外面的蓝色牌匾所记录的那样,科学游客在伦敦: 17英镑阿兰图灵的出生地,自然。伦敦博客后来的 Colonnade Hotel。图灵有一个哥哥约翰(约翰 · 德莫特 · 图灵爵士的父亲,图灵从男爵12世)。约翰 · 德莫特 · 图灵爵士在 Bletchley Park 网站上。

【最终版】朱利叶斯的工作将他的家庭带到了英属印度,他的祖父曾是孟加拉军队的一名将军。然而,朱利叶斯和埃塞尔想让他们的孩子在英国长大的,所以他们搬到了Maida淡水河谷,伦敦,阿兰·图灵出生于1912年6月23日,所记录的一个蓝色的斑块在他出生时的房子里。伦敦博客之后是柱廊酒店。图灵有一个哥哥约翰(约翰·德莫特·图灵爵士的父亲,图灵家族的第12位准男爵)。布莱切利公园网站上的约翰·德莫特·图灵爵士。

Turing's father's civil service commission was still active and during Turing's childhood years, his parents travelled between Hastings in the United Kingdom[23] and India, leaving their two sons to stay with a retired Army couple. At Hastings, Turing stayed at Baston Lodge, Upper Maze Hill, St Leonards-on-Sea, now marked with a blue plaque.[24] The plaque was unveiled on 23 June 2012, the centenary of Turing's birth.[25]

图灵父亲的公务员委员会仍然活跃,在图灵的童年时代,他的父母在英国和印度的黑斯廷斯之间旅行,留下他们的两个儿子和一对退休的军人夫妇住在一起。在黑斯廷斯,图灵住在 Baston Lodge,上梅兹山,圣莱昂纳德海上,现在有一块蓝色的牌匾。2012年6月23日,也就是图灵百年诞辰纪念日,这块匾揭开了面纱。

【最终版】图灵父亲的公务员委员会仍然很活跃,在图灵童年时期,他的父母经常往返于英国的黑斯廷斯和印度之间,留下两个儿子和一对退役的军人夫妇生活在一起。在黑斯廷斯,图灵住在海上圣伦纳德的巴斯顿小屋,现在这里有一块蓝色的牌匾。2012年6月23日,也就是图灵诞辰100周年之际,这个牌匾揭开了面纱。

Very early in life, Turing showed signs of the genius that he was later to display prominently.[26] His parents purchased a house in Guildford in 1927, and Turing lived there during school holidays. The location is also marked with a blue plaque.[27]

在他很小的时候,图灵就表现出了天才的迹象,后来他突出地展现了这一点。他的父母1927年在吉尔福德买了一所房子,图灵在学校放假期间住在那里。这个位置还有一块蓝色的牌匾。

【最终版】在很小的时候,图灵就表现出了天才的迹象,他后来也表现得非常出色。1927年,图灵的父母在吉尔福德买了一套房子,他在学校放假的时候就住在那里。这个地点也用一块蓝色的牌子做了标记。

School学校

Turing's parents enrolled him at St Michael's, a primary school at 20 Charles Road, St Leonards-on-Sea, from the age of six to nine. The headmistress recognised his talent, noting that she has "...had clever boys and hardworking boys, but Alan is a genius."[28]

图灵的父母把他送进了圣迈克尔学校,这是一所位于海上圣莱昂纳德查尔斯路20号的小学,从6岁到9岁不等。女校长认出了他的才能,并说她“ ... 有聪明的男孩和勤奋的男孩,但艾伦是一个天才。”

【最终版】图灵的父母在他6岁到9岁的时候,把他送到了圣迈克尔小学,那是一所位于圣伦纳德海滨的查尔斯路20号的小学。女校长承认了他的才华,指出她“……有的孩子既聪明又勤奋,但艾伦是个天才。”

Between January 1922 and 1926, Turing was educated at Hazelhurst Preparatory School, an independent school in the village of Frant in Sussex (now East Sussex).[29] In 1926, at the age of 13, he went on to Sherborne School,[30] a boarding independent school in the market town of Sherborne in Dorset, where he boarded at Westcott House. The first day of term coincided with the 1926 General Strike, in Britain, but Turing was so determined to attend, that he rode his bicycle unaccompanied 模板:Convert from Southampton to Sherborne, stopping overnight at an inn.[31]

1922年1月至1926年间,图灵在哈泽尔赫斯特预科学校接受教育,这是苏塞克斯郡(现为东苏塞克斯郡)弗兰特的一所独立学校。1926年,13岁的他进入了位于多塞特舍伯恩市镇的一所寄宿制独立学校---- 谢伯恩学校,在那里他在 Westcott House 寄宿。学期的第一天正好赶上1926年英国的总罢工,但是图灵决心要参加,他独自骑着自行车从南安普顿到了舍伯恩,在一家客栈过夜。

【最终版】1922年1月到1926年1月,图灵在Hazelhurst预备学校接受教育,这是苏塞克斯(现在的东苏塞克斯)弗朗特村的一所独立学校。1926年,13岁的他上了舍尔伯尼学校,这是一所寄宿独立学校,位于多塞特郡的舍尔伯尼镇,他寄宿在韦斯科特之家。这个学期的第一天,正值英国1926年的大罢工,但图灵决心参加,于是他独自骑上了自己的自行车:从南安普顿转到舍尔伯尼,在一家旅馆过夜。

Turing's natural inclination towards mathematics and science did not earn him respect from some of the teachers at Sherborne, whose definition of education placed more emphasis on the classics. His headmaster wrote to his parents: "I hope he will not fall between two stools. If he is to stay at public school, he must aim at becoming educated. If he is to be solely a Scientific Specialist, he is wasting his time at a public school".[32] Despite this, Turing continued to show remarkable ability in the studies he loved, solving advanced problems in 1927 without having studied even elementary calculus. In 1928, aged 16, Turing encountered Albert Einstein's work; not only did he grasp it, but it is possible that he managed to deduce Einstein's questioning of Newton's laws of motion from a text in which this was never made explicit.[33]

图灵对数学和科学的天生倾向并没有赢得舍伯恩大学一些教师的尊重,他们对教育的定义更多地强调古典学。他的校长在给父母的信中写道: “我希望他不要两头落空。如果他想留在公立学校,他必须以受教育为目标。如果他只想成为一名科学专家,那他就是在公立学校里浪费时间。”。尽管如此,图灵在他热爱的研究中继续表现出非凡的能力,在1927年,他甚至没有学过初等微积分就解决了高级问题。1928年,16岁的图灵遇到了阿尔伯特 · 爱因斯坦的工作; 他不仅掌握了它,而且有可能他设法从一篇从未明确阐述过的文章中推断出爱因斯坦对牛顿运动定律的质疑。

【最终版】图灵对数学和科学的自然倾向并没有赢得舍尔伯尼一些老师的尊重,他们对教育的定义更强调经典。他的校长在给父母的信中说:“我希望他不要两头落空。如果他要留在公立学校,他必须以受教育为目标。如果他仅仅是一个科学专家,他在公立学校是在浪费时间。”尽管如此,图灵仍然在他所热爱的研究中表现出非凡的能力,1927年,他在没有学习初级微积分的情况下就解决了高级问题。1928年,16岁的图灵看到了爱因斯坦的作品;他不仅理解了这一点,而且有可能他成功地从一篇从来没有明确说明的文本中推断出爱因斯坦对牛顿运动定律的质疑。

Christopher Morcom克里斯托弗 莫科姆

At Sherborne, Turing formed a significant friendship with fellow pupil Christopher Collan Morcom (13 July 1911 – 13 February 1930),[34] who has been described as Turing's "first love". Their relationship provided inspiration in Turing's future endeavours, but it was cut short by Morcom's death, in February 1930, from complications of bovine tuberculosis, contracted after drinking infected cow's milk some years previously.[35][36][37]Rachel Hassall, 'The Sherborne Formula: The Making of Alan Turing' 'Vivat!' 2012/13

在舍伯恩,图灵与同学 Christopher Collan Morcom (1911年7月13日 -1930年2月13日)建立了深厚的友谊,这位舍布尔人被称为图灵的“初恋”。他们的关系为图灵未来的努力提供了灵感,但由于1930年2月莫尔科姆死于多年前因饮用受感染的牛奶而感染的牛结核病并发症,这段关系被迫中断。雷切尔 · 哈索尔(Rachel Hassall) ,《舍伯恩公式: 阿兰 · 图灵的诞生》(The Sherborne Formula: The Making of Alan Turing)《维瓦特! 》2012/13

【最终版】在舍尔伯尼,图灵和他的同学克里斯托弗·科兰·默卡(1911年7月13日- 1930年2月13日)建立了重要的友谊,后者被称为图灵的“初恋”。他们的关系为图灵未来的努力提供了灵感,但这段关系因1930年2月默卡死于牛结核病的并发症而中断,这是几年前喝了受感染的牛奶后感染的。

The event caused Turing great sorrow. He coped with his grief by working that much harder on the topics of science and mathematics that he had shared with Morcom. In a letter to Morcom's mother, Frances Isobel Morcom (née Swan), Turing wrote:

I am sure I could not have found anywhere another companion so brilliant and yet so charming and unconceited. I regarded my interest in my work, and in such things as astronomy (to which he introduced me) as something to be shared with him and I think he felt a little the same about me ... I know I must put as much energy if not as much interest into my work as if he were alive, because that is what he would like me to do.[38]

这件事给图灵带来了巨大的悲痛。他与莫科姆一起在科学和数学方面付出了更多的努力,以此来应对自己的悲痛。图灵在写给莫科姆母亲弗朗西丝 · 伊泽贝尔 · 莫科姆(弗朗西丝 · 斯旺饰)的信中写道:

我敢肯定,我在任何地方都找不到另一个如此才华横溢、却又如此迷人、毫无想象力的伴侣。我把我对我的工作的兴趣,以及对天文学(他向我介绍的)的兴趣,看作是与他分享的东西,我想他对我的感觉也有点一样;。。。我知道,如果我的工作没有他活着时那么有兴趣,我也必须投入同样多的精力,因为他希望我这样做。

【最终版】这件事使图灵非常难过。为了克服悲伤,他更加努力地研究他和默卡分享过的科学和数学话题。在给默卡母亲弗朗西斯·伊泽贝尔·默卡(née Swan)的一封信中,图灵写道:

我敢肯定,我在任何地方都找不到另一个如此聪明、如此迷人、如此谦逊的伴侣。我把我对工作和天文学(他向我介绍的)等方面的兴趣当作可以和他分享的东西,我想他对我也有同样的感觉……我

知道我必须在我的工作上投入尽可能多的精力,如果不是像他活着那样多的兴趣,因为那是他希望我做的事。

Turing's relationship with Morcom's mother continued long after Morcom's death, with her sending gifts to Turing, and him sending letters, typically on Morcom's birthday.[39] A day before the third anniversary of Morcom's death (13 February 1933), he wrote to Mrs. Morcom:

I expect you will be thinking of Chris when this reaches you. I shall too, and this letter is just to tell you that I shall be thinking of Chris and of you tomorrow. I am sure that he is as happy now as he was when he was here. Your affectionate Alan.[40]

图灵和莫科姆的母亲的关系在莫科姆去世很久之后依然存在,她给图灵寄去了礼物,他也给莫科姆写了信,通常是在莫科姆的生日那天。在莫尔科姆逝世三周年的前一天(1933年2月13日) ,他写信给莫尔科姆夫人:

我想当你收到这封信时,你会想到克里斯。我也会的,这封信只是想告诉你,我明天会想起克里斯和你。我相信他现在和他在这里时一样快乐。亲爱的艾伦。

【最终版】在默卡死后,图灵和其母亲的关系一直很好,其母亲给图灵送礼物,图灵写信给她,通常是在默卡生日那天。在默卡逝世三周年纪念日(1933年2月13日)的前一天,他写信给默卡夫人:

我希望你收到这封信的时候会想到克里斯。我也会的,这封信只是想告诉你,明天我将会想念克里斯和你。我相信他现在和在这里时一样快乐。你深情的Alan.

Some have speculated that Morcom's death was the cause of Turing's atheism and materialism.[41] Paul Gray, Alan Turing Time Magazine's Most Important People of the Century, p. 2 Apparently, at this point in his life he still believed in such concepts as a spirit, independent of the body and surviving death. In a later letter, also written to Morcom's mother, Turing wrote:

Personally, I believe that spirit is really eternally connected with matter but certainly not by the same kind of body ... as regards the actual connection between spirit and body I consider that the body can hold on to a 'spirit', whilst the body is alive and awake the two are firmly connected. When the body is asleep I cannot guess what happens but when the body dies, the 'mechanism' of the body, holding the spirit is gone and the spirit finds a new body sooner or later, perhaps immediately.[42][43]

有人推测,莫科姆的死是图灵无神论和唯物主义的原因。保罗 · 格雷,阿兰 · 图灵时代杂志的《世纪最重要的人物》 ,第2页显然,在他生命的这个阶段,他仍然相信诸如精神、独立于肉体和生存于死亡的概念。在后来写给莫科姆母亲的一封信中,图灵写道:

就我个人而言,我相信精神确实与物质永恒地联系在一起,但肯定不是由同一种身体联系在一起的;关于精神与身体的实际联系,我认为身体可以保持一种“精神”,而身体是活着的和清醒的,两者是紧密相连的。当身体处于睡眠状态时,我无法猜测会发生什么,但当身体死亡时,身体的“机制”失去了,保持着灵魂,灵魂迟早会找到一个新的身体,也许会立即找到。

【最终版】有人推测,默卡的死是图灵走向无神论和唯物主义的原因。显然,在他生命的这个阶段,他仍然相信灵魂这种概念,它独立于肉体,可以从死亡中幸存下来。在后来写给默卡母亲的信中,图灵写道:

就我个人而言,我相信精神确实与物质永恒地联系在一起,但肯定不是由同一种肉体联系在一起……至于精神和身体之间的实际联系,我认为身体可以抓住一个“灵魂”,当身体活着和醒着的时候,两者是紧密联系的。当身体睡着的时候,我猜不出会发生什么,但当身体死亡的时候,身体的“机制”,承载着灵魂的东西就消失了,而灵魂迟早会找到一个新的身体,也许马上就会找到。

University and work on computability大学时期以及对于可计算性的研究

After Sherborne, Turing studied as an undergraduate from 1931 to 1934 at King's College, Cambridge,[7] where he was awarded first-class honours in mathematics. In 1935, at the age of 22, he was elected a Fellow of King's College on the strength of a dissertation in which he proved the central limit theorem.[44] See Section 3 of John Aldrich, "England and Continental Probability in the Inter-War Years", Journal Electronique d'Histoire des Probabilités et de la Statistique, vol. 5/2 Decembre 2009 Journal Electronique d'Histoire des Probabilités et de la Statistique Unknown to the committee, the theorem had already been proven, in 1922, by Jarl Waldemar Lindeberg.[45]

舍伯恩毕业后,图灵于1931年至1934年在剑桥大学国王学院读本科,在那里他获得了数学一等荣誉。1935年,22岁的他凭借一篇论文被选为国王学院的研究员,在这篇论文中,他证明了中心极限定理。参见约翰 · 奥尔德里奇的《两次世界大战之间的英格兰和大陆概率》第3节,《电子杂志与概率与统计学组织》 ,第一卷。2009年12月5日《电子杂志》 : 委员会不知道的概率和统计数据,这个定理已经在1922年被 Jarl Waldemar Lindeberg 证明了。

【最终版】从舍尔伯尼毕业后,图灵从1931年到1934年就读于剑桥大学国王学院,在那里他获得了数学方面的一等荣誉。1935年,22岁的他因为一篇证明中心极限定理的论文而被选为国王学院的院士。参见约翰 · 奥尔德里奇的《两次世界大战之间的英格兰和大陆概率》第3节,《电子杂志与概率与统计学组织》 ,第一卷。2009年12月5日《电子杂志》 : 委员会不知道的概率和统计数据,这个定理已经在1922年被 Jarl Waldemar Lindeberg 证明了。

In 1936, Turing published his paper "On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem".[46] It was published in the Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society journal in two parts, the first on 30 November and the second on 23 December.[47] In this paper, Turing reformulated Kurt Gödel's 1931 results on the limits of proof and computation, replacing Gödel's universal arithmetic-based formal language with the formal and simple hypothetical devices that became known as Turing machines. The Entscheidungsproblem (decision problem) was originally posed by German mathematician David Hilbert in 1928. Turing proved that his "universal computing machine" would be capable of performing any conceivable mathematical computation if it were representable as an algorithm. He went on to prove that there was no solution to the decision problem by first showing that the halting problem for Turing machines is undecidable: it is not possible to decide algorithmically whether a Turing machine will ever halt. This paper has been called "easily the most influential math paper in history".[48]


1936年,图灵发表了他的论文《论可计算数字,以及对可判定性的应用》。它分两部分发表在《伦敦数学学会学报》上,第一部分发表在11月30日,第二部分发表在12月23日。在本文中,图灵重新阐述了库尔特 · 哥德尔1931年关于证明和计算极限的结果,用后来被称为图灵机的形式化和简单的假设设备取代了哥德尔通用的基于算术的形式语言。可判定性问题最初是由德国数学家 David Hilbert 在1928年提出的。图灵证明了他的“通用计算机器”能够执行任何可以想象的数学计算,如果它可以表示为一种算法。他首先证明图灵机的停机问题是不可判定的: 从算法上决定图灵机是否会停机是不可能的。这篇论文被称为“历史上最有影响力的数学论文”。

【最终版】1936年,图灵发表了他的论文《论可计算数及其在设计问题中的应用》。它分两部分发表在《伦敦数学学会学报》上,第一部分于11月30日发表,第二部分于12月23日发表。在这篇论文中,图灵重新表述了库尔特Gödel 1931年提出的关于证明和计算极限的结果,用正式的、简单的假设设备,即图灵机,取代了Gödel基于通用算法的形式语言。决策问题(Entscheidungsproblem)最初是由德国数学家大卫·希尔伯特于1928年提出的。图灵证明了他的“通用计算机”能够执行任何可以想象的数学计算,只要它可以被表示为一种算法。他接着证明了决策问题是没有解决方案的,他首先证明了图灵机的停止问题是不可决定的:从算法上决定图灵机是否会停止是不可能的。这篇论文被称为“史上最具影响力的数学论文”。

文件:20130808 Kings College Front Court Fountain Crop 03.jpg
King's College, Cambridge, where Turing was an undergraduate in 1931 and became a Fellow in 1935. The computer room is named after him.

Although Turing's proof was published shortly after Alonzo Church's equivalent proof using his lambda calculus,[49] Turing's approach is considerably more accessible and intuitive than Church's.[50] It also included a notion of a 'Universal Machine' (now known as a universal Turing machine), with the idea that such a machine could perform the tasks of any other computation machine (as indeed could Church's lambda calculus). According to the Church–Turing thesis, Turing machines and the lambda calculus are capable of computing anything that is computable. John von Neumann acknowledged that the central concept of the modern computer was due to Turing's paper.[51] "von Neumann ... firmly emphasised to me, and to others I am sure, that the fundamental conception is owing to Turing—insofar as not anticipated by Babbage, Lovelace and others." Letter by Stanley Frankel to Brian Randell, 1972, quoted in Jack Copeland (2004) The Essential Turing, p. 22. To this day, Turing machines are a central object of study in theory of computation.

尽管图灵的证明是在阿隆索 · 丘奇用他的 λ 微积分得到等价证明后不久发表的,但是图灵的方法比丘奇的方法更容易理解和直观。它还包含了一个通用机器的概念(现在被称为通用图灵机) ,其理念是这样一个机器可以执行任何其他计算机器的任务(实际上就像 Church 的 lambda 演算一样)。根据丘奇-图灵论文,图灵机和 lambda 微积分能够计算任何可计算的东西。约翰·冯·诺伊曼承认现代计算机的核心概念应归功于图灵的论文。“冯 · 诺依曼... ... 坚定地向我和其他人强调,基本概念应归功于图灵ーー这是巴贝奇、洛夫莱斯和其他人所没有预料到的。”斯坦利 · 弗兰克尔给布莱恩 · 兰德尔的信,1972年,引自杰克 · 科普兰(2004)《本质图灵》 ,第22页。直到今天,图灵机仍然是计算理论的中心研究对象。

【最终版】尽管图灵的证明是在阿朗佐·丘奇用他的lambda微积分证明之后不久发表的,但图灵的方法比丘奇的方法更容易理解,更直观。它还包含了“通用机”(现在被称为通用图灵机)的概念,这种机器可以执行任何其他计算机器的任务(Church的lambda演算也可以)。根据丘奇-图灵理论,图灵机和lambda微积分能够计算任何可计算的东西。约翰·冯·诺伊曼承认,现代计算机的核心概念源于图灵的论文。“冯·诺依曼…他坚定地向我,也向其他人强调,这个基本概念是由图灵提出的,这是巴贝奇、洛夫莱斯等人没有预料到的。”1972年斯坦利·弗兰克尔写给布莱恩·兰德尔的信,引用于杰克·科普兰(2004)《图灵的本质》第22页。直到今天,图灵机是计算理论研究的中心对象。

From September 1936 to July 1938, Turing spent most of his time studying under Church at Princeton University,[4] in the second year as a Jane Eliza Procter Visiting Fellow. In addition to his purely mathematical work, he studied cryptology and also built three of four stages of an electro-mechanical binary multiplier.[52] In June 1938, he obtained his PhD from the Department of Mathematics at Princeton;[53] his dissertation, Systems of Logic Based on Ordinals,[54][55] introduced the concept of ordinal logic and the notion of relative computing, in which Turing machines are augmented with so-called oracles, allowing the study of problems that cannot be solved by Turing machines. John von Neumann wanted to hire him as his postdoctoral assistant, but he went back to the United Kingdom.[56]John Von Neumann: The Scientific Genius Who Pioneered the Modern Computer, Game Theory, Nuclear Deterrence, and Much More, Norman MacRae, 1999, American Mathematical Society, Chapter 8

从1936年9月到1938年7月,图灵大部分时间在普林斯顿大学的教堂学习,第二年成为 Jane Eliza Procter 访问学者。除了纯粹的数学工作外,他还研究了密码学,并建造了一台电子机械乘法器的四个阶段中的三个阶段。1938年6月,他获得了普林斯顿大学数学系的博士学位; 他的博士论文,基于序数的逻辑系统,引入了序数逻辑的概念和相对计算的概念,在这个概念中,图灵机被所谓的神谕加强,使得对图灵机无法解决的问题的研究成为可能。约翰·冯·诺伊曼想聘请他做博士后助理,但他回到了英国。约翰·冯·诺伊曼: 现代计算机、博弈论、核威慑及其他科学天才,

【最终版】从1936年9月到1938年7月,图灵在普林斯顿大学的第二年,作为简·伊丽莎·普罗克特的访问学者,跟随丘奇学习。除了他的纯数学工作,他还研究了密码学,并建立了电子机械二进制乘数的四个阶段中的三个。1938年6月,他在普林斯顿大学数学系获得博士学位;他的论文《基于序数的逻辑系统》引入了序数逻辑的概念和相对计算的概念,在这些概念中,图灵机被所谓的预言扩充,从而可以研究图灵机无法解决的问题。约翰·冯·诺伊曼想雇他做博士后助理,但他回到了英国。《约翰·冯·诺伊曼:引领现代计算机、博弈论、核威慑等的科学天才》,诺曼·麦克雷,1999年,美国数学学会,第8章

Career and research职业和研究

When Turing returned to Cambridge, he attended lectures given in 1939 by Ludwig Wittgenstein about the foundations of mathematics.[57] The lectures have been reconstructed verbatim, including interjections from Turing and other students, from students' notes.[58] Cora Diamond (ed.), Wittgenstein's Lectures on the Foundations of Mathematics, University of Chicago Press, 1976Turing and Wittgenstein argued and disagreed, with Turing defending formalism and Wittgenstein propounding his view that mathematics does not discover any absolute truths, but rather invents them.[59]

当图灵回到剑桥后,他参加了路德维希·维特根斯坦1939年关于数学基础的讲座。这些讲座都是逐字逐句重建的,包括图灵和其他学生的感叹词,以及学生的笔记。图灵和维特根斯坦在1976年发表的《维特根斯坦关于数学基础的演讲》一书中对此提出了异议,图灵为形式主义辩护,维特根斯坦则提出了他的观点,即数学不是发现任何绝对真理,而是发明它们。

【最终版】1939年,当图灵回到剑桥时,他参加了路德维希·维特根斯坦关于数学基础的讲座。这些讲座被逐字逐句地重建,包括来自图灵和其他学生的感叹词,以及学生的笔记。科拉·戴蒙德(Cora Diamond),《维特根斯坦的数学基础讲座》,芝加哥大学出版社,1976年,图灵和维特根斯坦争论和反对,图灵为形式主义辩护,维特根斯坦提出数学并没有发现任何绝对真理,而是发明了它们。

Cryptanalysis密码分析

During the Second World War, Turing was a leading participant in the breaking of German ciphers at Bletchley Park. The historian and wartime codebreaker Asa Briggs has said, "You needed exceptional talent, you needed genius at Bletchley and Turing's was that genius."[60]

第二次世界大战期间,图灵是在 Bletchley Park 破解德国密码的主要参与者。历史学家、战时密码破译者阿萨•布里格斯(Asa Briggs)曾说过: “你需要杰出的人才,你需要布莱奇利的天才,而图灵就是这种天才。”

【最终版】第二次世界大战期间,图灵是布莱切利公园破译德国密码的主要参与者。历史学家、战时密码破译专家阿萨·布里格斯(Asa Briggs)曾说过:“你需要非凡的才能,你需要布莱切利的天才,而图灵就是那个天才。”

From September 1938, Turing worked part-time with the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS), the British codebreaking organisation. He concentrated on cryptanalysis of the Enigma cipher machine used by Nazi Germany, together with Dilly Knox, a senior GC&CS codebreaker.[61] Soon after the July 1939 meeting near Warsaw at which the Polish Cipher Bureau gave the British and French details of the wiring of Enigma machine's rotors and their method of decrypting Enigma machine's messages, Turing and Knox developed a broader solution.[62] The Polish method relied on an insecure indicator procedure that the Germans were likely to change, which they in fact did in May 1940. Turing's approach was more general, using crib-based decryption for which he produced the functional specification of the bombe (an improvement on the Polish Bomba).[63]


从1938年9月开始,图灵在英国破译组织---- 英国政府通讯总部破译协会做兼职工作。他和资深 gc & cs 密码破译员 Dilly Knox 一起,专注于对纳粹德国使用的恩尼格玛密码机的密码分析。1939年7月在华沙附近的会议上,波兰密码局向英国和法国提供了关于恩尼格玛密码机转子的线路和解密密码机信息的方法的细节,不久之后,图灵和诺克斯开发了一个更广泛的解决方案。波兰的方法依赖于一种不安全的指示程序,德国人可能会改变这种程序,事实上他们在1940年5月就已经改变了。图灵的方法更为普遍,他使用了基于抄袭的解密方法,从而产生了炸弹的规格化(相对于波兰炸弹的改进)。

【最终版】从1938年9月开始,图灵在英国密码破译组织政府Code and Cypher School (GC&CS)兼职工作。他和GC&CS高级密码破解员迪利·诺克斯一起,专注于对纳粹德国使用的谜机进行密码分析。1939年7月,在华沙附近的一次会议上,波兰密码局向英国和法国提供了英格玛密码机转子连接的细节,以及他们对英格玛密码机信息进行解密的方法。此后不久,图灵和诺克斯提出了一个更广泛的解决方案。波兰的方法依赖于一个不安全的指示程序,德国人很可能会改变,他们实际上在1940年5月就改变了。图灵的方法更一般化,他使用了基于婴儿床的解密方法,为此他制作了炸弹机的功能规格(对波兰炸弹机的改进)。

文件:Turing flat.jpg
Two cottages in the stable yard at Bletchley Park. Turing worked here in 1939 and 1940, before moving to Hut 8.

On 4 September 1939, the day after the UK declared war on Germany, Turing reported to Bletchley Park, the wartime station of GC&CS.[64] Like all others who came to Bletchley, he was required to sign the Official Secrets Act, in which he agreed not to disclose anything about his work at Bletchley, with severe legal penalties for violating the Act.[65]

1939年9月4日,也就是英国对德国宣战的第二天,图灵向 Bletchley Park 报告了战时的 gc & cs 基地。2006 p. 378.像所有其他来到布莱奇利的人一样,他被要求签署《官方保密法案》(Official Secrets Act) ,在该法案中,他同意不披露任何有关他在布莱奇利工作的信息,违反该法案将受到严厉的法律制裁。

【最终版】1939年9月4日,也就是英国对德宣战的第二天,图灵向战时GC&CS的布莱切利公园报到。像所有来布莱切利的人一样,他被要求签署《官方保密法》,在该法案中,他同意不透露任何有关他在布莱切利工作的信息,违反该法案将受到严厉的法律惩罚。

Specifying the bombe was the first of five major cryptanalytical advances that Turing made during the war. The others were: deducing the indicator procedure used by the German navy; developing a statistical procedure dubbed Banburismus for making much more efficient use of the bombes; developing a procedure dubbed Turingery for working out the cam settings of the wheels of the Lorenz SZ 40/42 (Tunny) cipher machine and, towards the end of the war, the development of a portable secure voice scrambler at Hanslope Park that was codenamed Delilah.

指定炸弹是图灵在战争期间取得的五大密码分析进展中的第一个。其他的是: 推导德国海军使用的指示程序; 开发一个统计程序称为 Banburismus,以便更有效地利用炸弹; 开发一个程序称为 Turingery,用于计算出 Lorenz SZ 40/42(Tunny)密码机车轮的凸轮设置; 战争快结束时,在 Hanslope Park 开发了一个代号为 Delilah 的便携式安全语音扰码器。

【最终版】指明炸弹是图灵在战争中取得的五个主要密码分析进展中的第一个。其他有:推导德国海军使用的指示程序;开发了一种名为Banburismus的统计程序,以便更有效地使用炸弹;开发了一种名为图灵格里(Turingery)的程序,用于计算洛伦兹SZ 40/42 (Tunny)密码机车轮的凸轮设置,在战争快结束时,还在汉斯洛普公园开发了一种代号为黛丽拉的便携式安全语音扰频器。

By using statistical techniques to optimise the trial of different possibilities in the code breaking process, Turing made an innovative contribution to the subject. He wrote two papers discussing mathematical approaches, titled The Applications of Probability to Cryptography[66] and Paper on Statistics of Repetitions,[67] which were of such value to GC&CS and its successor GCHQ that they were not released to the UK National Archives until April 2012, shortly before the centenary of his birth. A GCHQ mathematician, "who identified himself only as Richard," said at the time that the fact that the contents had been restricted under the Official Secrets Act for some 70 years demonstrated their importance, and their relevance to post-war cryptanalysis:[68]

Insert the text of the quote here, without quotation marks.

通过使用统计技术来优化破译过程中不同可能性的试验,图灵对这个课题做出了创新性的贡献。他写了两篇讨论数学方法的论文,题目是《概率在密码学中的应用》和《重复次数的统计学论文》 ,这两篇论文对 gc & cs 和它的继任者 GCHQ 如此重要,以至于直到2012年4月,也就是他诞辰100周年之前不久,才向英国国家档案馆发表。一位“自称理查德”的英国国家通信总局(GCHQ)数学家当时表示,《官方机密法案》(Official Secrets Act)约70年来一直对其内容加以限制,这一事实证明了它们的重要性,以及它们与战后密码分析的关联性:

【最终版】通过使用统计技术来优化代码破译过程中不同可能性的试验,图灵对这一课题做出了创新的贡献。他写了两篇论文讨论的数学方法,名为概率的应用密码学和纸重复统计,这是这样的价值GC&CS及其继任者GCHQ,他们没有公布给英国国家档案馆,直到2012年4月,他出生的纪念日不久前。一位GCHQ的数学家“自称为理查德(Richard)”,当时他说,这些内容受《官方保密法》(Official Secrets Act)限制了大约70年,这一事实证明了它们的重要性,以及它们与战后密码分析的相关性:

[他]说,内容被限制的事实“表明它对我们学科的基础有多么重要”. ...这些论文详细地使用了“数学分析来尝试和确定哪些是更可能的设置,以便能尽快尝试。”... 理查德表示,GCHQ现在已经“榨干了这两份论文的汁水”,并“很高兴它们被发布到公共领域”。

Turing had a reputation for eccentricity at Bletchley Park. He was known to his colleagues as "Prof" and his treatise on Enigma was known as the "Prof's Book".[69] According to historian Ronald Lewin, Jack Good, a cryptanalyst who worked with Turing, said of his colleague:

图灵在 Bletchley Park 以古怪著称。他的同事们称他为“教授”,他关于英格玛的专著也被称为“教授之书”。根据历史学家罗纳德 · 列文的说法,与图灵共事的密码分析师杰克 · 古德这样评价他的同事:

【最终版】图灵在布莱切利公园是出了名的古怪。他被同事们称为"教授"他关于谜机的论文被称为"教授之书"根据历史学家罗纳德·卢因的说法,曾与图灵共事的密码分析师杰克·古德这样评价图灵:

In the first week of June each year he would get a bad attack of hay fever, and he would cycle to the office wearing a service gas mask to keep the pollen off. His bicycle had a fault: the chain would come off at regular intervals. Instead of having it mended he would count the number of times the pedals went round and would get off the bicycle in time to adjust the chain by hand. Another of his eccentricities is that he chained his mug to the radiator pipes to prevent it being stolen.[70]

Peter Hilton recounted his experience working with Turing in Hut 8 in his "Reminiscences of Bletchley Park" from A Century of Mathematics in America:[71]

彼得 · 希尔顿在他的《 Bletchley Park 回忆录》中描述了他与图灵在 Hut 8共事的经历,该书选自《美国数学百年:

【最终版】每年6月的第一个星期,他会患上严重的花粉热,他会戴着防毒面具骑车上班,以防止花粉进入。他的自行车有个毛病:链子每隔一段时间就会脱落。他不会去修理自行车,而是会数一下踏板转了多少圈,然后及时下车用手调整链条。他的另一个怪癖是把他的马克杯拴在暖气片的管子上,以防它被偷。

彼得·希尔顿在他的《布莱切利公园的回忆》中讲述了他和图灵在8号小屋工作的经历:

It is a rare experience to meet an authentic genius. Those of us privileged to inhabit the world of scholarship are familiar with the intellectual stimulation furnished by talented colleagues. We can admire the ideas they share with us and are usually able to understand their source; we may even often believe that we ourselves could have created such concepts and originated such thoughts. However, the experience of sharing the intellectual life of a genius is entirely different; one realizes that one is in the presence of an intelligence, a sensibility of such profundity and originality that one is filled with wonder and excitement. Alan Turing was such a genius, and those, like myself, who had the astonishing and unexpected opportunity, created by the strange exigencies of the Second World War, to be able to count Turing as colleague and friend will never forget that experience, nor can we ever lose its immense benefit to us.

Hilton echoed similar thoughts in the Nova PBS documentary Decoding Nazi Secrets.[72]

希尔顿在诺瓦美国公共广播公司的纪录片《解码纳粹秘密》中也表达了类似的想法。

【最终版】见到真正的天才是一种难得的经历。我们这些有幸生活在学术界的人,对才华横溢的同事们所提供的智力刺激很熟悉。我们可以欣赏他们与我们分享的观点,通常能够理解它们的来源;我们甚至可能经常相信,我们自己可能创造了这样的概念,产生了这样的思想。然而,与天才分享知识生活的体验是完全不同的;一个人意识到自己正处于一种智慧的面前,一种如此深刻和独创性的情感,使人充满了惊奇和兴奋。阿兰·图灵是一个天才,那些像我这样,有惊人的和意想不到的机会,创造的奇怪的第二次世界大战的迫切心情,能够统计图灵的同事和朋友永远不会忘记这经验,我们也不能失去巨大的好处。

希尔顿在PBS纪录片《解密纳粹秘密》中表达了类似的想法。

While working at Bletchley, Turing, who was a talented long-distance runner, occasionally ran the 模板:Convert to London when he was needed for meetings,[73] and he was capable of world-class marathon standards.[74][75] Turing tried out for the 1948 British Olympic team, but he was hampered by an injury. His tryout time for the marathon was only 11 minutes slower than British silver medallist Thomas Richards' Olympic race time of 2 hours 35 minutes. He was Walton Athletic Club's best runner, a fact discovered when he passed the group while running alone.[76][77][78] When asked why he ran so hard in training he replied:

在布莱奇利工作的时候,图灵是一个天才的长跑运动员,偶尔在会议需要他的时候跑到伦敦,他有能力达到世界级的马拉松水平。图灵参加了1948年英国奥林匹克代表队的选拔,但是他受伤了。他参加马拉松比赛的预选赛时间只比英国银牌得主托马斯 · 理查兹奥运会比赛时间2小时35分钟慢11分钟。他是沃尔顿运动俱乐部最好的跑步者,这个事实是在他独自跑步时超过了大家发现的。当被问及为什么他在训练中如此努力地跑步时,他回答说:

【最终版】在布莱切利工作的时候,图灵是一名优秀的长跑运动员,他偶尔也会按照这样的模式跑:需要开会的时候,他会去伦敦,他有能力参加世界级的马拉松比赛。1948年,图灵参加了英国奥运会代表队的选拔,但他受伤了。他的马拉松选拔赛时间只比英国银牌得主托马斯·理查兹(Thomas Richards)的奥运会比赛时间2小时35分钟慢了11分钟。他是沃尔顿运动俱乐部最好的跑步者,当他在独自跑步时超过小组时发现了这个事实。当被问及他为什么在训练中如此努力时,他回答说:

I have such a stressful job that the only way I can get it out of my mind is by running hard; it’s the only way I can get some release.[79]

Due to the problems of counterfactual history, it is hard to estimate the precise effect Ultra intelligence had on the war.[80] However, official war historian Harry Hinsley estimated that this work shortened the war in Europe by more than two years and saved over 14 million lives.[81]Transcript of a lecture given on Tuesday 19 October 1993 at Cambridge University

由于反事实的历史问题,很难精确估计超级情报对战争的影响。然而,官方战争历史学家哈里 · 辛斯利估计,这项工作使欧洲战争缩短了两年多,挽救了1400多万人的生命。1993年10月19日星期二在剑桥大学的演讲稿

【最终版】我的工作压力很大,唯一的办法就是拼命跑步。

由于反事实的历史问题,很难估计极端组织的情报对战争的确切影响。然而,官方战争史学家哈里·欣斯利(Harry Hinsley)估计,这项工作使欧洲战争缩短了两年多,挽救了1400多万人的生命。1993年10月19日星期二在剑桥大学的一次演讲的讲稿。

At the end of the war, a memo was sent to all those who had worked at Bletchley Park, reminding them that the code of silence dictated by the Official Secrets Act did not end with the war but would continue indefinitely.[65] Thus, even though Turing was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in 1946 by King George VI for his wartime services, his work remained secret for many years.[82][83]

战争结束时,一份备忘录发给了所有在 Bletchley Park 工作过的人,提醒他们《官方机密法案》规定的沉默代码并没有随着战争结束而结束,而是将无限期地继续下去。因此,尽管1946年国王乔治六世因其战时服务而任命图灵为大英帝国勋章军官,他的工作仍然保密了许多年。

【最终版】战争结束时,所有在布莱切利公园工作过的人都收到了一份备忘录,提醒他们《官方保密法》规定的沉默准则不会随着战争的结束而结束,而是会无限期地继续下去。因此,尽管图灵在1946年被英王乔治六世任命为大英帝国军官(OBE),但他的工作多年来一直是秘密。

Bombe解码器

Within weeks of arriving at Bletchley Park,[64] Turing had specified an electromechanical machine called the bombe, which could break Enigma more effectively than the Polish bomba kryptologiczna, from which its name was derived. The bombe, with an enhancement suggested by mathematician Gordon Welchman, became one of the primary tools, and the major automated one, used to attack Enigma-enciphered messages.[84]

在抵达 Bletchley Park 的几周内,图灵就指定了一种叫做解码器的机电设备,这种设备能够比波兰炸弹机(波兰)更有效地破解英格玛密码机,而波兰密码机正是源于此。通过数学家戈登 · 威尔奇曼提出的改进,解码器成为主要的工具之一,也是主要的自动化工具,用于攻击密码信息。

【最终版】在到达布莱切利公园的几周内,图灵指定了一种叫做解码器的机电机器,它比波兰的bomba kryptologiczna更能破解谜机。数学家戈登·韦尔奇曼(Gordon Welchman)提出了一种增强技术,解码器成为攻击谜机加密信息的主要工具之一,也是主要的自动化工具。

文件:Bombe-rebuild.jpg
A working replica of a bombe now at The National Museum of Computing on Bletchley Park

The bombe searched for possible correct settings used for an Enigma message (i.e., rotor order, rotor settings and plugboard settings) using a suitable crib: a fragment of probable plaintext. For each possible setting of the rotors (which had on the order of 1019 states, or 1022 states for the four-rotor U-boat variant),[85] Jack Good in "The Men Who Cracked Enigma", 2003: with his caveat: "if my memory is correct". the bombe performed a chain of logical deductions based on the crib, implemented electromechanically.[86]

该 bombe 搜索可能正确的设置使用一个英格玛消息(即,转子顺序,转子设置和插件板设置)使用一个合适的抄袭: 一个可能的明文片段。对于每个可能的转子设置(大约有1019个状态,或者四旋翼 u 型潜艇的1022个状态) ,杰克 · 古德在2003年的《破解谜团的人》中写道: “如果我的记忆是正确的”。炸弹根据婴儿床执行一系列逻辑推理,用电子机械方式实现。

【最终版】解码器使用一段可能的明文片段来搜索Enigma信息可能的正确设置(即转子顺序、转子设置和配线板设置)。对于每一种可能的旋翼设置(大约有1019个状态,或者四旋翼u型潜艇的1022个状态),杰克·古德在2003年的《破解谜机的人》中警告说:“如果我的记忆是正确的”。解码器在原有的基础上进行了一系列的逻辑推理,这是用电机械实现的。

The bombe detected when a contradiction had occurred and ruled out that setting, moving on to the next. Most of the possible settings would cause contradictions and be discarded, leaving only a few to be investigated in detail. A contradiction would occur when an enciphered letter would be turned back into the same plaintext letter, which was impossible with the Enigma. The first bombe was installed on 18 March 1940.[87]

当矛盾发生时,炸弹被发现,并排除了这种情况,继续下一个。大多数可能的设置都会引起并被丢弃,只剩下少数需要详细调查。当一个加密的字母被转换回同样的明文字母时,矛盾就产生了,这对于恩尼格玛来说是不可能的。第一个炸弹于1940年3月18日安装。

【最终版】当不稳定信号产生时,解码器就会探测到,排除那个设定,继续下一个设定。大多数可能的设置都会引起不稳定信号而被丢弃,只留下少数需要详细研究。当一个加密的字母被转换成同样的明文时,就会出现矛盾,而这在谜机中是不可能的。第一个解码器于1940年3月18日安装。

By late 1941, Turing and his fellow cryptanalysts Gordon Welchman, Hugh Alexander and Stuart Milner-Barry were frustrated. Building on the work of the Poles, they had set up a good working system for decrypting Enigma signals, but their limited staff and bombes meant they could not translate all the signals. In the summer, they had considerable success, and shipping losses had fallen to under 100,000 tons a month; however, they badly needed more resources to keep abreast of German adjustments. They had tried to get more people and fund more bombes through the proper channels, but had failed.[88]

到1941年底,图灵和他的密码分析师同事戈登 · 威尔奇曼、休 · 亚历山大和斯图尔特 · 米尔纳-巴里都感到沮丧。在波兰人工作的基础上,他们建立了一个很好的解密英格玛信号的工作系统,但是他们有限的人员和炸弹意味着他们无法翻译所有的信号。在夏天,他们取得了相当大的成功,信息传输损失已经降到每月不到10万的量值; 然而,他们急需更多的资源来跟上德国的调整。他们试图通过适当的渠道获得更多的人和资金更多的炸弹,但失败了。

【最终版】1941年末,图灵和他的密码分析师同事戈登·韦尔奇曼、休·亚历山大和斯图尔特·米尔纳-巴里感到很沮丧。在波兰人工作的基础上,他们建立了一个很好的破译Enigma信号的工作系统,但他们有限的人手和解码器意味着他们无法翻译所有的信号。在夏季,他们取得了相当大的成功,信息传输损失已经降到每月不到10万的量值;然而,他们急需更多的资源来跟上德国的调整步伐。他们试图通过适当的渠道招募更多的人,资助了更多的解码器,但失败了。

On 28 October they wrote directly to Winston Churchill explaining their difficulties, with Turing as the first named. They emphasised how small their need was compared with the vast expenditure of men and money by the forces and compared with the level of assistance they could offer to the forces.[88] As Andrew Hodges, biographer of Turing, later wrote, "This letter had an electric effect."[89] Churchill wrote a memo to General Ismay, which read: "ACTION THIS DAY. Make sure they have all they want on extreme priority and report to me that this has been done." On 18 November, the chief of the secret service reported that every possible measure was being taken.[89] The cryptographers at Bletchley Park did not know of the Prime Minister's response, but as Milner-Barry recalled, "All that we did notice was that almost from that day the rough ways began miraculously to be made smooth."[90] More than two hundred bombes were in operation by the end of the war.[91]


10月28日,他们直接写信给温斯顿·丘吉尔解释他们的困难,首先提到的是图灵。她们强调,与军队花费的大量人力和财力相比,她们的需求是多么微不足道,与她们能够提供给军队的援助水平相比,她们的需求又是多么微不足道。正如图灵的传记作者安德鲁 · 霍奇斯后来写道: “这封信产生了电子效应。”丘吉尔给伊斯梅将军写了一份备忘录,上面写着: “今日行动。确保他们得到了他们想要的一切,并给我报告说已经完成了这项工作。”11月18日,特勤处处长报告说,正在采取一切可能的措施。Bletchley Park 的密码专家们并不知道首相的反应,但正如米尔纳-巴里回忆的那样,“我们所注意到的是,几乎从那天起,崎岖的道路奇迹般地变得平坦起来。“ Copeland,The Essential Turing,pp。336–337 .到战争结束时,已有两百多个解码器投入使用。

【最终版】10月28日,他们直接写信给温斯顿·丘吉尔,解释他们的困难,图灵是第一个。他们强调,与军队的巨大人力和资金支出相比,他们的需求是多么小,与他们能够提供给军队的援助水平相比。正如图灵的传记作者安德鲁·霍奇斯(Andrew Hodges)后来写道:“这封信有一种令人震惊的效果。”丘吉尔给伊斯梅将军写了一份备忘录,上面写道:“今天就行动起来。确保他们能优先得到他们想要的一切,并向我报告,这件事已经完成了。”11月18日,特勤局局长报告说,正在采取一切可能的措施。布莱切利公园的密码学家并不知道首相的反应,但据米尔纳-巴里回忆,“我们所注意到的是,几乎从那天起,崎岖的道路奇迹般地变得平坦了。”到战争结束时,有两百多个解码器投入使用。

文件:Turing-statue-Bletchley 14.jpg
Statue of Turing by Stephen Kettle at Bletchley Park, commissioned by Sidney Frank, built from half a million pieces of Welsh slate.[92]

Hut 8 and the naval Enigma8号营房和海军谜机

Turing decided to tackle the particularly difficult problem of German naval Enigma "because no one else was doing anything about it and I could have it to myself".[93] In December 1939, Turing solved the essential part of the naval indicator system, which was more complex than the indicator systems used by the other services.[93][94]

图灵决定解决德国海军谜团这个特别困难的问题,“因为没有其他人对此做任何事,而我可以独享它”。1939年12月,图灵解决了海军指示器系统的关键部分,它比其他军种使用的指示器系统更复杂。

【最终版】图灵决定解决德国海军谜机这个特别困难的问题,“因为没有人能解决它,我可以独享它”。1939年12月,图灵解决了海军指示系统的关键部分,它比其他服务使用的指示系统更复杂。

That same night, he also conceived of the idea of Banburismus, a sequential statistical technique (what Abraham Wald later called sequential analysis) to assist in breaking the naval Enigma, "though I was not sure that it would work in practice, and was not, in fact, sure until some days had actually broken."[93] For this, he invented a measure of weight of evidence that he called the ban. Banburismus could rule out certain sequences of the Enigma rotors, substantially reducing the time needed to test settings on the bombes.[95] Later this sequential process of accumulating sufficient weight of evidence using decibans (one tenth of a ban) was used in Cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher.[96]

同一天晚上,他还提出了 Banburismus 的想法,这是一种序列统计技术(亚伯拉罕 · 沃尔德后来称之为序列分析) ,以帮助破解海军的谜团,“尽管我不确定它在实践中是否有效,事实上,直到有些日子真正破解之前,我也不确定。”为此,他发明了一种衡量证据重量的方法,他称之为禁令。班布里斯马斯可以排除恩尼格玛转子的某些序列,大大缩短了测试炸弹设置所需的时间。后来,这种使用十分之一密码(decibans)积累足够重量证据的顺序过程被用于对洛伦兹密码的密码分析。

【最终版】当天晚上,他还设想Banburismus的想法,一个连续的统计方法(亚伯拉罕瓦尔德后来称为序列分析)协助打破了海军谜,“虽然我不确定,它将在实践中产生作用,或者不起作用,事实上,确定起作用了几天居然坏了。”为此,他发明了一种衡量证据权重的方法,他称之为禁令。Banburismus可以排除谜机转子的某些序列,大大减少了测试炸弹设置所需的时间。后来,这种使用十分班(禁令的十分之一)积累足够重量的证据的连续过程被用于洛伦兹密码的密码分析。

Turing travelled to the United States in November 1942[97] and worked with US Navy cryptanalysts on the naval Enigma and bombe construction in Washington; he also visited their Computing Machine Laboratory in Dayton, Ohio.

图灵于1942年11月前往美国,与美国海军密码分析师一起在华盛顿进行海军恩尼格玛密码机和炸弹建造; 他还参观了位于俄亥俄州代顿的计算机实验室。

【最终版】1942年11月,图灵前往美国,在华盛顿与美国海军密码分析师一起研究海军谜机和炸弹机的建造。他还参观了他们在俄亥俄州代顿市的计算机实验室。

Turing's reaction to the American bombe design was far from enthusiastic:

Insert the text of the quote here, without quotation marks.

他们的测试(换向器)很难被认为是决定性的,因为他们没有测试弹跳与电子停止寻找设备。似乎没有人被告知棒、官员或班布里斯马斯,除非他们真的要做些什么。开始

【最终版】图灵对美国轰炸机的设计并不热心:

美国炸弹机计划生产336架炸弹机,每个轮子一个订单。我曾经在心里对这个项目所暗示的Bombe小屋程序的概念微笑,但我认为指出我们不会以这种方式真正使用它们并不能达到任何特定的目的。

During this trip, he also assisted at Bell Labs with the development of secure speech devices.[98] He returned to Bletchley Park in March 1943. During his absence, Hugh Alexander had officially assumed the position of head of Hut 8, although Alexander had been de facto head for some time (Turing having little interest in the day-to-day running of the section). Turing became a general consultant for cryptanalysis at Bletchley Park.[99]

在这次旅行中,他还在贝尔实验室协助开发安全语音设备。他于1943年3月返回 Bletchley Park。在他缺席期间,休 · 亚历山大正式担任了 Hut 8的负责人,尽管亚历山大实际上已经领导了一段时间(图灵对该部分的日常运行没有什么兴趣)。图灵成为了 Bletchley Park 密码分析的总顾问。

【最终版】在这次旅行中,他还在贝尔实验室协助开发安全语音设备。1943年3月,他回到了布莱切利公园。在他离开期间,休·亚历山大正式担任8号营房的负责人,尽管亚历山大实际上是负责人有一段时间了(图灵对营房的日常管理不感兴趣)。图灵成为了布莱切利公园密码分析的总顾问。

Alexander wrote of Turing's contribution:

There should be no question in anyone's mind that Turing's work was the biggest factor in Hut 8's success. In the early days, he was the only cryptographer who thought the problem worth tackling and not only was he primarily responsible for the main theoretical work within the Hut, but he also shared with Welchman and Keen the chief credit for the invention of the bombe. It is always difficult to say that anyone is 'absolutely indispensable', but if anyone was indispensable to Hut 8, it was Turing. The pioneer's work always tends to be forgotten when experience and routine later make everything seem easy and many of us in Hut 8 felt that the magnitude of Turing's contribution was never fully realised by the outside world.[100]

亚历山大这样评价图灵的贡献:

【最终版】亚历山大这样描述图灵的贡献:

毫无疑问,图灵的工作是8号营房成功的最大因素。在早期,他是唯一一个认为这个问题值得解决的密码学家,他不仅主要负责小屋内的主要理论工作,而且还与韦尔奇曼和基恩分享了炸弹机发明的主要功劳。我们总是很难说有谁是绝对不可或缺的,但如果说有谁对8号营房来说是不可或缺的,那就是图灵。先驱们的工作往往会被遗忘,后来的经验和惯例使一切看起来很容易,我们8号营房的许多人感到,图灵的巨大贡献从来没有被外部世界充分认识到。

Turingery图灵格里

In July 1942, Turing devised a technique termed Turingery (or jokingly Turingismus)[101] for use against the Lorenz cipher messages produced by the Germans' new Geheimschreiber (secret writer) machine. This was a teleprinter rotor cipher attachment codenamed Tunny at Bletchley Park. Turingery was a method of wheel-breaking, i.e., a procedure for working out the cam settings of Tunny's wheels.[102] He also introduced the Tunny team to Tommy Flowers who, under the guidance of Max Newman, went on to build the Colossus computer, the world's first programmable digital electronic computer, which replaced a simpler prior machine (the Heath Robinson), and whose superior speed allowed the statistical decryption techniques to be applied usefully to the messages.[103] Some have mistakenly said that Turing was a key figure in the design of the Colossus computer. Turingery and the statistical approach of Banburismus undoubtedly fed into the thinking about cryptanalysis of the Lorenz cipher,[104][105] but he was not directly involved in the Colossus development.[106]

1942年7月,图灵发明了一种称为 Turingery (或开玩笑地称为 Turingismus)的技术,用来对付德国人的新型秘密作家机器产生的洛伦兹密码信息。这是一台电传打字机转子密码附件,代号为 Tunny,位于 Bletchley Park。车轮修理是车轮折断的一种方法,也就是计算出图尼车轮凸轮设置的一种程序。他还把 Tunny 团队介绍给了 Tommy Flowers,后者在 Max Newman 的指导下,建造了世界上第一台可编程数字电子计算机——巨像计算机,它取代了之前更简单的机器(Heath Robinson) ,其出色的速度使得统计解密技术能够有效地应用于信息。有些人错误地认为图灵是巨像计算机设计中的关键人物。图灵厄立特和班布里斯马斯的统计方法无疑为洛伦兹密码的密码分析思想提供了思路,但他并没有直接参与巨像的发展。

【最终版】1942年7月,图灵发明了一种叫做图灵格里的技术,用来对付由德国的新Geheimschreiber(秘密编写器)机器产生的洛伦兹密码信息。这是布莱切利公园一个代号为金枪鱼的电传打字机转子密码附件。图灵格里是一种车轮断裂的方法,也就是说,一个程序来计算出金枪鱼的车轮的凸轮设置。他还把金枪鱼团队介绍给了汤米·弗劳尔斯,弗劳尔斯在马克斯·纽曼的指导下,继续建造了巨人计算机,这是世界上第一个可编程数字电子计算机,取代了以前更简单的机器(希斯·罗宾逊),它的超高速使得统计解密技术可以有效地应用于这些信息。有些人错误地认为图灵是巨人计算机设计的关键人物。图灵格里和Banburismus的统计学方法无疑为洛伦兹密码的密码分析提供了思路,但他并没有直接参与巨人计算机的开发。

Delilah黛利拉

Following his work at Bell Labs in the US,[107] Turing pursued the idea of electronic enciphering of speech in the telephone system. In the latter part of the war, he moved to work for the Secret Service's Radio Security Service (later HMGCC) at Hanslope Park. At the park, he further developed his knowledge of electronics with the assistance of engineer Donald Bayley. Together they undertook the design and construction of a portable secure voice communications machine codenamed Delilah.[108] The machine was intended for different applications, but it lacked the capability for use with long-distance radio transmissions. In any case, Delilah was completed too late to be used during the war. Though the system worked fully, with Turing demonstrating it to officials by encrypting and decrypting a recording of a Winston Churchill speech, Delilah was not adopted for use.[109] Turing also consulted with Bell Labs on the development of SIGSALY, a secure voice system that was used in the later years of the war.

继美国贝尔实验室的工作之后,图灵在电话系统中追求电子加密语音的想法。在战争后期,他转而为特勤局的无线电安全服务(后来的 hmgc)在 Hanslope Park 工作。在公园里,他在工程师唐纳德 · 贝利的帮助下进一步发展了他的电子学知识。他们一起设计和建造了一个代号为 Delilah 的便携式安全语音通信机器。这种机器是为不同的应用而设计的,但是它缺乏用于长距离无线电传输的能力。无论如何,黛利拉完成得太晚了,不能在战争期间使用。虽然这个系统运行良好,图灵通过加密和解密一段温斯顿·丘吉尔的演讲录音向官员们展示了它,Delilah 并没有被采用。图灵还咨询了贝尔实验室关于 SIGSALY 的开发,这是一个安全的语音系统,在战争后期使用。

【最终版】在美国贝尔实验室工作之后,图灵开始研究电话系统中语音的电子加密。在战争后期,他去汉斯洛普公园为特勤局的无线电安全局(即后来的HMGCC)工作。在公园里,他在工程师唐纳德·贝利(Donald Bayley)的帮助下进一步发展了自己在电子方面的知识。他们一起设计和建造了一台代号为黛丽拉的便携式安全语音通信机。这台机器是为不同的应用而设计的,但它缺乏长距离无线电传输的能力。无论如何,黛丽拉完成得太晚,无法在战争期间使用。图灵通过加密和解密温斯顿·丘吉尔的一段演讲录音,向官员们演示了这个系统的工作原理,但黛丽拉并没有被采用。图灵还为贝尔实验室的sig萨利(sig萨利是一种安全语音系统,在战争后期被使用)的开发提供了咨询。

Early computers and the Turing test早期的计算机和图灵测试

Between 1945 and 1947, Turing lived in Hampton, London,[110] while he worked on the design of the ACE (Automatic Computing Engine) at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL). He presented a paper on 19 February 1946, which was the first detailed design of a stored-program computer.[111] Von Neumann's incomplete First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC had predated Turing's paper, but it was much less detailed and, according to John R. Womersley, Superintendent of the NPL Mathematics Division, it "contains a number of ideas which are Dr. Turing's own".[112]citing

早期的计算机和图灵测试1945年至1947年,图灵生活在汉普顿,在国家物理实验室(NPL)从事自动计算引擎(ACE)的设计工作。他在1946年2月19日发表了一篇论文,这是第一个详细设计的储存程式计算机。的不完整的 EDVAC报告书的第一份草案在图灵论文之前就已经发表了,但是它没有那么详细,而且,根据 NPL 数学部门的负责人 John r. Womersley 的说法,它“包含了许多图灵博士自己的想法”。引用

【最终版】1945年到1947年,图灵住在伦敦的汉普顿,在国家物理实验室(NPL)从事自动计算引擎的设计工作。1946年2月19日,他提交了一篇论文,这是存储程序计算机的第一个详细设计。冯·诺伊曼关于EDVAC的报告初稿早在图灵的论文之前就已经写好了,但是它的细节要少得多。根据国家物理实验室数学部门主管约翰·r·沃默斯利的说法,它“包含了很多图灵博士自己的想法”。

Although ACE was a feasible design, the effect of the Official Secrets Act surrounding the wartime work at Bletchley Park made it impossible for Turing to explain the basis of his analysis of how a computer installation involving human operators would work.[113] This led to delays in starting the project and he became disillusioned. In late 1947 he returned to Cambridge for a sabbatical year during which he produced a seminal work on Intelligent Machinery that was not published in his lifetime.[114] While he was at Cambridge, the Pilot ACE was being built in his absence. It executed its first program on 10 May 1950, and a number of later computers around the world owe much to it, including the English Electric DEUCE and the American Bendix G-15. The full version of Turing's ACE was not built until after his death.[115]

尽管 ACE 是一个可行的设计,但围绕 Bletchley Park 战时工作的《官方机密法》(Official Secrets Act)的影响,使得图灵无法解释他对涉及人工操作员的计算机安装如何工作的分析基础。这导致了项目开始的延迟,他开始感到幻灭。1947年末,他回到剑桥休假一年,在此期间,他完成了一部关于智能机械的开创性著作,但这部著作在他有生之年并未出版。当他在剑桥的时候,飞行员 ACE 正在他不在的时候建造。它在1950年5月10日执行了它的第一个程序,后来世界各地的许多计算机都归功于它,包括英国电动 DEUCE 和美国本迪克斯 G-15。图灵 ACE 的完整版直到他死后才被制造出来。

【最终版】虽然ACE是一个可行的设计,但由于《官方保密法》对战时布莱切利公园工作的影响,图灵无法解释他所分析的基于人类操作的计算机是如何工作的。这导致项目推迟启动,他的幻想破灭了。1947年底,他回到剑桥度过了一个休假年,在此期间,他创作了一部关于智能机械的开创性作品,但在他有生之年没有出版。当他在剑桥的时候,ACE飞行员正在建造中。它在1950年5月10日执行了它的第一个程序,后来世界各地的许多计算机都得益于它,包括英国的DEUCE和美国的Bendix G-15。图灵的ACE直到他死后才完成。

According to the memoirs of the German computer pioneer Heinz Billing from the Max Planck Institute for Physics, published by Genscher, Düsseldorf, there was a meeting between Turing and Konrad Zuse.[116] It took place in Göttingen in 1947. The interrogation had the form of a colloquium. Participants were Womersley, Turing, Porter from England and a few German researchers like Zuse, Walther, and Billing (for more details see Herbert Bruderer, Konrad Zuse und die Schweiz).

根据杜塞尔多夫的根舍出版社出版的德国计算机先驱亨氏马克斯·普朗克物理学研究所的回忆录,图灵和康拉德 · 祖泽之间有过一次会面。故事发生在1947年的格丁根。这种审问采取了座谈会的形式。参与者分别是来自英国的沃姆斯利、图灵、波特和一些德国研究人员,比如 Zuse、 Walther 和 Billing (更多细节参见 Herbert Bruderer、 Konrad Zuse 和 die Schweiz)。

【最终版】根据杜塞尔多夫的根舍出版社出版的德国计算机先驱亨氏马克斯·普朗克物理学研究所的回忆录,图灵和康拉德 · 祖泽之间有过一次会面。根据他的回忆录,图灵和康拉德·祖斯(Konrad Zuse)曾有过一次会面。它发生在1947年Göttingen。审讯是以讨论会的形式进行的。参与者是来自英国的沃默斯利、图灵、波特和一些德国研究人员,如Zuse、Walther和Billing(更多细节见Herbert Bruderer、Konrad Zuse和die Schweiz)。

In 1948, Turing was appointed reader in the Mathematics Department at the Victoria University of Manchester. A year later, he became deputy director of the Computing Machine Laboratory, where he worked on software for one of the earliest stored-program computers—the Manchester Mark 1. Turing wrote the first version of the Programmer's Manual for this machine, and was recruited by Ferranti as a consultant in the development of their commercialised machine, the Ferranti Mark 1. He continued to be paid consultancy fees by Ferranti until his death.[117] During this time, he continued to do more abstract work in mathematics,[118] and in "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" (Mind, October 1950), Turing addressed the problem of artificial intelligence, and proposed an experiment that became known as the Turing test, an attempt to define a standard for a machine to be called "intelligent". The idea was that a computer could be said to "think" if a human interrogator could not tell it apart, through conversation, from a human being.[119] Harnad, Stevan (2008) The Annotation Game: On Turing (1950) on Computing, Machinery and Intelligence . In: Epstein, Robert & Peters, Grace (Eds.) Parsing the Turing Test: Philosophical and Methodological Issues in the Quest for the Thinking Computer. Springer In the paper, Turing suggested that rather than building a program to simulate the adult mind, it would be better to produce a simpler one to simulate a child's mind and then to subject it to a course of education. A reversed form of the Turing test is widely used on the Internet; the CAPTCHA test is intended to determine whether the user is a human or a computer.

1948年,图灵被任命为曼彻斯特维多利亚大学数学系的讲师。一年后,他成为计算机机器实验室的副主任,在那里,他为最早的存储程序计算机之一——曼彻斯特 Mark 1——开发软件。图灵为这台机器写了第一版程序员手册,并被费兰蒂聘为他们商业化机器费兰蒂马克1的开发顾问。他继续支付费朗蒂咨询费,直到他去世。在此期间,他继续从事更多抽象的数学工作,在《计算机器与智能》(1950年10月,心智)一书中,图灵提出了人工智能的问题,并提出了一个后来被称为图灵测试的实验,试图为机器定义一个被称为“智能”的标准。当时的想法是,如果人类审讯者无法通过对话将电脑与人类区分开来,那么电脑就可以说是在“思考”。哈纳德,斯蒂文(2008)的注释游戏: 关于图灵(1950)的计算,机械和智能。年: 爱普斯坦,罗伯特 & 彼得斯,格雷斯(编)解析图灵测试: 思维计算机探索中的哲学与方法论问题。斯普林格在论文中,图灵提出,与其编写一个程序来模拟成人的思维,不如编写一个更简单的程序来模拟儿童的思维,然后对其进行一系列的教育。图灵测试的反向形式在互联网上被广泛使用; CAPTCHA 测试的目的是确定用户是人还是计算机。

【最终版】1948年,图灵被任命为曼彻斯特维多利亚大学数学系的读书人。一年后,他成为计算机实验室的副主任,在那里他为最早的存储程序计算机之一——曼彻斯特马克1号开发软件。图灵为这台机器编写了《程序员手册》的第一个版本,并被弗兰蒂公司聘请为他们商业化机器——弗兰蒂马克1号的开发顾问。弗兰蒂继续向他支付咨询费,直到他去世。在此期间,他继续做更抽象的数学工作,并在“机械和智能计算”(看来,1950年10月),图灵解决人工智能的问题,并提出了一个实验,被称为图灵测试,试图定义一个标准的机器被称为“智能”。他们的想法是,如果人类询问者不能通过对话将计算机与人类区分开来,那么计算机就可以说是在“思考”。《注释游戏:论图灵(1950):计算、机械和智能》。见:Epstein, Robert & Peters, Grace(编著)解析图灵测试:探索有思维的计算机的哲学和方法论问题。在这篇论文中,图灵建议,与其开发一个模拟成人思维的程序,不如开发一个更简单的程序来模拟儿童的思维,然后对其进行教育。图灵测试的一种反形式在互联网上被广泛使用;验证码测试的目的是确定用户是人还是计算机。

In 1948 Turing, working with his former undergraduate colleague, D.G. Champernowne, began writing a chess program for a computer that did not yet exist. By 1950, the program was completed and dubbed the Turochamp.[120] In 1952, he tried to implement it on a Ferranti Mark 1, but lacking enough power, the computer was unable to execute the program. Instead, Turing "ran" the program by flipping through the pages of the algorithm and carrying out its instructions on a chessboard, taking about half an hour per move. The game was recorded.[121] Alan Turing vs Alick Glennie (1952) "Turing Test" Chessgames.com According to Garry Kasparov, Turing's program "played a recognizable game of chess."[122] Kasparov, Garry, Smart machines will free us all, The Wall Street Journal, 15–16 April 2017, p. c3 The program lost to Turing's colleague Alick Glennie, although it is said that it won a game against Champernowne's wife, Isabel.[123]

1948年,图灵与他以前的本科生同事 d.g。Champernowne,开始为一台还不存在的计算机编写国际象棋程序。到了1950年,这个项目完成了,并被称为图罗尚。在1952年,他试图实现它在一个费朗蒂马克1,但由于缺乏足够的权力,计算机无法执行该程序。取而代之的是,图灵通过快速浏览算法页面并在棋盘上执行指令来“运行”程序,每次运行大约需要半个小时。比赛被记录了下来。Alan Turing vs Alick Glennie (1952)“ Turing Test”chessgames. com 根据 Garry Kasparov 的说法,图灵的程序“玩的是一种公认的国际象棋游戏。“卡斯帕罗夫,加里,智能机器将解放我们所有人,《华尔街日报》 ,2017年4月15日至16日,第 c3页。虽然据说它在一场比赛中击败了尚伯努尼的妻子伊莎贝尔,但这个程序输给了图灵的同事阿利克 · 格伦尼。

【最终版】1948年,图灵和他以前的大学同学晨佩侬开始为一台当时还不存在的计算机编写国际象棋程序。到1950年,这个项目完成了,并被称为“图罗尚”。1952年,他试图在一辆弗兰蒂马克1号上实现它,但由于功率不足,计算机无法执行该程序。相反,图灵通过翻看算法的页面,在棋盘上执行它的指令来“运行”程序,每走一步大约需要半个小时。比赛被录了下来。艾伦·图灵与艾里克·格兰尼(1952)根据加里·卡斯帕罗夫的说法,图灵的程序“玩的是一场可识别的国际象棋游戏。”这个程序输给了图灵的同事阿利克·格伦尼(Alick Glennie),尽管据说它赢了一场比赛,打败了晨佩侬的妻子伊莎贝尔(Isabel)。

His Turing test was a significant, characteristically provocative, and lasting contribution to the debate regarding artificial intelligence, which continues after more than half a century.[124]

他的图灵测试是对人工智能争论的一个重要的、有特点的、持久的贡献,这场争论持续了半个多世纪。

【最终版】他的图灵测试是一个重要的、具有代表性的、使人兴奋的、对有关人工智能的辩论的持久贡献,这场辩论持续了半个多世纪。

Pattern formation and mathematical biology模式形成和数学生物学

When Turing was 39 years old in 1951, he turned to mathematical biology, finally publishing his masterpiece "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis" in January 1952. He was interested in morphogenesis, the development of patterns and shapes in biological organisms. He suggested that a system of chemicals reacting with each other and diffusing across space, termed a reaction–diffusion system, could account for "the main phenomena of morphogenesis".[125] He used systems of partial differential equations to model catalytic chemical reactions. For example, if a catalyst A is required for a certain chemical reaction to take place, and if the reaction produced more of the catalyst A, then we say that the reaction is autocatalytic, and there is positive feedback that can be modelled by nonlinear differential equations. Turing discovered that patterns could be created if the chemical reaction not only produced catalyst A, but also produced an inhibitor B that slowed down the production of A. If A and B then diffused through the container at different rates, then you could have some regions where A dominated and some where B did. To calculate the extent of this, Turing would have needed a powerful computer, but these were not so freely available in 1951, so he had to use linear approximations to solve the equations by hand. These calculations gave the right qualitative results, and produced, for example, a uniform mixture that oddly enough had regularly spaced fixed red spots. The Russian biochemist Boris Belousov had performed experiments with similar results, but could not get his papers published because of the contemporary prejudice that any such thing violated the second law of thermodynamics. Belousov was not aware of Turing's paper in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.[126]John Gribbin, Deep Simplicity, p. 126, Random House, 2004

1951年,39岁的图灵转向数学生物学,最终于1952年1月出版了他的杰作《形态发生的化学基础》。他对形态发生很感兴趣,即生物有机体中模式和形状的发展。他认为,一个化学物质相互反应并在空间扩散的系统,称为反应扩散系统,可以解释“形态发生的主要现象”。他用偏微分方程系统来模拟催化化学反应。例如,如果一个特定的化学反应需要一个催化剂 a,并且如果该反应产生了更多的催化剂 a,那么我们说该反应是自催化的,并且有正反馈,可以用非线性微分方程来模拟。图灵发现,如果化学反应不仅产生了催化剂 a,而且还产生了抑制剂 b,从而减缓了 a 的生成,那么这些图案就可以被创造出来。如果 a 和 b 以不同的速率在容器中扩散,那么可能会有 a 占优势的区域和 b 占优势的区域。为了计算这种程度,图灵需要一台功能强大的计算机,但是在1951年,这些计算机还没有那么容易获得,所以他不得不用线性近似法手工求解方程。这些计算给出了正确的定性结果,并产生了一种均匀的混合物,奇怪的是它有规律地间隔着固定的红点。俄罗斯生物化学家 Boris Belousov 也进行过类似的实验,但由于当时的偏见,他的论文无法发表,因为任何这样的事情都违反了热力学第二定律。贝洛索夫并不知道图灵在《皇家学会哲学汇刊》上发表的论文。126,Random House,2004

【最终版】1951年,图灵39岁的时候,他转向数学生物学,最终在1952年1月出版了他的杰作《形态发生的化学基础》。他对形态发生感兴趣,也就是生物有机体中模式和形状的发展。他认为,一个化学物质相互作用并在空间中扩散的系统,被称为反应-扩散系统,可以解释“形态发生的主要现象”。他用偏微分方程组来模拟催化化学反应。例如,如果某一化学反应的发生需要催化剂A,如果反应产生了更多的催化剂A,那么我们就说这个反应是自催化的,有一个正反馈可以用非线性微分方程来模拟。图灵发现在特定情况下扩散系统模式将会被刻画出来,如果化学反应不仅仅产生了催化剂A,而且同时还产生了抑制剂B,这里的抑制剂B会减缓A的产生。如果A和B的生产以不同的速率扩散到容器中,然后你可以有一些地区主导A和B。为了计算这个范围,图灵需要一台强大的计算机,但在1951年,这台计算机还没有普及,所以他不得不使用线性近似来手工求解方程。这些计算给出了正确的定性结果,并产生了,例如,一种均匀的混合物,奇怪的是,它有规律地间隔着固定的红点。俄罗斯生物化学家鲍里斯·别洛乌索夫(Boris Belousov)也做过类似的实验,但他的论文未能发表,因为当时人们认为这样的实验违反了热力学第二定律。别洛乌索夫并不知道图灵在《皇家学会哲学学报》上发表的论文。约翰·格里宾,《深层的简单》,第126页,兰登书屋,2004年。

Although published before the structure and role of DNA was understood, Turing's work on morphogenesis remains relevant today and is considered a seminal piece of work in mathematical biology.[127] One of the early applications of Turing's paper was the work by James Murray explaining spots and stripes on the fur of cats, large and small.[128][129][130] James Murray, How the leopard gets its spots, Scientific American, vol 258, number 3, p. 80, March 1988James Murray, Mathematical Biology I, 2007, Chapter 6, Springer VerlagJohn Gibbin, Deep Simplicity, p. 134, Random House, 2004 Further research in the area suggests that Turing's work can partially explain the growth of "feathers, hair follicles, the branching pattern of lungs, and even the left-right asymmetry that puts the heart on the left side of the chest."[131] In 2012, Sheth, et al. found that in mice, removal of Hox genes causes an increase in the number of digits without an increase in the overall size of the limb, suggesting that Hox genes control digit formation by tuning the wavelength of a Turing-type mechanism.[132] Later papers were not available until Collected Works of A. M. Turing was published in 1992.[133]

虽然在 DNA 的结构和作用被理解之前就已经发表了,但是图灵在形态发生方面的工作至今仍然有意义,并且被认为是数学生物学领域的一项开创性工作。图灵论文的早期应用之一是詹姆斯 · 默里的工作,他解释了大大小小的猫毛上的斑点和条纹。詹姆斯 · 默里,《豹子是如何长出斑点的》 ,《科学美国人》 ,第258卷,第3期,第80页,1988年3月詹姆斯 · 默里,《数学生物学 i 》 ,2007年,第6章,斯普林格出版社,约翰 · 吉宾,《深度简单》 ,第134页,兰登书屋,2004年进一步的研究表明,图灵的工作可以部分地解释“羽毛、毛囊、肺部模式,甚至是将心脏置于胸部左侧的左右不对称”的生长2012年,Sheth 等人。研究人员发现,在小鼠身上,去除 Hox 基因会导致手指数量的增加,而不会增加肢体的整体尺寸,这表明 Hox 基因通过调节图灵类型机制的波长来控制手指的形成。后来的论文直到1992年《图灵作品集》出版才被发表。

【最终版】尽管在DNA的结构和作用被理解之前,图灵就发表了这篇论文,但他在形态发生方面的研究在今天仍然具有重要意义,并被认为是数学生物学领域的一项开创性工作。图灵论文的早期应用之一是詹姆斯·默里(James Murray)对大大小小的猫毛上的斑点和条纹的解释。詹姆斯穆雷,豹的斑点,《科学美国人》,第258卷,3号,p。80年,1988年3月詹姆斯·莫里数学生物学,2007年,第6章,施普林格VerlagJohn Gibbin,深简单,p。134年,兰登书屋,2004年在该地区进一步的研究表明,图灵的工作可以部分解释的增长“羽毛,毛囊,肺的分支模式,甚至是左右不对称,使得心脏位于胸腔的左侧。”2012年,Sheth等人在老鼠身上发现,去除Hox基因会导致手指数量的增加,但不会增加肢体的整体尺寸,这表明Hox基因通过调节图灵型机制的波长来控制手指的形成。后来的论文直到1992年出版的《图灵作品集》才公开。

Personal life个人生活

Engagement订婚

In 1941, Turing proposed marriage to Hut 8 colleague Joan Clarke, a fellow mathematician and cryptanalyst, but their engagement was short-lived. After admitting his homosexuality to his fiancée, who was reportedly "unfazed" by the revelation, Turing decided that he could not go through with the marriage.[134]

个人生活1941年,图灵向 Hut 8的同事琼 · 克拉克求婚,她是一位数学家和密码分析家,但他们的婚约是短暂的。在向他的未婚妻承认自己是同性恋后,图灵决定不再继续这段婚姻。据报道,他的未婚妻对此并不担心。

【最终版】1941年,图灵向8号营房的同事、数学家兼密码分析师琼·克拉克求婚,但他们的订婚期很短。图灵向他的未婚妻承认了自己的同性恋身份,据报道,图灵对这一爆料“并不担心”。之后,图灵决定他不能继续这段婚姻。

Conviction for indecency因猥亵而被定罪

In January 1952, Turing was 39 when he started a relationship with Arnold Murray, a 19-year-old unemployed man. Just before Christmas, Turing was walking along Manchester's Oxford Road when he met Murray just outside the Regal Cinema and invited him to lunch. On 23 January, Turing's house was burgled. Murray told Turing that he and the burglar were acquainted, and Turing reported the crime to the police. During the investigation, he acknowledged a sexual relationship with Murray. Homosexual acts were criminal offences in the United Kingdom at that time,[135] and both men were charged with "gross indecency" under Section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885.[136] Initial committal proceedings for the trial were held on 27 February during which Turing's solicitor "reserved his defence", i.e., did not argue or provide evidence against the allegations.

1952年1月,39岁的图灵与19岁的失业男子阿诺德 · 穆雷开始恋爱。就在圣诞节前,图灵在曼彻斯特的牛津路散步时,在 Regal 电影院外遇到了默里,并邀请他共进午餐。1月23日,图灵的家被盗。默里告诉图灵,他和窃贼是熟人,图灵向警方报案。在调查过程中,他承认与莫里发生过性关系。同性恋行为在当时的英国是犯罪行为,根据美国最高1885年刑事修正法令第11条,两人都被指控犯有“严重猥亵罪”。2月27日进行了初步交付审判程序,期间图灵的律师”保留了他的辩护”,即没有对指控进行辩论或提供证据。

【最终版】1952年1月,图灵39岁,与19岁的无业青年阿诺德·默里开始了一段恋情。圣诞节前,图灵走在曼彻斯特的牛津路上,在皇家影院外遇到了默里,并邀请他共进午餐。1月23日,图灵的家被盗了。默里告诉图灵,他和窃贼认识,图灵向警方报案。在调查期间,他承认与默里有性关系。同性恋行为在当时的英国是刑事犯罪,根据《1885年刑法修正案》第11条,两人被控犯有“严重猥亵罪”。2月27日,图灵的律师进行了初步的审判,在此期间,图灵的律师“保留了他的辩护”,也就是说,他没有为指控辩护或提供证据。

Turing was later convinced by the advice of his brother and his own solicitor, and he entered a plea of guilty.[137] The case, Regina v. Turing and Murray, was brought to trial on 31 March 1952.[138] Turing was convicted and given a choice between imprisonment and probation. His probation would be conditional on his agreement to undergo hormonal physical changes designed to reduce libido. He accepted the option of injections of what was then called stilboestrol (now known as diethylstilbestrol or DES), a synthetic oestrogen; this feminization of his body was continued for the course of one year. The treatment rendered Turing impotent and caused breast tissue to form,[139] fulfilling in the literal sense Turing's prediction that "no doubt I shall emerge from it all a different man, but quite who I've not found out".[140][141] Murray was given a conditional discharge.[142]

后来,图灵听从了他哥哥和他的律师的建议,认罪了。雷吉娜诉图灵和默里案于1952年3月31日开庭审理。图灵被判有罪,并在监禁和缓刑之间做出选择。他的缓刑将以他同意接受旨在降低性欲的荷尔蒙生理变化为条件。他接受了注射一种当时被称为己烯雌酚的合成雌激素的选择,这种女性化的身体持续了一年。这种治疗使得图灵无能为力,导致乳腺组织形成,从字面意义上实现了图灵的预言: “毫无疑问,我将从这一切中脱离出来,成为一个完全不同的人,但完全是一个我没有发现的人。”。默里被有条件地释放了。

【最终版】后来,在哥哥和律师的劝说下,图灵认罪了。里贾纳诉图灵和默里案于1952年3月31日开庭审理。图灵被判有罪,可以选择监禁或缓刑。他的缓刑条件是他同意接受荷尔蒙生理变化,以降低性欲。他接受了注射当时被称为stilbo雌酚(现在被称为己烯雌酚或DES)的合成雌激素的选择;他身体的女性化持续了一年之久。这种治疗使图灵阳痿,并导致乳房组织形成,这完全实现了图灵的预言:“毫无疑问,我将成为一个完全不同的人,但我还不知道是谁。”默里被有条件地释放了。

Turing's conviction led to the removal of his security clearance and barred him from continuing with his cryptographic consultancy for the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), the British signals intelligence agency that had evolved from GC&CS in 1946, though he kept his academic job. He was denied entry into the United States after his conviction in 1952, but was free to visit other European countries.[143]

图灵的定罪导致他的安全许可被撤销,并且禁止他继续为英国政府通信总部提供密码咨询服务,政府通信总部是1946年从 gc & cs 发展而来的英国信号情报机构,尽管他保留了他的学术工作。在1952年被定罪后,他被拒绝进入美国,但他可以自由地访问其他欧洲国家。

【最终版】图灵被定罪后,他的安全权限被取消,也被禁止继续担任英国信号情报机构政府通信总部(GCHQ)的密码顾问,但他保留了学术工作。GCHQ是1946年由GC&CS演变而来的。1952年他被定罪后,美国拒绝他入境,但他可以自由访问其他欧洲国家。

Death死亡

文件:Turing Plaque.jpg
A blue plaque on the house at 43 Adlington Road, Wilmslow where Turing lived and died[144]

On 8 June 1954, at his house at 43 Adlington Road, Wilmslow,[144] Turing's housekeeper found him dead. He had died the previous day at the age of 41. Cyanide poisoning was established as the cause of death.[145] When his body was discovered, an apple lay half-eaten beside his bed, and although the apple was not tested for cyanide,[146] it was speculated that this was the means by which Turing had consumed a fatal dose. An inquest determined that he had committed suicide. Andrew Hodges and another biographer, David Leavitt, have both speculated that Turing was re-enacting a scene from the Walt Disney film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), his favourite fairy tale. Both men noted that (in Leavitt's words) he took "an especially keen pleasure in the scene where the Wicked Queen immerses her apple in the poisonous brew".[147] Turing's remains were cremated at Woking Crematorium on 12 June 1954,[148] and his ashes were scattered in the gardens of the crematorium, just as his father's had been.[149]

1954年6月8日,在他位于威姆斯洛 Adlington Road 43号的家中,图灵的管家发现了他的尸体。他前一天去世,享年41岁。氰化物中毒被确定为死因。当他的尸体被发现时,一个吃了一半的苹果躺在他的床边,尽管这个苹果没有被检测出氰化物,但人们推测这是图灵服用致命剂量的方式。审讯确定他是自杀的。安德鲁•霍奇斯和另一位传记作家大卫•利维特都推测,图灵是在重演华特•迪士尼(Walt Disney)电影《白雪公主和七个小矮人(1937)中的一个场景,这是他最喜欢的童话故事。两人都指出,(用莱维特的话说)他“特别喜欢看到邪恶皇后把苹果浸入有毒的水中的场景”。图灵的遗体于1954年6月12日在 Woking Crematorium 火化,他的骨灰撒在火葬场的花园里,就像他父亲那样。

【最终版】1954年6月8日,在他位于阿德灵顿路43号的家中,威尔姆斯洛,图灵的管家发现他死了。他在前一天去世,享年41岁。氰化物中毒被确定为死亡原因。当他的尸体被发现时,一个吃了一半的苹果躺在他的床边,虽然这个苹果没有被检测出氰化物,但人们猜测,这就是图灵服用致命剂量的方法。调查结果表明他是自杀的。安德鲁·霍奇斯(Andrew Hodges)和另一位传记作家大卫·莱维特(David Leavitt)都猜测,图灵是在重现他最喜欢的童话故事——迪士尼电影《白雪公主和七个小矮人》(Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, 1937)中的一幕。两人都注意到(用莱维特的话来说),他“在邪恶的王后将苹果浸入有毒啤酒的场景中获得了一种特别强烈的快感”。1954年6月12日,图灵的遗体在沃金火葬场火化,他的骨灰被撒在火葬场的花园里,就像他父亲的骨灰一样。

Philosopher Jack Copeland has questioned various aspects of the coroner's historical verdict. He suggested an alternative explanation for the cause of Turing's death: the accidental inhalation of cyanide fumes from an apparatus used to electroplate gold onto spoons. The potassium cyanide was used to dissolve the gold. Turing had such an apparatus set up in his tiny spare room. Copeland noted that the autopsy findings were more consistent with inhalation than with ingestion of the poison. Turing also habitually ate an apple before going to bed, and it was not unusual for the apple to be discarded half-eaten.[150] Furthermore, Turing had reportedly borne his legal setbacks and hormone treatment (which had been discontinued a year previously) "with good humour" and had shown no sign of despondency prior to his death. He even set down a list of tasks that he intended to complete upon returning to his office after the holiday weekend.[150] Turing's mother believed that the ingestion was accidental, resulting from her son's careless storage of laboratory chemicals.[151] Biographer Andrew Hodges theorised that Turing arranged the delivery of the equipment to deliberately allow his mother plausible deniability with regard to any suicide claims.[152]

文件:Alan Turing OBE.jpg
Turing's OBE currently held in Sherborne School archives

哲学家杰克 · 科普兰对验尸官的历史裁决提出了各种各样的质疑。对于图灵的死因,他提出了另一种解释: 一个用于电镀金子的器具意外吸入了氰化物烟雾到勺子上。氰化钾是用来溶解黄金的。图灵在他狭小的空余房间里安装了这样一台仪器。科普兰指出,尸检结果更符合吸入而不是摄入毒药。图灵还习惯在睡觉前吃一个苹果,吃了一半就丢弃这个苹果并不罕见。此外,据报道,图灵“幽默地”承受了法律上的挫折和激素治疗(一年前已经停止) ,而且在他去世之前没有显示出任何沮丧的迹象。他甚至列出了一个任务清单,打算在假日周末回到办公室后完成这些任务。图灵的母亲认为,由于儿子粗心地储存了实验室化学品,图灵的摄入是意外的。传记作家 Andrew Hodges 提出理论,图灵安排了这些设备的交付,故意让他的母亲对任何自杀的声明有似是而非的否认。

【最终版】哲学家杰克·科普兰(Jack Copeland)对验尸官的历史裁决提出了多方面的质疑。他对图灵的死因提出了另一种解释:他偶然吸入了一种用勺子镀金的装置发出的氰化物烟雾。氰化钾被用来溶解黄金。图灵在他的小房间里安装了这样一个装置。科普兰指出,尸检结果更符合吸入,而不是摄入毒药。图灵还习惯在睡觉前吃一个苹果,苹果吃了一半就扔掉,这是很常见的。此外,据报道,图灵还承受了法律上的挫折和激素治疗(一年前就停止了)“心情很好”,在他死前没有表现出任何沮丧的迹象。他甚至还列了一张清单,列出了他打算在假期结束后回到办公室时完成的任务。图灵的母亲认为,误食是偶然的,因为她儿子不小心存放了实验室的化学药品。传记作家安德鲁·霍奇斯推测,图灵安排设备的交付,是为了故意让他的母亲对任何自杀的说法进行合理的否认。

It has been suggested that Turing's belief in fortune-telling may have caused his depressed mood.[149] As a youth, Turing had been told by a fortune-teller that he would be a genius. In mid-May 1954, shortly before his death, Turing again decided to consult a fortune-teller during a day-trip to St Annes-on-Sea with the Greenbaum family.[149] According to the Greenbaums' daughter, Barbara:[153]But it was a lovely sunny day and Alan was in a cheerful mood and off we went... Then he thought it would be a good idea to go to the Pleasure Beach at Blackpool. We found a fortune-teller's tent[,] and Alan said he'd like to go in[,] so we waited around for him to come back... And this sunny, cheerful visage had shrunk into a pale, shaking, horror-stricken face. Something had happened. We don't know what the fortune-teller said[,] but he obviously was deeply unhappy. I think that was probably the last time we saw him before we heard of his suicide.

有人认为,可能是图灵对算命的信仰导致了他的沮丧情绪。年轻时,图灵曾被算命师告知他将成为一个天才。1954年5月中旬,在他去世前不久,图灵在与格林鲍姆一家一起去海上圣安内斯的一日游中再次决定咨询算命师。根据格林鲍姆夫妇的女儿芭芭拉的说法: 但那是一个阳光明媚的日子,艾伦心情愉快,我们就去了... ... 然后他觉得去黑潭的快乐海滩是个好主意。我们找到了一个算命师的帐篷,艾伦说他想进去,所以我们就在附近等他回来... ... 这张阳光明媚的面孔已经缩成了一张苍白、颤抖、惊恐的脸。发生了一些事情。我们不知道算命先生是怎么说的,但是他显然非常不开心。我想那可能是我们听说他自杀之前最后一次见到他。

【最终版】有人认为,图灵对算命的信仰可能是他情绪低落的原因。图灵年轻时,一个算命先生说他会是个天才。1954年5月中旬,就在图灵去世前不久,他和格林鲍姆一家去海边的圣安妮一日游时,又决定请教算命先生。据格林鲍姆的女儿芭芭拉说:但那天阳光明媚,艾伦心情也很好,我们就出发了……然后他觉得去布莱克浦的快乐海滩是个好主意。我们找到了一个算命人的帐篷,艾伦说他想进去,所以我们在附近等他回来……这张阳光、开朗的脸已萎缩成一张苍白、颤抖、惊恐的脸。发生了什么事。我们不知道算命先生说了什么,但他显然非常不高兴。我想那可能是我们最后一次见他在我们听说他自杀之前。

Government apology and pardon政府道歉和赦免

In August 2009, British programmer John Graham-Cumming started a petition urging the British government to apologise for Turing's prosecution as a homosexual. The petition received more than 30,000 signatures.The petition was only open to UK citizens. The Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, acknowledged the petition, releasing a statement on 10 September 2009 apologising and describing the treatment of Turing as "appalling":Thousands of people have come together to demand justice for Alan Turing and recognition of the appalling way he was treated. While Turing was dealt with under the law of the time and we can't put the clock back, his treatment was of course utterly unfair and I am pleased to have the chance to say how deeply sorry I and we all are for what happened to him ... So on behalf of the British government, and all those who live freely thanks to Alan's work I am very proud to say: we're sorry, you deserved so much better.

2009年8月,英国程序员 John Graham-Cumming · 图灵发起请愿,敦促英国政府为图灵作为同性恋被起诉一事道歉。请愿书收到了超过30000个签名。请愿书只对英国公民开放。英国首相戈登 · 布朗承认了这份请愿书,并于2009年9月10日发表了一份声明,对图灵受到的待遇表示道歉,并称其“骇人听闻”:成千上万的人聚集在一起,要求为艾伦·图灵伸张正义,并承认他受到的可怕待遇。虽然图灵是根据当时的法律处理的,我们不能让时间倒流,但他的待遇当然是完全不公平的,我很高兴有机会对发生在他身上的事情表示深深的歉意,我们大家都很抱歉;因此,我代表英国政府,以及所有因艾伦的工作而自由生活的人们,非常自豪地说:我们很抱歉,你应该得到更好的待遇。

【最终版】2009年8月,英国程序员约翰·格雷厄姆·卡明(John Graham-Cumming)发起了一项请愿,敦促英国政府为图灵被控同性恋一事道歉。请愿书收到了3万多个签名。请愿书只对英国公民开放。英国首相戈登·布朗(Gordon Brown)在2009年9月10日承认了这一请愿,并发表声明道歉,称图灵受到的对待“令人震惊”:成千上万的人聚集在一起,要求为图灵伸张正义,并承认他受到的对待令人震惊。虽然图灵是在当时的法律下被处理的,我们不能让时光倒流,但他的遭遇当然是完全不公平的,我很高兴有机会对他的遭遇表示我和我们所有人的深切歉意……因此,我代表英国政府,代表所有那些因艾伦的工作而自由生活的人们,非常自豪地说:我们很抱歉,你应该得到更好的待遇。

In December 2011, William Jones and his Member of Parliament, John Leech, created an e-petition[154] requesting that the British government pardon Turing for his conviction of "gross indecency":[155]

We ask the HM Government to grant a pardon to Alan Turing for the conviction of "gross indecency". In 1952, he was convicted of "gross indecency" with another man and was forced to undergo so-called "organo-therapy"—chemical castration. Two years later, he killed himself with cyanide, aged just 41. Alan Turing was driven to a terrible despair and early death by the nation he'd done so much to save. This remains a shame on the British government and British history. A pardon can go some way to healing this damage. It may act as an apology to many of the other gay men, not as well-known as Alan Turing, who were subjected to these laws.[154]

2011年12月,威廉 · 琼斯和他的议员约翰 · 利奇发起了一项电子请愿活动,要求英国政府赦免图灵的“严重猥亵”罪:

我们要求英国政府赦免艾伦·图灵的“严重猥亵罪”。1952年,他被判与另一名男子“严重猥亵”,并被迫接受所谓的“器官疗法”——化学阉割。两年后,他用氰化物自杀,年仅41岁。阿兰·图灵被他为拯救这个国家付出了巨大努力的国家推向了可怕的绝望和早逝。这仍然是英国政府和英国历史的耻辱。赦免可以在某种程度上治愈这种伤害。这可能是对许多其他同性恋者的道歉,不像艾伦·图灵那样知名,因为他们受到了这些法律的约束。

【最终版】2011年12月,威廉·琼斯(William Jones)和他的国会议员约翰·里奇(John Leech)发起了一项电子请愿,请求英国政府赦免图灵的“严重猥亵罪”:

我们请求英国政府赦免艾伦·图灵的“严重猥亵罪”。1952年,他被判与另一名男子“严重猥亵”,被迫接受所谓的“器官治疗”——化学阉割。两年后,他用氰化物自杀,年仅41岁。艾伦·图灵被他所拯救的这个国家推向了绝望和早逝的边缘。这是英国政府和英国历史上的耻辱。赦免可以在一定程度上治愈这种伤害。它可以作为对其他许多男同性恋者的道歉,不像艾伦·图灵那么出名,他们也受到了这些法律的约束。

The petition gathered over 37,000 signatures,[154][156] and was submitted to Parliament by the Manchester MP John Leech but the request was discouraged by Justice Minister Lord McNally, who said:[157]

A posthumous pardon was not considered appropriate as Alan Turing was properly convicted of what at the time was a criminal offence. He would have known that his offence was against the law and that he would be prosecuted. It is tragic that Alan Turing was convicted of an offence that now seems both cruel and absurd—particularly poignant given his outstanding contribution to the war effort. However, the law at the time required a prosecution and, as such, long-standing policy has been to accept that such convictions took place and, rather than trying to alter the historical context and to put right what cannot be put right, ensure instead that we never again return to those times.[158]

这份请愿书收集了超过37000个签名,由曼彻斯特议员约翰 · 利奇提交给议会,但是司法部长麦克纳利勋爵不同意这一请求,他说:

死后赦免被认为是不合适的,因为艾伦·图灵被正确地判定犯有当时的刑事罪。他会知道他的罪行是违法的,他会被起诉。不幸的是,艾伦·图灵被判犯有一项罪行,鉴于他对战争的杰出贡献,这项罪行现在看来既残忍又荒谬,尤其令人痛心。然而,当时的法律要求起诉,因此,长期以来的政策是接受这种定罪的发生,而不是试图改变历史背景,纠正不能纠正的事情,而是确保我们永远不会回到那个时代。

【最终版】这份请愿书收集了37000多个签名,由曼彻斯特议员约翰·里奇提交给议会,但司法部长麦克纳利勋爵拒绝了这一请求,他说:

死后赦免是不合适的,因为艾伦·图灵的罪行在当时被认为是刑事犯罪。他应该知道他的罪行是违法的,他将受到起诉。可悲的是,阿兰·图灵被判有罪,这在现在看来既残忍又荒谬——尤其是考虑到他对战争的杰出贡献。然而,当时的法律要求进行起诉,因此,长期以来的政策一直是接受这样的定罪,而不是试图改变历史背景,纠正无法纠正的事情。

John Leech, the MP for Manchester Withington (2005–15), submitted several bills to Parliament[159] and led a high-profile campaign to secure the pardon. Leech made the case in the House of Commons that Turing's contribution to the war made him a national hero and that it was "ultimately just embarrassing" that the conviction still stood.[160] Leech continued to take the bill through Parliament and campaigned for several years, gaining the public support of numerous leading scientists, including Stephen Hawking.[161][162] At the British premiere of a film based on Turing's life, The Imitation Game, the producers thanked Leech for bringing the topic to public attention and securing Turing's pardon.[163] Leech is now regularly described as the "architect" of Turing's pardon and subsequently the Alan Turing Law which went on to secure pardons for 75,000 other men and women convicted of similar crimes.[164][165][166][167][168][169][170]

曼彻斯特威辛顿(英国国会选区)议员 John Leech (2005-15)向议会提交了几项法案,并领导了一场引人注目的运动以确保赦免。利奇在《英国下议院表示,图灵对战争的贡献使他成为了一个民族英雄,而且他的信念仍然存在,这“最终只是令人尴尬”。利奇继续在议会通过该法案,并进行了数年的竞选活动,赢得了包括斯蒂芬 · 霍金在内的众多顶尖科学家的公众支持。在一部根据图灵生平改编的电影---- 《模仿游戏的英国首映式上,制片人感谢 Leech 将这个话题引入公众视野,并确保了图灵的赦免。利奇现在经常被描述为图灵赦免和随后的阿兰图灵法案的“设计师”,该法案确保了对其他75000名被判定犯有类似罪行的男女的赦免。

【最终版】曼彻斯特威辛顿区议员约翰·里奇(2005-15)向议会提交了几份法案,并领导了一场高调的运动来确保特赦。里奇在下议院表示,图灵对战争的贡献使他成为了一个民族英雄,而这一判决仍然成立,“最终让人感到尴尬”。里奇继续推动该法案在议会获得通过,并进行了数年的宣传活动,获得了包括斯蒂芬·霍金在内的众多顶尖科学家的公众支持。在根据图灵生平改编的电影《模仿游戏》的英国首映式上,制片人感谢里奇让这个话题引起了公众的注意,并为图灵赢得了赦免。里奇现在经常被描述为图灵赦免案的“建筑师”,后来又被称为艾伦·图灵法则,该法则使其他7.5万名被判犯有类似罪行的男女获得了赦免。

On 26 July 2012, a bill was introduced in the House of Lords to grant a statutory pardon to Turing for offences under section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885, of which he was convicted on 31 March 1952.[171] Late in the year in a letter to The Daily Telegraph, the physicist Stephen Hawking and 10 other signatories including the Astronomer Royal Lord Rees, President of the Royal Society Sir Paul Nurse, Lady Trumpington (who worked for Turing during the war) and Lord Sharkey (the bill's sponsor) called on Prime Minister David Cameron to act on the pardon request.[172] Pearse, Damian, "Alan Turing should be pardoned, argue Stephen Hawking and top scientists" , The Guardian, 13 December 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2012. The government indicated it would support the bill,[173][174][175] and it passed its third reading in the House of Lords in October.[176]

2012年7月26日,上议院提交了一项法案,根据《1885年刑事修正法令11条对图灵的罪行给予法定赦免,图灵于1952年3月31日被判有罪。今年年底,物理学家斯蒂芬 · 霍金和其他10位签名者,包括每日电讯报皇家天文学家勋爵 Rees,皇家学会主席 Paul Nurse 爵士,战时为图灵工作的 Trumpington 女士,以及法案的发起人 Sharkey 勋爵,在一封信中呼吁首相 David Cameron 对赦免请求采取行动。皮尔斯,达米安,“斯蒂芬 · 霍金和顶尖科学家认为,阿兰 · 图灵应该被赦免”,《卫报》 ,2012年12月13日。2012年12月15日。政府表示将支持该法案,并于10月在上议院通过了三读。

【最终版】2012年7月26日,上议院通过一项法案,根据《1885年刑法修正案》第11条对图灵进行法定赦免,他于1952年3月31日被定罪。今年晚些时候,物理学家史蒂芬·霍金和包括皇家天文学家里斯勋爵、皇家学会主席保罗·纳斯爵士在内的其他10名署名者给《每日电讯报》写了一封信,特鲁平顿夫人(二战期间为图灵工作)和夏基勋爵(法案的发起人)呼吁首相戴维·卡梅伦(David Cameron)响应赦免请求。皮尔斯,达米安,“斯蒂芬·霍金和顶尖科学家认为阿兰·图灵应该被赦免”,《卫报》,2012年12月13日。2012年12月15日检索。政府表示将支持该法案,并于10月在上议院通过了三次审阅。

At the bill's second reading in the House of Commons on 29 November 2013, Conservative MP Christopher Chope objected to the bill, delaying its passage. The bill was due to return to the House of Commons on 28 February 2014,[177] but before the bill could be debated in the House of Commons,[178] the government elected to proceed under the royal prerogative of mercy. On 24 December 2013, Queen Elizabeth II signed a pardon for Turing's conviction for "gross indecency", with immediate effect.[179] Announcing the pardon, Lord Chancellor Chris Grayling said Turing deserved to be "remembered and recognised for his fantastic contribution to the war effort" and not for his later criminal conviction.[156][180] The Queen officially pronounced Turing pardoned in August 2014.[181] The Queen's action is only the fourth royal pardon granted since the conclusion of the Second World War.[182] Pardoned: Alan Turing, Computing patriarch. Time Magazine, vol. 183, no. 1, 13 January 2014, p. 14. Retrieved 6 January 2014. Pardons are normally granted only when the person is technically innocent, and a request has been made by the family or other interested party; neither condition was met in regard to Turing's conviction.[183]

2013年11月29日,该法案在英国下议院进行二读,保守党议员克里斯多福·乔普反对该法案,延迟了其通过。该法案原定于2014年2月28日返回英国下议院,但在该法案可能在英国下议院辩论之前,政府选择在皇家特权宽恕下继续进行。2013年12月24日,伊丽莎白二世签署了一项赦免令,赦免图灵的“严重猥亵罪”,并立即生效。大法官克里斯 · 格雷林在宣布赦免时说,图灵应该“因为他对战争的杰出贡献而被人们铭记和认可”,而不是因为他后来的刑事定罪。2014年8月,女王正式宣布图灵获得赦免。女王的行动是第二次世界大战结束以来第四次皇家赦免。原谅: 阿兰 · 图灵,计算机领袖。时代杂志,第一卷。183号,不。1, 13 January 2014, p. 14.2014年1月6日。特赦通常只有在当事人在技术上是无辜的,而且家人或其他利益相关方已经提出请求的情况下才会被批准; 对于图灵的定罪,这两个条件都没有满足。

【最终版】2013年11月29日,该法案在下议院进行了二读,保守党议员克里斯托弗·肖普(Christopher Chope)反对该法案,推迟了该法案的通过。该法案原定于2014年2月28日提交下议院,但在该法案在下议院进行辩论之前,政府被选为在皇家赦免权下继续进行。2013年12月24日,英国女王伊丽莎白二世签署了一项赦免令,立即生效,赦免图灵“严重猥亵罪”。宣布赦免时,大法官克里斯·格雷林说,图灵值得“记住和认可他对战争的杰出贡献”,而不是他后来的刑事定罪。2014年8月,女王正式宣布赦免图灵。女王的这一举动是自二战结束以来第四次王室赦免。被赦免者:艾伦·图灵,计算机界的元老。《时代》杂志,第183期。2014年1月13日,第14页。2014年1月6日检索。通常情况下,只有当当事人在技术上是无辜的,并且当事人的家人或其他利害关系方提出请求时,才会给予赦免;这两个条件都不符合。

In September 2016, the government announced its intention to expand this retroactive exoneration to other men convicted of similar historical indecency offences, in what was described as an "Alan Turing law".[184][185] The Alan Turing law is now an informal term for the law in the United Kingdom, contained in the Policing and Crime Act 2017, which serves as an amnesty law to retroactively pardon men who were cautioned or convicted under historical legislation that outlawed homosexual acts. The law applies in England and Wales.[186]

2016年9月,政府宣布打算将这种追溯性免罪扩大到其他被判犯有类似历史猥亵罪的男子,这项法律被称为“阿兰 · 图灵法”。阿兰 · 图灵法现在是英国法律的一个非正式术语,载于《2017年警务和犯罪法》 ,该法是一项大赦法,旨在追溯赦免那些根据历史立法被警告或定罪的男子,这些立法禁止同性恋行为。这项法律适用于英格兰和威尔士。

【最终版】2016年9月,政府宣布打算将这一追溯性豁免扩大到其他被判犯有类似历史猥亵罪的男性,这被称为“艾伦·图灵法”。艾伦·图灵法现在是英国对该法律的非正式说法,包含在2017年的《警察和犯罪法案》(police and Crime Act)中。《警察和犯罪法案》是一项大赦法,可以追溯性地赦免那些在禁止同性恋行为的历史立法中受到警告或被定罪的男性。这条法律适用于英格兰和威尔士。

Legacy遗产

Awards, honours, and tributes奖励、荣誉和贡品

文件:Alan Turing Building 1.jpg
The Alan Turing Building at the University of Manchester in 2008

Turing was appointed an officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1946.[83] He was also elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1951.[8]

图灵于一九四六年被任命为大英帝国勋章的军官。1951年,他还被选为英国皇家学会会员。

【最终版】1946年,图灵被任命为大英帝国勋章的军官。1951年,他还被选为英国皇家学会(FRS)会员。

Turing has been honoured in various ways in Manchester, the city where he worked towards the end of his life. In 1994, a stretch of the A6010 road (the Manchester city intermediate ring road) was named "Alan Turing Way". A bridge carrying this road was widened, and carries the name Alan Turing Bridge. A statue of Turing was unveiled in Manchester on 23 June 2001 in Sackville Park, between the University of Manchester building on Whitworth Street and Canal Street. The memorial statue depicts the "father of computer science" sitting on a bench at a central position in the park. Turing is shown holding an apple. The cast bronze bench carries in relief the text 'Alan Mathison Turing 1912–1954', and the motto 'Founder of Computer Science' as it could appear if encoded by an Enigma machine: 'IEKYF ROMSI ADXUO KVKZC GUBJ'. However, the meaning of the coded message is disputed, as the 'u' in 'computer' matches up with the 'u' in 'ADXUO'. As a letter encoded by an enigma machine cannot appear as itself, the actual message behind the code is uncertain.[187]

文件:Sackville Park Turing plaque.jpg
Turing memorial statue plaque in Sackville Park, Manchester

A plaque at the statue's feet reads 'Father of computer science, mathematician, logician, wartime codebreaker, victim of prejudice'. There is also a Bertrand Russell quotation: "Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty—a beauty cold and austere, like that of sculpture." The sculptor buried his own old Amstrad computer under the plinth as a tribute to "the godfather of all modern computers".[188]

图灵在曼彻斯特以各种方式获得了荣誉,他在这座城市工作直到生命的尽头。1994年,一段 a6010公路(曼彻斯特市中环线)被命名为“阿兰 · 图灵路”。一座承载着这条道路的桥梁被拓宽了,桥名为阿兰 · 图灵桥。图灵的雕像于2001年6月23日在 Sackville Park 揭幕,位于 Whitworth Street and Canal Street 的曼彻斯特大学大楼之间。纪念雕像描绘了“计算机科学之父”坐在公园中央的长椅上。图灵手里拿着一个苹果。铸造的青铜长凳上浮雕着文字‘艾伦·图灵1912-1954’,还有座右铭‘计算机科学的创始人’,如果用英格玛机器进行编码的话: ‘ IEKYF ROMSI ADXUO kvkkzc GUBJ’。然而,编码信息的含义是有争议的,因为“ computer”中的“ u”与“ adxeo”中的“ u”匹配。由于一封由英格玛密码机编码的信件不能以本身的形式出现,因此密码背后的真实信息是不确定的。

雕像脚下的一块牌匾上写着“计算机科学之父、数学家、逻辑学家、战时密码破译者、偏见的受害者”。还有一句伯特兰·罗素: “正确地看待数学,它不仅拥有真理,而且拥有至高无上的美ーー一种冷峻的美,就像雕塑一样。”雕塑家把他自己的老 Amstrad 电脑埋在底座下,以此向“现代电脑之父”致敬。

【最终版】在曼彻斯特,图灵以各种方式受到了人们的尊敬。1994年,A6010公路(曼彻斯特市中环线)的一段路段被命名为“艾伦·图灵路”。一座承载这条路的桥被加宽,并以艾伦·图灵桥的名字命名。图灵的雕像于2001年6月23日在曼彻斯特大学惠特沃斯街和运河街之间的萨克维尔公园揭幕。这尊纪念雕像描绘了这位“计算机科学之父”坐在公园中央位置的长凳上。图灵拿着一个苹果。青铜铸成的长凳上刻有“艾伦·马西森·图灵1912-1954”的浮雕文字,以及“计算机科学创始人”的座右铭,如果用英格玛密码机进行编码,可能会出现这样的字样:“IEKYF ROMSI ADXUO KVKZC GUBJ”。然而,编码信息的含义是有争议的,因为'computer'中的'u'与'ADXUO'中的'u'匹配。由于由谜机编码的字母不能以其本身的形式出现,密码背后的实际信息是不确定的。

雕像脚边的一块牌匾上写着:“计算机科学之父,数学家,逻辑学家,战时密码破解者,偏见的受害者”。伯特兰·罗素也曾说过:“正确地看,数学不仅拥有真理,而且拥有至高的美——一种冷酷而严肃的美,就像雕塑一样。”这位雕塑家将自己的老式阿姆斯特拉德电脑埋在基座下,以向“所有现代电脑的教父”致敬。

In 1999, Time magazine named Turing as one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th century and stated, "The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine."[9]A blue plaque was unveiled at King's College on the centenary of his birth on 23 June 2012 and is now installed at the college's Keynes Building on King's Parade.[189][190]On 25 March 2021, the Bank of England publicly unveiled the design for a new £50 note, featuring Turing's portrait, before its official issue on 23 June, Turing's birthday. Turing was selected as the new face of the note in 2019 following a public nomination process.[191]

1999年,《时代》(Time)杂志将图灵评为20世纪最重要的100人之一,并表示: “事实上,每个敲击键盘、打开电子表格或文字处理程序的人,都在开发图灵机的化身。”2012年6月23日,为了纪念他的百年诞辰,一块蓝色的牌匾在国王学院揭幕,现已安放在国王游行的 Keynes Building。2021年3月25日,英格兰银行在6月23日图灵的生日正式发行之前,公开披露了新版50英镑的设计,上面印有图灵的肖像。2019年,图灵经过公开的提名程序被选为该笔记的新面孔。

【最终版】1999年,《时代》杂志将图灵列为20世纪100位最重要的人物之一,并指出:“事实是,每一个敲击键盘、打开电子表格或文字处理程序的人,都在为图灵机的化身工作。”2012年6月23日,国王学院为纪念他诞辰100周年揭幕了一块蓝色的牌匾,现在它被安装在国王广场上的凯恩斯大楼。2021年3月25日,英格兰银行在6月23日(图灵生日)正式发行之前,公开了新的50英镑纸币的设计,上面有图灵的肖像。在2019年的公开提名过程中,图灵被选为纸币的新面孔。

Centenary celebrations纪念庆祝活动

To mark the 100th anniversary of Turing's birth, the Turing Centenary Advisory Committee (TCAC) co-ordinated the Alan Turing Year, a year-long programme of events around the world honouring Turing's life and achievements. The TCAC, chaired by S. Barry Cooper with Turing's nephew Sir John Dermot Turing acting as Honorary President, worked with the University of Manchester faculty members and a broad spectrum of people from Cambridge University and Bletchley Park.

为纪念图灵诞辰100周年,图灵百周年纪念顾问委员会(TCAC)举办了为期一年的「图灵年」活动,在世界各地举办活动,向图灵的一生和成就致敬。由 s. Barry Cooper 担任主席,图灵的侄子 John Dermot Turing 爵士担任荣誉主席,与曼彻斯特大学的教职员工以及剑桥大学和 Bletchley Park 的广泛人士一起工作。

【最终版】为了纪念图灵诞辰100周年,“图灵百年咨询委员会”(TCAC)协调了“图灵年”,这是一个为期一年的活动,在世界各地纪念图灵的一生和成就。TCAC由S. Barry Cooper担任主席,图灵的侄子John Dermot Turing担任名誉主席,与曼彻斯特大学的教职员工以及来自剑桥大学和布莱切利公园的广泛人士合作。

Steel sculpture controversy钢雕塑争议

In May 2020 it was reported by Gay Star News that a 模板:Convert high steel sculpture, to honour Turing, designed by Sir Antony Gormley, was planned to be installed at King's College, Cambridge. Historic England, however, was quoted as saying that the abstract work of 19 steel slabs "... would be at odds with the existing character of the College. This would result in harm, of a less than substantial nature, to the significance of the listed buildings and landscape, and by extension the conservation area."[192]

2020年5月,据《同志之星新闻》报道,为了纪念图灵,安东尼 · 葛姆雷爵士设计了一座高大的钢制雕塑,计划安装在剑桥国王学院。历史上的英格兰,然而,援引说,抽象的工作,19钢板“ ... 将与现有的学院性质不一致。这将对所列建筑物和景观的重要性造成损害,并扩大保护区的范围。”

【最终版】2020年5月,据Gay Star News报道,一个模板:由Antony Gormley爵士设计的高钢雕塑,以纪念图灵,计划在剑桥大学国王学院安装。然而,历史上的英国,被引用说,19个钢筋板的抽象作品“…将与学院现有的性质相冲突。这将对上榜的建筑和景观的重要性造成损害,并进一步扩大到保护区。”

References参考文献

  1. 1.0 1.1 模板:First word 艾伦·图灵 publications indexed by Google Scholar脚本错误:没有“EditAtWikidata”这个模块。
  2. 2.0 2.1 艾伦·图灵 at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
  3. Gandy, Robin Oliver (1953). On axiomatic systems in mathematics and theories in physics (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge. doi:10.17863/CAM.16125. 模板:EThOS. Archived from the original on 9 December 2017. Retrieved 9 December 2017. 模板:Free access
  4. 4.0 4.1 模板:Cite chapter
  5. Grattan-Guinness, Ivor, Chapter 40, Turing's mentor, Max Newman. In Copeland, B. Jack; Bowen, Jonathan P.; Wilson, Robin; Sprevak, Mark (2017). The Turing Guide. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-874782-6. 
  6. "Who was Alan Turing?". The British Library. Archived from the original on 23 July 2019. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Anon (2017). "Turing, Alan Mathison". Who's Who (online Oxford University Press ed.). A & C Black, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing plc. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U243891. https://www.ukwhoswho.com/view/article/oupww/whoswho/U243891.  (subscription or UK public library membership required) (subscription required)
  8. 8.0 8.1 Newman, M.H.A. (1955). "Alan Mathison Turing. 1912–1954". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 1: 253–263. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1955.0019. JSTOR 769256. Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help)
  9. 9.0 9.1 Gray, Paul (29 March 1999). "Alan Turing – Time 100 People of the Century". Time. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 10 January 2011. Providing a blueprint for the electronic digital computer. The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine.
  10. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  11. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  12. Copeland, Jack (18 June 2012). "Alan Turing: The codebreaker who saved 'millions of lives'". BBC News Technology. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  13. A number of sources state that Winston Churchill said that Turing made the single biggest contribution to Allied victory in the war against Nazi Germany. However, both The Churchill Centre and Turing's biographer Andrew Hodges have stated they know of no documentary evidence to support this claim, nor of the date or context in which Churchill supposedly said it, and the Churchill Centre lists it among their Churchill 'Myths', see Schilling, Jonathan (8 January 2015). "Churchill Said Turing Made the Single Biggest Contribution to Allied Victory". The Churchill Centre: Myths. Archived from the original on 17 February 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015. and Hodges, Andrew. "Part 4: The Relay Race". Update to Alan Turing: The Enigma. Archived from the original on 20 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015. A BBC News profile piece that repeated the Churchill claim has subsequently been amended to say there is no evidence for it. See Spencer, Clare (11 September 2009). "Profile: Alan Turing". BBC News. Archived from the original on 13 December 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2015. Update 13 February 2015 Official war historian Harry Hinsley estimated that this work shortened the war in Europe by more than two years but added the caveat that this did not account for the use of the atomic bomb and other eventualities.Hinsley, Harry (1996) [1993], The Influence of ULTRA in the Second World War Transcript of a lecture given on Tuesday 19 October 1993 at Cambridge University
  14. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  15. Olinick, M. (2021). Simply Turing. United States: Simply Charly, ch. 15.
  16. "'Alan Turing law': Thousands of gay men to be pardoned". BBC News. 20 October 2016. Archived from the original on 20 October 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  17. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  18. "The Alan Turing Internet Scrapbook". Alan Turing: The Enigma. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
  19. Phil Maguire, "An Irishman's Diary", p. 5. The Irish Times, 23 June 2012.
  20. "London Blue Plaques". English Heritage. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 10 February 2007.
  21. The Scientific Tourist In London: #17 Alan Turing's Birth Place -{zh-cn:互联网档案馆; zh-tw:網際網路檔案館; zh-hk:互聯網檔案館;}-存檔,存档日期21 September 2013., Nature. London Blog
  22. 模板:Openplaque
  23. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  24. "Plaque unveiled at Turing's home in St Leonards". Hastings & St. Leonards Observer. 29 June 2012. Archived from the original on 12 September 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  25. "St Leonards plaque marks Alan Turing's early years". BBC News. 25 June 2012. Archived from the original on 3 December 2017. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  26. Jones, G. James (11 December 2001). "Alan Turing – Towards a Digital Mind: Part 1". System Toolbox. Archived from the original on 3 August 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2007.
  27. "Guildford Dragon NEWS". The Guildford Dragon. 29 November 2012. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
  28. Cawthorne, Nigel (2014). Alan Turing : the enigma man. London. pp. 18. ISBN 978-1-78404-535-7. OCLC 890938716. https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/890938716. 
  29. Alan Mathison (April 2016). "Alan Turing Archive – Sherborne School (ARCHON CODE: GB1949)" (PDF). Sherborne School, Dorset. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 5 February 2017.
  30. "Alan Turing OBE, PhD, FRS (1912–1954)". The Old Shirburnian Society (in English). 1 September 2016. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
  31. Hofstadter, Douglas R. (1985). Metamagical Themas: Questing for the Essence of Mind and Pattern. Basic Books. p. 484. ISBN 978-0-465-04566-2. OCLC 230812136. 
  32. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  33. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  34. The Shirburnian
  35. Caryl, Christian (19 December 2014). "Poor Imitation of Alan Turing". New York Review of Books. Archived from the original on 7 January 2015. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  36. Rachel Hassall, 'The Sherborne Formula: The Making of Alan Turing' -{zh-cn:互联网档案馆; zh-tw:網際網路檔案館; zh-hk:互聯網檔案館;}-存檔,存档日期15 April 2014. 'Vivat!' 2012/13
  37. Teuscher, Christof, ed. (2004). Alan Turing: Life and Legacy of a Great Thinker. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-540-20020-8. OCLC 53434737. 
  38. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  39. Hodges, Andrew (2012). Alan Turing: The Enigma. Princeton University Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-691-15564-7. https://archive.org/details/alanturingenigma0000hodg. 
  40. Hodges, Andrew (2012). Alan Turing: The Enigma. Princeton University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-691-15564-7. https://archive.org/details/alanturingenigma0000hodg. 
  41. Paul Gray, Alan Turing -{zh-cn:互联网档案馆; zh-tw:網際網路檔案館; zh-hk:互聯網檔案館;}-存檔,存档日期19 January 2011. Time Magazine's Most Important People of the Century, p. 2
  42. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  43. The Old Shirburnian Society
  44. See Section 3 of John Aldrich, "England and Continental Probability in the Inter-War Years", Journal Electronique d'Histoire des Probabilités et de la Statistique, vol. 5/2 Decembre 2009 -{zh-cn:互联网档案馆; zh-tw:網際網路檔案館; zh-hk:互聯網檔案館;}-存檔,存档日期21 April 2018. Journal Electronique d'Histoire des Probabilités et de la Statistique
  45. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  46. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  47. B. Jack Copeland; Carl J. Posy; Oron Shagrir (2013). Computability: Turing, Gödel, Church, and Beyond. MIT Press. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-262-01899-9. https://books.google.com/books?id=MlsJuSj2OkEC&pg=PA211. 
  48. Avi Wigderson (2019). Mathematics and Computation. Princeton University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-691-18913-0. 
  49. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  50. Grime, James (February 2012). "What Did Turing Do for Us?". NRICH. University of Cambridge. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
  51. "von Neumann ... firmly emphasised to me, and to others I am sure, that the fundamental conception is owing to Turing—insofar as not anticipated by Babbage, Lovelace and others." Letter by Stanley Frankel to Brian Randell, 1972, quoted in Jack Copeland (2004) The Essential Turing, p. 22.
  52. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  53. Turing, A.M. (1939). "Systems of Logic Based on Ordinals". Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society. s2-45: 161–228. doi:10.1112/plms/s2-45.1.161. hdl:21.11116/0000-0001-91CE-3.
  54. Turing, Alan (1938). Systems of Logic Based on Ordinals (PhD thesis). Princeton University. doi:10.1112/plms/s2-45.1.161. hdl:21.11116/0000-0001-91CE-3. 模板:ProQuest.
  55. Turing, A.M. (1938). "Systems of Logic Based on Ordinals" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 October 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
  56. John Von Neumann: The Scientific Genius Who Pioneered the Modern Computer, Game Theory, Nuclear Deterrence, and Much More, Norman MacRae, 1999, American Mathematical Society, Chapter 8
  57. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  58. Cora Diamond (ed.), Wittgenstein's Lectures on the Foundations of Mathematics, University of Chicago Press, 1976
  59. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  60. 模板:Cite AV media
  61. Copeland, Jack (2001). "Colossus and the Dawning of the Computer Age". Action This Day. Bantam. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-593-04910-5. 
  62. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  63. Clark, Liat (18 June 2012). "Turing's achievements: codebreaking, AI and the birth of computer science (Wired UK)". Wired. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
  64. 64.0 64.1 Copeland, 2006 p. 378.
  65. 65.0 65.1 Collins, Jeremy (24 June 2020). "Alan Turing and the Hidden Heroes of Bletchley Park: A Conversation with Sir John Dermot Turing". nationalww2museum.org. New Orleans: The National WWII Museum. Retrieved 24 August 2021.
  66. Turing, Alan (c. 1941). "The Applications of Probability to Cryptography". The National Archives (United Kingdom): HW 25/37. Archived from the original on 7 April 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  67. Turing, Alan (c. 1941). "Paper on Statistics of Repetitions". The National Archives (United Kingdom): HW 25/38. Archived from the original on 8 April 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  68. Vallance, Chris (19 April 2012). "Alan Turing papers on code breaking released by GCHQ". BBC News. Archived from the original on 4 October 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
  69. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  70. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  71. Hilton, Peter. "A Century of Mathematics in America, Part 1, Reminiscences of Bletchley Park" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 August 2019.
  72. Hilton, Peter. "NOVA | Transcripts | Decoding Nazi Secrets | PBS". PBS. Archived from the original on 29 August 2019.
  73. Brown, Anthony Cave (1975). Bodyguard of Lies: The Extraordinary True Story Behind D-Day. The Lyons Press. ISBN 978-1-59921-383-5. 
  74. Graham-Cumming, John (10 March 2010). "An Olympic honour for Alan Turing". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 1 December 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  75. Butcher, Pat (14 September 2009). "In Praise of Great Men". Globe Runner. Archived from the original on 18 August 2013. Retrieved 23 June 2012.
  76. Hodges, Andrew. "Alan Turing: a short biography". Alan Turing: The Enigma. Archived from the original on 14 September 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  77. Graham-Cumming, John (10 March 2010). "Alan Turing: a short biography". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 8 November 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  78. Butcher, Pat (December 1999). "Turing as a runner". The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive. Archived from the original on 13 November 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
  79. Kottke, Jason. "Turing was an excellent runner". kottke.org.
  80. See for example Richelson, Jeffery T. (1997). A Century of Spies: Intelligence in the Twentieth Century. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 296.  and Hartcup, Guy (2000). The Effect of Science on the Second World War. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan Press. pp. 96–99. 
  81. Hinsley, Harry (1996) [1993], The Influence of ULTRA in the Second World War Transcript of a lecture given on Tuesday 19 October 1993 at Cambridge University
  82. "Alan Turing: Colleagues share their memories". BBC News. 23 June 2012. Archived from the original on 7 July 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  83. 83.0 83.1 "This month in history: Alan Turing and the Enigma code". thegazette.co.uk. Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  84. Welchman, Gordon (1997) [1982], The Hut Six story: Breaking the Enigma codes, Cleobury Mortimer, England: M&M Baldwin, p. 81, ISBN 978-0-947712-34-1
  85. Jack Good in "The Men Who Cracked Enigma", 2003: with his caveat: "if my memory is correct".
  86. "The Turing-Welchman Bombe". The National Museum of Computing. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  87. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  88. 88.0 88.1 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  89. 89.0 89.1 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  90. Copeland, The Essential Turing, pp. 336–337 -{zh-cn:互联网档案馆; zh-tw:網際網路檔案館; zh-hk:互聯網檔案館;}-存檔,存档日期18 February 2015..
  91. Copeland, Jack; Proudfoot, Diane (May 2004). "Alan Turing, Codebreaker and Computer Pioneer". alanturing.net. Archived from the original on 9 July 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2007.
  92. "Bletchley Park Unveils Statue Commemorating Alan Turing". Archived from the original on 30 June 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2007.
  93. 93.0 93.1 93.2 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  94. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  95. Gladwin, Lee (Fall 1997). "Alan Turing, Enigma, and the Breaking of German Machine Ciphers in World War II" (PDF). Prologue Magazine. Fall 1997: 202–217. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2019 – via National Archives.
  96. Good, Jack; Michie, Donald; Timms, Geoffrey (1945), General Report on Tunny: With Emphasis on Statistical Methods, Part 3 Organisation: 38 Wheel-breaking from Key, Page 293, UK Public Record Office HW 25/4 and HW 25/5, archived from the original on 21 April 2019, retrieved 13 April 2019
  97. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  98. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  99. "Marshall Legacy Series: Codebreaking – Events". marshallfoundation.org. Archived from the original on 7 April 2019. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  100. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  101. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  102. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  103. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  104. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  105. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  106. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  107. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  108. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  109. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  110. 模板:Openplaque
  111. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  112. Randell, Brian (1980). "A History of Computing in the Twentieth Century: Colossus" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2012. citing Womersley, J.R. (13 February 1946). "'ACE' Machine Project". Executive Committee, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex.
  113. Hodges, Andrew (2014). Alan Turing: The Enigma. Princeton University Press. p. 416. ISBN 978-0-691-16472-4. 
  114. See 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  115. "Turing at NPL". Archived from the original on 5 July 2015. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
  116. Bruderer, Herbert. "Did Alan Turing interrogate Konrad Zuse in Göttingen in 1947?" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  117. Swinton, Jonathan (2019). Alan Turing's Manchester. Manchester: Infang Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9931789-2-4. https://www.manturing.net/. 
  118. Turing, A.M. (1948). "Rounding-Off Errors in Matrix Processes". The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics. 1: 287–308. doi:10.1093/qjmam/1.1.287. hdl:10338.dmlcz/103139.
  119. Harnad, Stevan (2008) The Annotation Game: On Turing (1950) on Computing, Machinery and Intelligence -{zh-cn:互联网档案馆; zh-tw:網際網路檔案館; zh-hk:互聯網檔案館;}-存檔,存档日期18 October 2017.. In: Epstein, Robert & Peters, Grace (Eds.) Parsing the Turing Test: Philosophical and Methodological Issues in the Quest for the Thinking Computer. Springer
  120. Clark, Liat. "Turing's achievements: codebreaking, AI and the birth of computer science". Wired. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  121. Alan Turing vs Alick Glennie (1952) "Turing Test" -{zh-cn:互联网档案馆; zh-tw:網際網路檔案館; zh-hk:互聯網檔案館;}-存檔,存档日期19 February 2006. Chessgames.com
  122. Kasparov, Garry, Smart machines will free us all, The Wall Street Journal, 15–16 April 2017, p. c3
  123. O'Connor, J.J.; Robertson, E.F. "David Gawen Champernowne". MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  124. Pinar Saygin, A.; Cicekli, I.; Akman, V. (2000). "Turing Test: 50 Years Later". Minds and Machines. 10 (4): 463–518. doi:10.1023/A:1011288000451. hdl:11693/24987. Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help)
  125. Turing, Alan M. (14 August 1952). "The Chemical Basis of Morphogenesis". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B. 237 (641): 37–72. Bibcode:1952RSPTB.237...37T. doi:10.1098/rstb.1952.0012. Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help)
  126. John Gribbin, Deep Simplicity, p. 126, Random House, 2004
  127. "Turing's Last, Lost work". Archived from the original on 23 August 2003. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
  128. James Murray, How the leopard gets its spots, Scientific American, vol 258, number 3, p. 80, March 1988
  129. James Murray, Mathematical Biology I, 2007, Chapter 6, Springer Verlag
  130. John Gibbin, Deep Simplicity, p. 134, Random House, 2004
  131. Vogel, G. (2012). "Turing Pattern Fingered for Digit Formation". Science. 338 (6113): 1406. Bibcode:2012Sci...338.1406V. doi:10.1126/science.338.6113.1406. PMID 23239707.
  132. Sheth, R.; Marcon, L.; Bastida, M.F.; Junco, M.; Quintana, L.; Dahn, R.; Kmita, M.; Sharpe, J.; Ros, M.A. (2012). "Hox Genes Regulate Digit Patterning by Controlling the Wavelength of a Turing-Type Mechanism". Science. 338 (6113): 1476–1480. Bibcode:2012Sci...338.1476S. doi:10.1126/science.1226804. PMC 4486416. PMID 23239739.
  133. Andrew Hodges. "The Alan Turing Bibliography". turing.org.uk. p. morphogenesis. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
  134. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  135. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  136. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  137. Hodges, Andrew (2012). Alan Turing: The Enigma. Princeton University Press. p. 463. ISBN 978-0-691-15564-7. https://archive.org/details/alanturingenigma0000hodg. 
  138. Hodges, Andrew (2012). Alan Turing: The Enigma. Princeton University Press. p. 471. ISBN 978-0-691-15564-7. https://archive.org/details/alanturingenigma0000hodg. 
  139. Hodges, Andrew (2012). Alan Turing: The Enigma The Centenary Edition. Princeton University. 
  140. Turing, Alan (1952). "Letters of Note: Yours in distress, Alan". Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  141. Hodges, Andrew (2012). Alan Turing: The Enigma. Princeton University Press. p. xxviii. ISBN 978-0-691-15564-7. https://archive.org/details/alanturingenigma0000hodg. 
  142. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  143. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  144. 144.0 144.1 Anon (2021). "Turing's House: Copper Folly, 43 Adlington Road, Wilmslow, Cheshire, SK9 2BJ" (PDF). savills.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 July 2021.
  145. "Alan Turing. Biography, Facts, & Education". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  146. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  147. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。 and 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  148. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  149. 149.0 149.1 149.2 Hodges, Andrew (2012). Alan Turing: The Enigma. Random House. ISBN 978-1-4481-3781-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=EpAl0piM38cC. 
  150. 150.0 150.1 Pease, Roland (23 June 2012). "Alan Turing: Inquest's suicide verdict 'not supportable'". BBC News. Archived from the original on 23 June 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2012. We have ... been recreating the narrative of Turing's life, and we have recreated him as an unhappy young man who committed suicide. But the evidence is not there.
  151. "TURING, Ethel Sara (1881–1976, mother of Alan Turing). Series of 11 autograph letters to Robin Gandy, Guilford, 28 July 1954 – 11 June 1971 (most before 1959), altogether 29 pages, 8vo (2 letters dated 17 May and 26 May 1955 incomplete, lacking continuation leaves, occasional light soiling)". christies.com. Archived from the original on 7 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  152. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。
  153. Vincent Dowd (6 June 2014). "What was Alan Turing really like?". BBC. Archived from the original on 17 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  154. 154.0 154.1 154.2 "Grant a pardon to Alan Turing". 6 December 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012.
  155. "Petition to pardon computer pioneer Alan Turing started". BBC News. 6 December 2011. Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  156. 156.0 156.1 Wright, Oliver (23 December 2013). "Alan Turing gets his royal pardon for 'gross indecency' – 61 years after he poisoned himself". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  157. Wainwright, Martin (7 February 2012). "Government rejects a pardon for computer genius Alan Turing". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 4 February 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  158. "hansard". Parliament of the United Kingdom. 2 February 2012. Archived from the original on 6 July 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  159. Stevenson, Alex (24 December 2013). "Better late than never, Alan Turing is finally pardoned". politics.co.uk. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
  160. Fitzgerald, Todd (24 September 2016). "Alan Turing's court convictions go on display for the first time". manchestereveningnews.co.uk. Archived from the original on 25 September 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
  161. Britton, Paul (24 December 2013). "Alan Turing pardoned by The Queen for his 'unjust and discriminatory' conviction for homosexuality". Manchester Evening News. Archived from the original on 24 June 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
  162. "MP calls for pardon for computer pioneer Alan Turing". BBC News. 1 February 2012. Archived from the original on 2 July 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
  163. "My proudest day as a Liberal Democrat". Liberal Democrat Voice. Archived from the original on 24 June 2018. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
  164. "Manchester computer pioneer Alan Turing announced as face of new £50 note". 15 July 2019. Archived from the original on 19 July 2019. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  165. "John Leech secures historic deal with Government on 'Alan Turing Law'". outnewsglobal.com. 20 October 2016.
  166. Elliott, Larry; Halliday, Josh, eds. (15 July 2019). "Alan Turing to feature on new £50 banknote" – via www.theguardian.com.
  167. Bloom, Dan (23 October 2016). "Tory refuses to apologise for 'killing bad law' pardoning thousands of gay men". mirror.
  168. "Alan Turing's 'fearless approach to problems and intellectual curiosity' praised". Dunfermline Press.
  169. "The Alan Turing Law finally pardons thousands of unfairly convicted gay and bisexual men". University of Manchester. 31 January 2017.
  170. "Bank of England honours Alan Turing on £50 note". QNews. 15 July 2019.
  171. "Bill". Parliament of the United Kingdom. 26 July 2012. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
  172. Pearse, Damian, "Alan Turing should be pardoned, argue Stephen Hawking and top scientists" -{zh-cn:互联网档案馆; zh-tw:網際網路檔案館; zh-hk:互聯網檔案館;}-存檔,存档日期4 February 2017., The Guardian, 13 December 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2012.
  173. Watt, Nicholas (19 July 2013). "Enigma codebreaker Alan Turing to be given posthumous pardon". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 4 January 2017. Retrieved 10 December 2016.
  174. Worth, Dan (30 October 2013). "Alan Turing pardon sails through House of Lords". V3. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  175. "Alan Turing (Statutory Pardon) Bill". Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  176. Roberts, Scott (2 December 2013). "Lib Dem MP John Leech disappointed at delay to Alan Turing pardon bill". Pink News. Archived from the original on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  177. Roberts, Scott (2 December 2013). "Lib Dem MP John Leech disappointed at delay to Alan Turing pardon bill". PinkNews. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  178. "Alan Turing (Statutory Pardon) Bill". Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  179. Swinford, Steven (23 December 2013). "Alan Turing granted Royal pardon by the Queen". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2 May 2018. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  180. "Royal pardon for codebreaker Alan Turing". BBC News. 24 December 2013. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
  181. "With Queen's Decree, Alan Turing Is Now Officially Pardoned". Advocate.com. 22 August 2014. Archived from the original on 1 November 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
  182. Pardoned: Alan Turing, Computing patriarch. Time Magazine, vol. 183, no. 1, 13 January 2014, p. 14. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  183. Davies, Caroline (24 December 2013). "Codebreaker Turing is given posthumous royal pardon". The Guardian. London. pp. 1, 6.
  184. "Government 'committed' to Alan Turing gay pardon law". BBC News. 22 September 2016. Archived from the original on 22 September 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  185. Cowburn, Ashley (21 September 2016). "Theresa May committed to introducing the 'Alan Turing Law'". The Independent. Archived from the original on 22 September 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  186. Participation, Expert. "Policing and Crime Act 2017". Government of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 5 March 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  187. "What does the code on the Alan Turing Memorial actually say?". Random Hacks. 23 September 2010. Archived from the original on 28 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  188. "Computer buried in tribute to genius". Manchester Evening News. 17 February 2007. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
  189. "Blue plaque to commemorate Alan Turing". King's College, Cambridge. Archived from the original on 7 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  190. "Turing plaque fixed in place". King's College, Cambridge. Archived from the original on 9 December 2018. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
  191. Pylas, Pan (25 March 2021). "WWII codebreaker Alan Turing honored on new UK bank note". AP News. Associated Press. Retrieved 25 March 2021.
  192. Reid-Smith, Tris (1 May 2020). "Heritage watchdog objects to statue of gay hero Alan Turing at Kings College Cambridge". Gay Star News. Retrieved 8 May 2020.

Sources其他资源

  • Bruderer, Herbert: Konrad Zuse und die Schweiz. Wer hat den Computer erfunden? Charles Babbage, Alan Turing und John von Neumann Oldenbourg Verlag, München 2012, XXVI, 224 Seiten,
    • in
  • Petzold, Charles (2008). "The Annotated Turing: A Guided Tour through Alan Turing's Historic Paper on Computability and the Turing Machine". Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing.
  • Smith, Roger (1997). Fontana History of the Human Sciences. London: Fontana.
  • Weizenbaum, Joseph (1976). Computer Power and Human Reason. London: W.H. Freeman.
  • and
  • Turing's mother, who survived him by many years, wrote this 157-page biography of her son, glorifying his life. It was published in 1959, and so could not cover his war work. Scarcely 300 copies were sold (Sara Turing to Lyn Newman, 1967, Library of St John's College, Cambridge). The six-page foreword by Lyn Irvine includes reminiscences and is more frequently quoted. It was re-published by Cambridge University Press in 2012, to honour the centenary of his birth, and included a new foreword by Martin Davis, as well as a never-before-published memoir by Turing's older brother John F. Turing.
  • This 1986 Hugh Whitemore play tells the story of Turing's life and death. In the original West End and Broadway runs, Derek Jacobi played Turing and he recreated the role in a 1997 television film based on the play made jointly by the BBC and WGBH, Boston. The play is published by Amber Lane Press, Oxford, ASIN: B000B7TM0Q
  • Williams, Michael R. (1985) A History of Computing Technology, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall,
  • Bruderer, Herbert: Konrad Zuse und die Schweiz.Wer hat den Computer erfunden?Charles Babbage, Alan Turing und John von Neumann Oldenbourg Verlag, München 2012, XXVI, 224 Seiten,
  • in
  • Petzold, Charles (2008).“带注释的图灵: 阿兰 · 图灵关于可计算性和图灵机的历史性论文的导游”。印第安纳波利斯: 威利出版社。
  • 史密斯,罗杰(1997)。丰塔纳人文科学史。伦敦: 丰塔纳。
  • Weizenbaum, Joseph (1976).计算机能力与人类理性。伦敦: w.h。弗里曼。
  • 图灵的母亲,比他活了许多年,写了这本157页的儿子传记,歌颂了他的一生。这本书出版于1959年,因此无法报道他的战争作品。销售量不到300本(莎拉 · 图灵给林恩 · 纽曼,1967年,剑桥大学圣约翰学院图书馆)。林恩•欧文的前言长达六页,其中包括回忆录,引用频率也更高。2012年,为了纪念图灵的百年诞辰,剑桥大学出版社重新出版了这本书,其中包括马丁 · 戴维斯(Martin Davis)的新前言,以及图灵的哥哥约翰 · f · 图灵(John f. Turing)从未出版过的回忆录。这部1986年的休 · 怀特摩尔的戏剧讲述了图灵的生与死的故事。在最初的伦敦西区和百老汇演出中,德里克 · 雅各比扮演了图灵,并在1997年的一部电视电影中再现了这个角色,该电影是根据 BBC 和波士顿 WGBH 联合制作的。该剧由 Amber Lane Press 出版,牛津,ASIN: B000B7TM0Q
  • Williams,Michael r. (1985) a History of Computing Technology,恩格尔伍德克利夫斯,新泽西: Prentice-Hall,

Further reading扩展阅读

Articles其他文章

Books其他书籍

  • (originally published in 1983); basis of the film The Imitation Game
  • (originally published in 1959 by W. Heffer & Sons, Lt
  • (最初出版于1983年)电影《模仿游戏基本原理
  • (最初出版于1959年 w. Heffer & Sons,Ltd)

External links额外连接

模板:Commons category 模板:Wikiquote

  • Oral history interview with Nicholas C. Metropolis, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Metropolis was the first director of computing services at Los Alamos National Laboratory; topics include the relationship between Turing and John von Neumann
  • How Alan Turing Cracked The Enigma Code Imperial War Museums
  • Alan Turing RKBExplorer
  • Alan Turing Year
  • CiE 2012: Turing Centenary Conference
  • Science in the Making Alan Turing's papers in the Royal Society's archives
  • Alan Turing site maintained by Andrew Hodges including a short biography
  • AlanTuring.net – Turing Archive for the History of Computing by Jack Copeland
  • The Turing Archive – contains scans of some unpublished documents and material from the King's College, Cambridge archive
  • Alan Turing Papers – University of Manchester Library, Manchester
  • Sherborne School Archives – holds papers relating to Turing's time at Sherborne School
  • Alan Turing plaques recorded on openplaques.org
  • Alan Turing archive on New Scientist

明尼苏达大学,Charles Babbage Institute,Nicholas c. Metropolis 口述历史专访。大都会是洛斯阿拉莫斯国家实验室计算机服务部门的第一任主管;图灵百年图灵会议2012年图灵百年会议图灵百年会议约翰·冯·诺伊曼图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议2012年图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议2012年图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议图灵会议,剑桥档案馆

  • Alan Turing Papers-曼彻斯特大学图书馆,曼彻斯特
  • 谢伯恩学校档案馆
  • 谢伯恩学校档案馆---- 保存有关图灵时代的论文
  • Alan Turing plaques recorded on openplains.org
  • Alan Turing archive on New Scientist

模板:FRS 1951 模板:Timelines of computing 模板:Portal bar 模板:Authority control 模板:Alan Turing 模板:Good article

Category:1912 births Category:1954 deaths Category:1954 suicides Category:20th-century mathematicians Category:20th-century atheists Category:20th-century British scientists Category:20th-century English philosophers Category:Academics of the University of Manchester Category:Academics of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology Category:Alumni of King's College, Cambridge Category:Artificial intelligence researchers Category:Bayesian statisticians Category:Bletchley Park people Category:British anti-fascists Category:British cryptographers Category:British people of World War II Category:Computability theorists Category:Computer designers Category:English atheists Category:English computer scientists Category:English inventors Category:English logicians Category:English male long-distance runners Category:English mathematicians Category:English people of Irish descent Category:English people of Scottish descent Category:Fellows of King's College, Cambridge Category:Fellows of the Royal Society Category:Former Protestants Category:Foreign Office personnel of World War II Category:Gay academics Category:Gay sportsmen Category:GCHQ people Category:History of artificial intelligence Category:History of computing in the United Kingdom Category:LGBT-related suicides Category:LGBT mathematicians Category:LGBT scientists from the United Kingdom Category:LGBT sportspeople from England Category:LGBT track and field athletes Category:Officers of the Order of the British Empire Category:People educated at Sherborne School Category:People from Maida Vale Category:People from Wilmslow Category:People prosecuted under anti-homosexuality laws Category:People who have received posthumous pardons Category:Princeton University alumni Category:Recipients of British royal pardons Category:Suicides by cyanide poisoning Category:Suicides in England Category:Theoretical computer scientists Category:Deaths by poisoning Category:LGBT philosophers

类别: 1912年出生类别: 1954年死亡类别: 1954年自杀类别: 20世纪数学家类别: 20世纪无神论者类别: 20世纪英国科学家类别: 20世纪英国哲学家类别: 曼彻斯特大学学者类别: 曼彻斯特大学科学与技术研究所学者类别: 国王学院校友,剑桥分类: 人工智能研究人员分类: 贝叶斯统计学家分类: Bletchley Park 人分类: 英国反法西斯分类: 英国密码学家分类: 二战英国人分类: 可计算性理论家分类: 计算机设计师分类: 英国无神论者分类: 英国计算机科学家分类: 英国发明家分类: 英国逻辑学家分类: 英国男长跑运动员分类: 英国数学家分类: 英国爱尔兰后裔分类: 苏格兰后裔分类: 英国国王学院研究员,剑桥大学类别: 英国皇家学会类别: 前新教徒类别: 第二次世界大战外交部人员类别: 同性恋学者类别: 同性恋运动员类别: 英国政府通信总部人员类别: 人工智能类别: 计算机史在英国类别: LGBT 相关自杀类别: LGBT 数学家类别: 英国 LGBT 运动员类别: 英国 LGBT 运动员类别: 大英帝国秩序类别: 人在谢伯恩学校受过教育类别: 来自梅达维尔的人类别: 来自威姆斯洛的人类别: 根据反同性恋法被起诉的人类别: 死后得到赦免的人类别: 普林斯顿大学的校友类别: 英国皇家赦免的接受者类别: 氰化物中毒类别: 英国的自杀类别: 理论计算机科学家类别: 中毒死亡类别: 同性恋哲学家This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Alan Turing. Its edit history can be viewed at 艾伦·图灵/edithistory