80/20原则

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文件:Pareto principle applied to community fundraising.jpg
Pareto principle applied to community fundraising
文件:应用于社区筹款的帕累托原则.jpg
应用于社区筹款的帕累托原则

Pareto principle applied to community fundraising

帕累托原则应用于社区筹款

The Pareto principle (also known as the 80/20 rule, the law of the vital few, or the principle of factor sparsity) states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes.

The Pareto principle (also known as the 80/20 rule, the law of the vital few, or the principle of factor sparsity) states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes.

帕累托原则 Pareto Principle(又称80/20原则、极重要的少数原则或因素稀缺原则)引用错误:没有找到与</ref>对应的<ref>标签</ref></ref></ref>news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/03/business/03juran.html%7Ctitle=Joseph Juran, 103, Pioneer in Quality Control, Dies|last1=Bunkley|first1=Nick|date=March 3, 2008|work=New York Times|accessdate=25 January 2018|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20170906182706/http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/03/business/03juran.html%7Carchivedate=September 6, 2017}}</ref>[1]指出,对于许多事件,大约80%的影响来自20%的原因。[2]


suggested the principle and named it after Italian  , who noted the 80/20 connection while at the University of Lausanne in 1896. In his first work, Cours d'économie politique, Pareto showed that approximately 80% of the land in Italy was owned by 20% of the population. The Pareto principle is only tangentially related to Pareto efficiency. Pareto developed both concepts in the context of the distribution of income and wealth among the population.

Management consultant Joseph M. Juran suggested the principle and named it after Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto, who noted the 80/20 connection while at the University of Lausanne in 1896. In his first work, Cours d'économie politique, Pareto showed that approximately 80% of the land in Italy was owned by 20% of the population. The Pareto principle is only tangentially related to Pareto efficiency. Pareto developed both concepts in the context of the distribution of income and wealth among the population. 管理顾问Joseph M. Juran提出了这个原则,并以在1896年在洛桑大学提出80/20关系的意大利经济学家Vilfredo Pareto名字命名。帕累托在他的第一部著作《政治经济学》中指出,意大利约80% 的土地为20% 的人口所拥有。帕累托原则与帕累托最优的相关性不大。帕累托在人口的收入和财富分配的前提下推进了这两个概念。


Mathematically, the 80/20 rule is roughly followed by a distribution (also known as a ) for a particular set of parameters, and many natural phenomena have been shown empirically to exhibit such a distribution. It is an axiom of business management that "80% of sales come from 20% of clients".

Mathematically, the 80/20 rule is roughly followed by a power law distribution (also known as a Pareto distribution) for a particular set of parameters, and many natural phenomena have been shown empirically to exhibit such a distribution. It is an axiom of business management that "80% of sales come from 20% of clients".

在数学上,帕累托原则对于一组特定的参数大致遵循 幂律分布 Power Lawpower law Distribution(也称为 帕累托分布 Pareto DistributionPareto distribution) ,实验证明许多自然现象也都呈现这样的分布。[3]“80%的销售额来自20%的客户”是一条公认的商业管理法则。[4]


In economics

在经济学中


The original observation was in connection with population and wealth. Pareto noticed that approximately 80% of Italy's land was owned by 20% of the population. He then carried out surveys on a variety of other countries and found to his surprise that a similar distribution applied.

The original observation was in connection with population and wealth. Pareto noticed that approximately 80% of Italy's land was owned by 20% of the population. He then carried out surveys on a variety of other countries and found to his surprise that a similar distribution applied.

最初的观察结果与人口和财富有关。帕累托注意到,意大利约80%的土地为20%的人口所拥有。[5]他随后对许多其他国家进行了调查,令他惊讶的是,类似的分布也同样适用。


A chart that gave the inequality a very visible and comprehensible form, the so-called "champagne glass" effect,was contained in the 1992 United Nations Development Program Report, which showed that distribution of global income is very uneven, with the richest 20% of the world's population controlling 82.7% of the world's income. Still, the Gini index of the world shows that nations have wealth distributions that vary greatly.

A chart that gave the inequality a very visible and comprehensible form, the so-called "champagne glass" effect, was contained in the 1992 United Nations Development Program Report, which showed that distribution of global income is very uneven, with the richest 20% of the world's population controlling 82.7% of the world's income. Still, the Gini index of the world shows that nations have wealth distributions that vary greatly.

1992年《联合国开发计划署报告》中的一张图表以非常浅显易懂的形式呈现了不平等,即所谓的 "香槟酒杯 "效应[6] ,该图表显示,全球收入分配非常不均衡,世界上最富有的20%人口控制着82.7%的收入。[7]而且,世界上的基尼系数显示,各个国家自身的财富分配差异很大。


{ | class = “ wikitable”
Distribution of world GDP, 1989 Distribution of world GDP, 1989
+ 世界 GDP 分布,1989年[8]
Quintile of population Quintile of population 五分之一人口 Income Income 收入
Richest 20% Richest 20%

最富有的20%

82.70% 82.70% 82.70%
Second 20% Second 20%

第二个20%

11.75% 11.75% 11.75%
Third 20% Third 20%

第三20%

2.30% 2.30% 2.30%
Fourth 20% Fourth 20%

第四个20%

1.85% 1.85% 1.85%
Poorest 20% Poorest 20%

最穷的20%

1.40% 1.40% 1.40%

|}

The Pareto principle also could be seen as applying to taxation. In the US, the top 20% of earners have paid roughly 80-90% of Federal income taxes in 2000 and 2006,and again in 2018.

The Pareto principle also could be seen as applying to taxation. In the US, the top 20% of earners have paid roughly 80-90% of Federal income taxes in 2000 and 2006, and again in 2018.

帕累托原则也被认为适用于税收。在美国,收入最高的20%的人就在2000年和2006年[9] 缴纳了大约80%-90%的联邦所得税,2018年又是如此。[10]


However, it is important to note that while there have been associations of such with meritocracy, the principle should not be confused with further reaching implications. As Alessandro Pluchino at the University of Catania in Italy points out, other attributes do not necessarily correlate. Using talent as an example, he and other researchers state, “The maximum success never coincides with the maximum talent, and vice-versa,” and that such factors are the result of chance. However, it is important to note that while there have been associations of such with meritocracy, the principle should not be confused with further reaching implications. As Alessandro Pluchino at the University of Catania in Italy points out, other attributes do not necessarily correlate. Using talent as an example, he and other researchers state, “The maximum success never coincides with the maximum talent, and vice-versa,” and that such factors are the result of chance.

然而,必须指出的是,虽然这与精英管理体制有联系,但帕累托原则不应与进一步的影响混为一谈。正如意大利卡塔尼亚大学的 Alessandro Pluchino 指出,其他属性并不一定相互关联。他和其他研究人员指出,以天赋为例,“最大的成功从来都不等同于最大的天赋,反之亦然”,这样的因素是偶然的结果。[11]


The physicist Victor Yakovenko of the University of Maryland, College Park and AC Silva analyzed income data from the US Internal Revenue Service from 1983 to 2001, and found that the income distribution among the upper class (1–3% of the population) follows Pareto's principle.

The physicist Victor Yakovenko of the University of Maryland, College Park and AC Silva analyzed income data from the US Internal Revenue Service from 1983 to 2001, and found that the income distribution among the upper class (1–3% of the population) follows Pareto's principle.

马里兰大学学院帕克分校的物理学家Victor Yakovenko和AC Silva分析了美国国税局1983年到2001年的收入数据,发现上层阶级(占总人口的1-3%)的收入分配遵循帕累托原则。[12]

In computing

在计算领域

In computer science the Pareto principle can be applied to optimization efforts. For example, Microsoft noted that by fixing the top 20% of the most-reported bugs, 80% of the related errors and crashes in a given system would be eliminated. Lowell Arthur expressed that "20 percent of the code has 80 percent of the errors. Find them, fix them!" It was also discovered that in general the 80% of a certain piece of software can be written in 20% of the total allocated time. Conversely, the hardest 20% of the code takes 80% of the time. This factor is usually a part of COCOMO estimating for software coding.

In computer science the Pareto principle can be applied to optimization efforts. For example, Microsoft noted that by fixing the top 20% of the most-reported bugs, 80% of the related errors and crashes in a given system would be eliminated. Lowell Arthur expressed that "20 percent of the code has 80 percent of the errors. Find them, fix them!" It was also discovered that in general the 80% of a certain piece of software can be written in 20% of the total allocated time. Conversely, the hardest 20% of the code takes 80% of the time. This factor is usually a part of COCOMO estimating for software coding.

在计算机科学中,帕累托原则可以应用于优化工作。[13]例如,微软指出,通过修复前20%的报告最多的错误,可以消除给定系统中80%的相关错误和崩溃。[14]Lowell Arthur表示“20%的代码有80%的错误,找到并修复它们!”[15]人们还发现,一般来说,某个软件的80%可以在总分配时间的20%内编写完毕。相反,最难的20%的代码占用了80%的时间。这个因素通常是为软件编码中COCOMO估算的一部分。

In sports

在体育领域

It has been inferred that the Pareto principle applies to athletic training, where roughly 20% of the exercises and habits have 80% of the impact, and the trainee should not focus so much on a varied training. This does not necessarily mean that having a healthy diet or going to the gym are not important, but they are not as significant as the key activities. It is also important to note this 80/20 rule has yet to be scientifically tested in controlled studies of athletic training.

It has been inferred that the Pareto principle applies to athletic training, where roughly 20% of the exercises and habits have 80% of the impact, and the trainee should not focus so much on a varied training. This does not necessarily mean that having a healthy diet or going to the gym are not important, but they are not as significant as the key activities. It is also important to note this 80/20 rule has yet to be scientifically tested in controlled studies of athletic training.

据推测,帕累托原则适用于运动训练,其中大约20%的训练和习惯有80%的影响,受训者不应该过多地注重多样化的训练。[16]这并不一定意味着健康饮食或去健身房不重要,只是它们不如那些关键活动重要。另外需要注意的是,80/20原则还没有在运动训练的对照研究中得到科学验证。


In baseball, the Pareto principle has been perceived in Wins Above Replacement (an attempt to combine multiple statistics to determine a player's overall importance to a team). "15% of all the players last year produced 85% of the total wins with the other 85% of the players creating 15% of the wins. The Pareto principle holds up pretty soundly when it is applied to baseball."

In baseball, the Pareto principle has been perceived in Wins Above Replacement (an attempt to combine multiple statistics to determine a player's overall importance to a team). "15% of all the players last year produced 85% of the total wins with the other 85% of the players creating 15% of the wins. The Pareto principle holds up pretty soundly when it is applied to baseball."

在棒球比赛中,帕累托原则在Wins Above Replacement(试图结合多种统计数据来确定一个球员对一个球队的整体重要性)中有所体现。“去年15%的球员创造了85%的总胜利,其他85%的球员创造了15%的胜利。帕累托原则在棒球比赛中得到了充分体现。”[17]

Occupational health and safety

职业健康和安全

Occupational health and safety professionals use the Pareto principle to underline the importance of hazard prioritization. Assuming 20% of the hazards account for 80% of the injuries, and by categorizing hazards, safety professionals can target those 20% of the hazards that cause 80% of the injuries or accidents. Alternatively, if hazards are addressed in random order, a safety professional is more likely to fix one of the 80% of hazards that account only for some fraction of the remaining 20% of injuries. Occupational health and safety professionals use the Pareto principle to underline the importance of hazard prioritization. Assuming 20% of the hazards account for 80% of the injuries, and by categorizing hazards, safety professionals can target those 20% of the hazards that cause 80% of the injuries or accidents. Alternatively, if hazards are addressed in random order, a safety professional is more likely to fix one of the 80% of hazards that account only for some fraction of the remaining 20% of injuries.

职业健康和安全方面的专业人士使用帕累托原则来强调危害优先级的重要性。假设20%的危险造成80%的伤害,通过对危险进行分类,安全专业人员可以有针对性地解决造成80%伤害或事故的那20%的危害。换言之,如果按随机顺序处理危害,安全专业人员更有可能解决那80%的危害中的一个,而这个危害只造成了部分剩余的20%伤害。[18]



Aside from ensuring efficient accident prevention practices, the Pareto principle also ensures hazards are addressed in an economical order, because the technique ensures the utilized resources are best used to prevent the most accidents.

Aside from ensuring efficient accident prevention practices, the Pareto principle also ensures hazards are addressed in an economical order, because the technique ensures the utilized resources are best used to prevent the most accidents.

除了确保有效的事故预防措施,帕累托原则还能确保以经济的顺序处理危险,因为该技术能确保所利用的资源被最好地用于预防最多的事故。[19]

Other applications

其他应用

In engineering control theory, such as for electromechanical energy converters, the 80/20 principle applies to optimization efforts.[13]

In engineering control theory, such as for electromechanical energy converters, the 80/20 principle applies to optimization efforts.

在工程控制理论中,如对于机电式能量转换器,帕累托原则适用于优化工作。


The law of the few can be also seen in betting, where it is said that with 20% effort you can match the accuracy of 80% of the bettors.[20]

In the systems science discipline, Joshua M. Epstein and Robert Axtell created an agent-based simulation model called Sugarscape, from a decentralized modeling approach, based on individual behavior rules defined for each agent in the economy. Wealth distribution and Pareto's 80/20 principle became emergent in their results, which suggests the principle is a collective consequence of these individual rules.

在系统科学领域,Joshua M.Epstein和Robert Axtell从分散建模方法出发,基于为经济中每个代理人定义的个人行为规则创建了一个名为Sugarscape的基于代理的仿真模型。财富分配原则和帕累托原则在其结果中突现,表明这一原则是这些个体规则的集体结果。


In the systems science discipline, Joshua M. Epstein and Robert Axtell created an agent-based simulation model called Sugarscape, from a decentralized modeling approach, based on individual behavior rules defined for each agent in the economy. Wealth distribution and Pareto's 80/20 principle became emergent in their results, which suggests the principle is a collective consequence of these individual rules.引用错误:没有找到与</ref>对应的<ref>标签它是帕累托图的基础,帕累托图是用于全面质量控制和六西格玛技术的关键工具之一。帕雷托原则分析作为ABC分析法和XYZ分析法的基准,广泛应用于物流和采购,目的是优化库存以及保存和补充库存的成本。[21]


</ref>


In health care in the United States, in one instance 20% of patients have been found to use 80% of health care resources.

In health care in the United States, in one instance 20% of patients have been found to use 80% of health care resources.


在美国的医疗服务中,20%的患者使用了80%的医疗资源。[22][23][24]


Some cases of super-spreading conform to the 20/80 rule, where approximately 20% of infected individuals are responsible for 80% of transmissions, although super-spreading can still be said to occur when super-spreaders account for a higher or lower percentage of transmissions. In epidemics with super-spreading, the majority of individuals infect relatively few secondary contacts.


Some cases of super-spreading conform to the 20/80 rule, where approximately 20% of infected individuals are responsible for 80% of transmissions, although super-spreading can still be said to occur when super-spreaders account for a higher or lower percentage of transmissions. In epidemics with super-spreading, the majority of individuals infect relatively few secondary contacts.


一些超级传播病例符合帕累托原则,[25]其中大约20%的感染者要为80%的传播负责,尽管当超级传播者占传播的比例较高或较低时,仍然可以说发生了超级传播。[26]在超级传播的流行病中,大多数个体感染的二次接触者相对较少。



The Dunedin Study has found 80% of crimes are committed by 20% of criminals. This statistic has been used to support both stop-and-frisk policies and broken windows policing, as catching those criminals committing minor crimes will supposedly net many criminals wanted for (or who would normally commit) larger ones.

The Dunedin Study has found 80% of crimes are committed by 20% of criminals. This statistic has been used to support both stop-and-frisk policies and broken windows policing, as catching those criminals committing minor crimes will supposedly net many criminals wanted for (or who would normally commit) larger ones.

达尼丁研究发现80%的犯罪是由20%的罪犯所为。[27]这一统计数据被用来支持拦截搜查政策和破窗执法,因为抓获那些犯有轻罪的罪犯,可能会让许多想犯(或通常会犯)重罪的通缉犯落网。


Many video rental shops reported in 1988 that 80% of revenue came from 20% of videotapes. A video-chain executive discussed the "Gone with the Wind syndrome", however, in which every store had to offer classics like Gone with the Wind, Casablanca, or The African Queen to appear to have a large inventory, even if customers very rarely rented them.

Many video rental shops reported in 1988 that 80% of revenue came from 20% of videotapes. A video-chain executive discussed the "Gone with the Wind syndrome", however, in which every store had to offer classics like Gone with the Wind, Casablanca, or The African Queen to appear to have a large inventory, even if customers very rarely rented them.

1988年,据许多录像带出租店报告,80%的收入来自20%的录像带。然而,一家视频连锁店的高管谈到了“乱世佳人综合症”,即每家商店都必须提供《乱世佳人》、《北非谍影》或《非洲女王号》等经典影片,来显示其库存庞大,即使顾客很少租用这些影片。[28]



The idea has a rule of thumb application in many places, but it is commonly misused. For example, it is a misuse to state a solution to a problem "fits the 80/20 rule" just because it fits 80% of the cases; it must also be that the solution requires only 20% of the resources that would be needed to solve all cases. Additionally, it is a misuse of the 80/20 rule to interpret a small number of categories or observations.

这个想法在很多地方都有经验法则的应用,但通常被误用。例如,仅仅因为一个问题的解决方案适用80%的原则,就声称其“符合帕累托原则” ,这是一种误用;该解决方案还必须只需要解决所有案例所需资源的20% 。此外,用帕累托原则来解释少数类别或意见也是一种滥用。


Mathematical notes

数学说明

This is a special case of the wider phenomenon of Pareto distributions. If the Pareto index α, which is one of the parameters characterizing a Pareto distribution, is chosen as α = log45 ≈ 1.16, then one has 80% of effects coming from 20% of causes.

这是更广泛的帕累托分布现象的一个特例。如果选择帕累托指数α作为帕累托分布的参数之一,α=log45≈1.16,那么80%的结果来自20%的起因。

模板:Or-section

The idea has a rule of thumb application in many places, but it is commonly misused. For example, it is a misuse to state a solution to a problem "fits the 80/20 rule" just because it fits 80% of the cases; it must also be that the solution requires only 20% of the resources that would be needed to solve all cases. Additionally, it is a misuse of the 80/20 rule to interpret a small number of categories or observations.

It follows that one also has 80% of that top 80% of effects coming from 20% of that top 20% of causes, and so on. Eighty percent of 80% is 64%; 20% of 20% is 4%, so this implies a "64/4" law; and similarly implies a "51.2/0.8" law. Similarly for the bottom 80% of causes and bottom 20% of effects, the bottom 80% of the bottom 80% only cause 20% of the remaining 20%. This is broadly in line with the world population/wealth table above, where the bottom 60% of the people own 5.5% of the wealth, approximating to a 64/4 connection.

因此,前80%的影响中,有80%来自前20%的原因,以此类推。80%的80%是64%,20%的20%是4%,所以这意味着一个“64/4”原则,同样意味着一个“51.2/0.8”原则。同样,对于底层80% 的原因和底层20%的结果,底层80%的80%只造成剩下的20%的20% 。这与上面的世界人口财富表基本一致,那里底层60%的人拥有5.5%的财富,接近于64/4的联系。


This is a special case of the wider phenomenon of Pareto distributions. If the Pareto index α, which is one of the parameters characterizing a Pareto distribution, is chosen as α = log45 ≈ 1.16, then one has 80% of effects coming from 20% of causes.

The 64/4 correlation also implies a 32% 'fair' area between the 4% and 64%, where the lower 80% of the top 20% (16%) and upper 20% of the bottom 80% (also 16%) relates to the corresponding lower top and upper bottom of effects (32%). This is also broadly in line with the world population table above, where the second 20% control 12% of the wealth, and the bottom of the top 20% (presumably) control 16% of the wealth.

64/4的相关性还意味着在4%和64%之间有32%的”公平”区域,其中前20%的后80%(16%)和后80%的前20% (也是16%)与相应的下层和上层的效果(32%)有关。这也与上面的世界人口表基本一致,其中第二层的20%控制着12%的财富,前20%的底层(大概)控制着16%的财富。


It follows that one also has 80% of that top 80% of effects coming from 20% of that top 20% of causes, and so on. Eighty percent of 80% is 64%; 20% of 20% is 4%, so this implies a "64/4" law; and similarly implies a "51.2/0.8" law. Similarly for the bottom 80% of causes and bottom 20% of effects, the bottom 80% of the bottom 80% only cause 20% of the remaining 20%. This is broadly in line with the world population/wealth table above, where the bottom 60% of the people own 5.5% of the wealth, approximating to a 64/4 connection.

The term 80/20 is only a shorthand for the general principle at work. In individual cases, the distribution could just as well be, say, nearer to 90/10 or 70/30. There is no need for the two numbers to add up to the number 100, as they are measures of different things, (e.g., 'number of customers' vs 'amount spent'). However, each case in which they do not add up to 100%, is equivalent to one in which they do. For example, as noted above, the "64/4 law" (in which the two numbers do not add up to 100%) is equivalent to the "80/20 law" (in which they do add up to 100%). Thus, specifying two percentages independently does not lead to a broader class of distributions than what one gets by specifying the larger one and letting the smaller one be its complement relative to 100%. Thus, there is only one degree of freedom in the choice of that parameter.

术语80/20只是一般工作原则的简写。在个别情况下,分布也可能接近90/10或70/30。这两个数字加起来不必等于100,因为它们只是对不同事物的度量(例如,“客户数量”和“消费金额”)。然而,每一个他们加起来不到100%的情况,都等同于他们加起来是100%。例如,如上文所述,“64/4原则”(两个数字之和不等于100%)相当于80/20原则(两者之和等于100%)。因此,单独指定两个百分比并不会比指定较大的百分比并让较小的百分比作为其相对于100% 的补充得到更广泛的分布。因此,在选择该参数时只有一个自由度。


The 64/4 correlation also implies a 32% 'fair' area between the 4% and 64%, where the lower 80% of the top 20% (16%) and upper 20% of the bottom 80% (also 16%) relates to the corresponding lower top and upper bottom of effects (32%). This is also broadly in line with the world population table above, where the second 20% control 12% of the wealth, and the bottom of the top 20% (presumably) control 16% of the wealth.

Adding up to 100 leads to a nice symmetry. For example, if 80% of effects come from the top 20% of sources, then the remaining 20% of effects come from the lower 80% of sources. This is called the "joint ratio", and can be used to measure the degree of imbalance: a joint ratio of 96:4 is extremely imbalanced, 80:20 is highly imbalanced (Gini index: 76%), 70:30 is moderately imbalanced (Gini index: 28%), and 55:45 is just slightly imbalanced (Gini index 14%).

100加起来就是一个完美的对称。例如,如果80%的影响来自前20%的来源,那么剩下的20%的影响来自后80%的来源。这就是所谓的“联合比率”,可以用来衡量不平衡的程度: 96:4的联合比率极不平衡,80:20的联合比率高度不平衡(基尼指数: 76%) ,70:30的联合比率中度不平衡(基尼指数: 28%) ,55:45的联合比率略不平衡(基尼指数14%)。


The term 80/20 is only a shorthand for the general principle at work. In individual cases, the distribution could just as well be, say, nearer to 90/10 or 70/30. There is no need for the two numbers to add up to the number 100, as they are measures of different things, (e.g., 'number of customers' vs 'amount spent'). However, each case in which they do not add up to 100%, is equivalent to one in which they do. For example, as noted above, the "64/4 law" (in which the two numbers do not add up to 100%) is equivalent to the "80/20 law" (in which they do add up to 100%). Thus, specifying two percentages independently does not lead to a broader class of distributions than what one gets by specifying the larger one and letting the smaller one be its complement relative to 100%. Thus, there is only one degree of freedom in the choice of that parameter.

The Pareto principle is an illustration of a "power law" relationship, which also occurs in phenomena such as brush fires and earthquakes.

The Pareto principle is an illustration of a "power law" relationship, which also occurs in phenomena such as brush fires and earthquakes.

帕累托原则是“幂律”关系的一个例证,这种关系也发生在诸如丛林火灾和地震等现象中。[29]

Because it is self-similar over a wide range of magnitudes, it produces outcomes completely different from Normal or Gaussian distribution phenomena. This fact explains the frequent breakdowns of sophisticated financial instruments, which are modeled on the assumption that a Gaussian relationship is appropriate to something like stock price movements.

Because it is self-similar over a wide range of magnitudes, it produces outcomes completely different from Normal or Gaussian distribution phenomena. This fact explains the frequent breakdowns of sophisticated financial instruments, which are modeled on the assumption that a Gaussian relationship is appropriate to something like stock price movements.

因为它在很大范围内是自相似的,所以它产生的结果与正态或高斯分布现象完全不同。这一事实解释了复杂金融工具频繁崩溃的原因,因为这些金融工具是建立在高斯关系适用于类似股票价格波动的假设之上的。[30]

Adding up to 100 leads to a nice symmetry. For example, if 80% of effects come from the top 20% of sources, then the remaining 20% of effects come from the lower 80% of sources. This is called the "joint ratio", and can be used to measure the degree of imbalance: a joint ratio of 96:4 is extremely imbalanced, 80:20 is highly imbalanced (Gini index: 76%), 70:30 is moderately imbalanced (Gini index: 28%), and 55:45 is just slightly imbalanced (Gini index 14%).




Equality measures

平等措施

Using the "A : B" notation (for example, 0.8:0.2) and with A + B = 1, inequality measures like the Gini index (G) and the Hoover index (H) can be computed. In this case both are the same.

使用“A:B”符号(例如,0.8:0.2)和a+b=1,可以计算基尼指数(G)和胡佛指数(H)等不平等度量。在这种情况下,两者是相同的。


Gini coefficient and Hoover index

基尼系数和胡佛指数

H=G=|2A-1|=|1-2B| \, 

H = G = | 2A-1 | = | 1-2B | ,


Using the "A : B" notation (for example, 0.8:0.2) and with A + B = 1, inequality measures like the Gini index (G) and the Hoover index (H) can be computed. In this case both are the same. 使用“A:B”符号(例如,0.8:0.2)和a+b=1,可以计算基尼指数(G)和胡佛指数(H)等不平等度量。在这种情况下,两者是相同的。


A:B = \left( \frac{1+H} 2 \right): \left( \frac{1-H} 2 \right)

A: B = left (frac {1 + H }2 right) : left (frac {1-H }2 right)


[math]\displaystyle{ H=G=|2A-1|=|1-2B| \, }[/math]


[math]\displaystyle{ A:B = \left( \frac{1+H} 2 \right): \left( \frac{1-H} 2 \right) }[/math]


See also

另见

References

参考

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  12. Yakovenko, Victor M.; Silva, A. Christian (2005), Chatterjee, Arnab; Yarlagadda, Sudhakar; Chakrabarti, Bikas K. (eds.), "Two-class Structure of Income Distribution in the USA: Exponential Bulk and Power-law Tail", Econophysics of Wealth Distributions: Econophys-Kolkata I, New Economic Windows (in English), Springer Milan, pp. 15–23, doi:10.1007/88-470-0389-x_2, ISBN 978-88-470-0389-7
  13. 13.0 13.1 Gen, M.; Cheng, R. (2002), Genetic Algorithms and Engineering Optimization, New York: Wiley
  14. Rooney, Paula (October 3, 2002), Microsoft's CEO: 80–20 Rule Applies To Bugs, Not Just Features, ChannelWeb
  15. Pressman, Roger S. (2010). Software Engineering: A Practitioner's Approach (7th ed.). Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill, 2010. .
  16. Training and the 80-20 rule of Pareto's Principle, 21 November 2008
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  18. Woodcock, Kathryn (2010). Safety Evaluation Techniques. Toronto, ON: Ryerson University. pp. 86. http://www.ryerson.ca/woodcock/. 
  19. "Introduction to Risk-based Decision-Making" (PDF). USCG Safety Program. United States Coast Guard. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
  20. The Pareto Principle of Prediction
  21. 脚本错误:没有“Footnotes”这个模块。, pp. 107–108.
  22. Myrl Weinberg: In health-care reform, the 20-80 solution | Contributors | projo.com | The Providence Journal -{zh-cn:互联网档案馆; zh-tw:網際網路檔案館; zh-hk:互聯網檔案館;}-存檔,存档日期2009-08-02.
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  26. Lloyd-Smith, JO; Schreiber, SJ; Kopp, PE; Getz, WM (2005). "Superspreading and the effect of individual variation on disease emergence". Nature. 438 (7066): 355–359. Bibcode:2005Natur.438..355L. doi:10.1038/nature04153. PMC 7094981. PMID 16292310.
  27. Nicola, Davis (2016), 'High social cost' adults can be predicted from as young as three, says study, The Guardian
  28. Kleinfield, N. R. (1988-05-01). "A Tight Squeeze at Video Stores". The New York Times (in English). ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-02-08.
  29. Bak, Per (1999), How Nature Works: the science of self-organized criticality, Springer, p. 89, ISBN 0-387-94791-4
  30. Taleb, Nassim (2007), The Black Swan, pp. 229–252, 274–285

Further reading

进一步阅读

  • Klass, O. S.; Biham, O.; Levy, M.; Malcai, O.; Soloman, S. (2006), "The Forbes 400 and the Pareto wealth distribution", Economics Letters, 90 (2): 290–295, doi:10.1016/j.econlet.2005.08.020CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  • Koch, R. (2004), Living the 80/20 Way: Work Less, Worry Less, Succeed More, Enjoy More, London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing, ISBN 1-85788-331-4
  • Rushton, A.; Oxley, J.; Croucher, P. (2000), The handbook of logistics and distribution management (2nd ed.), London: Kogan Page, ISBN 978-0-7494-3365-9.


External links

外部链接 模板:Commons category

类别: 统计法 类别: 经验法则 类别: 概率分布的尾部 类别: 统计原则 分类: 格言

类别: Vilfredo Pareto


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Pareto principle. Its edit history can be viewed at 80/20原则/edithistory