朋友的朋友

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In sociology, a friend of a friend is a human contact that exists because of a mutual friend. Person C is a friend of a friend of person A when there is a person B that is a friend of both A and C. Thus the human relation "friend of a friend" is a compound relation among friends, similar to the uncle and aunt relations of kinship. Though friendship is a reciprocal relation, the relation of a friend of a friend may not be a friendship, though it holds potential for coalition building and dissemination of information.

In sociology, a friend of a friend is a human contact that exists because of a mutual friend. Person C is a friend of a friend of person A when there is a person B that is a friend of both A and C. Thus the human relation "friend of a friend" is a compound relation among friends, similar to the uncle and aunt relations of kinship. Though friendship is a reciprocal relation, the relation of a friend of a friend may not be a friendship, though it holds potential for coalition building and dissemination of information.

在社会学中,朋友的朋友是因为共同的朋友而存在的人际关系。因此,人际关系中的“朋友的朋友”是朋友之间的复合关系,类似于亲属关系中的叔叔和阿姨关系。虽然友谊是一种互惠关系,但朋友的朋友的关系可能不是友谊,尽管它具有建立联盟和传播信息的潜力。


Balance theory

The tendency of a friend of a friend to become a friend was noted by Fritz Heider,[1] though he also considered the possibility that one of the friendships might breakdown, according to balance theory, which his view of human triangles is called. According to Heider, the friend of a friend contact could be stressful enough to undermine one or another of the friendships. Extending the study of social dynamics caused by such friend-of-a-friend tensions to social networks beyond triangles, D. Cartwright and Frank Harary used signed graphs to indicate positive or negative sentiments between persons.[2] In 1963 Anatol Rapoport summarized the theory: "The hypothesis implies roughly that attitudes of the group members will change is such a way that one's friends' friends will tend to become one's friends, ..."[3] In September 1975 Dartmouth College offered a symposium[4] on these dynamics.

The tendency of a friend of a friend to become a friend was noted by Fritz Heider, though he also considered the possibility that one of the friendships might breakdown, according to balance theory, which his view of human triangles is called. According to Heider, the friend of a friend contact could be stressful enough to undermine one or another of the friendships. Extending the study of social dynamics caused by such friend-of-a-friend tensions to social networks beyond triangles, D. Cartwright and Frank Harary used signed graphs to indicate positive or negative sentiments between persons. In 1963 Anatol Rapoport summarized the theory: "The hypothesis implies roughly that attitudes of the group members will change is such a way that one's friends' friends will tend to become one's friends, ..." In September 1975 Dartmouth College offered a symposium on these dynamics.

弗里茨 · 海德注意到了朋友的朋友会成为朋友的倾向,尽管他也考虑到了友谊之一可能会破裂的可能性,根据平衡理论,他对人类三角关系的观点被称为平衡理论。根据海德的说法,朋友联系人的朋友可能会有足够的压力来破坏这样或那样的友谊。卡特赖特和弗兰克 · 哈拉里将对朋友的朋友之间的紧张关系引起的社会动态的研究扩展到超越三角形的社会网络,他们使用符号图表示人与人之间的积极或消极情绪。1963年 Anatol Rapoport 总结了这个理论: “这个假设大致意味着群体成员的态度会发生改变,这种改变就是一个人的朋友的朋友会成为他的朋友... ... ”1975年9月,达特茅斯学院提供了一个关于这些动态的研讨会。


Bo Anderson made an analysis of the friend-of-a-friend relationship in connection with his criticism of balance theory.[5]

Bo Anderson made an analysis of the friend-of-a-friend relationship in connection with his criticism of balance theory.

安德森结合对平衡理论的批判,对朋友的朋友关系进行了分析。

We have all encountered cases in which somebody has said, "You should meet so-and-so", only to find that we have little in common with that person, even though he or she was introduced to us by a mutual friend...In some friendships the persons value the exclusiveness of their relationship and are therefore not likely to let others into it. Friends differ from acquaintances in that they are not merely slots in a grid of social network relationships, but are valued for their personal, unique qualities. Hence, when I relate to a friend of a friend, I need to know something about the perceptions and exchanges that make up this friendship. My reaction to my friend's friend (or spouse) may even be unfavorable, although I may also well understand and sympathize with my friend’s affection for her, given his needs, perceptions, interests and so on.

We have all encountered cases in which somebody has said, "You should meet so-and-so", only to find that we have little in common with that person, even though he or she was introduced to us by a mutual friend...In some friendships the persons value the exclusiveness of their relationship and are therefore not likely to let others into it. Friends differ from acquaintances in that they are not merely slots in a grid of social network relationships, but are valued for their personal, unique qualities. Hence, when I relate to a friend of a friend, I need to know something about the perceptions and exchanges that make up this friendship. My reaction to my friend's friend (or spouse) may even be unfavorable, although I may also well understand and sympathize with my friend’s affection for her, given his needs, perceptions, interests and so on.

我们都遇到过这样的情况,有人说: “你应该见见某某” ,结果却发现我们和那个人没有什么共同点,尽管他或她是由我们共同的朋友介绍给我们的... ... 在某些友谊中,这些人看重他们关系的排他性,因此不太可能让别人介入。朋友与熟人的不同之处在于,他们不仅仅是社交网络关系网中的一小部分,而且他们的价值在于他们个人的、独特的品质。因此,当我与朋友的朋友联系时,我需要了解构成这种友谊的感知和交流。我对朋友的朋友(或配偶)的反应甚至可能是不利的,尽管我也可能很理解和同情我的朋友对她的感情,考虑到他的需要、看法、兴趣等等。


Considering friendship between people to be a binary relation, the connection to a friend of a friend is a composition of the relationship with itself. Composed relations are used to describe kinship, so it may be natural to apply composition to friendship. One consequence is that frequently a person's friends have more friends than him (the friendship paradox), which accents the reach of the compound connection. But the fact that friendship is not automatically a transitive relation produces some social dynamics.

Considering friendship between people to be a binary relation, the connection to a friend of a friend is a composition of the relationship with itself. Composed relations are used to describe kinship, so it may be natural to apply composition to friendship. One consequence is that frequently a person's friends have more friends than him (the friendship paradox), which accents the reach of the compound connection. But the fact that friendship is not automatically a transitive relation produces some social dynamics.

考虑到人与人之间的友谊是一种二元关系,与朋友的朋友的联系是一种关系本身的组成部分。组合关系是用来描述亲属关系的,所以把组合应用到友谊上是很自然的。结果之一就是一个人的朋友通常比他的朋友多(友谊悖论) ,这突出了复合关系的影响范围。但事实上,友谊并非自动成为一种传递关系,这就产生了一些社会动力。


Meme

Friend of a friend (FOAF) is a phrase used to refer to someone that one does not know well, literally, a friend of a friend.

Friend of a friend (FOAF) is a phrase used to refer to someone that one does not know well, literally, a friend of a friend.

朋友的朋友(FOAF)是一个短语,用来指一个人不知道很好,字面上,一个朋友的朋友。


In some social sciences, the phrase is used as a half-joking shorthand for the fact that much of the information on which people act comes from distant sources (as in "It happened to a friend of a friend of mine") and cannot be confirmed.[6] It is probably best known from urban legend studies, where it was popularized by Jan Harold Brunvand.[citation needed]

In some social sciences, the phrase is used as a half-joking shorthand for the fact that much of the information on which people act comes from distant sources (as in "It happened to a friend of a friend of mine") and cannot be confirmed. It is probably best known from urban legend studies, where it was popularized by Jan Harold Brunvand.

在一些社会科学中,这个短语被用作半开玩笑的速记,指出人们行为所依据的许多信息来自遥远的来源(例如”这件事发生在我一个朋友的朋友身上”) ,而且无法得到证实。它可能是最著名的都市传奇研究,在那里它是推广的詹·哈洛德·布朗凡德。


The acronym FOAF was coined by Rodney Dale and used in his 1978 book The Tumour in the Whale: A Collection of Modern Myths.[7]

The acronym FOAF was coined by Rodney Dale and used in his 1978 book The Tumour in the Whale: A Collection of Modern Myths.

首字母缩写 FOAF 由罗德尼 · 戴尔创造,并在他1978年出版的《鲸鱼中的肿瘤: 现代神话集》一书中使用。


Other languages

  • "Dúirt bean liom go ndúirt bean léi" (Irish proverb) – similar Irish language term literally meaning a woman told me that a woman told her that...
  • "L'homme qui a vu l'homme qui a vu l'ours" (French proverb) – similar French language proverb literally meaning The man who saw the man who saw the bear, in which the bear is never seen, only heard of.[8][9]
  • "Un amigo me dijo que un amigo le dijo..." (Spanish proverb) – meaning literally A friend told me that a friend told him that...
  • "Teman kepada teman saya..." Bahasa Indonesia; literally meaning friend of my friend.
  • "Babaturana babaturan urang..." Basa Sunda; literally meaning friend of my friend. There is another version of this phrase in Sundanese language, "Babaturan dulur urang", which means "friend of my relatives".
  • "Diz-se que..." or "Dizem que..." Portuguese; literally meaning It is said that... or They say that...
  • "Freundesfreund" German; literally meaning a friend's friend


Web ontology language

In information science, an ontology describes categories, properties and relations between concepts, data and entities. The phrase "Friend Of A Friend", converted to the acronym FAOF, has been adopted in Web Ontology Language. It has been used in WebID for identifying correspondents, and to designate a secure authentication protocol.[10]

In information science, an ontology describes categories, properties and relations between concepts, data and entities. The phrase "Friend Of A Friend", converted to the acronym FAOF, has been adopted in Web Ontology Language. It has been used in WebID for identifying correspondents, and to designate a secure authentication protocol.

在信息科学中,本体描述了概念、数据和实体之间的类别、性质和关系。短语“朋友的朋友” ,转换为首字母缩略词 FAOF,在20世纪90年代网络本体语言被采用。它在 WebID 中用于标识通信者,并指定一个安全的身份验证协议。


See also

模板:Wiktionary


References

  1. Fritz Heider (1946) "Attitudes and Cognitive Organization", The Journal of Psychology 21: 107 to 21
  2. Cartwright, D. and Frank Harary (1956)Structural balance: a generalization of Heider's theory, Psychological Review 63: 277–293 link from Stanford University
  3. Anatol Rapoport (1963) "Mathematical models of social interaction", in Handbook of Mathematical Psychology, v. 2, pp 493 to 580, especially 541, editors: R.A. Galanter, R.R. Lace, E. Bush, John Wiley & Sons
  4. Paul W. Holland & Samuel Leinhardt (editors) (1979) Perspectives on Social Network Research, Academic Press
  5. Bo Anderson (1979) "Cognitive Balance Theory and Social Network Analysis: Remarks on some fundamental theoretical matters", pages 453–69 in Perspectives on Social Network Research, editors: Paul W. Holland & Samuel Leinhardt, Academic Press, see page 458.
  6. Goodreau SM, Kitts JA, Morris M (2009). "Birds of a feather, or friend of a friend? Using exponential random graph models to investigate adolescent social networks". Demography. 46 (1): 103–25. doi:10.1353/dem.0.0045. PMC 2831261. PMID 19348111.
  7. Brunvand, Jan Harold (2012). Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. 241. https://books.google.com/books?id=9xOb-19lXx8C&pg=PA241. 
  8. "L'homme qui a vu l'homme qui a vu l'ours". Retrieved 14 February 2018.
  9. "Movie Reviews". 13 February 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2018 – via NYTimes.com.
  10. Foaf+ssl at W3.org


模板:Social networking

Category:Urban legends

类别: 都市传奇

Category:Social networks

分类: 社交网络

Category:Friendship

分类: 友谊


This page was moved from wikipedia:en:Friend of a friend. Its edit history can be viewed at 朋友的朋友/edithistory